PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
September 1976 Volume 22 No. 3
Editor Reminisces. Norman H. Boke 26
Legacy of Plant World: Myth and Reality. S. K. Majumder 28
Fourth Cabot Symposium: Trees in the Tropics. P. B. Tomlinson 29
Conferences, Courses 30
of the Sections 30
Did You Say? 31
Species Act of 1973—Public Law 93-205 31
Notice: Robert W. Long 32
A Human Concern. D. Rayle & L. Wedberg 32
Conditions and Plant Growth. E. W. Russell 32
and Biochemistry of Plant Proteins. J. B. Harbourne & C. F. van
Sumere (eds.) 32
Carbohydrate Biochemistry. J. B. Pridham (ed.) 33
and the Flora of the British isles. C. A. Stace (ed.) 33
Transport in Plants. U. Zimmermann & J. Dainty (eds.) 33
Strategies of Xylem Evolution. S. Carlquist 33
Studies in the People's Republic of China. 33
Physiology. M. Thomas, S. J. Ranson & J. A. Richardson 34
Vanishing Lichens. D. H. S. Richardson 34
China's Border Provinces. The Turbulent Career of Joseph Rock. S. B. Sutton 35
Culture and Plant Science. H. E. Street (ed.) 35
of Louisiana and Adjoining States. C. A. Brown 35
Plants of Australia. H. I. Aston 35
Structure and Function in Plants. H. Y. Mohan Ram & C. K. Shah (eds.) 36
Plant Kingdom. G. W. Burns 36
AN EDITOR REMINISCES
University of Oklahoma
in the spring of 1969, Bill Stern called me to ask whether I would accept
the editorship of the American Journal of Botany, I hesitated in order to
ponder the implications of the invitation. Most of us who undertake such responsibilities
are not trained editors: we know little about the details of publishing, have
never marked a manuscript for the printers, and our knowledge of grammatical
details and punctuation is apt to be rusty. Although it is quite a distinction
to be chosen the editor of a prestigious journal, the candidate is apt to
indulge in a careful assay of his abilities, as I did. After a couple of weeks
I decided that I had a reasonable chance of being able to cope with the job,
so I accepted, though not without trepidation. As things turned out, the decision
was correct; during my five years as editor there were no unsolvable problems,
and the task was both interesting and educational, even though it required
much of my time. It proved to be a thoroughly rewarding experience.
editorial transition began in late October, when I spent two days with Charlie
Heimsch at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. Charlie had three part-time assistants
as well as a proofreader, and one of the assistants had had considerable editorial
experience. By the time I left, I felt overwhelmed with problems and details,
and I wondered what I had gotten myself into. However, there was no turning
back, and I had to return to Oklahoma and organize an editorial office and
staff. To soften the blow, Charlie's assistants had prepared a comprehensive
foldef that contained all details and sequential operations that he and they
had evolved during his editorship. This "Bible" proved to be of inestimable
value, for it gave us a firm basis on which to begin our task. As the years
progressed, we were able to make some innovative revisions and pass everything
on to my successor, Ernie Gifford.
the office adjacent to mine had been vacated. It had ample space, and one
wall was equipped with bookshelves that were divided into convenient compartments
in which we could arrange manuscripts and journal issues in sequential order.
Recruiting a staff was a problem, but with the aid of the University of Oklahoma
Press I was able to obtain a few leads. As it turned out, there was a proofreader
in Norman, and there were people who were interested in doing editorial work.
During the first seven months of operation I had to release one of my original
assistants for incompetency, and the other resigned at the beginning of summer.
Then I had the good fortune to acquire two student wives who were both intelligent
and capable; they remained on the staff for four years and contributed immensely
to whatever success I had as editor. Both were excellent typists, and both
enjoyed the numerous details that confront an editorial operation. Further
staff changes occurred only during the last eight months of my incumbency,
but by then we knew what we were doing, and the changes presented no difficulties.
manuscripts received and journal issues, like objects on an assembly line,
are always in various stages of preparation, the transfer of editorial duties
must be a gradual process. We began to receive new manuscripts and those that
had been through the reviewing system in early November. By the time we submitted
the April issue of the Journal to the printers the transfer was complete,
and we were on our own. For several months thereafter, how-ever, I still found
that I occasionally needed Charlie's advice.
was Charlie's practice to read manuscripts in detail after they had been returned
to him from the reviewers and before they were sent to the authors for revision.
