PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Volume 24, Number 2, June, 1978
RICHARD M. KLEIN, Editor, Department of Botany, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401
Jerry D. Davis - University of Wisconsin, La Crosse
Anitra Thorhaug - Florida International University, Key Biscayne
Richard P. Wunderlin - University of South Florida, Tampa
Change of Address. Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America. Inc., Dr. Barbara D. Webster, Department of Agronomy & Range Science. University of California, Davis. CA 95616.
Subscriptions for libraries and for persons not members of the Society can be obtained for 510.00 per year. Orders plus checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." should be sent directly to the Treasurer of the Society.
Manuscripts for the Plant Science Bulletin should be submitted to the editor. The Bulletin welcomes announcements, notes, notices and items of general interest to members of the Botanical Society and to the botanical community at large. No charge for inclusion of notices is made. Material submitted must be typed, double-spaced and in duplicate. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.
Microfilms of the Plant Science Bulletin are available from University Microfilms, 300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
The Plant Science Bulletin is published Quarterly at the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 0540 I. Second class postage paid at Burlington, VT.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. An 18th Century Specimen from
Of Botanical Things Past. Genesis--Part II
Officers of the Society
Officers of Sections
Committees of the Society
Meetings, Conferences, Courses
Second International Mycological Congress at the University
of South Florida
Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. An 18th Century Specimen from Virginia
David H. Rembert, Jr.
Department of Biology, University of South Carolina
Columbia, South Carolina 29208
The Central and South American papilionaceous species Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. does not naturally occur in the Carolinas or Virginia. However, this species--the "Guatimala indigo of commerce"--was an important introduced crop plant in the 18th century in North American Colonies. It is therefore important to find an actual specimen of this species collected from the British Colonies in North America during this period of history.
This specimen was discovered in the general col1ection at the Herbarium, Department of Botany, British Museum of Natural History in London which Mr. John Lewis, P.S.O., generously made available for perusal in October, 1976. The herbarium sheet was without label; however, on the reverse side the annotation "American Septentrionalis: Virginia. Clayton" occurred. John Clayton (1694- 1773), the American botanist, spent his adult life in Virginia after completing his education in England (Berkeley and Berkeley, 1963). Clayton collected plants in Virginia and forwarded these collections to Peter Collinson in England (and on at least one occasion to Mark Catesby), who, in turn, sent them to the Dutch botanist John Frederick Gronovius (1690-1762). The collections of Clayton began arriving in Europe in 1735 and by 1739 Gronovius had published Flora Virginica (Britten, 1898). Gronovius was aided by Linnaeus in identification of the Virginia plants and Linnaeus, impressed with the work of Clayton, described the genus Claytonia to honor the Virginia botanist.
The handwriting on the back of this specimen was verified by the senior staff at the Museum as being that of D. C. Solander. Dr. Solander (a student of Linnaeus) was the 1st curator of Sir Joseph Bank's collection and assistant of the natural history collection at the British Museum in the late 18th century. It was at this time that the Clayton plants became part of the col1ection at the Museum. Previously, the plants in the possession of J. F. Gronovius, were purchased by John, the Earl of Bute, in 1778 (the Earl of Bute was, for all practical purposes, Queen Charlotte's gardener at the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew during the reign of George III). In 1794, Sir Joseph Banks, successor to the Earl of Bute at Kew, acquired the col1ection. Solander, familiar with the collection, identified this specimen as Clayton but did not include it with the "Clayton Collection" because Gronovius had neither annotated it nor included it in his Flora Virginica.
The second edition of Flora Virginica published in 1762 included the "native indigo" or "pseudo-anil." This plant described as having yellow flowers was placed in the genus Sophora fol1owing Linnaeus' 1753 work, Species Plantarum. This native species of "indigo" was removed from Sophora in 1811 and placed into the genus Baptisia by Robert Brown (Ventenat in 1808 had first described Baptisia--see Stern, 1970). The native "indigo" in Virginia was therefore Baptisia and not Indigofera. The rationale for not including this specimen of I. suffruticosa in Flora Virginica is not known, but I would suggest that Clayton had cultivated the "Guatimala indigo" in his garden and the cultivated status was made known to Gronovius and Linnaeus and it is for this reason that it was not included. This species of Indigofera was cultivated along with the native I. caroliniana Mill. as an indigo of commerce in South Carolina in the 18th century. I would further suggest that this is the same reason (cultivated status) that Thomas Walter did not include I. suffruticosa in his Flora Caroliniana in 1788.
Berkeley, Edmund and Dorothy S. Berkeley. 1963. John Clayton, Pioneer of American Botany. University of North Carolina Press. 235 pp.
Britten, James. 1898. Bibliographical Notes XV. Gronovius' Flora Virginica. Journal Bot. pp. 264-267.
Stern, W. T. 1970. Ventenat's, "Decas Generum Nororum" (1808). From "Essays in Biohistory and other contributions." Edited by P. Smit and R. J. Ch. pp. 343-352.
OF BOTANICAL THINGS PAST
Genesis - Part II
Lawrence J. Crockett
Department of Biology, The City College of New York
In 1893, after accepting the idea of a national botanical organization, botanists meeting with the Botanical Club of the A.A.A.S. took quick action. Fol1owing the recommendation of Dr. Charles Reid Barnes, they named a Committee of Ten who were then to name fifteen more, a task that was done with alacrity.
The botanists meeting at Madison, Wisconsin in August, 1894 also created a Committee on Organization and instructed it to prepare a preliminary draft of a constitution to be submitted "on the Monday or Tuesday" immediately preceding the assembly of the A.A.A.S. The Committee on Organization was composed of William Trelease of the Missouri Botanical Garden as chairman with Liberty Hyde Bailey, Cornell University; John Merle Coulter, University of Chicago; and Conway Macmillan, University of Minnesota.
The Committee on Organization was also empowered to write a letter to each of the 25 potential Charter Members asking each to say yea or nay to Charter Membership and informing each of the plans thus far determined. The "1893-Madison-Botanical-Activists" proposed three names for the new national botanical society. They were: (1) American Botanical Society, (2) Botanical Society of America, and (3) Society of American Botanists. The "Botanical-Activists" felt that the selection of the name should be left for the Charter Members to decide; they were actually in favor of name # 1.
Dr. Trelease, writing from St. Louis, on November 1, 1893, addressed the same letter to all 25 potential Charter Members. This letter became Publication #2 of the future Society. He wrote to each to ask if he or she (Mrs. Elizabeth Gertrude Britton) would accept Charter Membership and told them what the botanists in Madison had agreed upon. He made it clear that the committee felt that the aim of the new national society should be the promotion of botanical research. The letter informed its recipients that limits for membership would be rigidly
drawn and that all who were being asked to become Charter Members had been chosen because they were well known for their creditable published work. The botanists at the Madison meetings also felt that however distinguished a botanist may have been, had he recently retired or, for any reason, had not recently published, he should not be a Charter Member. This explains why the list did not include many famous American botanists. A pressure vent was included, however, as the Charter Members were told that they could later propose others for membership within the framework of the rigidly drawn limits.
