PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN

A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

VOLUME 40, NUMBER 4, WINTER 1995
The Botanical Society of America: The Society for ALL Plant Biologists

Table of Contents

News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees

BSA Officers 1994—1995    106
Ecological Section News    111
BSA Symposia at the 1995 Meeting    113
From a New Corresponding Member    113
Botany and the INTERNET    114

Commentary

Importance of the INTERNET    115
General Botany: A Common Concern    115
PSB Needs a New Editor    117 Articles
Gap Analysis Approaches to Mapping and Managing Biodiversity B. Csuti   118
Gaps in GAP C. Dunn    119

Announcements

Botany recognized in popular culture    122
Call for Nomination: Darbaker Prize    122
Persona/la    122
In Memoriam    122
Educational Opportunities    124
Funding Opportunities    125
Positions Available    126
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings    132
Book Reviews    134
Books Received    142
New Year greeting    143
BSA Logo Items Available from the Business Office    144

VOLUME 40, NUMBER 4, WINTER, 1994

Editor: Meredith A. Lane
McGregor Herbarium, University of Kansas
2045 Constant Ave.
Lawrence KS 66047-3729 913/864-4493
FAX: 913/864-5298 or -5093
E-MAIL: MLANE@KUHUB.CC.UKANS.EDU

News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA OFFICERS 1994 - 1995
* = Members of the Council (retirement date)

*PRESIDENT
Harry T. Homer (1995)
Department of Botany
Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-1020
(515) 294-8635 FAX 294-1337

*PRESIDENT-ELECT
Barbara Schaal (1995)
Department of Biology
Box 1137
Washington University
St. Louis, MO 63130-4899
(314)935-6822 FAX 935-4432

*SECRETARY
Darleen A. DeMason (1997)
Botany and Plant Sciences
University of California
Riverside, CA 92521
(909)787-3580 FAX 787-4437

*TREASURER
Judy Jernstedt (1995)
Dept. of Agronomy & Range Science
University of California, Davis
Davis, CA 95616 - 8515
(916) 752-7166 FAX 752-4361

*PROGRAM DIRECTOR
Carol C. Baskin (1996)
School of Biological Sciences
University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY 40506-0225
(606) 257-8770 FAX 257-1717

*PAST PRESIDENT, 1994
Grady L. Webster
Section of Plant Biology
University of California
Davis, CA 95616
(916) 752-2139 (1091) FAX 752-5410

*PAST PRESIDENT, 1993
Gregory J. Anderson
Ecology and Evolutionary Biol. U-43
University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT 06269-3043
(203)486-4322 FAX 486-6364

*PAST PRESIDENT, 1992
William Louis Culberson
Department of Botany
Duke University
Durham, NC 27708-0338
(919) 684-3715 FAX 684-5412

*COUNCIL REPRESENTATIVE
*Judy Verbeke (1995)
Department of Plant Sciences
University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ 85721
(602) 621-8423 FAX (602) 621-2012

PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN

ISSN 0032-0919
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210
Second class postage paid at Columbus, OH and additional mailing office.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to

Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293
Phone/Fax: 614/292-3519  

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*EDITOR, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY

Nels Lersten (1994)
Department of Botany
Iowa State University
Ames, IA 50011-1020
(515) 294-8448 (2169) FAX 294-8448

after Jan. 1, 1995

*EDITOR, AMER/CAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY
Karl J. Niklas
217 Plant Science Bldg.
Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853-5908
(607) 255-8727 FAX (607) 255-5407

*EDITOR, PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
Meredith A. Lane (1995)
Dept. of Botany & McGregor Herbarium
University of Kansas
Lawrence, KS 66047-3729
(913) 864-4493 FAX 864-5298

*BUSINESS MANAGER
Kim Hiser
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Avenue
Columbus, OH 43210-1293
(614) 292-3519 (Phone and FAX)

SECTION OFFICERS
(* = Representative for the Section to the Council)

BRYOLOGICAL AND LICHENOLOGICAL

*Chairperson (1995)
Karen Renzaglia
Department of Biological Science
P.O. Box 70703
East Tennessee State University
Johnson City, TN 37601- 0703
(615) 929-6930 (6931) FAX 929-5958

Chairperson-Elect (1998)
Paula DePriest
Department of Botany, NHB - 166
National Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution
Washington, DC 20560
(202) 357-2545, (301) 238-3790 FAX (202)786-2563

DEVELOPMENTAL AND STRUCTURAL

*Chairperson (1995)
Judy Verbeke
Department of Plant Sciences
University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ 85721
(602) 621-8423 FAX (602)621-2012

Program Director (1994)
James L. Seago, Jr.
Department of Biology
SUNY, College at Oswego
Oswego, NY 13126
(315)341-2777 FAX 341-2916

Treasurer (1996)
Pamela Diggle
EPO Biology
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO 80309-0334
(303) 492-4860

PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN - Editorial Committee for Volume 40
Clifford W. Smith (1994), Dept. of Botany, University of Hawaii, Honolulu HI 96822
Donald S. Galitz (1995), Dept. of Botany, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58103
Robert E. Wyatt (1996), Dept. of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
James D. Mauseth (1997), Dept. of Botany, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78713
Allison A. Snow (1998), Dept. of Plant Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210

107

ECOLOGY

*Chair (1995)
Kathleen L. Shea
Department of Biology St. Olaf College
Northfield, MN 55057
(507) 646-3396 FAX 646-3104

Vice-Chairperson (1995)
Sandra J. Newell
Department of Biology
Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Indiana, PA 15705
(412) 357-4462 FAX 357-6213

Secretary (1995)
Beverly Collins
Savannah River Ecology Lab
P.O. Drawer E
Aiken, SC 29802
(803) 725-2472 FAX 725-3309

ECONOMIC BOTANY

Chairperson (1993)
Thomas Mione
Biological Sciences-Copernicus Hall
Central Connecticut State Univ.
New Britain, CT 06050-4010
(203)827-7082 FAX 827-7877

*Secretary-Treasurer (1994)
James S. Miller
Missouri Botanical Garden P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166-0299
(314)577-9503 FAX 577-9596

HISTORICAL

Chairperson (1995)
Margaret R. Bolick
W-530 Nebraska Hall
University of Nebraska State Museum
Lincoln, NE 68588-0514
(402) 472-2613 FAX 472-8949

Vice-Chairperson (1995)
Peter F. Stevens
Harvard University Herbaria
22 Divinity Avenue
Cambridge, MA 02138
(617) 495-2348 FAX 495-9484

*Secretary-Treasurer (1995)
Laurence J. Dorr
Department of Botany, NHB-166
National Museum of Natural History
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, DC 20560
(202) 633-9106 or 357-2534 FAX 786-2563

Chairperson (1995)
Joanne Whallon
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824-1325
(517) 353-0837 FAX 353-5174

Vice Chairperson (1995)
*Donald Hauber
Department of Biological Science
Loyola University
Box 27
New Orleans, LA 70118
(504) 865-2769 FAX 865-2149

Secretary-Treasurer (1995)
Kenneth G. Wilson
Department of Botany
Miami University
Oxford, OH 45056
(513) 529-6601 FAX 529-4243

Editor, Newsletter (1999)
Vance Baird
Horticultural Department
Plant and Animal Science Building
Clemson University
Clemson, SC 29634-0375
(803) 656-4953 FAX 656-4960

PHYCOLOGICAL

*Chairperson (1995)
Dorothy Chappell
Academic Dean
Gordon College
255 Grapevine Rd.
Wenham, MA 01984
(508) 927-2306 FAX 524-3726

Secretary (1996)
John LaClaire
Department of Botany
BIO 308
University of Texas
Austin, TX 78713
(512) 471-3577 FAX 471-3878

MYCOLOGICAL

Contact Person   *Kenneth J. Curry
Dept. of Biological Sciences
Univ. of Southern Mississippi
Box 5018
Hattiesburg, MS 39406-5018 (
601)266-4930 FAX 266-5797

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108

PTERIDOLOGICAL

Chairperson
John T. Mice
New York Botanical Garden
Bronx, NY 10458-5126
(718) 817-8636 FAX 817-6504

*Secretary-Treasurer (1996)
David S. Conant
Department of Natural Science
Lyndon State College
Lyndonvillc, VT 05851
(802) 626-9371 Ext-185

SYSTEMATICS

*Chairperson (1995)
Robert S. Wallace
Department of Botany Bessey Hall
Iowa State University
Ames, IA 50011-1020
(515) 294-0367 FAX 294-1337

Secretary-Treasurer (1996)
Wayne J. Elisens
Department of Botany & Microbiology
770 Van Vlect Oval
University of Oklahoma
Norman, OK 73019 (405)
325-5923 FAX 325-7619

TROPICAL BIOLOGY

Chairperson (1994)
W. John Kress
Department of Botany INHB-166
Smithsonian Insitution
Washington, DC 20560
(202) 357-3392 FAX 786-2563

*Secretary-Treasurer (1994)
Suzanne Koptur
Biology Department
Florida Intemational University
Miami, FL 33199
(305) 348-3103 FAX 348-1986

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PALEOBOTANICAL

Chairperson (1995)
Bruce Tiffney
Department of Geological Sciences
University of California
Santa Barbara, CA 93110
(805)893-2959 FAX 893-2314

*Secretary-Treasurer (1995)
Charles P. Daghlian
Dartmouth College
Rippel EM Facility
Hanover, NH 03755-3832
(603) 650-1337 FAX 650-1637

Editor, BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AMERICAN (PALEOBOTANY (1996)
Steven R. Manchester
Florida Museum of Natural History
University of Florida
Museum Road, P.O. Box 117800
Gainesville, FL 32611-7800
(904) 392-6564 or 1721 FAX 392 8783

PHYSIOLOGICAL

*Chairperson (1995)
Amrita G. DeSoyza
USDA/ARS Jomada Exp. Station
New Mexico State University
Box 3003, Dept. 3JER
Las Cruces, NM 88003-0003
(505) 646-6401 FAX 646-5889

Program Director/Newsletter Editor (1995)
Peter F. Straub
Natur. Sci. and Math. Div.
Richard Stockton College
Pomona, N.J. 08201
(609) 652-4969 FAX

PHYTOCHEMICAL

*Chairperson (1996)
Susan S. Martin
USDA Crops Research Lab
1701 Center Avenue
Fort Collins CO 80526
(303) 498-4212 FAX 482-2909

Secrctary/Program Organizer (1996)
Emanuel Johnson
Building 001, Room 308 BARC-W
Tropical Plants Research Lab
Beltsville, MD 20705
(301) 504-5323 FAX 504-6491

Treasurer-Editor (1996)
W. Dennis Clark
Department of Botany
Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ 85287
(602) 965-4482 FAX 965-6899

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MIDCONTINENT

*Chairperson (1996)
H. James Price
Soil and Crop Sciences Department
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843
(409)845-8294 FAX 845-0456

Vice Chairperson (1996)
Wayne J. Elisens
Department of Botany and Microbiology
University of Oklahoma
Norman, OK 73091
(405) 325-5923 FAX 325-7619

Secretary/Treasurer (1995)
Timothy K. Lowrey
Department of Biology
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131
(505) 277-2604 FAX 277-0304

Vice Secretary/Creasurer(1995)
Ralph Bertrand
Biology Department
Colorado College
Colorado Springs, CO 80903
(719)389-6402 FAX 389-6929

NORTHEASTERN

*Chairperson (1995)
Simon Dabydeen Biology Department
Foostburg State University
Frostburg, MD 21532
(301) 689-4213 (4166) FAX 689-4731

Treasurer (1995)
Karl Anderson
Rancocas Nature Center 794 Rancocas Road
Mount Holly, NJ 08060 (609) 261-2495

Secretary (1995)
Kathy Bilton

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PACIFIC

Chairperson (1995)
Fred Rickson
Department of Botany
Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2902
(503)737-5272 FAX 737-3573

*Secretary-Treasurer (1995)
David E. Bilderback
Department of Botany
University of Montana
Missoula, MT 59812
(406) 243-2632 FAX 243-4076

SOUTHEASTERN

*Chairperson (1997)
Joe E. Winstead
Department of Biology
Western Kentucky University
Bowling Green, KY 42101
(502) 745-6004 FAX 745-6471

Activities Committee Chair (1996)
Charles R. Werth
Department of Biological Science
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, TX 79409
(806) 742-3222 FAX 742-2963

Secretary-Treasurer (1995)
J. Richard Carter, Jr.
Biology Department
Valdosta State University
Valdosta, GA 31698
(912) 333-5759 ext. 5763 FAX 333-7408

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110

Ecological Section News

Best Student Paper Award

It was exciting to see the interest and enthusiasm for Ecological Section symposia and contributed paper sessions at the 1994 BSA Meeting in Knoxville. The Best Student Paper Award went to Andrea L. Case, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, for her talk "Parental effects in Plantago lanceolata L.: Manipulation of grandparental temperature and parental flowering time," with Elizabeth P. Lacey and Robin G. Hopkins as co-authors. She receives a cash prize of $100 and will be recognized at the 1995 BSA banquet in San Diego.

At the Ecological Section Business meeting members voted to increase the amount of the Best Student Paper Award to $150 for next year. Provided there is enough interest we will also offer a $150 student poster award. Please encourage your students to apply for these awards and let Brian Mc Carthy, Coordinator of Best Student Paper Awards, Ohio University, know if you are willing to help judge papers.

Corresponding Member Nominations

We encourage members to think about nominations for Corresponding Members, senior scientists who live and work outside the United States, in the field of plant ecology. As reported in the fall PLANT SCIENCE BOLtETIN, only four Corresponding Members are ecologists. In 1993 the section sponsored the nomination and selection of Carlos M. Herrera of Spain.

Please Submit News Items

Members of the Ecological Section are encouraged to

send additional news items or ideas for the section to Kathleen Shea, Ecological Section Chair, Dept. of Biology, St. Olaf College, Northfield, MN 55057 (e-mail sheak@stolaf.edu).

Symposium Report:

Belowground Competition in Plants

The symposium entitled "l3elowground Competition in Plants," organized by Brenda Casper (Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018) at the 1994 BSA meeting in Knoxville was sponsored by the Ecological Section of BSA and cosponsored by the Ecological Society. The symposium addressed questions related to the processes of root interactions and how belowground competition affects the structure of plant populations and communities. Talks covered topics ranging from physiological mechanisms of root competition to consequences of soil resource variation for aboveground plant performance.

Root interactions may involve either exploitative competition for soil resources or interference interactions such as allelopathy. Robert Jackson (Stanford) and Martyn Caldwell (Utah State; presented by Carol Bilbrough, Utah State) included information on interspecific competition for N and P in a sagebrush steppe and introduced a model that used root at-tributes and field data to predict relative competitive abilities in homogeneous and heterogeneous soils. Bruce Mahall (UC Santa Barbara) described intraspecific and intcrspecific inhibitory interactions among the roots of two desert shrubs. His data indicate that 1) roots of Ambrosia dumosa collected from two different regions do not exhibit inhibitory interactions as do roots from individuals collected within the same region and 2) roots of the same cloned genotype exhibit inhibition unless they are sister roots on the same plant. Jacob Weiner (Swarthmore) reported experimental evidence that, unlike aboveground competition, bclowground competition is symmetric. In aboveground competition larger plants enjoy a disproportionate advantage, but bclowground competition appears to be proportional to plant size.

How the amount and distribution of bclowground re-sources affect relative competitive abilities was another theme of the symposium. In population-level studies with Abutilon theophrasti, Brenda Casper and James Cahill (U of Pennsylvania) found that spatial soil nutrient heterogeneity had very little effect on productivity or population size structure but influenced which individuals were likely to become dominant in the population. Kevin Kosola (Michigan State) discussed ongoing research with Katherine Gross and Kurt Pregitzer regarding how old field plant communities respond to changing levels of soil nutrient heterogeneity that occur over successional time. Their work pays particular attention to potential differences between annuals and perennials. Scott Wilson (U of Regina) examined the relative importance of aboveground and belowground competition across different levels of soil nitrogen and disturbance in old field vegetation. He concluded that aboveground competition becomes relatively more important at higher nitrogen levels and that the examined species differ little in their responses.

Although the air conditioning was off for a while and the room was crowded, the symposium generated much interest and comment. During the general discussion following the talks there was consideration of soil resources, such as water, that had not been addressed by the presentations and a lively conversation regarding what can be learned about belowground competition from experiments with potted plants. Although bclowground competition is recognized as an important process in plant communities, it is clear that ecologists are just beginning to understand how plants forage for soil resources, how the competition takes place, and its impact on community structure.

Symposium Report:

Ecological and Evolutionary Roles of Plant Disease in Managed and

Natural Ecosystems

The symposium entitled "Ecological and Evolutionary Roles of Plant Disease in Managed and Natural Ecosystems," organized by Johanne Brunet (Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331 ) and Christopher Mundt at the 1994 BSA Meeting in Knoxville was sponsored by the Ecological Section of BSA. A major theme of this symposium was examination of the factors that maintain polymorphism for resistance genes in natural populations. Both resistance and susceptibility genes have been found in most natural populations examined, and one must wonder why, if resistance carries such a selective advantage to the host, the resistance genes do not become fixed in the population. Other presentations discussed the contribution of molecular and phenotypic analyses to the study of pathogen populations, an important subject as the use of molecular tools increases. Lastly, in contrast to a plant- pathogen system, pattems of variation within and among populations were de-

111

scribed for a plant-mutualist system, where, unlike plant pathogens, there is no selection on hosts to avoid the interaction. Each speaker presented some new, interesting and innovative contribution to the study of plant–pathogen interactions.