Final editing was then left to one of his assistants. Wisely or not, I decided
to perform the latter task myself. This meant that I could ill afford the
time to read manuscripts in detail before they were revised by the authors.
Instead, if I felt that my editorial changes were so extensive that there
was danger of changing the author's intended meaning, I returned the marked
manuscript to him for his approval. In general, this procedure was successful,
but it did create the only argument I allowed myself to get into during my
editorship. Among several other things, I had objected to the use of noun
clusters and stacked modifiers as exemplified by expressions such as "apical
dome tissue doubling time." Although improving this involves some loss of
brevity, lucidity is too important a commodity to be sacrificed on the altar
of conciseness. The authors, however, contended that my objections were trivial
and that it should be their privilege to express themselves as they pleased.
I may have been hypercritical and somewhat less than diplomatic at first,
but I reasoned that a major function of an editor is to promote the use of
good English—as defined in such publications as the CBE Style Manual
and the Harbrace College Handbook. However, the least abrasive policy may
be to point out objectionable syntax and, if the author still insists, let
him retain it at his own peril. I had discovered that contributors can be
very defensive about their writing.
editors of the Journal have confirmed a discovery I made shortly after beginning
my term: one can edit a manuscript and know and remember very little about
its content. Because reviewers tend to be perfunctory about syntax, it seems
best for the editor to concentrate on such details and rely on reviewers for
the evaluation of content. Besides, no one editor is equipped to judge the
merits and validity of investigations in the many fields of endeavor represented
in an unspecialized journal. In my opinion, a person who agrees to review
an article is obligated to do a thorough, conscientious job, but not all reviewers
feel that way about it. Some reviews were returned to us with no more than
a single commentary sentence—nothing that might offer the researcher
suggestions to improve his work. When reviews are this superficial, it becomes
possible for an occasional article of dubious virtue to slip into print. This
has happened in the past and will doubt-less continue to happen in the future.
Journal has many contributors who write concisely and well and whose illustrations
are a joy to behold. Conversely, there are others whose manuscripts are sloppy,
carelessly written, and atrociously illustrated. Receipt of such a manuscript
always made me feel that the author's research was suspect. I reasoned that
anyone who was careless with manuscript preparation would very likely be
with investigative techniques. Conscientious and careful people usually display
these traits in anything they do; presumably, the reverse is also true.
than a few times we encountered substandard manuscripts that bore the name
of a distinguished professor as co-author. We could only surmise that the
professor was in the habit of sticking his name on everything that came under
his jurisdiction and that he had had little or nothing else to do with the
dubious manuscript. To my way of thinking this is a questionable policy at
best. In other cases a young author would state, under acknowledgements, that
he thanked the eminent Professor Boondogle for "critical reading of the manuscript,"
when it was obvious that Professor Boondogle had either never bothered to
look at it, or that he had lapsed into hopeless senility.
addition to jargon and the abuse of nouns as adjectives, many of our contributors
are addicted to excessive use of the passive voice. The latter appears in
expressions such as "is seen," which I often encountered in the figure lines
for illustrations. "There is." "occurs," or "appears" represent improvements.
The most frequent offenders that I found in my five years with the Journal
were "using" and "due to." While there is nothing inherently wrong with the
present participle "using," it invariably dangles when it is employed with
th ._passive voice. If an author states that "the wood was mascerat~) using
Jeffrey's solution," we suspect that he had an unusual piece of wood that
not only chose the proper (t- -E's-iterating fluid but also
jumped into the liquid by itself. He could have said "I ran scerated i the
wood, using Jeffrey's, solution," but it is even simpler to substitute "with"
for the objectionable participle. Although "due to" is now regarded as a compound
preposition, careful writers will avoid it except when it modifies a substantive
as in "etiolation due to low light intensity." They will employ "because of,"
"on account of," or "by" in "the apple crop was limited due to early frost."
the existence of directions to the contrary, we frequently had trouble getting
authors to butt the illustrations on their photographic plates—no space
between adjacent photos. They seemed unable to understand that spacing is
done with a routing tool by the engravers and that when they attempt it themselves,
the results are less satisfactory and the engraving more expensive. A few
contributors sent us graphs with colored lines. Apparently they did not realize
that colored lines do not reproduce well in black and white and that color
reproduction is prohibitively expensive so far as the Journal is concerned.