While the botanists meeting in Madison that summer seemed in agreement about so many things, they were not sure where they stood on the subject of honorary memberships or, for that matter, whether there should even be such a category. They agreed to leave a decision on this subject to the Charter Members.
Early on, it was sensed that some kind of publication might eventually be required, and that the society might, in the future, have to assume the expense of publishing the research of members. Everyone seemed to feel that the society, even without an organ for the publication of their papers, would be worthy of the "best efforts of research" of each of the future members.
To prevent application for membership from "persons who were not really in sympathy with the objects of the society," it was determined that the society should charge an "admission fee." This was set at $25.00. If we recall that this fee was established in 1893, and that a professor at a good institution probably earned about $2,500, the admission fee was, indeed, large. Dues, too, were set at a high figure: $10.00. When you recall that just a very few years ago, and for many long years before that, the dues were the same $10.00, and that in 1893, that sum bought what $80.00 would buy today, one comes to understand that those 19th Century botanists demonstrated a willingness to sacrifice for the society. And keep in mind that for many years the society had no journal for the publication of the members' research, though they were expected to publish in order to remain a member.
Those at Madison thought it best that only one meeting should be held each year to be "in close association with the annual meetings of the A.A.A.S., either preceding it or immediately thereafter to avoid a conflict."
Most letters of request are not very successful, but Dr. Trelease's letter was a success and 21 of the 25 asked to be Charter Members accepted. Those who wrote in the affirmative were listed in the first article in this series (Plant Science Bulletin 23: 28-29, 1977). The national botanical society having been conceived in Madison, Wisconsin, gestated for 12 months and came vigorously into the world in August, 1894. Conceived in Madison, Wisconsin, we were born in Brooklyn, New York.
OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY
President, William A. Jensen (1978)
Vice President, C. Ritchie Bell (1978)
Secretary, Patricia K. Holmgren (1979)
Treasurer, Barbara D. Webster (1981)
Program Director, Shirley C. Tucker (1978)
Editorial Committee, American Journal of Botany, Donald R. Kaplan (1978), William L. Culberson (1979), A. Carl Leopold (1980)
Editor, American Journal of Botany, Ernest M. Gifford (1979)
Editor, Plant Science Bulletin, Richard M. Klein (1980)
Business Manager, American Journal of Botany, Richard A. Popham (1978)
Members of the Council
Warren H. Wagner, Jr.
Barbara F. Palser
Peter H. Raven
OFFICERS OF SECTIONS
Chairperson: Judith G. Croxdale (1980)
Vice Chairperson: Peter B. Kaufman (1978)
Secretary: Barbara D. Webster (1978)
AJB Representative: Jerome P. Miksche
Chairperson: James A. Quinn (1978)
Vice Chairperson: Brian F. Chabot (1978)
Secretary: Carol C. Baskin (1979)
AJB Representative: Patricia A. Werner (1979)
Chairperson: Joseph Ewan (1978)
Vice Chairperson: Emanuel D. Rudolph (1978)
Sec-Treasurer: Ronald L. Stuckey (1979)
AJB Representative: Emanuel D. Rudolph (1978)
Chairperson: Peter R. Day (1978)
Vice Chairperson: Henry Aldrich (1978)
Secretary: Annette Hervey (1978)
Representative to Council: O. R. Collins (1978)
AJB Representative: Peter R. Day (1978)
Chairperson: Stephen E. Scheckler (1978)
Sec-Treasurer: Charles N. Miller, Jr. (1980)
AJB Representative: David L. Di1cher (1979)
Chairperson: James R. Rosowski (1979)
Vice Chairperson: Russell L. Chapman (1980)
AJB Representative: Larry R. Hoffman (1979)
Chairperson: Anitra Thorhaug (1980)
Vice Chairperson: John L. Gallagher (1980)
AJB Representative: Joseph Arditti (1980)
Chairperson: Nikolaus H. Fischer (1978)
Chairperson-elect: Dale Smith
Secretary: David Seigler (1978)
Treasurer: Mark W. Bierner (1979)
AJB Representative: Jean Langenheim (1978)
Chairperson: Augustus E. DeMaggio (1978)
Sec-Treasurer: James D. Caponetti (1980)
AJB Representative: Dean P. Whittier (1978)
Chairperson: Harry T. Horner, Jr. (1978)
Vice Chairperson: James L. Seago (1978)
Sec-Treasurer: Rudolf Schmid (1980)
AJB Representative: Nels R. Lersten (1980)
Chairperson: Donald Huffman (1978)
Vice Chairperson: Charles Curtis (1978)
Secretary: Leroy G. Kavaljian (1978)
AJB Representative: S. N. Postlethwait (1980)
Chairperson: Clarence W. Gehris (1978)
Sec-Treasurer: H. David Hammond (1978)
Chairperson: Kenton Chambers (1978)
Vice Chairperson: Ronald J. Taylor (1978)
Sec-Treasurer: David Bilderback (1979)
Councilor: Sanford S. Tepfer (1978)
Chairperson: James F. Matthews (1978)
Sec-Treasurer: Michael J. Baranski (1980)
Activities: Glenn Ray Noggle (1978)
COMMITTEES OF THE SOCIETY
Warren H. Wagner, Jr. (1980)
Barbara F. Palser (1979)
Peter H. Raven (1978)
Charles B. Heiser, Jr. (1978)
Frank B. Salisbury (1979)
Harold C. Bold (1980)
Larry R. Hoffman (1978)
Karl R. Mattox (1979)
Alfred R. Leoblich III (1980)
N.Y. Botanical Garden Award
Theodore T. Kozlowski (1978)
Michael Neushul (1978)
W. Dwight Billings (1979)
Taylor A. Steeves (1979)
Jeanette Siron Pelton Award
Paul B. Green (1978)
Virginia E. Walbut (1978)
Donald R. Kaplan (1978)
Peter K. Hepler (1978)
Election of Officers
Thomas N. Taylor (1978)
Loran C. Anderson (1979)
Deana T. Klein (1980)
Michael J. Wynne (1981)
Charles R. Curtis (1978)
Daniel J. Crawford (1978)
Shirley Graham (1979)
William L. Stern (1979)
William J. Koch (1980)
Richard A. White (1980)
Robert Bandurski (1978)
J. W. de Wet (1978)
James L. Reveal (1978)
David Fairbrothers (1978)
Andrew M. Greller (1979)
Charles Lamoureux (1979)
John H. Beaman (1980)
Anitra Thorhaug (1980)
Barbara D. Webster
Ray F. Every
John A. Romberger
Scientific Liaison with the People's Republic of China
Arthur W. Galston (1978)
Edward S. Ayensu (1978)
Thomas S. Elias (1978)
John B. Hanson (1978)
Richard M. Klein (1978)
Peter H. Raven (1978)
Anitra Thorhaug (1978)
Committee to Initiate Formation of an Economic Botany Section
John H. Beaman (1978)
Charles B. Heiser, Jr. (1978)
Susan E. Verhoek Williams (1978)
Representative to AAAS
Howard S. Irwin (1980)
Representative to AIBS
William A. Jensen (1980)
Representative to Biological Stain Commission
William A. Jensen (1978)
Corresponding Society of Assembly of Life Sciences
Patricia K. Holmgren (1979)
The Smithsonian Institution Press announces the publication of Endangered and Threatened Plants of the United States by E. S. Ayensu and R. A. DeFilipps as a joint publication of the Institution and the World Wildlife Fund. The book is available from the Smithsonian Institution Press, P.O. Box 1641, Washington, DC 20013 for $17.50.