Steve Frank (UC Irvine) introduced a multilocus model of gene-for-gene interactions which included both costs of resistance and virulence. The model ad equately explained the distribution of resistance and virulence alleles observed in natural populations. Dr. Frank suggested that one way to circumvent the cost dilemma, would be to think of the system of host-pathogen recognition as an allele-to-allele system rather than the typical gene-to-gene system. Indeed as the number of alleles increases, expectations from the two systems become increasingly similar. With an allele-to-allele system of recognition, equilibria theoretically can be obtained in the absence of cost. This is an attractive idea awaiting stronger empirical support.

Andrew Jarosz (Michigan State) and collaborators Janis Antonovics and Peter Thrall (Duke University) proposed that the pattern of resistance and susceptibility observed in natural populations may best be explained at the metapopulation rather than the population level. Their data on the Silene alba-Ustilago violacea system suggest instability at the population level, as disease is often purged from populations in years when few plants survive the winter. The number of infected Silene populations is, however, increasing. Simulation results indicate how metapopulation structure can enhance pathogen persistence. The variation in colonization and extinction rates of Silene-Ustilago populations helps explain this system at the metapopulation scale. While Ustilago violacea is transferred by a moth and behaves like a sexually transmitted disease, further studies will determine how important metapopulation level phenomena are to plant-pathogen dynamics in general.

Johanne Brunet and collaborators Christopher Mundt and Shamsul Akanda (Oregon State), experimentally manipulated races of stripe rust on different genotypes of wheat, to deter-mine whether disease creates frequency-dependent selection on its host. Frequency- dependent selection has indeed been invoked to explain both the maintenance of polymorphism for resistance genes in populations, and how pathogens may select for sexual reproduction. The authors found no evidence for frequency-dependent selection in the presence or absence of disease. No negative relationships were detected between a genotype's fitness and its planted frequency. While genotypes suffered more disease at high than low frequency, a genotype's fitness did not decrease as the level of disease increased on that genotype. This lack of relationship between disease level and genotype fitness may have serious implications on the way one examines cost of resistance in plant-pathogen systems.

Ellen Simms (U of Chicago) examined how tolerance, or the ability to compensate in part for fitness decrements due to disease, can influence detection of fitness cost of resistance genes. Indeed if genotypes with low resistance have high tolerance and vice versa for genotypes of high resistance (i.e. if tolerance and resistance were negatively correlated), one would expect no relationship between the level of disease on various individuals and the fitness of these individuals. While the experimental data would suggest no cost of resistance, in reality one would have to disentangle the effect of tolerance and resistance on an individual's fitness before reaching any conclusion. Although this interplay between tolerance and resistance might explain why experiments have only detected small costs of resistance, there is no evidence that resistance and tolerance are negatively genetically correlated.

Using both wheat, Mycosphaerella graminicola, and rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, pathogens, Christopher Mundt and his associates demonstrated how variation in RFLPs is very useful to establish the genetic structure of a pathogen population, but that it cannot detect the distribution of selectable variation within a population. Indeed, even when RFLP data showed little variation, the authors consistently found considerable variation in and selection for adaptation to host genotypes within a lineage. Phenotypic analyses are necessary to measure selection on pathogens within a population. The use of molecular analyses of selectively neutral DNA are useful for describing the genetic structure of (variation within and between) pathogen populations.

Matthew Parker (SUNY Binghamton) examined variation both within and among populations in a legume-Bradyrhizohium mutualism. Unlike plant-pathogen systems, plants in a plant-mutualistic system benefit from the interaction. Using multilocus allele combinations, and sampling 20 populations across four states, Parker distinguished two major lineages of Amphicarpaea hracteata and subsequently examined bacterial lineages associated with host lineage. While some bacteria were restricted to one plant lineage, others associated with both. Some bacterial genotypes could not form nodules on host genotypes distinct from the ones found in their native populations, and even if nodules were formed, symbiotic performance was often inferior. This suggests local adapt ation as plants benefit more from interactions with bacterial genotypes of their own native habitat. There was some evidence of parallel population differentiation between host and pathogens, but that was not true for all bacterial genotypes. Spatial pattems of genotypic associations suggested long-term historical continuity between particular host and some bacterial lineages. Significant progress has been made in the field of plant–pathogen interactions, yet many questions remain unanswered. This is an exciting field of research, open to new ideas and further contributions.

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112

BSA-Sponsored Symposia for the 1995 AIBS Meeting

Insights from Recent Studies of Early Succession
Conservation Biology: Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice
Population Biology of Grasses
Genetic Engineering and the Conservation of Rare Plant Species
Morphological and Developmental Mutants of Maize
Medicinal Plants: The Importance and Impact of the Search for Plant Derived Drugs
Biology and Evolution of the Gnetales
Practical and Theoretical Aspects of Incorporating Fossils in Analyses of Modem Taxonomic Groups
Translating Phylogenetic Analyses into Classifications
Essential Botanical Knowledge at the College and University Level
Multimedia in Botany and Biology Classrooms: How to Pay for It and How to Build It into Courses
Alternatives to the Traditional Lecture Format in Undergraduate Biology Courses
Forensic Botany: Plant Sciences in the Courts

Harry T. Homer, President

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA

Department of Botany Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-1020 U.S.A.

Dear Dr. Homer:

I was delighted to learn of my election as a Corresponding Member of the Botanical Society of America. I am honored by this expression by the membership of the Society. I look forward to participating in the activities of several sections and will be delighted to receive the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY

and the PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN.

Please convey my appreciation to the membership of the society for this honor.

I hope to attend next year's meeting in San Diego and look forward to meeting you.

Sincerely,

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113

Botany and the INTERNET

Computerized Global Plant Checklist

The International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI) was set up to prepare and promote a series of computerized databases on plants of the world. It was begun in 1991 by an international group of botanists and computer scientists. IOPI's still-growing membership now includes nearly 100 botanical institutions and related organization, plus botanical specialists in 30 countries. We are also reaching out to include additional producers and users of plant information.

IOPI aims to establish a network of integrated, reliably documented, automated databases on the world's plants, including their names, biological attributes, potential for utilization, and conservation-related data. This goal is an innovative effort by the botanical community to provide up-to-date and accessible information on plant taxonomy and biology to people who use it daily. The project will ultimately result in a more efficient and effective means of providing basic plant information to users and guiding them toward sources of authoritative data.

IOPI's initial project is a Global Plant Checklist for vascular plant species. Eventually, the Checklist will also include nonvascular plants. It will be of great benefit to natural and genetic resource managers, agronomists, conservationists, pharmaceutical researchers, botanists, biodiversity inventories, horticulturists, and other users of plant information. The checklist will serve as a taxonomic backbone to which users can append their more specialized information. Producing the checklist is a complex and time-consuming task involving more than 300,000 vascular species and over 1,000,000 names and requiring an unparalleled degree of worldwide cooperation. However, this project is essential if humanity is to incorporate current knowledge into its efforts, plus manage plant biodiversity efficiently and sustainably.

Our broad strategy for producing the Checklist is to merge currently dispersed sources of taxonomic information (e.g. databases, floras, monographic treatments, or herbarium data) into a computer-accessible format. The merged data will be edited for consensus and consistency by a worldwide network of taxonomic specialists. Over time the Checklist will become increasingly useful owing to refinements from taxonomic review and the incorporation of additional data sets. It will be available both as a dynamic database and as periodic hard copy publications.

IOPI Global Plant Checklist Committee: For more information on the Checklist or your possible participation, please contact Karen Wilson, Convener, Royal Botanic Gardens, Mrs. Macquaries Road, Sydney, NSW 2000 Australia; fax: 61-2-251-7231; email: karen@rbgsyd.gov.au.

IOPI Electronic News Service: IOPI maintains a regular news service. To register contact David Green via email: david.green@anu.edu.au. Previously distributed IOPI messages can be accessed via the Australian National University's bigopher service.

IOPI Database of Plant Databases: IOPI maintains a register of databases containing plant data from throughout the world. To submit information about your database, please contact Richard Pankhurst, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh EH3 5LR Scotland or via email: rjp@castle.ed.ac.uk.

IOPI Secretary and Membership: To join IOPI or obtain more information, contact Alex George 18 Barclay Road, Kardinya, WA 6163 Australia [Fax: 61-9-337-9404]. To receive information by email, contact iopi@cjb.unige.ch.

Plant Education Newsgroup

A mailing list for a new prototype BIOSCI ncwsgroup: "plant-education" has been established for plant biologists who teach or are involved in teaching courses on plants. BIOSCI newsgroups are electronic forums using USENET news software or e-mail where subscribers can participate in discussions on a variety of specific topics. This mailing list is devoted solely to an aspect of education. It will complement a variety of established newsgroups emphasizing plant research. The plant-education mailing list will allow instructors, lab preparators, and graduate assistants who teach courses in any aspect of plant biology to discuss topics pertaining to their undergraduate and graduate level plant courses. This mailing list is intended to be 1) a resource for the exchange of laboratory methodologies and classroom activities, 2) a source of quick help for last-minute troubleshooting, conditions for plant growth, sources of materials, and practical advice, 3) a forum for discussing open-ended investigative laboratory projects, 4) a forum for discussing text-books, and 5) an archive of searchable information for future use by instructors of plant courses.

To subscribe, send the command "subscribe plant-ed" to: biosci-server@nct.bio.net. General information about existing BIOSCI newsgroups, subscribing, unsubscribing, searching BIOSCI archives, and FAQs can also be obtained electronically. If you are located in the Americas, or Pacific Rim countries, send a message to: biosci@net.bio.net. Instructions will be returned automatically, so the contents of your message do not matter. If you are located in Europe, Africa, or Central Asia send an e-mail message containing the word "help" in the body to: MXT@dl.ac.uk. In either case the subject will be ignored.

As an unmoderated mailing list, all postings will be automatically distributed to all subscribers. Replies can be made either to the sender individually or to all subscribers. As a prototype newsgroup, this mailing list is currently in the trial period in which the propose and future of the group should be debated. In February of 1995 the future of the group will be put to a vote after which it will either become a full-fledged newsgroup or be terminated. Therefore, participate and insure the future if this group! The discussion leaders are Jonathan D. Monroe, Department of Biology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807 (e-mail: fac_jmonroc@vaxl.acs.jmu.edu) and Susan R. Singer, Biology Department, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (e-mail: ssinger@carleton.edu).

Peabody Museum Gopher

The Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University is pleased to announce the availability of a Gopher server for Internet access to its collections. The Gopher at the present time contains data on over 1 million of the museum's approximately 11 million specimens/objects. Among the material

online are 497 types from the collection in Paleobotany.

The Peabody Gopher also offers a geographic name locator service, an abridged version of the USGS "Geographic Names Database." It contains 133,813 records of populated places, and 1,100,120 records representing other geographical features.

The Peabody Gopher's address is: gopher.peabody.yale.edu, port 70. Comments are best aimed via e-mail at the Collections Manager in the discipline of interest. See the "Staff Electronic Mail Addresses" file on the main menu of the gopher for further information.

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Commentary

should be to transfer enthusiasm and excitement from the instructor to the students. Generally, this is accomplished through plant appreciation, the illustration of biological principles and the accumulation of factual knowledge. As a result of these considerations, the students should gain sufficient knowledge to "speak" botany. The instructor must be a volunteer dedicated to making the course "work" and not a conscript. An assessment of the long-term value of a given course is sometimes disconcerting. I asked my students to write to me ten years after taking my class and tell me what they remembered from my course. This request was terminated when, at the end of the semester, a student asked, "You said that we should write to you but I don't remember what we were supposed to say." Specific long-range goals may be difficult to attain.

I have the following objectives in our General Botany course: Clarity of information, life plans (cycles), relevance, botanical fluency, appreciation, academic performance, and discipline. In response to these objectives, I have devised a program to meet our goals while providing an interesting, enjoyable, challenging, "humorous" presentation of a "body" of botanical information. Our course is intended for biology majors who sometimes express the attitude that they are not interested in plants—no matter what you may say or do. With these considerations in mind, we have developed a number of strategies.

We use a textbook (The Biology of Plants, Raven, Evert and Eichhorn) which is comprehensive and well-presented. For those (most) who have a limited budget, we purchase a few copies and place these on a desk-reserve. We try to assist the students and show that we are sincerely interested in their progress. The lectures each have an array of slides, always prefaced by an appropriate cartoon slide. In order to relate directly to the textbook, we use projection slides of selected text-book figures and charts supplemented with an array of additional examples. Current plans include the use of video images. Specific points on the slides are indicated using a long-handle custom pointer. Each pointer highlights a portion of the lecture—a moss capsule expelling powder spores, a plant sprayed with gibberellin, which partially elongates are included in the collection. The individual pointers are not discussed but

serve as a point of interest. Each lecture is recorded and the slides and tapes are placed in our library for student review and clarification. Lecture attendance is stressed by circulating an occasional attendance list.

When appropriate, practical examples are included to point out the importance of botany in our everyday activities. Selected topics, associated with foods, are illustrated by providing samples to the students during lecture—walnut samples illustrating the furrowed brain-like appearance associated with the Doctrine-of-Signatures, marinated mushrooms with a hand-out

Importance of the INTERNET

Editor,

I agree with Chris Haufler (PSB 40: 35) on importance of E-mail in scientific community communication. I like it and use as often as possible. I am editing a worldwide directory called MYCOLOGISTS ONLINE, focused on mycologists and lichenologists, which is available online at Biodiversity and Biological Collections Gopher now at Cornell University

<m u se. b i o. cornel l . edu> .

Pavel Lizon, Cornell University <PL18@cornell.edu>

General Botany: A Common Concern Editor:

I write in response to the article in PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN 40: 42-46, which contained many good suggestions for recruitment and retention of students into a major in the plant sciences. My own suggestions are specifically geared to courses in General Botany, which may be taken by majors and non-majors alike. Botanists have long recognized problems associated with the relatively poor botanical preparation of entering college students—as a result of the relegation of plants to a minor role in most high school biology courses, in turn resulting from the relatively minor role of plants in biology courses required in the educational programs of teachers. A continuing debate centers on the importance of botany in biology courses. In summary: Is botany important? Is botany interesting? Should we spend time learning about plants when molecular biology is of increasing significance? What is the importance of plants as organisms? Botanists should accept the challenge and lead a recrudescence of plant biology. Our efforts should be focused on the general botany course in order to create and project a "cutting edge" approach that emphasizes the importance of our understanding of plant biology. We need an electrifying approach to highlight the importance of plants as organisms and as a source of molecules for biology majors and non-majors—maintaining and expanding our interest in botany as a discipline. Botany should not be archival!

I would like to outline the approach we take here at the College of William and Mary with the hope that our objectives and methods will serve as a stimulus for innovative minds to develop vital botany courses which will have an impact on student interest.

The primary objective of a general botany course

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recipe to illustrate one of the important aspects of basidiomycete biology. Botany must be relevant. I would like students to think of the botanical structures associated with their foods and surroundings—collenchyma in celery, endosperm and corn oil, soybean products everywhere, etc.

The lectures also include a pertinent research presentation, including current topics such as Plant Biotechnology, provided by a scientist who can meet with students and discuss research and career opportunities. What do botanists do?—is an important consideration. The U.S. Department of Agriculture is an excellent source of speakers who can be available within a day trip. I also try to identify areas of general societal concern, such as acid rain or the search for botanical drugs, to explore through readings from local newspapers, the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, or other sources. This general exposure example is further emphasized by information presented in lecture and a phone conference in the lecture auditorium. Speaker phones are obtained, a pre-arranged phone call is placed during lecture and the students are afforded the opportunity to ask questions. A few questions are prepared by students in advance in order to insure a flow of discussion. The relative spontaneity and the ability to interact with a "famous" scientist add additional interest.

The semester also includes a special lecture which features a 3-D slide summary of the plant kingdom. This requires considerable advance preparation because 3-D slides must be prepared and projected. We have purchased equipment for the production of 3-D images—200 pairs of polarized glasses for viewing, a stereo camera, a double lens projector and a special screen. The presentation of plants "jutting" from the screen makes a lasting impression of an added botanical dimension. Academic illusions are also created by the incorporation of botanical "magic" into a few lecture presentations. A small plant is made to appear from an empty box using the magic square, factors inducing the flowering response are illustrated using the spontaneous appearance of a sleeve bouquet. Water relations are discussed using a feather flower which

Picture

wilts on command. These gimmicks are easily per-formed by a professor of average intelligence, and generate a student attitude of "I wonder what s/he's going to do today." Teaching botany is always more effective when it is an enjoyable experience.