There were also difficulties with plates damaged in transit because of poor
packing, with illustrations poorly cemented to the backing, and with broken
transfer letters. Often we were able to make repairs; at other times we had
to return the plates to the authors. On some drawing plates the lines were
too fine and delicate to reproduce well, if at all. Use of a reducing lens
can help a contributor to anticipate this difficulty and correct it before
submitting the plates to the editor.
1970 and 1971 the quality of photographic reproductions in the Journal declined
steadily. Possibly because of this, the number of manuscripts submitted to
us also declined. Several of the 1971 issues were conspicuously thin, and
the volume for that year was some 150 pages less than desirable. The situation
became worrisome to all of us, Larry Crockett in particular; and it became
obvious that it was time to negotiate with another printing firm, for the
fault lay there, not with the en-gravers. In fact, the engravers were as disturbed
as we because the sloppy work of the printers reflected upon them. The final
issue of 1971 attained a nadir of low quality that was most distressing to
those authors whose articles appeared in it. We tried to make amends by having
the reprints redone by our new printers, Allen Press, of Lawrence, Kansas;
but we could ill afford to redo the entire issue. With the change in printers
quality immediately improved, and from that time on there was no dearth of
manuscripts. Rather, so many were submitted that by the end of my term we
had already forwarded 1975 issues through July to Allen Press. There were
two reasons for getting so far ahead: we felt it best not to accumulate manuscripts
in our own office, and we had to limit each issue to about 115 pages for financial
reasons. One undesirable consequence of the latter was an increase in time
between receipt of a manuscript and its publication to approximately 1 l months.
Had it been possible to increase the size of each issue or to publish 12 issues
a year instead of 10—as had been suggested by some contributors, the
time interval could have been reduced to 4-5 months. This problem still confronts
Ernie Gifford, the new editor.
inflation that began in 1973 was largely responsible for our being unable
to publish manuscripts as fast as we received them, hence the increasing delay
between receipt and publication. There is no visible answer to this problem
other than securing more funds or insisting upon shorter manuscripts. In order
to permit new and unfunded investigators to publish the results of their efforts,
it is almost essential that established investigators who have grants should
pay full page charges. Even so, the page restrictions placed upon younger
workers are onerous, particularly if their subject requires extensive illustrative
documentation. On the other hand, the restrictions may discourage prolixity.
during my editorship I received manuscripts in which the author seemed intent
on publishing every datum he collected during his investigation. The resulting
tables and graphs appeared to me to be excessive. In other cases the literature
cited seemed unnecessarily extensive. Some writers seem to feel that they
must cite everything that has
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
Richard M. Klein, Editor
Department of Botany
University of Vermont
Burlington, VT. 05401
Robert W. Long, University of South Florida
Donald Kaplan, University of California (Berkeley)
Beryl Simpson, Smithsonian Institution
September 1976 Volume Tewnty-two Number
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc., Dr. C. Ritchie Bell, Department of Botany, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 26514.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical
Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a year. Send orders with
checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.
Manuscripts intended for publication in PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN should
be addressed to Dr. Richard M. Klein, Department of Botany, University of Vermont,
Burlington, Vt. 05401. Announcements, notes, short scientific articles of general
interest to the members of the Botanical Society of America and the botanical
community at large will be considered for publication to the extent that the
limited space of the publication permits.
Material submitted for publication should be typewritten, doublespaced,
and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent
issues of the Bulletin.
Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University
Micro-film, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of Vermont,
Burlington, Vt. 05401. Second class postage paid at Burlington, Vermont.
bearing on their subject, from Theophrastus to the present. Why not, instead,
cite only the most significant references and refer the reader to pertinent
review articles for a more comprehensive list of the literature? I think that
economic conditions are going to force greater limitations on all scientific
writing. If publications costs continue to escalate, we may be restricted
to publishing scarcely more than abstracts. However, because the "publish
or perish' syndrome has already cluttered the literature with many trite and
unworthy articles, the situation may not be utterly deplorable. We will probably
have to insist on greater brevity and review manuscripts submitted to us much
more critically than in the past, but this need not be entirely detrimental
to the advancement of knowledge.
Journal will have problems that did not confront me during the "golden years"
that I enjoyed, hut I have faith that the Society will he able to adapt and
that the importance and quality of the Journal will be maintained indefinitely.