The Missouri Botanical Garden announced initiation of a new publication, Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden. Volume 1, A Provisional Checklist of Species for Flora North America (Revised), edited by Stanwyn G. Shetler and Laurence E. Skog, has been published and is available from the Missouri Botanical Garden for $6.50.
The University of Michigan Television Center has completed a new, eight program color series on edible wild plants which introduces over 50 edible wild plants of the U.S. and Canada. Narrated by guest botanists and photographed under natural conditions, the films use close-ups for botanical identification. The series is available for rent or purchase. Contact Eleanore B. Forlenz, Director of Marketing, University of Michigan Television Center, 400 S. Fourth St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
The Guide to Graduate Study in Botany for the United States and Canada, 1977, lists 123 plant science departments which offer the Ph.D. in some area of plant science. A necessity for all botanical graduate advising, the volume is available for $4.00 from the Secretary of the Society, Dr. Patricia Holmgren, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458. Checks should be made payable to the Botanical Society of America.
The 1977-8 Directory of the Botanical Society includes (names, addresses, telephone numbers and research specializations for current members of the Society. The 85-page Directory is available from the Secretary for $7.50.
Abstracts of papers presented at the meetings of the Botanical Society of America at the 1977 meeting at Michigan State University are available from the Secretary for $2.50.
Dr. Bruce Mac Bryde of the Office of Endangered Species, U.S. Department of the Interior has provided a
list of the second group of plants listed in the 26 April 1978 issue of the Federal Register 43(81,II): 17909-17916. Baptisia arachnifera Duncan; Betula uber (Ashe) Fernald; Dudleye traskiae (Rose) Moran; Erysimum capitatum (Douglas) Greene var. angustatum (Greene) Rossbach; Oeothera avita (W. Klein) W. Klein, subsp. eurekensis (Munz & Roos) W. Klein, Oenothera deltoides Torrey & Fremont, subsp. howellii (Munz) W. Klein; Pedicularis furbishiae S. Watson; Swallenia alexandrae (Swallen) Soderstrom & Decker; Trillium persistens Duncan; Vicia menziesii Sprengle; Zizania texana Hitchcock. Two species are listed as threatened: Aconitum noveboracense Gray and Astragalus perianus Barneby.
Dr. Gifford, Editor of the American Journal of Botany wishes to again call to the notice of the membership the invitation to submit manuscripts to the American Journal of Botany that might qualify as SPECIAL PAPERS. Review articles of limited scope but of general interest, evaluation and critique articles on a controversial topic, recent advances in a specialized research area or overviews of major research contributions are some of the types of articles accepted. There is no definite format and members of the Editorial Board will act as reviewers.
MEETINGS, CONFERENCES, COURSES
A COLLOQUIUM ON CELLULAR INTERACTIONS IN SYMBIOTIC AND PARASITIC RELATIONSHIPS will be held at The Ohio State University on 7-9 September 1978. Both invited and contributed papers will be presented. Contact Dr. Emanuel D. Rudolph, Department of Botany, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
A WORKSHOP ON SELECTING LEGUMES FOR ENHANCED NITROGEN FIXATION will be held in Ithaca, NY on 22-24 October 1978. Contact the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, 1086 N. Broadway, Yonkers, NY 10701.
THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL PLANT BREEDING SYMPOSIUM sponsored by Iowa State University will be held 12-16 March 1979. Contact Dr. K. J. Frey, Agronomy Department, Iowa State University, Ames, IO 50011.
THE 13TH INTERNATIONAL BOTANICAL CONGRESS is to be held in Sydney, Australia on 21-28
August 1981. The first circular will be mailed in August 1979. To ensure your inclusion on the mailing list, send your name and full address, preferably on a postal card to Executive Secretary, Dr. W. J. Cram, 13th I.B.C., University of Sydney, N.S.W. 2006, Australia.
AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CHLOROPLAST DEVELOPMENT will be held 9-15 July 1978 in Spetsai, Greece. Contact Dr. G. Akoyunoglou, Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Research Center, "Democritus," Aghia Paraskeva, Greece.
AN INTERNATIONAL ABSCISSION CONFERENCE under the joint auspices of the International Society for Plant Growth Substances and the University of Florida will be held at the University of Florida on 10-17 July 1978. Contact Dr. W. C. Cooper, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, Orlando, FL 32803.
THE PHYTOCHEMICAL SOCIETY OF NORTH AMERICA and the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PHARMOCOGNOSY will hold a joint meeting at Oklahoma State University on 14-17 August 1978. Contact Dr. George Waller, Department of Biochemistry, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74074.
THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON PLANT CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE will be held at the University of Calgary on 20-25 August 1978. Contact the Conference Office, University of Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada.
THE FEDERATION OF EUROPEAN SOCIETIES OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY will hold its inaugural meeting in Edinburgh, Scotland on 9-14 July 1978. Contact Dr. J. E. Dale, Department of Botany, University of Edinburgh, King's Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JH United Kingdom.
THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL HORTICULTURAL CONGRESS will be held in Hambourg in 1982. Contact Prof. D. Fritz, Institut Für Gemusebau, 8050 Weinenstephan-Freising/OOB, Germany.
THE FRIENDS OF WORLD TEACHING announces teaching opportunities overseas. Contact Friends of World Teaching, 3643 Kite St., San Diego, CA 92103.
THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY FOR ECONOMIC BOTANY will be held from 11-14 June 1978 at the Missouri Botanical Garden.
THE TWELFTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON MICROBIOLOGY will be held in Munich on 3-8 September 1978. Contact XXII ICM, Postfach 121 009, D-8000 Meunchen 12, Deutschland.
THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION is sponsoring an Advanced Study Institute on Plant Regulation and World Agriculture in Izmir, Turkey on 21-30 September 1978. Contact Dr. Tom K. Scott, Department of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514.
AN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR is being sought by the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology of Iowa State University. Teaching responsibilities include participation in the undergraduate biology program and opportunities for teaching at the elementary and advanced levels. Research capability in cellular or molecular botany is desired with a preference for a person interested in fungi, algae or photosynthesis. The Ph.D. is required. Vita, statement of research interest, teaching experience in large lectures, transcripts and three letters of reference should be sent to Dr. D. C. Glenn-Lewin, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Iowa State University, Ames, 10 50011.