Performance on exams is of utmost importance to the students and the staff. We recognize both accomplishment and lack of performance. After each exam we award free plants to those students who achieved an "A" grade for the work they have accomplished, and to those students who received an "F" for the work which they will accomplish. The students appreciate this recognition of accomplishment and relate to the importance of individual student performance at both ends of the grade distribution. Review sessions are generally ineffective, so we have encouraged a Peer Helper system. A sign-up list contains those students who would like help and those students who are willing to spend time helping. These "in-course" tutors provide a one-on-one or small group effective study method to re-place the standard reviews. Students who achieve an "A" grade are further recognized by a congratulatory letter at the end of the semester.

A small demonstration of our consideration of student schedules involves a squeaky toy which is tossed to a random student at the beginning of each lecture. A squeak serves to signal the end of the allotted lecture period. This minor activity has become a tradition and an honor to be the squeaker who insures an on-time presentation and a concern for student schedules.

Each semester we also have the annual "Great Kalanchoe Grow-off." Students may complete a registration form and select a small foliar plantlet (epiphyllous bud) to grow under their "best" conditions. The "hands-on" experience encourages the students to explore the general conditions for the growth of plants and produce a best-in-show plant worthy of the first prize of lunch for two at an excellent local restaurant. This serves as a point of dormitory discussion and interest in growing plants. The continued growth of plants is further emphasized in the last lecture of the term. The class participates in planting of a class tree on the campus. The tree and a small plaque provide q lasting botanical memory through the alumni stage of development and adds to the botanical diversity of the landscape.

Academic accomplishment is further emphasized using an optional study guide which can be purchased in the college bookstore. This study aid contains a listing of terms, in approximate order of lecture appearance (student spelling is always a problem), an extensive sampling of test questions and copies of old exams round out the study aid. Clarity of academic expectations is the objective of these materials.

We have retained the laboratory experience as an important component. Severe budget restrictions have encouraged "innovative" approaches such as really good labs every other week or rationalizing that under-graduate laboratories should be deferred to the graduate

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level. We use the laboratory as a teaching device to complement and supplement the material presented in the lectures. Laboratory exercises for even a moderate number (230) of students present numerous problems. We use a custom laboratory manual (W.C. Brown Publishing), which contains, in sequence, only those exercises which we have selected, and those laboratories are supplemented with an introductory field trip high-lighting our greenhouse collection of exotic plants and a tour of campus trees. We feel that organization is requisite for educational efficiency—all topics are discussed in lecture before the corresponding laboratory. This makes it a confirmational instead of a discovery experience, but the information is reinforced. Students can pursue discovery experiences in later courses if they choose. Lecture topics are also covered in the same sequence as the textbook, because to students, Security is a Warm Textbook. We also use a series of 2X2 slides to summarize each laboratory period. Each laboratory is coordinated by the faculty member in charge of the course, a lab supervisor and graduate teaching assistant. We have found that entering graduate students seldom have been exposed to the teaching side of instruction. As a result, we have developed an undergraduate volunteer teaching assistant program. These volunteers participate in the lab prep sessions, attend lectures and discussions and gain valuable experiences for the continuance of their studies at the graduate level.

We attempt to couple botany to environmental concerns and underline the importance of plants in all aspects of our lives. In response to this charge, we require that each student present a short current event related to botany during the laboratory period. This short respite serves to point out the involvement of plants in areas from basic research to practical applications.

We stress the importance of plants as organisms and encourage the students to recognize the importance of classification systems. In laboratory, each student must prepare an appropriately labeled herbarium specimen of a weedy species. This small project is associated with a brief instructional period and a tour of our herbarium. As an option, we frame (at student expense) the specimens if the students would like to further en-joy the beauties of nature and taxonomy.

Botany laboratory content is in a state of flux with a variety of approaches and philosophies in response to a burgeoning information explosion and the applications of educational technology. Our laboratory sessions are fairly classical, and so we are currently considering an autotutorial approach which provides a balance between standard root-shoot laboratories and experimental exercises. "Standard" lecture slides will be up-dated by the addition of video and movie clips using a video projection system.

The personality of the instructor is an important factor in developing an approach that is effective and fits the specific circumstances. The burn-out factor can be minimized by teaching the general botany course in alternate years. This allows a new course approach and provides students with a choice of instructors. Obviously, a number of approaches should be explored—I have outlined one approach to reach a common objective—botanical education. I hope that the William-and-Mary methods that I've outlined above will stimulate ideas from botany instructors at other institutions.

Martin C. Mathes

College of William and Mary

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PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN

needs a new Editor to begin with Volume 42 (January 1996).

Are you interested in desktop publishing?
Would you like to correspond with botanical colleagues in many
disciplines about books, articles and matters of interest to the BSA?
Are you looking for a meaningful way to serve your Society?
Need more information? If the answer to any of these questions is
yes, please communicate your interest to
the PSB Editor Search Committee.
(See "Positions Available" in this issue)

117

Gap Analysis Approaches to Mapping and Managing Biodiversity

Blair Csuti

Idaho Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83843

HUMANS DEPEND ON BIODIVERSITY (plant and animal spe-

cies and the functional ecosystems in which they participate) for food, medicines, shelter, and transportation. Both industrialized and developing countries have al-ready seen much of their biodiversity vanish. What remains is at risk, but ironically, most biodiversity is unnamed, unclassified, and unmapped. Among all the urgent needs of humankind, preventing the loss of biodiversity is paramount—a species lost is lost forever. Gap Analysis uses satellite remote sensing, geographic in-formation systems, and existing information about plant and animal ecology to rapidly and inexpensively pro-vide resource planners with a preliminary assessment of the distribution and status of biodiversity.

Gap Analysis was developed by the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units of the National Biological Survey in response to a need to consider more than endangered plant and animal species when developing a national strategy to prevent the loss of biodiversity. While it is important to prevent the loss of endangered species, Gap Analysis recognizes that rapid fragmentation and loss of habitat poses a threat to species and ecosystems that may appear secure today but will become tomorrow's endangered species in the absence of foresighted land use planning and management.

Gap Analysis provides a way to assess how well species and ecosystem types are represented in the current network of areas managed for the long-term maintenance of biodiversity. Beyond identifying and mapping the distribution of species and ecosystem types not represented in those areas, Gap Analysis can locate sets of areas that, if managed primarily for biodiversity, would most efficiently insure that most species and ecosystems were secure from future threats of extinction—avoiding what Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt has called "national train wrecks."

Understanding the distribution of biodiversity (species and natural communities) is a prerequisite to developing a strategy to maintain it. What procedures are available for biologists and managers who want to make the most of the meager information available on the distribution of biodiversity at the species level? Early in this century, the great Western naturalist Joseph Grinnell observed that, "Because of the close dependence of

[More information about Gap Analysis can be

found in WILDLIFE MONOGRAPH 123: 1-41, January

1993.—Ed.]

most mammals and birds upon plants, the latter have an important place in any treatment of animal distribution." Combining information about the relationships between species and their habitats with large-scale vegetation maps can provide a useful guide to the distribution and management of many species in the context of the plant communities in which they occur.

Plants that are dominant or co-dominant in communities can be mapped using a variety of field survey or remote sensing techniques. On the other hand, understory plants, being firmly rooted in the soil, grow only where requirements for all their life stages are coincident. Populations of species tend to be patchy within a landscape. Their distribution is less determined by the plant community than it is by physical factors (soil, moisture, insolation). Because plant species distribution so often responds to local factors, there are far more plant species with restricted ranges (local endemics) than animal species. For example, there are about 62 endemic vertebrates in California (>10% out of avertebratc fauna of about 700 species), while 2125 of 4452 (48%) native plants are endemic to the California Floristic Province according to Drs. Peter Raven and Daniel Axelrod. The high degree of plant endemism makes it difficult to predict the distribution of individual species based on any relationship with plant communities that can be mapped using remote sensing. We may safely attribute a plant species to the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) community of the Mojave Desert, but many plants found in that community will occur in only a portion of the area dominated by creosote bush scrub. The relationships between plants and plant communities are necessarily less specific than those between animals and their habitats.

Despite qualifications about the relationships between species and the categories of habitat types that humans describe, species-habitat relationships provide a first approximation of the fauna and flora of a particular stand of vegetation. The next step is to translate habitat preferences into maps that depict species distributions.

A good vegetation map is the foundation for an understanding of the distribution of biodiversity in general. Gap Analysis assumes that plant communities integrate many of the climatic and physical variables of an area in their species composition and structure. Gap Analysis applies two relatively new technologies to

continued p. 120

118

Gaps in GAP

Christopher P. Dunn

BSA Conservation Committee
The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, IL 60532

THE WORLDWIDE toss OF sl'ncmS has reached such proportions, and is continuing at such a rate, that new measures to preserve the world's biological diversity must be implemented. The broad concern about loss of species can be gauged in part by terms such as "biodiversity" and "conservation biology" creeping into the common lexicon. Furthermore, federal agencies, including the Forest Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Interior, arc attempting to find efficient ways to take stock of our nation's natural heritage and to decide on appropriate ways to preserve it.

Biological diversity (or biodivcrsity) is not a simple concept and it can be defined at any of three ecological levels. Typically, biodiversity is used synonymously with species richness. The extinction of any species reduces biodiversity. But this concept of species richness is actually an intermediate one between genetic diversity and ecosystem diversity. Very few species are comprised of genetically identical individuals. Within any population of spring beauties, sugar maples, or song sparrows, there will be sufficient genetic differences among individuals that the genetic diversity of each population can he quantified. This within-population genetic diversity is assumed to confer a number of ecological and evolutionary benefits. In the face of predictable or unpredictable environmental pressures, the chances of survival by some members of the population are increased compared with populations with genetic uniformity. For example, if all lodgepole pines had genes for thin bark, it is likely that few would survive a major fire. The fact that some mature individuals have thick bark virtually assures that some individuals will survive a fire and that successive generations will have higher proportion of individuals with genes for thick hark. Genetic diversity will be maintained by a number of factors, including gene flow (e.g., pollen or seed dispersal).

The other component of biodiversity is ecosystem diversity; that is, the variety of natural ecological systems (terrestrial, aquatic, marine) found in a given region. Loss of an ecosystem, or a major portion of one, will result in the simultaneous loss of the other components of biodiversity. Clearing a mature stand of north-

(More reading: Gap analysis: another look. PARK

SCIENCE 14(3): 24-25,1994, and Landscape Linkages

and Biodiversity (Introduction) pp. 3-13, Island Press, 1993.—Ed.]

ern hardwood forest will take with it the attendant species diversity and genetic diversity of that system.

Given this definition of biodivcrsity, it is hardly surprising that ecologists, environmentalists, natural resource managers, and policy makers regard the larger-scale ecosystem to be most relevant in discussions of biodiversity preservation and management. If entire ecological systems can he preserved, then by default species diversity and genetic diversity are also preserved. By focusing on this level, concerns about managing individual rare or threatened species are lessened. By saving the system, threats to single species are lessened, thereby avoiding Secretary Babbitt's "national train wrecks."

This ecosystem and regional view has considerable merit; however, it also has several conceptual and practical problems. The "top-down"ecosystem approachhas some appeal, but what if changes or management is taking place at the population level? How will overt changes with genetic consequences "trickle up" to be detectable or measurable ecosystem changes? Part of the problem is defining "threats," both present and future. As my colleagues and I have shown, genetic diversity of sugar maple in southern Wisconsin can be reduced in a typical agricultural landscape. No one would argue that sugar maple is threatened nor that mesic woodlands are threatened. However, if fragmentation, cutting, grazing, and other uses continue, loss of rare alleles will not be detected by a regional biodivcrsity assessment. In fact, in those woodlots that are most isolated and most intensively used (especially grazed), rare alleles are lacking. It is only in those woodlots that are sufficiently large, unmanaged, and close to other woodlots that the genetic diversity of sugar maple is preserved.

Thus, how would a "top-down" approach benefit policy-makers, landowners or natural resource managers? It probably would not. There is no single answer to inventory and preservation of biodiversity in all its manifestations. Clearly, threats to biodiversity are largely a result of human modifications of the landscape and those impacts can he measured at each of the three levels of biodiversity. For decades, such discussion has centered on the species level, an approach that has been legally mandated in the Endangered Species Act (ESA). A changed emphasis, centered on ecosystems and regions, should be carefully planned so that it is not perceived as being an alternative to a single species approach. Reauthorization of the ESA will be debated in

continued p. 121

119

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GAP, continued from p. 118...

natural resource planning: geographic information systems (GIS) and satellite remote sensing to map plant communities and predict species distributions.

Of the several types of satellite imagery available, Gap Analysis programs use LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery, which records reflected radiation from 30 x 30 m areas at seven wave-lengths. One limitation of satellite re-mote sensing is its inability to resolve micro-habitats that may have consider-able importance to many species. For example, dippers (Cinclus mexicanus) are found in swift-flowing forest streams which cannot be distinguished from surrounding forests in satellite imagery. This is a problem of cartographic generalization that is addressed by recognizing the

assumptions of small scale mapping. Since we are map-ping landscapes that usually cover several thousand acres, we assume that micro-habitat features, such as small streams, will occur as an element somewhere within that landscape — we just can't say exactly where.

Most distribution maps start with the locations of specimens in systematic collections. Although a species may have been documented in hundreds of localities, there are often large expanses between localities where it is merely assumed that the species is present in appropriate habitat. Gap Analysis draws on the museum or herbarium specimen localities to set the distributional limits for a species; it then uses a relatively large-scale vegetation map (1:100,000 to 1:250,000) to predict the species that should be present within stands of appropriate habitats. Gap Analysis has adopted the PLANTS data base, developed by the USDA Soil Conservation Service, as its standard for plant taxonomy and nomenclature.

Known localities, rather than predicted distributions, will be used for special interest species (state or federally listed as endangered, threatened, sensitive, or candidates for such listing). These localities are usually are avail-able from state Natural Heritage Programs. Gap Analysis programs will use these rare plant localities in the selection of priority areas. Oregon has incorporated tree species distributions into its biodiversity data set, and a pilot program in Utah addressed the relationship between the distribution of a sample of understory species and satellite-based vegetation maps.

Since one of our goals is to identify areas rich in species diversity, we overlay the distribution maps of many species to create maps of species richness, defined as the total number of species of a taxonomic unit present in an area. Areas of equal size can differ significantly in species richness, depending on the number of habitats they include. Areas that span the elevational gradient of

an ecoregion will often contain the complete spectrum of habitats and species in that region and are therefore have especially high priority for maintaining biodiversity.

Gap Analysis draws on iterative methods of identifying priority areas for maintaining biodiversity that have been developed in Australia. For example, if a region is subdivided into sample units, then a simple algorithm can select the unit that contains the greatest number of species or vegetation types, then the unit that contains the greatest number of species or vegetation types not present in the first unit, and so on, until all species are represented a certain number of times (once, twice, three times, etc.). Gap Analysis results will incorporate the three principles of selecting priority areas, complementarity, flexibility, and irreplaceability, identified by Dr. Robert L. Pressey of the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service and his colleagues. Within any state or region, areas representing most diverse (complementary) assemblages of species will be identified, recognizing that we can usually present planners with many options for representing those species in a reserve network (flexibility). Some species only occur in one area, which is then irreplaceable in any set of recommended biodiversity management areas.

While the technologies used in Gap Analysis are widely available, the conceptual framework, methods, and computer software (for example, addressing the difficult task of converting raster satellite imagery into vegetation polygons) developed by its researchers standardize and streamline the process of biodiversity inventory. We believe the Gap Analysis approach to conservation planning will prove useful to both conservation and management professionals as well as forming the spatial frame of reference for information storage and retrieval from a continually evolving National Biological Survey.

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Gaps, continued from p. 119...

the next Congress and any assurances (perceived or real) that an ecosystem or regional view is apanacea or a more enlightened approach could be grist for the mill of ESA opponents. Preservation of biodiversity is a troika. The dynamic dance of ecological processes involves three equal participants. Focus on only one, or elimination of one, and (to paraphrase Yeats) the center will not hold.

To assess threats to biodiversity, the National Biological Survey proposes GAP (Gap Analysis Project), which uses overlays of maps of 1) species distributions, 2) vegetation maps, and 3) ownership. These maps are used to identify species richness "hot spots" and areas that need protection (gaps). As any student of human-dominated landscapes can testify, species richness is no measure of ecological value. Many woodlots in fragmented landscapes are rich in species because of the combination of native and exotic species and so-called edge effects. High species richness is more likely a measure of human activity than of ecological value. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis suggests that for tropical systems, lowest species richness will be found in undisturbed (dominated by native species) and very disturbed (dominated by exotic or weedy species) ends of a disturbance gradient. Forest stands with intermediate levels of disturbance will harbor a mix of native and exotic species and will thus have highest species richness.

A second problem is that Gap Analysis will have limited applicability in areas that are highly fragmented (much of the central US) or are highly managed (e.g., large tracts of privately owned timberland). In highly fragmented regions, the predominant land use is agriculture or some other human-modified system. The scale at which vegetation is mapped (1:500,000 in Idaho) will minimize the importance of habitat patches in these landscapes. This issue of scale is relevant to conflicts between the spatial scale of vegetation mapping and the scale at which animals respond to vegetation. Gap Analysis assumes (a term used at least twice in Csuti's companion piece) an explicit relationship between habitat types (i.e., vegetation) and distributions of particular species.