A FACULTY MEMBER is being sought by the Department of Pomology, University of California, Davis. Rank and salary will be based on experience; the Ph.D. is required. The applicant will assume responsibility for a graduate course in fruit morphology, develop a course in morphology and anatomy of wood crop plants and advise graduate student research. Research time is split between the Dept. of Pomology and the Dept. of Viticulture & Enology and is to be focused on those aspects of anatomy/ cytology/morphology that have important implications in fruit and nut crops. Applicants should send curriculum vitae, transcripts and three letters of reference to Dr. Dillon S. Brown, Department of Pomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
A FACULTY MEMBER is being sought by the Department of Land, Air and Water Resources of the University
of California, Davis. The position would be half in the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and half in the Agricultural Experiment Station. Teaching responsibilities would be mainly at the graduate level and research is to be a dynamic program in long distance transport of ions with emphasis on sophisticated methods of localization at the level of the tissue, cell and organelle. A Ph.D. is required and rank/salary depend on qualifications. A vita, list of publications, reprints, transcripts, three letters of recommendation and a statement of the applicant's philosophy for teaching and research should be sent to Dr. Emanuel Epstein, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, Hoagland Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
AN EXPERIMENTAL PLANT ANATOMIST/CYTOLOGIST/MORPHOLOGIST, as an Assistant Professor with equivalent rank in the Agricultural Experiment Station beginning January 1, 1979, is being sought by the University of California at Davis. Rank and salary are to be based on qualifications and experience of the applicant: to assume responsibility for a graduate course in fruit morphology, develop a course in morphology and anatomy of woody crop plants, and advise graduate student research; and to focus in research on those aspects of anatomy/cytology/morphology that have important implications in fruit and nut crops. Research time is to be split between the Department of Pomology and the Department of Viticulture and Enology. Ph.D. is required; experimental plant anatomist/cytologist/morphologist with some background in physiology and biochemistry. Applications must be received by July 31, 1978. A curriculum vitae, copies of transcripts, and three letters of reference should be sent to Dr. Dillon S. Brown, Chairman of the Search Committee, Department of Pomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
AN ASSISTANT OR ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR is being sought by the Graduate Program in Environmental Sciences at the University of Texas at Dallas. A botanist with the Ph.D. specializing in the taxonomy and ecology of vascular plants with emphasis on the flora of Texas will be expected to initiate a vigorous research program in conjunction with the herbarium. Teaching responsibilities will include undergraduate and graduate courses in terrestrial and aquatic botany. Statements of current teaching and research interests, current vita and at least three letters of reference should be sent by 15 September 1978 to Dr. Alexander L. Clark, Vice President for Academic Affairs, University of Texas at Dallas, Station AD 11, Box 688. Richardson TX 75080.
A PLANT SCIENTIST IN ECOLOGICAL RE- SEARCH is being sought by the Environmental Research Branch of the Whites hell Nuclear Research Establishment. The position requires a plant environmental biochemist, physiologist or ecologist with an interest in radionuclide cycling and/or soil-plant interactions. Modelling and model verification using field experimentation with an ecological approach will constitute a large part of duties. The Ph.D. in plant physiology, biochemistry, or ecology is required and some background in computer techniques, statistics, plant genetics and cytogenetics is desirable. Applications should be sent to the Personnel Officer, White-shell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba ROE lLO, Canada.
A GENETICIST/PLANT BREEDER is being sought for a tenure-track position by the Department of Pomology, University of California, Davis. The Ph.D. is required and post-doctoral experience is desirable. A strong background in molecular genetics, biochemistry and an interest in the development of fruit tree cultivars are required. Research designed to utilize a cell culture system, including mutation, selection and cell fusion as part of a cultivar improvement program in tree fruit species. Guidance of graduate students and participation in the plant science teaching program are expected. The rank is for assistant professor. Vita, publication list, resume, thesis summary and transcripts plus a letter describing qualifications and research interest should be sent to Dr. H. T. Hartmann, Department of Pomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 before 30 September 1978.
DR. DOROTHY F. CHAPPELL has joined the Biology Department at Wheaton College. She received her Ph.D. from Miami University in 1977 with a dissertation in phycology under the direction of Dr. Kenneth D. Stewart.
DR. BARBARA McCLINTOCK of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory was selected to receive the Rosenstiel Basic Medical Sciences award of Brandeis University.
DR. ANITRA THORHAUG has accepted a position as Professor in the Department of Biological Science, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199.
DR. OTTO T. SOLBRIG has been appointed Director of the Gray Herbarium, Chairman of the Administrative Committee of the Farlow Reference Library and Herbarium of Cryptogamic Botany and Supervisor of the Bussey Institution beginning 1 July 1978. These positions are currently held by Dr. Reed C. Rollins who will retire from his administrative duties although he will continue as the Asa Gray Professor of Systematic Botany.
Second International Mycological Congress at the University of South Florida
Diane TeStrake, Wagner-Merner and Frederick I. Eilers
Department of Biology University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33620
The USF campus in northeast Tampa was the site of the Second International Mycological Congress (IMC-2) in late August, 1977. More than 1200 participants with interests in fungi came from 55 countries to attend symposia, poster sessions, special interest groups, exhibits, plenary sessions as well as a reception.
IMC-2 participants gathered at the first plenary session opened by Prof. Frederick K. Sparrow who gave a delightful special presentation about Professor Anton de Bary. He described an enlightening portrayal of de Bary, the teacher. The activities of the initial day of the congress were capped by a formal reception given by the Mycological Society of America honoring the President of the International Mycological Association, Prof. C. J Alexopoulos, President of the Second International Mycological Congress; Prof. Frederick K. Sparrow; chairman of the Executive Committee of the Second International Mycological Congress; Prof. Emory G. Simmons, treasurer
of the Executive Committee of the Second International Mycological Society of America; and Profs. Howard E. Bigelow and Jack D. Rogers.
The scientific program organized by Prof. Henry Aldrich included over 60 Symposia, several hundred poster presentations as well as 36 formally organized special interest groups. The poster sessions were well accepted; this format was especially appropriate for the foreign participants who thus had ample time to comprehend the visually presented material. The special interest meetings were varied and involved audience participation. Some of them were laboratory workshops and others were more seminar oriented. A large number of mycological films, arranged by Prof. Edward Haskins, were recycled daily.
Prof. Melvin S. Fuller arranged for a display of Art and Artifacts in the gallery of the University Center. There were original paintings which were used for illustrations in classical mycological books. Others included realistic and impressionistic styles. Also featured were textiles, sculpture, ceramics, wood carvings, stained glass and jewelry.
In the Special Collections Room of the University Library, Prof. Donald H. Pfister arranged an array of rare and historic books on mycological topics on loan from the Farlow Herbarium of Harvard University. Among these were early materials of mycology in North America, some dating back to 1800.
Prof. Melvin S. Fuller also organized a commercial book exhibit in a lounge in the University Center. This included some 82 new books on mycology donated by 18 publishers from around the world. After the congress, these were presented to the USF library.
Notable among the publications prepared for IMC was "A Brief History of Mycology in North America" from a manuscript prepared by Dr. D. P. Rogers. Among other documents were included two volumes of formal abstracts submitted by participants [Bigelow, H. E., and E. G. Simmons, editors, 1977. Second International Mycological Congress Abstracts Volume A-L (pp. i-xvi and 1-404) and Volume M-Z (pp. 405-786), IMC-2, Inc., Tampa, Florida].
Dr. Walter Brown of the Department of Botany, University of
Texas, died early this year during open heart surgery.
Dr. Elmar E. Leppik of the Agricultural Research Service in
Beltsville, Md. died on 4 February 1978.
An endowment fund has been established at the Botany Department, University
of Vermont, to establish an annual James W. Marvin Award in
Science and Conservation to recognize annually that person, organization or
cause in Vermont which best symbolizes or promotes one of the activities that
Jim Marvin devoted much of his life to, including areas of botany, maple research
and environmental conservation. Donations should be sent to the James W. Marvin
Fund, University of Vermont, in care of Dr. H. W. Vogelmann, Botany Department,
University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401.
RAGHAVAN, V. Experimental Embryogenesis in Vascular Plants.
Academic Press, New York. 1977. 567 pp., illust. £21.00.
Professor Raghavan should be commended for providing us with a thorough, well-written and modern book in plant embryogenesis.
The book is divided into three (3) sections titled, I. From Egg to Embryo, II. Adventitive Embryogenesis and III. From Seed to Seedling. The first section is the largest and constitutes three-fourths of the book. In this section chapters are devoted to detailed analyses of cellular and biochemical events taking place during embryo development in vivo and in vitro. Raghavan has expertly brought together a wealth of morphological and physiological data pertaining to the development of vascular plant embryos. Previously this information was scattered throughout the botanical literature and could be obtained only through laborious library research. In this single volume the author presents material on embryo development in angiosperms, gymnosperms and ferns. The reader is thus able to relate organizational patterns in embryos from different groups of vascular plants. Considerable attention is given to recent embryological investigations, especially electron microscopic studies of developing embryos. Chapters on biochemical and physiological aspects of embryogenesis are included and in these current information bearing on the molecular and hormonal control of embryogenesis is reviewed. Several chapters are devoted to various aspects of growing isolated embryos, ovules, ovaries and seeds in nutrient culture. For some years Raghavan's personal research was in the field of embryo culture and this experience provides him with important insights into the problems remaining to be solved and logical approaches to the solution of these problems.
The second section of the book contains two chapters dealing with adventitive embryogenesis. The first considers the induction of diploid embryoids from plant tissue cultures and the second details the accomplishments in generating haploid embryoids employing the more recent techniques of culturing embryo sacs, microspores and anthers. Both chapters are complete, authoritatively written and provide an up-to-date review of work in this field.
The third and final section of the book covers the topic of seed dormancy and seed germination. While these topics are not treated in as much depth as some of the other subjects, this reviewer is pleased to see the material included in a book on embryogenesis. Current views on dormancy mechanisms in a variety of seeds are presented and postulated physiological and biochemical mechanisms for overcoming dormancy effects are considered. A short introduction into the biochemical events occurring during seed germination and the molecular mechanisms controlling these events concludes this section.
Readers will find the book interesting and free of major errors. It contains over 100 pages of references to original research articles cited in the text. In addition, an appendix provides recipes for a variety of nutrient media useful in culturing embryos and embryoids.
All developmental botanists and physiologists will want to read this book and many of them will find something new or interesting. The book would be an appropriate text for advanced courses in plant embryology and development. The book should also be interesting reading for individuals in horticulture, floriculture, and plant breeding. Students especially should read it carefully for they will find that many important experiments remain to be done in this exciting field of botany.
In summary this is a scholarly book and will remain an important contribution to botany for a long time. Unfortunately, at a cost of approximately $37.38 the book probably will not find its way where it will do the most good and that is in the personal library of teachers and researchers. Nevertheless, it belongs in every botanical library.
A. E. DeMaggio, Dartmouth College
LANGLOIS, ARTHUR C. Supplement to the Palms of the World.
The University Presses of Florida, Gainesville. 1976. $25.00.
This most welcome supplement to McCurrach's Palms of the World covers over 100 rare and poorly known genera not included in the original volume. The style of the text is informal, such that it can be read by any layman, but the book contains a wealth of information useful to the professional botanist as well. Each genus is illustrated, a very useful feature of the book, but a number of the illustrations are unfortunately rather poorly reproduced, particularly some of those copied from earlier publications. Most, however, provide excellent first glimpses of seldom seen palms.
Among the genera covered, there are a number that are no longer recognized. This is deliberate on the part of the author and allows for coverage of some groups of palms that might otherwise be overlooked. However, the author does not always make it clear when he is using such an obsolete name (one must check an appendix in the back for this), and there is the danger that readers will mistakenly apply these names to plants in the field or garden.
The few flaws in this book do not, however, seriously detract from its value as a storehouse of hard-to-find information. Every student and lover of palms will want to have a copy.
Frederick B. Essig, University of South Florida, Tampa
BOGORAD, L. AND J. H. WEIL (eds.). Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
in Plants. Plenum Press, N.Y. 1976. 417 pp., illust. $39.50.
Current trends in plant nucleic acid and protein synthesis are often difficult to keep abreast of because of the rapidly expanding literature. The reference-text by Bogorad and Weil has succeeded in bringing together papers written by some of the current research leaders involved in these two large but interrelated fields. The twenty-four papers presented cover a wide gambit of topics, thus, providing a general overview which is divided into six major areas: 1. organization and replication of nuclear and chloroplast genomes, 2. transcription, 3. translation, 4. synthesis of nucleic acids and protein by organelles, 5. control of nucleic acids and protein synthesis by hormones and environmental factors, and 6. foreign DNA and plant cells.
Each article is written in a rather clear textual manner and is accompanied by many charts, tables, graphs, and pictures which enhance the clarity of the book.
In general the text, despite several typographical errors, would prove useful to anyone new to the field or to those veterans who desire a brief review.
Joe H. Cherry, Purdue University
ROST, THOMAS L. AND ERNEST M. GIFFORD, JR. (eds.). Mechanisms and Control
of Cell Division. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania.
In these days of increasing specialization, the content of this volume on a seemingly restricted topic is so broad that it was necessary to divide it into three parts: I. Cell Cycle Regulation, II. Nuclear Structure and Chromosome Movements, and III. Mechanisms of Cell Division. And even so, part II should have been divided into nuclear studies and studies on mitosis. The book is a mixture of reviews and results of current research and this reviewer would categorize the twelve articles as four reviews of specific topics, four reviews of work primarily from the authors' laboratories, and four articles that would be published normally as research papers.
It is unfortunate that the many photographs, particularly the electron micrographs, were not printed on a high gloss quality paper. Also, there are minor typographical errors throughout the book (e.g., on pages 46, 126, 162, 171, 223, 234, 240, 247, 309, 321, 366, and 368). On page 251 it is stated that transport by suctorian tentacles may be fifty times faster than typical non-kinetochore transport or chromosome movement, whereas the figures given indicate that the rate would be 400 to 1200 times faster.