Third, there is no assurance that biodiversity (how-ever it is defined) will be assessed at periodic intervals, as is proposed for the EPA's EMAP program. Maps of vegetation and animal distributions will be a snapshot and will not capture the dynamics of ecological systems nor of populations. In intensively managed regions, this successional problem will be especially pronounced.

Finally, the political problems are rarely mentioned

in the Gap Analysis literature. Many private landowners

will be suspicious of an effort they perceive as entailing

government intervention, particularly if their land is

identified as part of a "gap." Thirty percent of the US is

federally owned, with 95% of this ownership occurring

in the western US and Alaska. Implementing Gap Anal-

ysis in those regions dominated by private and corporate land ownership could be daunting. A second problem with Gap Analysis is that the range maps will be based in large part on systematic collections, many of which are out-dated, especially with respect to locations of rare species.

I do not believe that Gap Analysis should be abandoned, but that it should be promoted only as one component of a larger biodiversity assessment and management strategy. By attempting to identify high priority conservation areas, the NBS is to be complemented; how-ever, by using Gap Analysis alone, much of the ecological knowledge we have about species and communities is ignored. There seem to be enough gaps in the GAP approach to temper the optimism of its proponents and to require biologists and managers to explicitly consider all three components of biodiversity during assessments of our nation's natural heritage.

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Announcements

Botany recognized in popular culture

There is a botanist who is a regular character on Star Trek:Deep Space Nine. In a recent episode, she was growing bored because the school that she taught for the children of the space station had been closed. Her dissatisfaction was affecting the quality of her relation-ship with her husband, the station's chief engineer. The husband tried a fine meal and special attention; he even planned a conservatory. Then the medico of the series advised him that what the botanist really needed was to pursue botany. So, she is not currently appearing on the show because she is off on a plant exploration trip on a planetary surface. Hubby and child visit occasionally—it's only 3.5 hours away by warp power.—Herman S. Forest, Emeritus, Geneseo

Call for Nomination: Darbaker Prize

The Botanical Society of America is accepting nominations for the Darbaker Prize in Phycology. This award is presented for meritorious work in the study of microscopical algae. The Darbaker Award Committee will base its judgment primarily on papers published by the nominee during the last two full calendar years (1993-94). The award is limited to residents of North America and only papers published in the English language will be considered. A monetary prize is presented to the recipient at the BSA society banquet during the annual meeting. Nominations for the 1995 award should include all reprints of the nominee's work that are to be considered for the 1993-94 period and a statement of the nominee's merits addressed to the committee. The materials must be received no later than April 1, 1995. Please send nomination materials to: Joby M. Chesnick, Chair, Darbaker Committee, Department of Biology, Lafayette College, Easton PA 18042 (FAX:610/250-6557)

Persona/la

David Lloyd Recovering,

Appreciates Taped Communication

In December of 1992, David Lloyd suffered a severe injury by acrylamide poisoning from an unknown source. He was in a coma for over three months and since then has been gradually recovering. He is now in the rehabilitation unit of Burwood Hospital at Christchurch, New Zealand. The injury resulted in severe nerve damage of a very unusual and complicated nature with an unknown prognosis. He has been blind since he regained consciousness. It is not known if his vision will return. He has been paralyzed from the neck down but has regained feeling in his arms and hands and we are hoping he will eventually regain movement as well. He is still not able to feel his legs but his reflex movements have returned and we hope the feeling and movement will ultimately return as well. He has tracheotomy tube for breathing because of a tracheal narrowing. The breathing difficulties will require some type of repair work on his trachea to remove the scar tissue caused by the ventilator that was used when he was in intensive care during the coma. He also has a gastric tube for feeding because of swallowing difficulties. However, his ability to swallow is improving tremendously with practice so we are confident that the gastric tube will not be necessary for much longer.

David's spirits are good under the circumstances. He is mentally alert and determined to make a good recovery. He has little sensory input: visual—none, tactile—little, olfactory and taste—not up to normal as yet, but his hearing is fully normal. Thus, he has many difficulties to overcome to regain a fully productive life. He is well taken care of in an excellent rehabilitation unit with an outstanding medical staff, and he is supported by family and friends. The road to full recovery is a long and slow one but his progress is constant and steady. He would be very happy to hear from his colleagues. He would appreciate receiving audio tapes of letters and of good talks about reproductive biology and evolutionary theory as well as relevant reprints or books that pertain to his field of interest. A group of graduate students from his department are reading to him every day. He has been immensely enjoying the papers and the more readable books. We are confident that he is going to make a very high level of recovery since he has beaten all the odds so far, and is deter-mined to continue to do so.

You can mail tapes to David at Ward 9, Burwood Hospital, Private Bag 4708, Christchurch, New Zealand.—Linda Newstrom-Lloyd

In Memoriam

D. G. Catcheside

Corresponding Member of the Society, died 1 June 1994.

John R. Laughnan

who had been a member of the Society since 1953, passed away 15 July 1994.

Askell Lave

died 29 May 1994. A memorial note will appear in TAXON.

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Ove Arbo Hoeg

Ove Arbo Hoeg was born in 1898 in Larvik (SE Norway) into a prominent family of that region, and he maintained his pleasantly aristocratic bearings during a long and active life, exhibiting wide interests and knowledge in botany.

Hoeg started as a lichenologist, student of Bernt Lynge's, one of the classic authors in Norwegian lichenology, Hoeg's theses (1923) dealt with a group of corticolous lichens. However, lichenology never became a major interest, even if he published lichenological notes off and on until 1941. His next approach came in plant geography, a study of the enigmatic distribution pattern of beech in Norway (1924). The study is especially noteworthy for the use of pollen analysis to elucidate the immigration. Being first published in 1918 pollen analysis was just starting to be known outside Scandinavia and Hogs special approach in that pa-per was not generally recognized until much later. However, while he continued phytogeographical studies he did not goon in pollen analysis. Hoeg instigated dendrochronological research in Norway but did not pursue it actively, leaving the (not too fertile) field to younger people.

In 1929 came the first paper from the field with which Hoeg was most closely related and which was the main basis for his international reputation; Palaeobotony. It was a second-hand study of techniques. His two large papers on the Downtonian of Spitsbergen

and the Glossopteris flora of (the then) Belgian Congo were published in 1942 and 1960. Smaller papers in this field continued to pour from his pen until 1981.

Hoeg's international reputation in palaeobotany caused him to be asked to take over the directorship of the Sahni Institute in Lucknow (India) after the untimely death of Birbal Sahni. It was a task that demanded great tact and the diplomacy that characterized Ove Hoeg. Even so, I understand from guarded remarks that life in Lucknow was not always easy. However, he managed to maintain the institute at ahigh level of excellence and had anumber of Indian palaeobotanists as colleagues and students.

Back from India, Hoeg continued his palaeobotanical work in Oslo. His two positions in Norway were the directorship of the botanical museum in Trondheim and later the chair of botany at the school of pharmnacy at the School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo.

In the meantime, Hoeg had developed a new field of investigation. His interest in botanical folklore goes back to a small paper he wrote in 1938. Very characteristic for Hoeg, he expanded in this field as a protest against what he considered misbehavior. Another person (an MD) had

continued p. 124 Suzanne Leclercq

The Botanical Society of America has lost one of its luminaries, Corresponding Member Suzanne Leclercq, who was for many years head of the Laboratoire de Paldontologie Vdgetale at the University of Liege, Belgium. Dr. Leclercq was an outstanding paleobotanist whose impact on the field is still guiding the study of plant fossils.

Suzanne's early work included a comprehensive ac-count of the anatomy of coal balls from the Westphalian Bouxharmont seam in Belgium. Outstanding during this period was her classic reconstruction of the sporangial complex of Sphenophyllum fertile using the then new peel technique to obtain serial sections. She was able, with extraordinary care and patience, to interpret both anatomy and morphology of this highly complex fructification. More significant, her work has stood the test of time. But it was her painstaking search for evidence upon which to base the reconstruction that we emphasize here. There are many good interpretations of fossil plants but too few that have been proven so convincingly as this was.

In 1940 Suzanne turned to the study of Devonian plants. She quickly recognized that a fossil plant consists of part and counterpart, not one of these alone. This led her to the obvious but neglected truth that the three-dimensional character of the living plant lies buried in the rock matrix. However,

only a Suzanne Leclercq could have developed the art of removal of the surrounding matrix grain by grain using steel needles and a light hammer under a stereoscopic binocular microscope. When complete, the impossible has been accomplished to the point where both evidence for and proof of her interpretation are incontrovertible. Following Suzanne, "ddgagement" has become standard procedure, but few are able to equal her skill.

In the early fifties she successfully introduced the use of plastic as an embedding substance in the study of pyritized or limonitic permineralizations. Her study of the tiny Upper Devonian fructification Eviostachya is a superb example of her skill as she demonstrated eleven whorls of sporangiophores spaced 2–3 mm apart. Each whorl consisted of 6 sporangiophores given off in pairs. Each sporangiophore divided into three segments that divided in turn into three lesser segments each of which bore three terminal, recurved sporangia (27 per sporangiophore). She went on to apply these methods to other monographic studies such as Rhacophyton in 1951, and, in collaboration with colleagues, to several other genera. Specifically, she studied Calamophyton with Andrews

continued p. 124

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Hoeg, continued from p. 121

for half a lifetime received a government subvention for collecting Norwegian plant-lore and especially plant names. He did nothing of that, but instead engaged in a lively political activity in the fields of language reform and teetotalism (Hoeg did not like either). Resenting this and realizing that there was not much time to lose if anything should be saved in these fields, Hoeg started collecting plant lore in earnest, simply starting to do the work the other person should have done.

He traveled up and down the country, originally in connection with other studies, later expressly for this purpose. The result came in 1974: "Planter og tradisjon" (Plants and tradition), 751 pages. It is an inexhaustible mine of information of traditions which have become obsolete in the post World War II period and would have been lost but for his work. The history of the book is tragicomic. Evidently the publisher did not expect much from it and produced an edition of 1500 copies. they were sold in less than a month. The publisher rubbed his eyes and ventured another 1500. They vanished equally fast. Only after the third attempt the publisher understood the situation and came out with 5000 copies (which are also sold out long ago together with two abridged versions with the "learned" footnotes, etc., apparatus) For a book of this type and a country of only 4 million people it is quite an achievement.

After this initial success Hoeg continued taking up more specialized themes ending up (1991) with a charming book about children playing with wild plants.

Such a list of achievements should suffice for a full life. No so for Hoeg. His little textbook on scientific publishing came in two editions, and there were other popular books as well plus small papers and notes on topics from the wide fields of his interests. Ove Arbo Hoeg was a good botanist, but even more, he was a fine man.—Knut Faegri

Leclerc@, continued from p. 121

(1960) and Schweitzer (1965), Pseudosporochnus with Banks (1962) and Lele (1968), Rellimia with Boname (1971) and Psilophyton dawsonii with Banks and Hueber (1975). In all of these works her insistence on careful study and on proof of any assertions characterized the resulting publications.

Suzanne had the distinction of being one of the first women to earn an academic position in Belgium. She was made Commandeur de I'Ordre de la Couronne and Grand Officer de 1'Ordre de Leopold II, among other distinctions. She was President of the Geological Society of Belgium in 1935. In 1965 she was made a Corresponding Member of the Belgian Royal Academy and in 1975 she was elected as one of the 15 members of its Classe des Sciences.

Those of us who have collaborated with and/or studied under Suzanne will never forget the invaluable lessons she taught us.—Harlan P. Banks, Muriel Fairon-Demaret

Educational Opportunities

Managing the Modern Herbarium

5-6 Jun 1995

The Education and Training Committee of the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections (SPNHC) is offering a discipline-specific workshop entitled "Managing the Modem Herbarium" June 5 and 6, 1995, in Toronto. The workshop will immediately follow the SPNHC 10th anniversary annual conference, which is being held at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 3-4, 1995. This work-shop is designed for all those concerned with the maintenance of botanical or mycological collections. Through instruction, focused discussion, hands-on participation, and publication, the program will strive to: - promote dialogue on conservation and collection

management issues,solutions and resources;

- establish a discipline consensus on policies and pro-

cedures for the uses of collections in molecular

research, with emphasis on extant collections and

the making of new collections;

- exhibit and demonstrate a range of specimen preparation and field techniques;

- facilitate communication among institutions and professional societies.

A preliminary list of topics includes: adhesives, bar-coding, care of botanical prints and illustrations, collecting techniques, cryo-preservation, destructive sampling, papers, pest management, specimen preparation, storage... Reserve these dates, and look for a detailed announcement in your society newsletters in the fall. For input, or for more information contact: Deborah Metsger, Department of Botany, Royal Ontario Museum , 100 Queen's Park , Toronto, Ontario , Canada MSS 2C6 (email:

DMETSGER@BOTANY.UTORONTO.CA fax: (416) 586-5516).   ,

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Funding Opportunities

Collaborative Research in Plant Biology Tri-Agency Program

To strengthen fundamental plant science knowledge that will serve as the basis for improving the use of plants in products and processes that fit society's needs, the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have selected this year's grant awardees in the DOE/NSF/USDA Joint Program on Collaborative Research in Plant Biology.

NSF/s Directorate for Biological Sciences, DOE's Office of Energy Research and USDA's National Re-search Initiative Competitive Grants Program support a majority of the basic plant biology research at academic institutions in the United States.

The tri-agency collaborative Research in Plant Biology Program (CRPB) is designed to provide funding for plant biologists through multi-institutional research coordinating group awards, and interdisciplinary re-search training group awards. Multi-institutional re-search coordinating group awards support groups of investigators with common interests who coordinate their research efforts across institutional or geographic boundaries. Interdisciplinary research training group awards assure the continued availability of individual plant scientists capable of performing interdisciplinary and creative research.

The three agencies jointly administer the program from the initial phase, and continue to administer the awards until their termination. Each award is funded solely by a single agency for administrative efficiency. However, representatives from the three agencies act as co-project officers for all CRPB awards and jointly monitor their progress.

Plant Biology Fellowships/Traineeships Washington State University

The DOE/NSF/USDA Triagency Program on Collaborative Research in Plant Biology is sponsoring a new five year training grant at Washington State University. The WSU Plant Biochemistry Center was developed to provide training in plant biochemistry and regulatory processes. This program includes thirteen faculty members (G. An, J. Browse, R. Croteau, G.E. Edwards, J.N.S. Evans, V.R. Franceschi, N.G. Lewis, M.L. Kahn, F.A. Loewus, T.W. Okita, C.A. Ryan, L.P. Taylor, M.K Walker-Simmons) from six different units: Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biochemistry/Biophysics, Botany, Genetics and Cell Biology, Crop and Soil Sciences, and Horticulture. The purpose of the program is to provide undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral associates with a comprehensive and multidisciplinary education in plant biochemistry, including interdisciplinary research activities between physical/biochemical sciences and the traditional plant sciences. Unique opportunities exist in the program for a combination of formal course offer-

ings, interdisciplinary mentoring, a comprehensive seminar series, industry internships and a scientific retreat. Positions are available for both graduate students (6) and post-doctoral fellows (4) on a competitive basis. Fellowship recipients must be citizens or permanent residents of the U.S. For more information contact Ms. Tomie Burke, WSU Plant Biochemistry Coordinator, Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164-6340 (FAX 509/ 335-7643, telephone 509/335-1958; e-mail

burtkeskm@ w suv m l .csc. wsu.edu).

Bullard Fellowships in Forest Research Harvard University

Each year Harvard University awards a Iimited number of Bullard Fellowships to individuals in biological, social, physical and political sciences to promote advanced study, research or integration of subjects pertaining to forested ecosystems. The fellowships, which include stipends up to $30,000, are intended to provide individuals in mid-career with an opportunity to utilize the resources and to interact with personnel in any department within Harvard University in order to develop their own scientific and professional growth. In recent years Bullard Fellows have been associated with the Harvard Forest, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Kennedy School of Government and have worked in areas of ecology, forest management, policy and conservation. Fellowships are avail-able for periods ranging from four months to one year and can begin at any time in the year. Applications from international scientists, women and minorities arc encouraged. Fellowships arc not intended for graduate students or recent post-doctoral candidates. Further information may be obtained from: Committee on the Charles Bullard Fund for Forest Research, Harvard University, Harvard Forest, Petersham MA 01366 USA. Annual deadline for applications is February 1.