The article by L. R. Gurley et al. on Sequential Biochemical Events Related to Cell Proliferation is an up-to-date summary of their studies, using synchronized Chinese hamster cell cultures, of cell cycle changes in deoxyribonuclioside triphosphate pools, histone synthesis, and histone phosphorylation, as well as sequential f1 phosphorylation events, mitotic phosphorylation of histone f3 subfractions, etc. They interpret their studies as reflecting specific changes in histone structure which are related to changing the structure and function of chromatin. They envision "an orderly progression of specific histone modification as necessary for the proper functioning of chromatin as cells progress through their proliferation cycle." Angeline Douvas and James Bonner provide a welcome addition to the outstanding contributions of Bonner's group on chromosomal nucleoproteins. They report identification
of six polypeptides of the nonhistones as myosin, actin, two tropomyosin subunits, a myosin breakdown product and tubulin. While they acknowledge the possibility that these may be cytoplasmic contaminants, they believe that their results strengthen arguments in favor of a structural role for these major proteins. Thus, evidence is accumulating that an actomyosin system may be generating the motive force in plant cells in such processes as cytoplasmic streaming, chromosome movement, and chromatin condensation.
D. E. Fosket reviews regulation of the plant cell cycle by cytokinin and concludes: (1) "In actively dividing cells which require cytokinin for growth, the hormone specifically regulates processes either in G2 or in the transition from G2 to mitosis," and (2) "The events of the cell cycle are results of a genetically determined program. Cytokinin is not involved in the transcription of this program. Other factors, possibly auxin, initiate the reading of the genetic information for the cell cycle. However, cytokinin is necessary for the translation of certain messages into effector molecules (proteins) which must act in G2 for the cycle to be completed." J. Brent Loy emphasizes the effects of gibberellin on cell proliferation, but also mentions briefly its possible interaction with other plant hormones in controlling cell division. He notes that there is a surprising lack of research on hormonal regulation of cell proliferation in primary elongating meristems, considering their importance in shoot development. Thomas L. Rost concludes that stress expression is through: (1) inhibition of mitosis and the formation of chromosomal and mitotic aberations, (2) induction of radial enlargement of stressed organs, and (3) cell cycle accumulation patterns. He believes that it may be justified to apply Jack Van't Hof's Principal Control Point Hypothesis, developed through studies of nutritional stress, to stress effects generally, regardless of source.
Walter Nagl "summarizes the available data on man, animal, and plant species, whose nuclei undergo structural changes during interphase and very early prophase." He also discusses possible reasons for the morphological changes of chromatin during the cell cycle, as well as their functional significance. He concludes that: (1) "The nuclear structure may well be suited to serve as a marker of certain cell cycle stages, at least in a number of organisms," and (2) "the chromatin structure can indicate quite accurately the life history of a nucleus in terms of the type of cell cycle from which the nucleus has originated." James P. Braselton has characterized persistent nucleoli in mitosis in root tips of mung bean at the ultrastructural level and reminds us that persistent nucleolar behavior is more common in higher plants than is generally believed.
It is now widely accepted that microtubules playa vital role in chromosome movement, although it has not been established that they actually provide the motive force required. Even though much attention has been devoted to establishing the sites of initiation of microtubules in the mitotic spindle, Peter K. Hepler emphasizes that little is known concerning, "The conditions necessary, and the structures involved in establishing those conditions, for the formation of the microtubules upon their initiating sites." Based in large measure on his research, he promotes the idea in this chapter that the membranes are the cellular inclusions which regulate the levels of divalent in vivo and thereby participate in the control of the formation of spindle microtubules. With the growing realization that an actomyosin system may also be involved, the importance of divalent cation concentration control, both spatially and in time, is assured. The elegant studies by Hepler and co-workers on plant cells together with similar work by P. Harris on spindle of sea urchins suggests that this exciting new area of research will develop rapidly.
Andrew Bajer and his wife, J. Mole-Bajer, have, over the past quarter of a century, made an exceptionally thorough study of chromosome movement in endosperm cells of Haemanthus katherinae. In the past few years, they have become convinced that lateral interaction of microtubules ("Zipping") can, and probably does, generate the force required to move chromosomes throughout mitosis. Based on experiments on the effects of low temperature and glycols, they believe that sufficient evidence exists that active zipping takes place both in the half-spindles and the phragmoplast. Even if zipping occurs, however, it is still to be determined that it provides the motive force required to move chromosomes. Proponents of the dynamic equilibrium model, the sliding filaments model, and the increasing number who believe that an actomyosin system provides the force, will ensure that the zipping model is given a rigorous examination.
G. Gimenez-Martin, C. de la Torre, and J. F. López-Saez' review deals with "cell proliferation in the root meristems of higher plants, placing particular stress on its dissection by means of chemicals." They also effectively use polynucleate cells to dissect the cell cycle. Based on the properties of stained nucleoli, they are able to distinguish four types of cells that represent different stages of the nucleolar cycle found in a meristem population. They conclude that the cycle rate in meristems is inversely proportional to temperature, while the relative duration of the different cycle compartments remains constant under steady-state conditions. They stress that the apparent continuity of the cell cycle is sustained by a series of controls, some running in sequence, others in parallel.
The work on mitosis in Euglena and Phacus by J. D. Pickett-Heaps and K. L. Weik, utilizing light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy, reveals that "The structure of the spindle and probably the mechanisms involved in chromatid separation are like that of many other eucaryotic organisms." They did find that Euglena gracilis chromosomes possess kinetochores, though they did not find distinct ones in Phacus. The spindle remained entirely closed during mitosis in both organisms and the basal bodies were never seen at the broad poles of the spindle but always laterally beside the nucleus.
In his review meiotic and mitotic divisions in the Basidiomycotina, Kenneth Wells concludes that the essential features of classical mitosis and meiosis occur in this taxon, and that nuclear divisions in this taxon and the Ascomycotina differ in several important features. For example, he reports that most studies of meiosis in the Ascomycotina have reported an intranuclear spindle whereas the majority of studies of both mitosis and meiosis in the Basidiomycotina have reported that the nuclear envelope is interrupted during some phases of division. In terms of internal structure, he believes that the available evidence suggests, except for the Uredinales, that the relative number of cytoplasmic microtubules arising from the ascomycete spindle is greater than those arising from the basidiomycete spindle. He discusses the effect of space restrictions on both the shape of the mitotic spindle and the asynchronous disjunction of the chromatids during mitosis and meiosis.
In summary, this book, as the editors state in the Preface, is a compendium of several areas of cell cycle research, especially those dealing with plants. It should be useful for researchers and advanced students interested in cell behavior.
William T. Jackson, Dartmouth College
MASTERLERZ, J. W. The Greenhouse Environment: The Effect of Environmental
Factors on Flower Crops. John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. 1977.629 pp.,
The preface states that this book was written for students planning careers in greenhouse management. The author has done an excellent job of meeting that objective. The major defect in the text is the confusing mixture of fps and cgs units; one figure will use of, the next one °C; inches and grams appear in the same table, etc.; and there seems no particular merit in using microns and millimicrons and nanometers as units of wavelength.