Graduate Research Assistantship University of Rhode Island

Beginning September 1995, possibly earlier, we have a research assistantship available for a highly qualified M.S. or Ph.D. student with major interest in the taxonomy of marine plankton diatoms. The funds are available for a minimum of two years, with possible continued funding in the case of a Ph.D. student. Applicants should have a career goal of phytoplankton biodiversity studies with emphasis on diatom taxonomy or life history studies. Qualified applicants can be accepted at the University of Rhode Island through the Graduate School of Oceanography or the newly formed (from Botany and Zoology) Department of Biological Sciences. Entrance and curricular requirements for GSO and DBS differ somewhat. Details on application to Graduate School can be obtained from the Graduate Admissions Office, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881-0809 (tel. 401-792-2872), or from the Academic Affairs Office, GSO/URI, Narragansett, RI 02882-1197 (tel. 401-792 6246). Stipends for the

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1995-96 academic year are approximately $8305-9185 (20hrs/wk, 36wks), and $7392-8175 for the summer (40hrs/wk, 16wks). Annual stipends thus range from $15696-17360 for the first calendar year. Also included is $8008 full tuition expense. Completed application packages and all supporting documents must be received by 15 April 1995; earlier application and correspondence is encouraged. Dr. Paul E. Hargraves Dr. Jan E.B. Rines pharg@gsosunl.gso.uri.edu jrines@gsosunl.gso.uri.edu

Scholarships in Tropical Botany

WWF / GCA

Purpose: To assist doctoral candidates enrolled in a U.S. Ph.D. program to undertake independent field work in the tropics. These joint Garden Club of America/World Wildlife Fund scholarships have been awarded annually since 1983. Generally, one grant is awarded in the area of tropical plant systematics and a second in tropical forest ecology. Eligibility: Individuals are eligible to apply if they anticipate completing the requirements for a Ph.D. in Botany within two years and are enrolled in a United States university. Award: The scholarships are intended to be used for undertaking field work in tropical countries. Two $5,500 awards are made annually. The awards are highly competitive and made on a one-time only basis. Application: There is no formal application. Candidates should submit an application packet including the following: A curriculum vitae, including graduate transcripts (photocopies acceptable); evidence of foreign language capability, if necessary for country of re-search; a two-page statement of the proposed research, including its relevance to conservation; a personal let-ter describing the candidate's plans for the future and commitment to tropical conservation; and a letter of recommendation from the student's graduate advisor, including an evaluation of the student's progress to date. Contact and Address: Lori Michaelson, Program Coordinator, Research and Development Program, GCA Awards, World Wildlife Fund, 1250 24th St NW, Washington DC 20037. Telephone: 202/778-9714; FAX: 202/293-9211. Deadline: December31, 1994. Recipients will be announced during the month of March, 1995.

Small Research Grants

Cactus and Succulent Society of America The Research Committee of the CSSA awards grants to scientists and skilled hobbyists to assist them to carry out research related to cacti and succulents. The grans are usually in the range of $600 to $1500. Grants may be continued over several years if the Research Committee is satisfied withthe progress of the project. Requirements are modest. The project must involve the study of cacti and/or succulents and result in the publi-

cation of two articles in the CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL. For more information, contact: Seymour Lin-den, 1535 Reeves St., Los Angeles CA 90035 (310/ 556-1923; FAX 286-9629). E-man.: U4BIA@AOL..COM

Positions Available

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Plant Science Bulletin Editor

Botanical Society of America Nomination committee searching for a botanist with an active research pro-gram, interact access, knowledge of BSA and its members, editorial skills, computer skills in word-processing, data-base management, and desktop publishing. Enthusiasm and willingness to learn about unfamiliar botanical disciplines and to acquire new skills important. Interested persons should send queries about responsibilities, time committment required, etc., to the current Editor. Applicants should send letter of interest with a statement ofyour skills, resources,

and goals for the PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN, and a curriculum vitae to Judith E.

Skog, Chair, PSB Editor Search Committee, Dept. of Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (e-mail JSKOG@GMU.EDU). Submitting the information on disk or via e-mail would be VERY helpful. Deadline for applications: 1 March 1995.

Article Writers

Gale Research, Inc.

Quality writers are needed to contribute articles to the Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Designed for high school students and general readers, the encyclopedia will be comprised of entries ranging from 100 to 4,000 words and covering basic terms and concepts from all scientific disciplines. Candidates with scientific back-grounds and previous publishing experience highly preferred; must be able to explain technical concepts to a general audience. Contributors required to do their own research. Please send writing sample and resume to: Bridget Travers, Gale Research, Inc., 835 Penobscot Building, Detroit, MI 48226-4094.

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Molecular Plant Systematist

University of Michigan

The University Herbarium and the Department of Biology seek to fill a joint tenure-track position in molecular plant systematics at the level of Assistant Curator/ Assistant Professor, although applications from candidates at all ranks will be considered. We especially seek applicants with broad training in plant systematics and expertise in molecular and other modern methods for investigating the phylogenetic systematics of vascular plants. The successful candidate also must be qualified to teach undergraduate and graduate courses in biology and plant evolution and systematics, as well as curate in the Herbarium. Candidates must have a Ph.D. in Biology, Botany, or Plant Sciences, and postdoctoral or comparable experience. Applications should include a curriculum vitae, a statement of teaching and research interests, and reprints of significant publications. Send these materials and arrange to have three letters of recommendation sent directly to the following address: Search Committee Chair, University of Michigan Her-barium, North University Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1057. Deadline for receipt of application materials is January 6, 1995. The starting date for the position is September 1, 1995. The University of Michigan is an affirmative action, equal opportunity employer.

Plant Molecular Systematist

New York Botanical Garden

The New York Botanical Garden invites applications for the position of Plant Molecular Systematist in the Institute of Systematic Botany. Qualifications include a Ph.D. in Botany or Biology, demonstrated excellence in molecular systematics, a strong background in plant taxonomy, and several years of post-doctoral experience. The successful candidate will conduct research in botanical or mycological systematics with an emphasis on employing molecular techniques. Work will involve teaching and advising of students in the Garden's Graduate Studies Program, and publishing research results in peer-reviewed scholarly journals. The individual occupying this position will also be expected to secure grant funds and assist in other departmental and division-wide duties. This position begins April 1, 1995. Excellent benefits. To apply submit a letter stating research interests and goals,

vita, and the names of three references to Personnel Manager-MS, the New York Botanical Garden, 200th Street and Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York 10458-5126, USA. FAX:718/220-6504. AA/EOE/M/F/D/V.

Molecular Plant Systematist / Geneticist Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden

Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden invites applications for the position of Research Scientist in plant molecular genetics/systematics. The Garden is especially interested in candidates who take a broad view of plant systematics and evolution, but who have expertise in conservation genetics, developmental genetics, plant molecular evolution and/or related disciplines. The successful candidate must fit well into a small but highly interactive research group which maintains active collaborations with scientists at other institutions. The disciplines of phylogenetics, anatomy, morphology and monographic systematics are well-represented among existing researchers. The position involves 20 -30% teaching in the Graduate Botany Program of the Claremont Graduate School, 60% Research and 10% service and administration. Applicants should have a minimum of five years' research experience in molecular genetics and systematic botany. Researchers at RSABG are expected to sustain externally funded re-search programs, teach one to two courses per academic year, maintain an active publishing schedule and participate in institutional life. Qualifications: A Ph.D. in Botany and successful prior experience conducting molecular systematics/evolutionary research. Candidates should be able to demonstrate the ability to maintain an active, independent, externally-funded research programs, willingness to participate in the Graduate Program, enthusiasm for the native flora of California and for the programs and activities of the Garden. Pref-Plant Systematist

Northeast Missouri State University Northeast Missouri State University invites applications for an anticipated tenure-track position in Plant Systematics/Taxonomy at the Assistant Professor level, starting August 1995. The successful candidate will teach Plant Taxonomy, Local Flora, rotate through General Botany and General Biology, and have the opportunity to offer an advanced specialty course. Expectations also include curation of a 20,000 specimen Herbarium. Teaching and research are mutually supportive activities at Northeast; candidates should be strongly committed to both teaching and developing a research program involving undergraduates and M.S. students. Laboratory space and start-up funds will be provided; space in a 2800 sq. ft. greenhouse is also available. Candidates must possess a Ph.D., or have a targeted completion date of mid-August 1995. Complete applications include a curriculum vita, statements of teaching philosophy and research goals, undergraduate and graduate transcripts, and three letters of reference. All application materials should be sent to: Dr. Jeffrey M. Osbom, Plant Systematics Search Commit-tee, Division of Science, Northeast Missouri State University, Kirksville, MO 63501 (816-785-4017). Completed applications will be reviewed starting 15 December 1994. NMSU is an AA/EOE institution committed to cultural diversity and compliance with ADA.

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Horticultural Taxonomist

Brooklyn Botanic Garden

Brooklyn Botanic Garden invites applicants for the lead position in a research group in Horticultural Taxonomy. Experience with cultivated plants preferred. Preference given to persons with an active research program. Ph.D. required with a knowledge of nomenclature and competent database skills. Salary commensurate with qualifications and experience. Generous benefits. Applicants should include curriculum vitae, a letter with statement of research interests and goals, and names and addresses of three references. Review of applications begins 16 January 1995.; the position remains open until filled. Applications should be sent to: Ms. R. Cabiness, Personnel Director, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1000 Washington Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11225-1099.

Field Botanist

New York Botanical Garden

The Institute of Economic Botany of the New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) announces a position for Field Botanist (Ph.D or M.Sc. Level) with background in plant taxonomy and field experience within the United States. Duties are to collect, identify and voucher a broad range of plant taxa from the United States and its territories and possessions. Extensive travel is required. Successful applicant will participate in a study that assesses the potential utility of plant extracts in pharmaceutical products, as a part of a collaborative project with scientists from Pfizer, Inc. The NYBG Institute of Economic Botany carries out basic and applied research on the relationship between people and plants. Please send curriculum vitae and names of three references to: Personnel Department-FB, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458-5126. Fax 718-220-6504. AA/EOE/M/F/D/V

Plant Systematist and

Mycologist/Cell Biologist

Miami University

Applications are invited for two tenure-track Assistant Professorships beginning August 1995 on the Oxford campus. Successful candidates will join a growing, broadly-based department committed to educational and scholarly excellence and faculty diversity. A Ph.D. in Botany or a closely related discipline is required along with a genuine commitment to excellence as a teacher- scholar. Postdoctoral experience is preferred. Successful candidates will teach courses at the introductory as well as the advanced level and develop a vigorous, extramurally-funded research program.

PLANT SYSTEMATIST. We seek a broadly-trained plant systematist/taxonomist using modern molecular techniques to address fundamental questions in plant systematics and to complement existing departmental and interdepartmental programs. Areas of research interest may include but are not limited to plant evolution, economic/ethnobotany, tropical botany, and conservation biology.

MYCOLOGIST/CELL BIOLOGIST. We seek a broadly-trained mycologist/cell biologist to complement and expand our core teaching and research programs in mycology and related disciplines. Research interests should emphasize modern cellular, physiological, and/ or molecular approaches to fungal biology, including but not limited to fungal physiology, plant pathology, and ecological interactions of fungi. Use of electron and/or confocal microscopy as a research to is beneficial. Candidates should submit application materials (curriculum vitae, a statement of teaching philosophy and interests, a statement of research interest, and not more than three reprints of representative research), and should arrange to have three letters of reference sent to: Dr. Kenneth Wilson, Chair, Plant Systematics Search Committee (email: Wilsonk@musupport.acs.muohio.edu) or Dr. Jerry McClure, Chair, Mycologist/Cell Biologist Search Committee (email:McClurej@mu-support. acs.muohio.edu), Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056. Fax: 513-529-4243. Review of application materials begins 1 December 1994. Miami University offers equal opportunity in employment and education.

Plant Molecular Genetics

Louisiana State University

The Department of Plant Biology, Louisiana State University, invites applications for a tenure-track, assistant professorship in Plant Molecular Genetics, anticipated for August 1995. All applicants with research interests in plant molecular genetics will be considered although special consideration will be given to candidates with

interests in mechanisms of gene regulation in develop-mental systems or signal transduction. Ph.D. or equivalent degree, postdoctoral experience in plant molecular genetics, evidence of creative research and a commitment to excellence in teaching are required. Responsibilities include development of an active re-search program, directing students and teaching in undergraduate and graduate courses. Review of applications will begin in November, 1994 and will continue until a candidate is selected. Send curriculum vitae, selected reprints, a brief statement of research goals and have three letters of reference mailed to: Genetics Search Committee, Department of Plant Biology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LA 70803-1705. LSU is an Equal Opportunity/Access Employer. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.

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Chair, Department of Botany

Iowa State University

The Department of Botany at Iowa State University invites nominations of, or applications from, outstanding scholars to chair this department of 19 faculty with research and teaching in ecology, physiology and molecular biology, and systematics and evolution. Candidates should have an outstanding research record, a commitment to vigorous support of research and education, and leadership and administrative skills. Closing date for applications is December 1, 1994, or until the position is filled. applicants should send curriculum vitae, a list of publications, a statement of personal perspective on research and teaching at a major university, and the names of five references to: Chair of Search Committee, Department of Botany, Iowa State University Ames IA 50011. Women, minorities and members of other protected groups are strongly encouraged to apply. Iowa State University is an Equal Opportunity/ Affirmative Action Employer.

Evolutionary Biologist

University of Arizona

The Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology seeks a biologist studying evolutionary change or di-versification, preferably making use of molecular approaches. Ph.D. required. The successful candidate is expected to achieve excellence in research and teaching at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The research could focus on any group of organisms, at any scale (from processes within populations to large-scale phylogenetic patterns), and on any aspect of evolution (e.g. speciation or genomic or developmental evolution). We expect to fill the position at the level of Assistant or Associate Professor. Salary commensurate with level and experience. Application Deadline: December 16, 1994, or until filled. Please send curriculum vitae, statement of research and teaching interests and three letters of recommendation to: Dr. Richard E. Michod, Chair, Search Committee, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Biological Sciences West 310, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 The University of Arizona, an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action/ADA Employer, encourages applications from women and members of underrepresented minority groups.

Research Director

United Arab Emirates University

The Zayed International Agriculture and Environmental Research Program at the United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, U.A.E. is seeking nominations and/or applications for the position of Research Director of the Program. This is a senior-level Program appointment. As the Research Director, this individual will develop and lead a research program that is focusing on studies on production agriculture under highly saline conditions and other environmental constraints as well as

developing in-country know-how and a cadre of trained national manpower in saline agriculture. Successful applicants must have a Ph.D. in Agronomy or Plant Sciences with strong emphasis in crop production under saline arid conditions. He should be a lead scientist in his field with a distinguished record of research in saline agriculture and at least 10 years of international experience in academic research institutions. He should be a lead scientist in his field with a distinguished record of research in saline agriculture and at least 10 years of international experience in academic research institutions. He should also have primary commitment to academic excellence and a successful record of inter-action with broad agricultural disciplines including molecular biology, plant physiology and saline agriculture. Applicants should also have the vision and leader-ship ability to work with faculty in shaping and successfully implementing the Program's mandate. Nominations and applications, including letter of application, resume and the names and addresses of five references, should be sent no later than January 2, 1995 to: The Chairman, Executive Committee, Zayed International Agric. and Environmental Research Program, c/o Faculty of Agriculture, PO Box 17555, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. Telephone: 00-971-3-635 647; FAX 00-971-632 384.

Administrator - Supervisory Ecologist National Biological Survey

The National Biological Survey anticipates an opening for the Chief of the Wetlands Ecology Branch at the Southern Science Center, formerly known as the National Wetlands Research Center, Lafayette LA. The Center also has field/duty stations in: Corpus Christi TX; Baton Rouge LA; Gulf Breeze FL; College Station TX, and Vicksburg MS. This branch consists of a multidisciplinary group of Ph.D. scientists, biological technicians, and support staff with research activities in coastal and freshwater wetland habitats, global climate change, moist soil management, plant stress, community and landscape ecology, wetland management and restoration, and food web relationships. The Southern Science Center has state-of-the-art laboratory, computer, and GIS facilities in a new building on the cam-pus of the University of Southwestern Louisiana. Mini-mum Qualifications: Ph.D. or equivalent experience in aquatic, wetland, or plant ecology or related field, administrative/managerial experience, experience in con-tract and grant administration, and a proven record of scientific achievement. Salary $58K+ per annum at the GS-14 level. The Federal Government is an Equal Employment Opportunity Employer. For information con-tact Jan Whitmore at 318/266-8526 (e-mail whitmorej@nwrc.gov), National Biological Survey, Southern Science Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette LA 70506.

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Plant Ecologist

McMaster U.—Royal Botanical Gardens We are reopening our search for candidates for a probationary tenure- track position at the Assistant Professor level in the Department of Biology at McMaster University, with a research appointment at the Royal Botanical Gardens. The successful candidate will be expected to establish an independent research programme in plant ecology. Duties include teaching undergraduate plant ecology and plant physiology courses and participation in graduate courses. Interested applicants should submit a curriculum vitae, a brief description of teaching experience and future re-search programme, and the names and addresses of three referees before January 6, 1995, to: Chair of Search Committee, Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1. Appointment is subject to final budgetary approval. In accordance with Canadian Immigration requirements, priority will be given to Canadian citizens and permanent residents of Canada. McMaster University and the Royal Botanical Gardens are committed to employment equity and encourage applications from all qualified candidates, including aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities, members of visible minorities and women.

Plant Ecology

University of Tennessee

The Department of Botany and Graduate Program in Ecology invite applications for a tenure-track Assistant Professor position in Plant Ecology. Ph.D. with a strong field orientation and expertise in physiological ecology, population ecology or plant community ecology required. Position to begin in August 1995. The successful applicant will be expected to establish a vigorous, externally funded research program and to teach at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Candidates will be evaluated on the basis of research accomplishments, research potential, teaching effectiveness, and the needs of the Department of Botany and Graduate Program in Ecology. Application materials should include curriculum vitae, a statement of research goals, a statement of teaching interests and philosophy, and the names of three references. All materials should he sent to Chair, Plant Ecology Search Committee., Botany Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1100. FAX: 615-974-0978 Screening of applicant files will begin January 15, 1995. UTK is an EEO/AA/Title IX/Section 504/ADA Employer.

Desert Plant Ecologist

United Arab Emirates University

The Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at the United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, U.A.E., is seeking applicants for a faculty position in Applied Ecology with emphasis in desert plant ecology and arid terrestrial ecosystems. Teaching responsibilities will include courses in desert ecology, terrestrial ecosystems, desert agriculture, and and semi-arid lands, resource conser-

vation and general ecology. Research experience should be in arid environments preferably overseas. Successful applicants must have a Ph.D. in a field of Applied Ecology with emphasis in arid terrestrial ecosystems (vegetation-soil-water), an established research record, a commitment to excellence in teaching and research, and statistical skills. Preferred qualifications include overseas experience in the Middle East or Africa, fluency in both English and Arabic and the ability to interface with research activities of current faculty. Applications from qualified candidates including application letter, curriculum vitae, list of publications and names and addresses of three referees should be sent no later than Jan. 15, 1995 to: The Secretary General, U.A.E. University, P.O. Box 15551, Al Ain United Arab Emirates. Telephone: 00-971-3-635647/FAX 00-

' 1 cOnfOA

Laboratory Manager

New York Botanical Garden

The New York Botanical Garden is seeking a Laboratory Manager to oversee the operation of a Scanning Electron Microscope by staff and students, assist them in their projects, maintain lab supplies, oversee maintenance of equipment and ensure compliance with fire safety codes. B.S. or M.S. in Biology with a Botany major preferred, courses in general and/or organic chemistry required. Experience with Scanning Electron Microscopy, botanical microtechnique and scientific photography required, some teaching experience preferred. Salary commensurate with experience, excellent benefits including 4 weeks vacation. Send resume to: Karen Yesnick, Personnel Manager, The New York Botanical Garden, 200th Street & Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York 10458-5126. AA/EOE/M/F/D/V

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Paleobotanist / Collection Manager University of California

The Museum of Paleontology seeks a paleobotanist/ collection manager with expertise in the areas of paleobotany. The successful applicants will manage the Museum's extensive collection of fossil plants, and will direct activities of part-time student employees in areas of collection management. Duties will include the maintenance and curation of fossil specimens, entering and updating of museum records, and the handling of loan requests and returns within the section. The Museum Scientist will also prepare, arrange and care for specimens to assure their preservation and availability for research and teaching, and will supervise the use of related Museum facilities and equipment. The position also requires occasional assistance in Museum-sponsored field projects, exhibit planning and preparation, public out reach programs, and the provision of information to the public, media, and governmental agencies. Either a Master's or Ph.D. degree is required together with: (l) demonstrated skill with the plant fossil taxa, and (2) collateral experience in either database management, system administration or museum conservation practices. Salary range: $28,400- $42,600/year depending on qualifications. Apply with current vita and the names of three references to: Museum Scientist Search Committee Museum of Paleontology University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-4780, USA. Closing date is 15 January 1995. The University of California is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity employer.

Katherine Esau Postdoctoral Fellowships University of California

Applications and nominations are invited for Katherine Esau Postdoctoral Fellowships and which will be awarded to outstanding young scientists interested in developing careers in structural aspects of plant biology. Esau Fellowships will be awarded for a period of two years to enable successful candidates to work under the mentorship of a University of California, David, faculty member. Applications/nominations should identify an appropriate faculty mentor(s) and include a curriculum vitae of the candidate, reprints of published works, an outline of the proposed research that would be carried out under this program. The name and ad-dress of three references is also required. Requests for information regarding the fellowships and guidelines for applications can be made by contacting the Dean's Office, Division of Biological Sciences at 916/752-6764. All application materials should be forwarded to Dr. William J. Lucas, Chair, Faculty Advisory Committee, Esau Fellowships Program, Dean's Office, Di-vision of Biological Sciences, university of California, Davis CA 95616. Fellowships will be awarded on a biannual basis; deadlines for this on-going program are June 1 and December 1. The University of California is an equal opportunity employer.

Viticulturist / Enologist

University of California, Davis

Nominations and applications are invited for a tenured position available July 1, 1995. The appointee will have teaching and student advising responsibilities and will be expected to initiate a research program pertinent to the California grape and wine industry. The monetary award from the Amerine endowment is to support research in this area. The appointment to the Maynard A. Amerine Chair is for 5 years, subject to renewal on review. Qualifications include a Ph.D. or equivalent degree in a discipline relevant to viticulture and/or enology, teaching and research experience in a relevant discipline, and a record of scholarly and academic achievement. Disciplines encompassed by the department include plant and microbial genetics and biochemistry, plant physiology, microbiology, chemistry, sensory science, and chemical and biochemical engineering. Applicants should submit a curriculum vitae with a list of publications, reprints of publications, statement of research and teaching interests and back-ground in each, and the names and addresses of at least three references to: Ann C. Noble, Search Committee Chair, Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis CA 95616-8749. Applications must be received by February 1, 1995. The University of California is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.

Research Associate University of Arizona

Postdoctoral research associate position available to study plant cell differentiation, determination, and competence. The primary focus of the laboratory is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying cell-cell communications during plant epidermal cell redifferentiation. The research requires a background in cell and molecular biology. The position is available January 2, 1995; the closing date for application is December 1, 1994 or until the position is filled. The starting salary is $24,000 plus benefits. Applications should include a resume plus three letters of recommendation. Requests for additional information should be sent to: Dr. Judith Verbeke, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721. The University of Arizona is an AA/EEO/ADA employer. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.

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Symposia, Conferences, Meetings

Evolution of Plant Architecture

19–21 April 1995

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, are currently building a new permanent display illustrating aspects of plant evolution. this international symposium is part of the celebration to mark the opening of the Evolution House in spring, 1995. The symposium will be held in the rooms of the Linnean Society and at Kew. The meeting will have four main sessions, each with a key-note speaker: Origins of Plant Architecture, Architecture of Vegetative Structures, Architecture of Reproductive Structures, and Architecture and Biomechanics. For more information, contact: Dr. A.R. Hemsley, Linnean Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London, Wl V OLQ (071/434-4479; fax: 071/287-9364; JoHHN@

LINNEAN.DEMON. CO. UK).

Sucrose Metabolism

8-13 May 1995

Contact: Dr. Horacio Pontis or Dr. Graciela Salerno, Fundacidn para Investigaciōnes Biolōgicas Aplicadas, Casilla de Correos 1348, 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina (54-23-74-8257, fax -3357), or Dr. Ed Echeverria, Citrus Research and Education Center, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred FL 33850 USA (8131956-1151, fax -4631).

Interplay of Cells With Their Environment 20-24 May 1995

1995 Congress on In Vitro Biology; Radisson Denver Hotel, Denver, Colorado. Contact: Tiffany McMillan; telephone 410/992-0946; FAX 410/992-0949.

Wildland Shrub Symposium

23–25 May 1995

The Shrub Research Consortium in concert with New Mexico State University is sponsoring the Ninth Wild-land Shrub Symposium, May 23-25, 1995 at the Hilton Hotel in Las Cruces, New Mexico. The symposium theme is "Shrubland Ecosystem Dynamics in a Changing Environment." For information contact: Katie Dunford, Office of Conference Services, Box 30004, Dept. CCSU, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003-8004.

Paleobotany I Coal Science Symposium 28 May -1 June 1995

The first W. A. Bell Symposium on Paleobotany and Coal Science will be held at the University College of Cape Breton, Sydney, Nova Scotia. Please register early. For information contact: Dr. Erwin L. Zodrow, University College of Cape Breton, P.O. Box 5300, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada B1P 6L2 (Fax: 902/562-0119) or Dr. Paul C. Lyons, U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston Virginia 22092, USA (Fax: 703/ 648-4227.

Apical Meristems and Primordia

11—16 June 1995

The Gordon Research Conference on Plant Cell Genetics and Development at Wolfeboro, New Hampshire, will have sessions on: Shoot and Leaf Primordia, Root Apices, Meristem Diversity and Evolution, Induction of Flowering, Reproductive Morphology, Evolution of Reproductive Morphology, Methods in Cell Genetics, and Heritable Epigenetic States. Application forms available from: Gordon Research Conferences, University of Rhode Island, PO Box 984, West Kingston, RI 02892-0984. Send poster abstracts by e-mail to: Joachim Messing (Vice-Chair and Poster Organizer) at

MESSING@MBCL.RUTGERS.EDU, AND to: Rich Jorgensen (Chair) at RAJORGENSEN@UCDAVIS.EDU. Program avail-

able from Chair.

NT-27

8–12 July 1995

The 27th International Numerical Taxonomy Conference (NT-27) will be held in conjunction with the annual meetings of the Society of Systematic Biologists, the Society for the Study of Evolution, and the American Society of Naturalists, 8-12 July 1995 at McGill Umiversity, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. For additional information about NT-27, contact Francois-Joseph Lapointe (Department de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centreville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada; tel: 514-343-7999, fax: 514-343-2253, e-mail: lapoinf @ere.umontreal.ca) or Richard Jensen (Department of Biology, Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 46556; tel: 219-284-4674; fax: 219-284-4716; e-mail: rjensen @saintmarys.edu). For additional information about the SSB/SSE/ASN meetings, contact Evol Secretariat, Conference Office, McGill University, 550 Sherbrooke St. W., West Tower, Suite 490, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1139, Canada (tel: 514-398-3770; fax: 514-398-4854; e-mail: evol@550sherb.lan.mcgill.ca).

Plant Growth Substances

14-19 July 1995

15th International Congress, Minneapolis, Minnesota. For further information contact: Gary Gardner, Dept. of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota, 305 Alderman Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA, FAX

(612)624-3606, e-mail: ggardner@maroon.tc.umn.edu.

Pteridology in Perspective

17—21 July 1995

International symposium to commemorate Prof. R.E. Holttum, pre-eminent pteridologist of the 20th Century. All aspects of pteridology may be covered in relation to both extant and fossil pteridophytes world-wide. The circular, with registration and accommodation booking forms, is available from: Pteridophyte Symposium '95, Miss J.M. Ide, c/o R.J. Johns, The Herbarium, The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9

3AE, UK. email P.EDWARDS@RIIGKEW.ORG.UK or fax +44

81 332 5197.

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IOPB Sixth International Symposium

29 July - 2 August 1995

"Variation and Evolution in Arctic and Alpine Plants." Correspondence: VI IOPB-Symposium, the Bergius Foundation, P.O. Box 50017, S-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden; fax +46 8 612 9005.

Ecological Modeling

6-10 August 1995

The meeting of the North America Chapter of the Inter-national Society for Ecological Modeling will be held 6–10 August 1995 in San Diego, California with the annual meetings of the ALBS. Papers and symposium proposals are invited on all aspects of ecological modeling, systems analysis, and system simulation in ecology. Deadline for receipt of symposium proposals is

30 January 1995. Deadline for receipt of abstracts for contributed papers is 10 February 1995. Send symposium proposals, abstracts, and requests for further in-formation to: Anthony W. King, Environmental Sciences Division, Bldg. 1000, MS 6335, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335, Phone: (615) 576-3436, email: awk@oml.gov, Fax: (615) 574-2232

Chromosome Conference

4-8 September 1995

Information: Dr. M.J. Puertas, Departmento de Genetica, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

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Evolution of Terrestrial Plants

4-8 Sep 1995

International Conference of Diversification and Evolution of Terrestrial Plants in Geological Time (ICTPG) will be held in Nanjing, China, organized by Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Academia Sinica and Paleobotanical Society of China, Sept. 4-8, 1995, with paleobotanical excursions Sept. 9-18. The Chairman of the organizing committee is Prof. Xingxue Li. The registration fee before March 1, 1995 is $200 US (students: $100 US), late registration is $250 (students: $150 US). Abstracts should be sent to the secretariat before December 31, 1994. For further information contact: Secretariate of ICTPG or Prof. G. Sun, Dept. of Palaeobotany, Nanjing Institute of Geol. & Paleont., Academia Sinica, Chi-Ming-Ssu, Nanjing, 210008, PR CHINA. Telephone: 86-25-6637208/FAX 86-25-3357026.

Rubiaceae Conference

12-14 September 1995

The Second International Rubiaceae Conference is scheduled for September 12-14, 1995 in Meise (Brussels). For further information you may contact Professor E. Robbrecht, Conference secretariat, National Botanic Garden, Domein van Bouchout, B-1860 Meise (Belgium). Telephone: (32 2) 269 39 05; FAX (32 2) 270 15 67.

Harnessing Apomixis

25-27 September 1995

College Station Hilton Hotel and Conference Center, College Station, Texas. Invited speakers and contributed posters will cover various genetic, molecular, physiological, cytological, and evolutionary aspects of asexual seed reproduction and its application to crop improvement. Related topics in plant sexual reproduction will also be presented. Some financial support for international attendees will be available. For further information and circulars, please contact Dr. David M. Stelly, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2474. Phone: (409)-845-2745, fax: (409)-862-4733, E-MAIL: monosom@rigel.tarnu.edu.

Engineering Plants

1-4 October 1995

International Symposium on "Engineering Plants for Commercial Products/Applications", University of Kentucky, Lexington KY, USA. Co-organizers: Glenn B. Collins and Robert J. Shepherd. To be added to the conference mailing list, send your name and address to: International Symposium on Engineering Plants, c/o Conferences and Institutes, 218 Peterson Service Building, Lexington KY 40506-00005, USA. Email: monica.stoch@ukwang.uky.edu, phone: 606/257-3929; FAX: 606/323-1053.

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Book Reviews

In this Issue:

Physiological:

p. 134 Flux Control in Biological Systems. E.-D. Schultze, ed. (1994) — N. M. Holbrook

Phytochemical:

p. 136 Shikimic Acid. E. Haslam (1993)— R. Hammerschmidt

Developmental/Structural:

p. 136 Moss Protonema Differentiation. S.C. Bhatla (1994) — M. Christianson p. 138 Phyllotaxis. R.V. Jean (1994) — T.J. Herbert

Ecological:

p. 138 Remarkable Agaves and Cacti. P.S. Nobel (1994) — J.M. Baskin

Economic Botany:

p. 140 Plant Evolution and the Origin of Crop Species. J.F. Hancock (1992) — G. Wilkes

Genetics:

p. 140 The Chromosome. J.S. Heslop-Harrison & R.B. Flavell, eds. (1993) — V. Baird

Flux Control in Biological Systems: From Enzymes to Populations and Ecosystems E.-D. Schulze, ed. 1994. ISBN 0-12-633070-0, 494 pp. Academic Press Inc., 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495, USA. —This volume presents a fascinating and challenging collection of essays directed at understanding general principles of flux control by comparing patterns and mechanisms of regulation at various levels of organization. As all of the contributors are members of the Collaborative Research Center at the University of Bayreuth, it forms a fine tribute to the integrative studies and innovate approach-es of this group. The book is divided into four sections that cover flux control at the cellular, organismic, soil-organism, and population/ecosystem level. The range of specific topics, thus extends from details of enzymatic regulation associated with maintaining an appropriate chloroplast ATP:NADPH balance(Chapter 1), to the internal cycling of nitrogen and carbon throughout the plant (Chapters 4, 5, 6), to soil processes such as organic matter transformation (Chapter 9) and effects of physical aggregation on transport of water, gas and heat in the soil (Chapter 10), to food webs (Chapter 11) and gene flow among thistles and their herbivores (Chapter 13). This book is not for the faint-of-heart! Yet, the volume as a whole works in that it moves beyond the specifics of each topic to a distillation of basic themes, mechanisms, and principles of flux regulation. These include interactions between feedforward and feedback controls, prevalence of shared control among elements in a cycle or pathway, the importance of dynamic imbalances and futile cycles in providing inputs for regulatory systems, the existence of switches points, and the role of synchronization and coordination.

We generally associate stable or persistent systems with a high degree of integration. The latter is achieved through a network of information that is communicated throughout the system where it can interact with elements of the system in such a way as to promote continued association and functioning of the system itself. Maintenance of an intact, functioning system includes the ability to: 1) alter the capacity of individual sub-systems; 2) modify the exchange of matter and energy between compartments; 3) alter the pools of intermediates within the system; and 4) alter the flow of resources into and out of system. Thus a common theme in Flux Control in Biological Systems is the manner in which information about the status of a system is transmitted among its parts. Amplification of such information in such a way that sensitivity to small perturbation is increased also forms an important component.

The first section of the book focuses on flux control at the cellular level. Chapter 1 (R. Scheibe and E. Beck) addresses the problem of energy production in chloroplasts. Specifically, the rate of production must fit demand and turnover of ATP and NADPH pools must be controlled separately to compensate for coupled production. The malate valve, which permits excess reducing equivalents in the chloroplast to be exported into the cytosol, is regulated by metabolic imbalances. Perfect homeostasis is thus an ideal and never-realized state; steady-state from the integration of oscillating imbalances of actual rates.