It is surprising, especially in a book dealing with flower crops, to find no mention of Agrolite or low pressure sodium lamps in the radiant energy section. One also wonders why measurement of photosynthetically active radiation is not discussed; especially since flux density of PAR currently seems to be the most acceptable method of measuring the radiant energy used for plant growth.
In the chapter I would have preferred a larger section on ozone, the most prevalent of the phytotoxic gases, and S02 which is sure to be a greater problem with increased use of coal. A key to symptoms of phytotoxic gas damage, similar to the one the author included for nutrient deficiencies would also have been useful.
The shortcomings of the book, however, are more than balanced by the wealth of information invaluable to those learning about greenhouse management. In fact this book should be required reading for all floriculture students as well. I also suggest that very few of us that use greenhouses extensively, for research as well as application, would fail to benefit from a perusal of it.
R. J. Downs, North Carolina State University
MARSH, R. W., R. J. W. BYRDE, AND D. WOODCOCK. Systemic Fungicides.
Longmans, Inc., N.Y.
1977. 401 pp., illust. $25.00.
Systemic Fungicides will be a useful reference for plant pathologists in general and especially for those concerned with chemical control of plant diseases. The book has been expanded and updated from the first edition published in 1972. It follows the same well-organized format of the earlier book, but three chapters have been added as well as an alphabetical listing of systemic fungicides in commercial use. The added chapters are Metabolism, Efficient Use of Systemic Fungicides, and Results in Practice-Forestry. The Forestry section is a valuable addition because of the great potential for systemics in treating forest diseases. However, the bulk of this chapter, as well as the primary success story, deals with Dutch elm disease, which some may argue is more of a horticultural problem than one in forestry.
Each chapter has been expanded to present new information; approximately one-third of the references were published after 1972. Many chemicals are discussed which are not in commercial use, but their inclusion is valuable for historical and comparative purposes. One omission notable to this reviewer is the absence of the material "Sclex" which was reported in the first edition. This fungicide has been demonstrated to have excellent systemic qualities in controlling some difficult diseases. Overall, however, the book is well written and organized and will be a help to all involved in plant sciences.
Otis C. Maloy, Washington State University
ANDERSON, FRANK I. An Illustrated History of Herbals. Columbia
University Press, N.Y. 1977. 270 pp., illust. $16.95.
The author, Honorary Curator of Rare Books and Manuscripts at the New York Botanical Garden, has utilized the splendid botanical resources of the Garden and of other institutions to prepare a book designed less for the professional bibliographer, librarian or botanist than for that hypothetical (and possibly mythical) entity, the educated layman. In keeping with this, the text is not particularly botanical, but flows smoothly and occasionally humorously, providing the reader with a fine overview of the era of herbals.
This volume must be evaluated against the now classic book by Agnes Arber, Herbals: Their History and Origin, published in 1939. Arber's was a scholarly work in which the author evaluated not only the herbals themselves, but also the botany, the history of the period and the subtle rivalries that existed among men and nations. Her book was bigger in scope and design and stands as an important document in the history of botany, medicine and pharmacology. Although Anderson touches upon these matters, he does not attempt to expand, extend or supplement the beautifully written panorama provided by Arber. Although the present book contains many more illustrations than does Arber's, and is therefore of botanical value, the Columbia University Press should be censored for their decision to use cheap paper which failed to give clean, crisp illustrations. These, the most important feature of the book, are poor.
Richard M. Klein, University of Vermont
CAMPBELL G. S. An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics.
Springer-Verlag, N.Y. 1977. 159 pp., illust. $8.90.
A new book, An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics by Gaylor S. Campbell, is a well written expose of the physical microenvironment of living organisms. The author stresses the underlying concept of the biophysical ecology of energy exchange, particularly mechanisms of heat transfer. The environmental variables affecting behavior and life are discussed in chapter format including sections on temperature, moisture, wind and radiation. Throughout the book ample illustration is given in the form of well-chosen figures, examples of the comparative effects of these environmental parameters on both plant and animal, adequate mathematical description, and problems for students to test their grasp of the material presented.
Approximately one-half of the book treats selected areas of the biophysical interaction of plants and animals with the environment, although traditional biologists would probably not find much "biology". The concept of energy budget as well as energy and mass exchange unifies discussion on animals, plant leaves and canopies.
The book may be used as a text in advanced under-graduate and graduate level courses in which the environment or biophysics is the theme. In some portions of the book, only very specific topics are covered; for instance, Nobel's book, Biophysical Plant Physiology, is perhaps a better choice for overall discussion of plant interaction with the physical environment. All in all, I recommend this book as a basic reference source or text in the area of environmental biophysics.
Barbara A. Zilinskas, Rutgers University
LIONNI, LEO. Parallel Botany. Alfred A. Knopf, N.Y. 1977.
Devotees of Alice in Wonderland and Tolkien now have a new field to explore--that unique, but widely distributed, flora described so vividly and so expertly illustrated in Parallel Botany. The illustrations are particularly remarkable since many of the taxa are invisible, most disintegrate with human touch and they arc resistant to the most sophisticated photography.
Growth does not occur in this remarkable group of plants since they represent a "permanent stoppage in time". This "immobility in time" results in a "corresponding immobility in space" so that the taxa do not change dimension as one approaches them. Another result is that there is no problem for survival and the plants of parallel botany have no need for color and thus display a range of blacks from "tête de nègre" to "bois builé". One species, Tirillus silvador, has the extraordinary ability to produce shrill, whistling sounds audible to two or three hundred meters.
Fortunately, in spite of the obvious difficulties in studying and preserving this remarkable group of plants, the author has provided 33 drawings of the various taxa ranging from algae to higher plants, some parasitic, some aquatic, and some known only from fossil casts.
This unparalleled account of the discovery of parallel plants, the research problems they present, the proceedings of congresses (particularly the nomenclature sessions), the influence of this unique flora on art, archaeology, legends, linguistics--in fact on all aspects of modern life--is what one reviewer has called "the definitive word on the botanical counter culture". Every botanist should become familiar with the breadstick-like tirils, the strangler tirils (formally known as the "phab" group from alpha beta), the woodland tweezers, the unusual floating Sigurya natans, and their marvelous relatives. Unfortunately, their invisible nature prevents us from cultivating them but, on the other hand, there is no danger of them becoming noxious weeds.
Mildred E. Mathias, University of California, Los Angeles
BALBACH, M. K., L. BLISS, AND H. J. FULLER. A Laboratory Manual for
General Botany, 5th Edition. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., N.Y.
1977. 393 pp., soft cover. $6.95.
This is an excellent manual for a standard freshman Botany I-II course. Its thirty-six exercises are divided into structure and function of seed plants (21), plant kingdom (12), and genetics, ecology, and taxonomy (3). Page references are provided to relevant sections of six botany texts. Each exercise is preceded with introductory material, conducted via a number of activities and concluded by questions. Pages are perforated so students' work can be handed in.