This is followed by a fascinating and extremely clear discussion of flux control at the level of metabolic pathways (by M. Stitt). Drawing from studies using mutants and genetically manipulated plants, Stitt begins

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with an examination of traditional approaches to the study of regulation and shows how mutants and genetically manipulated plants can be used to understand the flux control coefficients (FCC) of individual enzymes in a pathway. He points out that even in a constant external environment, metabolic pathways require internal regulation to maintain a functional state. If each enzyme performs "best" with an abundance of substrate and little product, then the maximum stable flux through the pathway will be lower than the maximum capacity of each individual enzyme and system-level coordination will be required. Basic principles of flux regulation which arise from these studies include: 1) pathways often contain more than one regulatory enzyme; 2) regulatory enzyme activity can be regulated by several different effectors; 3) regulation mechanisms often al-low amplification; 4) regulation often involves balances; 5) enzymes within a pathway are coordinated in their regulation (i.e. share effectors). Somewhat surprising findings include: Rubisco is never totally limiting under growth conditions, indeed it generally exerts little control; control of photosynthesis is shared between Rubisco and other proteins; and the FCC of Rubisco depends on the conditions. Thus, a single limiting step is overly simplistic. Likewise, a fixed association of irreversible transformations with regulatory steps is shown to be incorrect. Stitt emphasizes the importance of branch points in metabolic pathways and points out that many proteins can be reduced by half without a major effect on total flux. Some enzymes, however, have a higher FCC than others and these are often enzymes with regulatory properties.

These principles are extended to the level of the whole plant in part II. In Chapter 4, Stitt and Schulze continue discussion of flux control studies based on work with mutants and transgenics, as well as a comparison among different life forms, to determine sites at which whole plant growth is regulated. The major questions they address include: 1) what determines whether increased assimilation of C or N actually leads to in-creased growth or just storage; 2) what determines where growth occurs; 3) when storage occurs is it competitive with growth or is it a surplus which is not needed or cannot be currently used for growth. Mechanisms of long-distance communication and integration through-out the plant forms a common theme in this section of the book. In Chapter 5, E. Beck discusses the role of cytokinins as a potent factor influencing the distribution of biomass within the plant in relation to soil nitrogen availability. Futile cycles forms the topic of Chapter 6 (E. Komor). The internal circulation of sucrose and solutes between phloem and xylem depends on the luxury supply of energy and resources and thus their "futile" movements may provide a means by which the energy status of the plant can be constantly assessed and employed in a regulatory capacity. At the whole-plant level, water presents a unique challenge in terms of regulation because daily flux rates of water through a leaf may be equivalent to several times its fresh weight, yet a water deficit of only a small fraction of this same fresh weight may result in severe metabolic consequences. In chapter 7, E.-D. Schulze discusses regulation of plant transpiration in terms of interactions between feed-forward, feedback and futile cycles. Stabilization of plant water relations involves interactions between feed-back and sensing mechanisms, feedforward—in terms of communication between root and shoot, and internal (xylem/phloem) circulation—as an integrating mechanism. At a smaller scale, water relations are controlled by active processes and structural compartmentation. In Chapter 8, E. Steudle examines the regulation of water status at the levels of cells, tissues, and organs. Interactions between water and solute transport play a major role in determining the water status within plant tissues and permit the active regulation of water and movement. Within this context the relationship between solute/ water transport and both growth and water uptake by roots is examined. The chapter also provides a thorough and readable overview of cellular water relations and coupled solute/water movement.

The volume now moves outside of the level of individual organisms and in doing so exchanges the term "regulation" (which occurs up to the level of organisms because they are deterministic systems which contain intrinsic goals such as survival and reproduction) for the more general one of "control" to refer to interactions that contribute to system stabilization. Part III focuses on the soil–organism interface. Chapter 9 (W. Zech and I. Kōgel-Knabner) focuses on organic matter transformations that occur in soils (litter decomposition and humification), while Chapter 10 (R. Horn) examines the effects of aggregate formation due primarily to shrink-age and swelling of soils on transport processes within the rhizosphere. At the level of populations and ecosystems (Part IV), the control of biomass transfer and transformation in Cardueae food webs (Chapter 11; H. Zwiilfer), the effect of resource availability on fluxes within and through ecosystems (Chapter 12; E.-D. Schulze and H. Zwdlfer), and adjustment of gene flow at the population, species and ecosystem level (U. Jensen and H Zwdlfer) all illustrate how instability at a smaller scale can contribute to stability at a larger one. Thus, principles of system integration and control illustrated in the earlier chapters reappear in perhaps a looser, but still important, form in systems operating at larger scales and longer time steps.

Flux Control in Biological Systems is a thought-provoking and rich book. If the rather hefty initial purchase price is viewed not with reference to the number of pages but by the hours of reading and thinking needed to assimilate this work, it may well be judged a bargain. Fluxes are at least as important as pool sizes. Regulation of these flows of energy and matter lie at the heart of biological processes from metabolic pathways to ecosystems.—N. Michele Holbrook, Stanford University, Stanford, CA

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Shikimic Acid: Metabolism and Metabolites Edwin Haslam, 1993. ISBN 0-47-1939994 (cloth US$120.00) John Wiley & Sons, 605 3rd Ave., New York NY 10158—There are probably only a handful of compounds that have been as directly or indirectly important as shikimic acid in studies of defensive chemistry of plants, plant systematics, synthesis of bioactive compounds, and in a host of other areas of plant and microbial biochemistry. Shikimic acid is the organic acid that is an important intermediate in the synthesis of compounds that are part of both primary metabolism (e.g. electron transport quinones, aromatic amino acids, "essential" plant phenolics like lignin pre-cursors) and secondary metabolism (e.g., most plant phenols, certain alkaloids, and many compounds linked to plant defense against pathogens and pests). In microbes, shikimic acid also plays an equally impressive role in the synthesis of primary as well as a vast array of secondary metabolites that are important as antibiotics, toxins, or compounds thought to be involved in the ecology of the producing microbe. Thus, for anyone interested in plant or microbial biochemistry, under-standing the roles played by shikimic acid and its derived compounds is nearly essential.

This book provides a solid and very readable account of chemistry and biochemistry of shikimic acid and its many metabolites. Throughout the text, the Dr. Haslam, who is a well-respected researcher in this area, has also interjected a little history behind some of the topics that he discusses. This adds greatly to placing many of the topics discussed into historical as well as scientific perspective.

After a well-written, tone-setting introductory chap-ter, the author spends one full chapter discussing the chemistry of shikimate and the other metabolites of the shikimic acid pathway. The chapter provides a wealth of information on chemical synthesis and properties of the pathway intermediates. In addition, there is a assessment of the current status of the synthesis and organic chemistry of these compounds. The chapter does require some fundamental understanding of organic chemical nomenclature to fully appreciate what is written, but this can be easily obtained from a standard organic chemistry text.

The next chapter then proceeds to describe and discuss in some detail the enzymology and regulation of the shikimate pathway. It contains a good description of what is known about the enzymes and the mechanisms of biosynthesis. The last two chapters may be of most general interest. The first of these deals with the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids and other shikimatederived primary metabolites such as simple phenylpropanoids, photosynthetic quinones, microbial siderophores, etc. Despite the variety of primary metabolites derived from shikimate, the chapter covers the material in a cohesive and comprehensive manner.

The very last chapter of text covers the vast number of classes of microbial and plant secondary compounds that are derived (at least in part) from shikimic acid or its primary metabolites. Although perhaps not as detailed as the previous chapters, in this one the author has done an excellent job of covering a vast amount of information in a thorough, very interesting manner. As a final section, Dr. Haslam provides a list of 36 papers that were published after he had prepared the last draft of the book. This section alone helps to give a sense of the level of interest and activity in this area of plant and microbial biochemistry.

Overall, I found this book to provide an excellent description of a very interesting and complex part of plant and microbial biochemistry. The writing style is very clear and the book has excellent illustrations of chemical structures as well as chemical and enzymatic reaction mechanisms. Dr Haslam has accomplished a great deal in producing a book that can serve both as a thorough overview of the subject of shikimic acid biochemistry and organic chemistry as well as a useful reference source that contains hundreds of references.

In the preface, Dr. Haslam states the book "is entirely new and seeks to reflect many of the changes that have occurred in the past twenty years" since his previous text was published. Looking back over the older book, it is clear that he has accomplished this goal. He also indicates states that the pathway is a "gold mine of unusual information." I found that his use of the term "gold mine" can easily and accurately describe the entire book. I can highly recommend this book to anyone who is interested in shikimic acid, or in the primary or secondary biochemical processes of plants or microbes.—Ray Hammerschmidt, Michigan State University, East Lansing

Moss Protonema Differentiation Satish C. Bhatla, 1994. ISBN 0-471-94438-6 (cloth US$79.95) John Wiley & Sons, 605 3rd Ave., New York, NY 10158-Ah, those "lower" plants! Interest in bryophytes trickles throughout the history of Botany. The last ten years have seen a number of multiauthor books, and at least one that eschews the multiauthor approach, "Biology of Bryophytes" by Chopra and Kumar. While the multi author books all have fine points, the consistent viewpoint and encyclopedic coverage of Chopra and Kumar has been of much use to me as I begin using moss as an experimental system.

Now Satish Bhatla, an editor of the CRC volume on bryophytes, offers what is essentially a book-length monograph. What Chopra and Kumar spend a mere 14 pages on now gets full treatment. Given the interest in mosses now beginning to percolate through a community of molecular biologists both intrigued by presentations at major meetings like the UCLA Keystone Symposia and worried about their ability to find a novel phenotype in Arahidopsis to characterize, the appearance of Moss Protonema Differentiation could hardly be more timely.

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Unlike the Chopra and Kumar, where the paper, the printing and the binding all leave much to be desired, this new monograph by Bhatla has a pleasant, substantial binding and is printed on glossy white paper. Unfortunately, the reproduction of the photographs is usually not very good. The text itself is fully justified, suggesting the involvement of some kind of word-processor, but appears as if it were a typescript, using a Courier-looking typeface for the text and switching to a Helvetica-look alike for the summary of each chapter. Even modest newsletters like the PSB use proportional typefaces that both save space and are easy to read. When it's an $80 book and the 300 pages works out to 27 cents a page, I think the publisher should be embarrassed.

Since many of you may be making one copy of parts of this work for your personal use, a perfectly legal activity according to recent Supreme Court interpretations of the copyright laws, the more important issue is the content of this new monograph on moss. It is close to encyclopedic. It covers old work; it covers much new work from Bhatla's lab and others. It has 40 pages of references, and that alone makes the book worth looking at. As a beginner in working with moss, I learned many interesting and curious facts about moss protonema, the various things it can do and the kind of data that have already been accumulated.

But, this book must be read carefully and critically, as much of it is an uncritical recounting of what has been reported or concluded by others. Bhatla declined the challenge to expertly assess the quality of the data in the literature, experimental designs, or whether results seem applicable to all mosses or only represent a peculiarity of some mosses. As one simple example, the key reference showing the involvement of light in the formation of buds from moss protonema is the 1959 Mitra, Allsopp and Wareing paper in

PHYTOMoRPnoLOGY. Bhatla lists this fact, of course, but I still wonder whether anyone besides me worries about the extensive growth reported for protonema given green light and no exogenous carbon source, about the absence of any buds from the blue light treatments, even though phytochrome absorbs at those blue wave-lengths, about the lack of a no-light control, or about the fact that the experimental design started with chloronema, and the results could just as easily be interpreted as regulation of chloronemal/

cauloncmal switching by light quality (or complicated by such an involvement).

This kind of uncritical listing of published findings leads at times to incongruous juxtapositions or to remarkable feats of having it both ways. For example, in an early chapter, Bhatla reviews the two basic patterns of bud formation in a moss colony: the Funaria type, where buds are restricted to certain locations on caulonemal filaments, and the Polytrichum type, where they are not, and further remarks that Physcomitrella pat-ens is one of the mosses that will form buds on chloronemal filaments. At many later points, Bhatla then discusses the excellent work making and characterizing mutants in Physcomitrella by Cove, Ashton and coworkers, and explains the relative bud forming ability of these mutants as if it were a simple result of mutant isolates being unable to change from chloronema to caulonema. Of course, this is not a satisfying explanation if chloronemal filaments of wild-type

Physcomitrella will make buds.

The later chapters on various biochemical changes that correlate with or appear to regulate protonemal growth and differentiation bring together a large literature, with an almost intimidating amount of detail. That detail, with the references to the original papers, will be helpful to those planning to use molecular methods to help dissect that mass of correlations into a series of cause-and-effect steps. I do think that those with a severe addiction to reductionist philosophy would do well to read these chapters closely; Bhatla shrewdly speculates that the controls on differentiation in this seemingly simple system reside not in single factors or in on-off switches, but in the ratios of "synergistic and antagonistic actions" and in the subtle shifting of inherent sensitivity of cells to these factors. These "lower" plants have been around for a long time, perfecting their devious ways. Those who think bryophytes are "simple" can look forward to learning much more than they might expect.—Michael Christianson, University of Kansas, Lawrence

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Phyllotaxis: A Systemic Study in Plant Morphogenesis Roger V. Jean. 1994. ISBN 0-512-40482-7, 386 pp (cloth US$74.95) Cambridge University Press, 40 W 20th St., New York, NY 10011-421 1—The presence of patterns in biological structure is a particularly fascinating subject, possibly because the presence of repeating patterns in living systems is so striking. Phyllotaxis focuses the study of biological patterns upon plants and narrows the search for the causes of the development of such structures to a clearly defined set of phenomena.

In Phyllotaxis, Jean states his intention to provide a "unified concept of phyllotaxis, incorporating its phyletic, ontogenetic, and functional aspects." The main text is organized into three parts. The first part describes the basis for description and recognition of phyllotactic patterns. This is especially well done, with a careful description of the mathematical basis needed to describe phyllotactic patterns and a large number of examples. I particularly liked the problems at the ends of the first four chapters, which permit the reader to make certain that the mathematical methods are understood. The second part of the book de-scribes generation of phyl-

lotactic patterns from a modeling viewpoint. Jean begins this section with a minimum entropy model and then compares the predictions of this model with observations. I found this section of the book more difficult to read, perhaps because of the encyclopedic use of examples. The last of the three parts of the main text considers the "origin of phyllotactic patterns." I was pleased to see the spiral patterns of phyllotaxis placed in the context of more general problems like protein structure and crystallography. But, these topics could have been developed somewhat more fully. The treatment is a bit sketchy and one figure misleadingly described as that of a section from an electron-density map of myoglobin is actually just the skeleton of the porphyrin group associated with the myoglobin protein and does not show the electron density contours or any of the protein structure implied in the text. The book ends with almost 100 pages of appendices which contain answers to problems, a glossary of biomathematical terms, review questions, appendices on special topics, and an extensive bibliography.

Overall, Phyllotaxis is an important book for the mathematical biologist or anyone whose research interests involve geometrical aspects of plant structure. It is an excellent primer for description and methods of generation of phyllotactic patterns. Specialists will want to buy the book; non-specialists may want to have a look at it before making the purchase.—Thomas J. Herbert, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL

Remarkable Agaves and Cacti Park S. Nobel. 1994. ISBN 0-19-508414-4 (cloth, $39.95); ISBN 0-19-508415-2 (paper, $19.95). Oxford University Press, Inc., 200 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016—This is the third book on agaves and/or cacti authored or co-authored by Dr. Park Nobel, a world authority on the ecophysiology, productivity, and other aspects of the biology of these two angiosperm plant families. The other two books are: The Cactus Primer by A. C. Gibson and P. S. Nobel. 1986. Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138; and Environmental Biology of Agaves and Cacti by P. S. Nobel. 1988. Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th Street, New York, NY 10022. The same topics covered in the Primer and Environmental Biology are discussed in Remarkable Agaves and Cacti, but in less detail.

The book consists of eight chapters in which Nobel examines the economic botany, ecophysiology, and productivity of agaves and cacti. In the Introduction (chap-ter 1), the author briefly reviews classification (there are about 136 species of Agave and 1600 species of cacti.), geographical distribution (native to New World only, except some species of the cactus genus Rhipsalis), sexual and vegetative reproduction, morphology/anatomy, and water conservation via stomata being open during night and closed during day.

A fairly in-depth account of economic botany of agaves is given in chapter 2 and of cacti in chapter 3. I was enlightened on the considerable use humans make (and have made for at least 9,000 years) of these two plant groups. Agaves are a source of food (stems, leaves, inflorescences), fiber, and beverages (e.g., tequila), and cacti are a source of food (fruits, flowers, and cladodes), forage, and fodder. Members of both groups are important in ornamental horticulture. Several other uses are discussed. According to Nobel, in 1992 (1) 1.2 million people worldwide depended on agaves or cacti for their primary source of income; (2) Mexico grew 52,000 ha of Opuntia f cus-indica for fruit (cactus "pears" or prickly "pears"), and Brazil 300,000 ha for fodder; and (3) the U.S. imported more than 10,000 tons of prickly pears and about 4 million liters of tequila from Mexico. Agave fourcrydes is the main commercial fiber crop in Mexico and the Caribbean Islands and the dominant crop in Yucatan; in several other countries A. sisalana is the main agave grown for fiber. The most widely grown cactus is O. ficus-indica. On the negative side, species of Opuntia introduced into Australia and South Africa became pests, and much effort and money have been expended to bring them under control.

Environmental interactions of roots and shoots, aided by explanations of the relevant aspects of plant anatomy, morphology, and biochemistry of agaves and cacti, are discussed in chapters 4 to 6. The main topics covered are soil-plant-atmosphere water relations, mineral nutrition, temperature relations, and CO2 uptake (i.e., photosynthesis). Morphological (e.g., thick cuticle, low surface/volume ratio of shoots) and physiological

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(e.g., CAM, ability of cells to withstand dehydration) adaptations of agaves and cacti to their often harsh environments are clearly explained. Agaves and cacti are shallowly-rooted, and their root to shoot ratios are very low compared to those of other plant life forms (e.g., 0.03 to 0.15 in agaves versus 0.6 to 1.6 in Chihuahuan desert shrubs). They have a high water use efficiency, are drought tolerant, have about the same mineral content and requirements as other glycophytes, and are not salt tolerant. As a group, they can survive high (60–65°C for 1 hr; O. ficus-indica 69°C for 1 hr) and low (to -40°C for O. fragilis in northern Alberta) temperatures. However, seedlings of agaves and cacti are vulnerable to high temperatures that occur at and near the soil surface in hot deserts in summer, and thus many species require "nurse" plants for establishment from seed when in their native habitats.

All agaves and most cacti use the CAM pathway to fix atmospheric CO2; leafy species of Pereskia and a few other genera of the Cactaceae use the C3 pathway. I was surprised to learn that photosynthetic rates of some agaves and cacti can be quite high, e.g., 34 µmoles m-2 s-1 in Agave mapisaga and 24 µmoles m-2 s-1 in Opuntia ficus-indica, compared to 40 and 50 µmoles m-2 s-1, respectively, in the most productive C3 and C4 crops.

Chapter 7 is on productivity in agaves and cacti. Although CAM plants usually are thought of as slow-growing, certain agaves and cacti are fast-growing and highly productive. In fact, the annual productivity (above-ground dry-weight basis) of the highest-producing Agave and Opuntia species (n = 4, mean = 44 tons ha-1 yr-1) is higher than that of the highest-producing C3 crops (n = 4, mean = 36 tons ha-d yr-1) and trees (n = 4, mean = 40 tons ha-1 yr-1), and nearly as high as the highest-producing C4 crop species (n = 4, mean = 52 tons ha-d yr-1).

In the final chapter (8), entitled "The Future," Nobel stresses the need for conservation of agaves and cacti and urges expansion of the market for their products. Concerning the effects of rising atmospheric [CO2], which is predicted to cause the midwestern U.S. to become drier, he states, "The greater CO2 fixation per unit of water transpired [of agaves and cacti compared to most crop plants] might cause the present-day 'bread-basket' of the midwestern states to become the 'prickly pear basket' of the future." Nobel predicts a bright future for agaves and cacti in terms of human use, and he thinks that breeding, selection, and biotechnological manipulations can be used to increase their productivity and to improve resistance to insects and diseases.

In the preface, the author states that the book was written for a wide audience, ranging from persons interested in the cultural aspects of agaves and cacti to those interested in the physiology of these remarkable plants. To understand the whole story told in Remarkable Agaves and Cacti, however, the reader will need consider-able knowledge of plant biology, including plant physiology.

The chapters, or parts thereof, dealing with economic botany are well illustrated with medium-quality black and white and good quality colored photographs, while those on ecophysiology contain a good number of helpful, easy-to-interpret tables, graphs, and diagrams. References are cited at the end of each chapter. The writing is clear, and I found no typographical errors. The book is reasonably priced. I recommend Remarkable Agaves and Cacti to persons who want an overview of the economic botany, ecophysiology, and productivity of agaves and cacti, but who already know some plant biology.—Jerry M. Baskin, University of Kentucky

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Plant Evolution and the Origin of Crop Species J. F. Hancock. 1992. ISBN 0-13-678590-5 (cloth, no price given), 305 pp. Prentice Hall, Engle-wood Cliffs NJ 07632—This is a class text for upper division crop evolution courses which until now have

not really had an "all the information   between

two covers" textbook. Admitted-   1 y ,
this is a small market and courses have depended on C.H. Hieser's Seed to Civilization (1990), which targeted the lower division botany

course as an adjunct text,

J. R. Harlan's Crops and

Man (1992), which is a rich idea book more appropriate

for a graduate seminar, or N. E. Simmonds' Crop Evolution (1976), which is a very authoritative source for crop origins and evolution but does not include the advances of the last twenty years. Until

now, courses in crop evolution and origin under domestication have had to cobble together a reading list. This textbook is a welcome addition but I found the coverage lacking.

The textbook is divided into three parts: micro-evolutionary processes in plants, macro-evolutionary events in plants and the origin of humans, and four chapters (cereals; protein plants; starch staples and sugars; and lastly, fruits, vegetables, oils, and fibers) covering the origins and evolution of 35 individual crops or crop complexes. Added at the end is a short and after-thought chapter on plant genetic resources and their preservation.

The first five chapters are the standard litany on the genetics and evolutionary mechanisms of plant evolution at the taxon level. This is quite useful for teaching and student mastery of evolutionary processes but these chapters don't draw out the unique evolution of crops under human selection, both conscious and unintentional. After extensive discussion of microevolution under natural selection, there is almost no coverage of artificial selection (or what Charles Darwin called "telescoped" evolution), evolution under domestication (as discussed by F. Schwanitz in The Origin of Cultivated Plants [19661) or ecological population dynamics of crops (D. Rindos, The Origin of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective [19841). The middle chapter deals with the origin of land plants and the rise of the angiosperms and finally the tracing of human origins. These are unique aspects of the text but the pivotal connection between the seed as a high density food package and human nutrition is completely missed (O. Ames, Economic Annuals and Human Culture [1939]). The last section that deals with individual crops is too sketchy and short to develop an understanding of the genetic diversity and evolutionary pathways that developed the crop as we know it today. The focus on the 35 crops covered is more to have an

"answer" as to the origin of each, and the summary is often developed as a synthesis or compromise of conflicting ideas. Nowhere is this better illustrated than with maize, where on page 144: " the only completely new crop type to appear after the advent of agriculture was Zea mays which has an ear and tassel arrangement unique from its progenitors," and page 191 "maize represents an excellent example of speciation via punctuated equilibria where human beings played an important role in ... the shift from teosinte to maize." Not all crops have aunifred theory of origin, and students should be exposed to the full diversity of conflicting evidence that exists. The fact that the origin of many crops is

still not unequivocally known is part of the mystery and beauty of evolution under domestication. Humans had a hand in the origin of maize, but this was pre-historical and remains to be fully elucidated. In all fairness, there are extensive listings of references to guide the students back to the primary literature. But, unfortunately, I found places where authors

were cited with misspelled names, both in the text and the chapter ending references. The textbook does serve a useful function and I hope a second edition will be much improved.--Garrison Wilkes, University of Massachusetts, Boston

The Chromosome J. S. Heslop-Harrison and R. B. Flavell, eds. ix + 281 pp; 1993, bios Scientific Publishers/Henry King Ltd. (Dorset Press, Dorchester, UK)—This excellent little book contains 18 review articles selected from presentations made at the Tenth John Innes Symposium, held in September of 1992. Most of the articles emphasize structural and organizational aspects of prokaryotic and/or nuclear gcnomcs, but many also discuss functional aspects such as DNA replication, site-specific recombination, DNA methylation, position-effect variegation and pa-rental imprinting. Many of the reviews are of a fundamental nature, their information being generally applicable to a wide variety of biological systems, while some of the other reviews discuss topics unique or directed toward one kingdom or sub-group (e.g., prokaryotes vs, cukaryotes, plants vs. animals; mammals, fungi, Drosophila, etc.). Overall, the chapters present state-of-the-science information, in the context of providing a consensus or model for the specific topic being reviewed. The chapters on the E. coli genome and yeast chromosome III sequencing projects, and the plant genome mapping programs are obviously dated. However, they still provide insight into the rationale and efforts behind these achievements; as well as, outlining interesting findings to date [e.g., chi site distribution and grey holes in E. coli, and the large number of new (functional?) open reading frames identified in yeast].

Collectively, the papers discuss findings from the fields of molecular biology, genetics and cytogenetics.

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Each is organized in such a way as to provide the reader with a quick overview of the history of the topic, which precedes the discussion of recent, relevant findings. The chapters are grouped more or less by the "complexity" of the genomic system being discussed. For the most part, each chapter is well written and includes appropriate and informative tables and illustrations (see below). The editing, including consistency in format, presentation and indexing, is top-notch. The literature cited for each chapter is sufficient, but some bibliographies are noticeably more extensive than others.

In the Fall of 1994, I used this book as a secondary reference in a course on plant molecular biology I teach to graduate students (and the occasional daring upper-level undergraduate). I felt it would be useful as a supplement to the assigned journal readings. Apparently many of the students did too, as a number of them commented on how certain chapters had helped pull together a number of points into a unified under-standing of a particular concept addressed in class. This book also served as a convenient source for topics I did not have time to cover in any detail (e.g., origins of DNA replication, telomeres and telomerases).

I do have a few minor criticisms. First, although a number of chapters use high quality color prints to illustrate their points, the prints have all been collected into one region of the book, making it a little annoying to find them when referred to in a particular chap-ter (and then some of the legends are physically separated from the figures they describe!). Another point is that, while this book is not entitled The Plant Chromosome, some of the authors have failed to address or site examples from the plant world in their reviews. To be fair, such omissions will not mislead the reader, its just nice to see "plant" examples now and then in the illustration or emphasis of a concept.

I was very satisfied with this book as a concise collection of short review articles that present molecular, genetic and cytogenetic studies of the genome in the context of the technology used to reveal this information—thus providing a framework for a better understanding of the biology of The Chromosome.—Vance Baird, Clemson University

Guidelines for Institutional Policies and Planning in Natural History Collections

The Association of Systematics Collections (ASC) announces the publication of Guidelines for Institutional Policies and Planning in Natural History Collections. This book reviews current practice and suggests important elements to include in policy documents for institutions that house biological, anthropological, and geological collections. Topics range from accessions to orphaned collections. Emphasis is given to topics that previously have not been the focus of in-depth policy discussions in the natural history community, including documentation, archives, ethics, health and safety, and hazardous wastes. In addition, there are guidelines for writing mission statements and developing a strategic plan. There is abibliography for each chapter topic. References are provided to related articles that have been published by ASC. There are also references to model policy statements produced by ASC member institutions. In freestanding museums, university institutions and governmental agencies, Guidelines for Institutional Policies and Planning in Natural History Collections will serve as a standard reference for all museum professionals, including administrators, curators, collection managers and users of biological, geological and archeological collections. (ISBN #0-942924-17-7, 1994, 124 pages, $22.00. Prepay to ASC, 73011th St., NW, 2nd Floor, Washington DC 20001-4521. Add $7.00 for overseas airmail service. For more information call 202%347-2850.)

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Books Received

If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February, 15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). Send E-MAIL, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in

this list, because they go quickly!--Ed.

* = book in review or declined for review ** = book reviewed in this issue Ecological

*Australian Vegetation - 2nd ed. Groves, R.H., ed 1994 ISBN 0-521-41420-2 (cb), 562 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

Graced by Pines: The Ponderosa Pine in the American West Murphy, A. 1994 ISBN 0-87842-307-9 (pb US$10.00), 119 pp. Mountain Press, 1301 S 3rd St West, Missoula MT 59801

Plant Communities of New Jersey: A Study of Landscape Diversity Collins, B.R. & K.H. Anderson 1994 ISBN 0-8135-2070-3 (cb US$45.00); 0-8135-2071-7 (pb US$17.00), 287 pp. Rutgers University Press, 109 Church St., New Brunswick NJ 08901

Regulation of Atmospheric CO2 and 02 by Photosynthetic Carbon Metabolism Tolbert, N.E. & J. Preiss, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-19-507932-9 (cb US$75.00), 272 pp. Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016

Economic Botany

*Plant Nutrient Disorders 4: Pastures and Field Crops Weir, R.G. & G.C. Cresswell 1994 ISBN 0-909605-92-0 (pb), 126 pp. B utterworths, 80Montvale Ave., Stoneham MA 05180

Genetics

Genetic Engineering of Plant Secondary Metabolism Ellis, S.E., G.W. Kuroki & H.A. Stafford, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-306-44804-1 (cb US$89.50), 368 pp. Plenum Press, 233 Spring St., New York NY 10013

Historical

One Hundred and One Botanists Isely, D. 1994 ISBN 0-8138-2498-2 (cb US$32.95), 351 pp. Iowa State University Press, 2121 S State Ave., Ames IA 50014-8300

Mycological

*Myxomycetes: A Handbook of Slime Molds Stephenson, S.L. & H. Stempen 1994 ISBN 0-88192-277-3 (cb US$34.95), 183 pp. Timber Press, 133 SW - 2nd Ave., Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527

*The Boletes of North America: A Compendium Both, E.E. 1994 ISBN 0-944032-54-0(pb), 436 pp. Buffalo Museum of Science, 1020 Humboldt Park-way, Buffalo NY 14211

Paleobotanical

*Evolution and Extinction Chaloner, W.G. & A. Hallam 1994 ISBN 0-521-40646-3 (pb), 488 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

History of the Australian Vegetation - Cretaceous to Present Hill, R.S., ed 1994 ISBN 0-521-40197-6 (cb US$125.00), 433 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

The Enigma of Angiosperm Origins Hughes, N.F. 1994 ISBN 0-521-41145-9 (cb), 303 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

Phycological

*Flora of New Zealand: Desmids Croasdale, H, E.A. Flint & M.M. Racine, eds 1994 ISBN 0-477-01642-1 (cb NZ$60.00), 218 pp. Manaaki Whenua Press, P.O. Box 40, Gerald St., Lincoln NZ

Seaweed Ecology and Physiology Lobban, C.S. & P.J. Harrison 1994 ISBN 0-521-40334-0 (cb US$69.95), 366 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

Physiological

*Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems - 2nd ed. Kirk, J.T.O. 1994 ISBN 0-521-45353-4 (cb US$84.95; 0-521-45966-4 pb US$34.95), 509 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

*Photosynthesis - 5th ed. Hall, D.O. & K.K. Rao eds. 1994 USBN 0-521-43036-4 (cb US$39.95; pb US$14.95), 211 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

A Whole Plant Perspective on Carbon-Nitrogen Interactions Roy, J. & E. Gamier eds. 1994 ISBN 90-5103-086-X (cb DFL 130.00; US$ $70.00), 313 pp. SPB Academic Publishing bv, P.O. Box 97747, 2509 GC The Hague/The Netherlands

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Tissue Culture Techniques: An Introduction Martin, B.M. 1994 ISBNO-8176-3718-4 (cloth US$85.00), ISBN 0-8176-3643-9 (pb US$39.00), 247 pp. BirkhduserBoston, P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386

Structural/Developmental

Plant Allometry: The Scaling of Form and Process Niklas, Carl J. 1994 ISBN 0-226-58081-4 (pb US$ 60.00), 395 pp. University of Chicago Press, 5801 S Ellis Ave., Chicago IL 60637

Systematics

*A Field Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of the Southern Appalachians Swanson, R.E. 1994 ISBN 0-8018-4556-4 (pb US$18.95; cb US$55.00), 399 pp. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2715 N Charles St., Baltimore MD 21218-4319

*Flora Neotropica - Monograph 63: Cyphomandra (Solanaceae) Bohs, L. 1994 ISBN 0-89327-385-6 (paper US$24.50), 175 pp. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx NY 10458-5126

*Flora Neotropica - Monograph 64: The Alismataceae Haynes, R.R. & B. Holm-Nielsen 1994 ISBN 0-89327-387-2 (pb US$17.50), 112 pp. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx NY 10458-5126

*Flora of China: Verbenaceae—Solanaceae Zheng-yi, W. & P.H. Raven, eds. 1994 ISBN 7-03-004339-1/Q.5343 (cb US$75.00), 378 pp. Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis MO 63166-0299

*Keys to the Flora of Arkansas Smith, E.B. 1994 ISBN 1-55728-312-5 (pb US$30.00), 363 pp. University of Arkansas Press, 201 Ozark, Fayetteville AR 72701

Designs for a Global Plant Species Information System Bisby, F.A., G.F Russell & R.J. Pankhurst, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-19-857760-5 (cb US$90.00), 350 pp. Oxford University Press, 2001 Evans Rd., Cary NC 27513

Diversity and Evolutionary Biology of Tropical

Flowers Endress, P.K. 1994 ISBN 0-521-42088-1

(pb), 511 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W 20th

St., New York NY 10011-4211

Teaching

A Field Guide to Nearby Nature: Fields & Woods

of the Midwest & East Coast Kochanoff, P. 1994

ISBN 0-87842-299-4 (pb (US $14.00),143 pp. Moun-

tain Press, 1301 S 3rd St West, Missoula MT 59801


143

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