All the tried, true, and time-honored examples and activities are here. The student is taken through seeds, cells, meristems, roots, stems, twigs, wood, leaves, flowers, fruits, photosynthesis, digestion, respiration and plant movement. The dramatis personae of the plant kingdom include bacteria, Saprolegnia, Rhizopus, Peziza, Saccharomyces, Coprinus, Chlamydomonas, Ulothrix, Oedogonium, Oscillatoria, Fucus, Mnium, Sphagnum, Marchantia, Psilotum. Lycopodium, Selaginella, Equisetum, Polystichum, Pinus, Lilium and many others. The directions are clear, living material is prescribed more often than not, and the illustrations are well done.
The only disquieting note is that it all bears an uncanny resemblance, in considerable detail, to the Botany I-II course I first taught twenty years ago. The traditionalist in me is delighted that people are still teaching and learning the good things, the radical is wondering where the discipline has been these twenty years. In any case, if you have use for a traditional, orthodox, lab manual, this one is superb.
Elwood B. Ehrle, Indiana State University
GOOR, A. Y., AND C. W. BARNEY. Forest Tree Planting in Arid Zones,
2nd edition. Ronald Press, N.Y. 1976. 504 pp., illust. $17.50.
This is a thorough revision of what was originally a manual of practice by the senior author and published by F. A. O. It is based on long experience and observation of the difficult problems in establishing trees in arid and semi-arid regions (those with less than 600 mm of annual precipitation) throughout the world. The descriptions of kinds of vegetation, climates, and techniques, ranging from seed production to caring for established forests are both authoritative and lucidly detailed. There is a comprehensive account of the ecological characteristics and treatment of virtually all of the species commonly propagated. It describes the management of tree plantations for production of commodities, amelioration of the environment, soil stabilization, and visual amenity. If this excellent book has any shortcoming, it is that it tells what to do without often telling why. It is clearly the best book on the topic and as good as any on forestation techniques in general.
David M. Smith, Yale University
WERNER, D. (ed.). The Biology of Diatoms (Botanical Monographs,
Vol. 13). University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1977. 505
pp., illust. $32.50.
This book brings together much valuable information on the diatoms. The 12 chapters were written by authorities in their fields and range from ecology and taxonomy to silicate metabolism and heterotrophic nutrition. The chapters on movements and sexuality are particularly thought-provoking and will doubtless stimulate further research in these areas. Dr. D. Werner has also supplied an introduction which summarizes the most widely used classifications of these organisms as well as containing some interesting miscellaneous information. The second part of the introduction is a contribution by Dr. G. R. Hasle on the use of electron microscopy in morphology and taxonomy. This subject should have merited a chapter of its own with a more extensive text.
Most contributions are well written and are extensively referenced. A subject index and an organism index for the whole book are useful features. My principal criticism of this monograph is that not enough use is made of micrographs and those that are present do not appear to have reproduced as clearly as might have been wished. However, this is only a minor drawback and should not be allowed to detract from a book that will become indispensable as a reference work.
Peter Heywood, Brown University
RICHARDSON, W. N. AND T. STUBBS. Plants, Agriculture and Human Society.
W. A. Benjamin, Inc., Reading, MA. 1978. 353 pp. illust.
The 22 chapters of this tightly-written paperback are divided into five Units, treating successively: some fundamentals of taxonomy, evolution and plant morphology; the origins of development of agriculture; traditional economic botany; aspects of ethnobotany; global food production. Designed as a textbook in introductory botany or " . . . in any other course which deals with the interrelationships of plants and humans," the book includes suggested readings and a modest index. It is well written with excellent illustrations.
This is a difficult book to summarize, primarily because it attempts to cover huge blocks of information. The scientific and professional vocabulary is advanced and since few of the terms are defined, it may be too sophisticatcd for non-botany undergraduates or horticulture majors. The authors have a great deal of important information to present and they must, in a short book, assume considerable pre-knowledge of classical botany, economic botany, anthropology, history and political sciences. Graduate students and professionals will, however, find the book valuable and fascinating.
The Unit on economic botany is probably the least satisfactory. It gives one the impression of a condensed summary of Shery's Plants for Man without the depth that Shery provides. In general the photographs used in this section are almost useless; an underexposed picture of a peanut plant adds nothing to a discussion of legumes and an overexposed photo of pistachio nuts is equally banal. The Unit on ethnobotany includes an unnecessarily complex section on ethnobotanical methods down to the choice of clothing to be worn. Not infrequently, the reader is caught up short by inclusion of material that seems unrelated to previous or subsequent sections. It sometimes becomes difficult to separate material of basic importance from the trivial; more space is devoted to flax than to cotton, and charcoal production is given the same weight as paper production. The role of plant disease in food production and the significance of photoperiod, thermo- period, and vernalization in determining the range of crop-growing lands is slighted in favor of information on dietary innovation or geological eras. Regretfully, it is here noted that wheat rust is not caused by Claviceps. The potential of high-lysine corn and information on essential amino acid requirements is absent.
Nevertheless, the book is recommended as a useful reference for faculty who want to extend their own knowledge and believe that it is vitally important to provide students with a glimpse of the role of plants in the survival of the peoples of the world.
Richard M. Klein, University of Vermont
FRYER, J. D. AND S. MATSUNAKA (eds.). Integrated Control of Weeds.
University of Tokyo Press. 1977. 262 pp. $19.50.
This book is a compilation of the proceedings of an international symposium from the Fifth Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference (Tokyo, 1975). Ten chapters, each written by a noted authority, summarize various weed control aspects. Five chapters deal with integrated weed control in rice, upland crops, tropical plantations, pastures, and aquatic areas. Chapters on damage to crops by weed competition, biological weed control, herbicides and environmental problems, and economic considerations of weed control in rice are included. The final chapter discusses problems, future goals, and directions of weed control technologies.
In spite of the brevity of the book, it presents an up-to-date overview on this subject, supplemented with tabular and graphic data. Each chapter is prefaced by an abstract, and is terminated by a brief discussion and an ample reference section. Indices of weeds and herbicides are also given for quick reference. This book should be useful for those interested in the economics and efficiency of world agriculture and particularly for persons involved in weed science research and those teaching weed science. Although integrated weed control has been and is being used, as this book points out, there is a need to extend its use in both highly developed and underdeveloped agricultural areas of the world if we are to reduce the cost of food production and meet the challenge of feeding the world's exploding population in the future.
R. E. Hoagland, Southern Weed Science Laboratory Stoneville, MS
MATTSON, W. J. (ed.). The Role of Arthropods in Forest Ecosystems.
Springer-Verlag, New York. 1977. xi + 104 pp., 28 fig. $15.80.
This volume contains twelve papers presented at a symposium during the 15th International Congress of Entomology (1976). The contents are equally divided between decomposition processes and the plant-herbivore relationship, and treat the influence of arthropods on important community processes such as succession, nutrient cycling, and pollination. One of the more important concepts emerging from these papers is that arthropods have important effects on community organization and function that are not explained by how much plant material is being eaten or how much detritus is being processed. Anyone with an interest in community ecology will find new and useful information in this book.
Thomas W. Boutton, Brigham Young University