Legacy of Plant-world:
Myth and Reality
K. Majumder Westfield State College
and folklore have played an important role in the development of man's association
with the plant world. The predominance of objective scientific knowledge in
modern times has not obscured this role.
are not necessarily reflections of man's ignorance. They reflect imaginative
efforts on his part to size up reality in human terms. Often couched in a
mixture of truths, half-truths and total inaccuracies, myths associated with
plants provide meaningful historical and contemporary insights into the respective
both Greco-Roman and Oriental history, abundant evidence exists to indicate
that riches of Nature were viewed with reverence. Still today in India, devotional
songs and dances accompany the tree planting ceremony (Majumder 1971). The
scientific basis for the vital reciprocity between plants and man, however,
was not even suspected until 1774 when Joseph Priestly, a Unitarian minister
from Leeds. England, concluded, "Plants . . . reverse the effects of breathing
and tend to keep atmosphere sweet and wholesome" for animals. Today, while
scientists rigorously study photosynthesis, bumper stickers on the cars inquire:
Have you remembered to thank a green plant today?"
the nascent period of human development (sixth century B.C. through the end
of second century. A.D.) as Reed (1942) identifies it, there appeared some
organized knowledge about plants with considerable socioreligious bias. We
began to humanize Nature—the skies. sunset, storm, flower and trees.
Expressions such as palms of victory, lily of purity, willowy grace and olive
branch of peace illustrate the point. Even Theophrastus, the prodigious Greek
recognized as the Father of Botany, could not conceal his orthodox "vitalism"
as he wrote. . . nourished by the impetus for germination . . . all plants
everywhere, old as well as young, feel the urge for growth" (Reed 1942; p.
in ancient China and spreading into Europe through the Middle Ages, the Doctrine
of Signature insisted that the appearance of a plant (or its parts) was a
guide to its utility, and that the sign was placed by God for the benefit
of faltering nian. A case in point is the herb, mandrake (Mandragora o)ficinarum
of the Solanaceae). The presence in mandrake roots of such pain-killing alkaloids
as scopolamine and hyoscine was not known to us until 1889. We know now that
this plant does not let out a "death-dealing shriek" to protect itself from
empirical observations in widely-isolated cultures have often given momentum
and credence to similar episodes, the most prominent among them being those
related to medicinal plants (Baker 1970; Heiser 1973).
again that myths are generated under social stress and perpetuated by social
values, we can identify the contemporary myths about plant-man association
in such revealing aphorisms as "organic gardening". "natural food", "secret
life of plants", and "green revolution". I submit that these myths would not
have emerged if it were not for our preoccupation with the environmental crisis
and the dehumanized corporate life in highly industrialized societies.
"fad" of organic gardening obscures its scientific legitimacy. The technique
is designed to benefit the soil by regulating its aeration, microbial life,
water-holding capacity, mineral contents and pH. Plants grow just as well
with inorganic fertilizers. In fact, they are incapable of utilizing organic
fertilizers directly; they absorb only the cations and anions which are the
end results of bacterial as well as chemical breakdown of organic molecules.
Why, then, "organic gardening"?
can view organic gardening as a social protest in response to high-handed
agri-business that advocated for so long indiscriminate use of inorganic fertilizers
and pesticides. The sudden awareness of our world as a finite spaceship renders
high acceptability to the equating of organic gardening with the recycling
of wastes. There is both a biological and psychological benefit in the practice
of recreating what we destroy. Organic gardening can indeed be such a practice,
a practice that minimizes the abuse of technology and at the same time protects
the unique custodian of plant nutrients—the soil.
food is a basic need. From the point of view of human cultural evolution,
however, the food habit is not entirely predicated upon this need. To paraphrase
Harvard nutritionist Professor Jean Mayer, it is deter-mined variously by
"conscience, nutrition and pocket-book".
an earlier article (Majumder 1972), vegetarianism was evaluated as an alternative
to diets based on animal protein. While the credibility of this nutritional
mode has increased in recent years, it has often been associated with the
crusade for "nature food" with undesirable results. What is ''natural'is not
always inexpensive and nutritious. Neither is it true that the nutritive value
of "natural" food cannot be improved. The protest against the adulteration
of food is a social protest of individuals against the corporate food industry.
What is really important in this socio-economic confrontation is not that
"natural food" is better, but the diversification of our present food habit
is highly desirable.
on the subject of food, a brief reference should be made to the myth and reality
of the "Green Revolution". With the introduction of high-yielding "miracle
rice" and dwarf wheat, countries in Asia, Africa and South America sought
to become self-sufficient in food produc-
While some countries benefited from this magnificent harvest of scientific
research, many others suffered an ironic consequence of the opposite nature
(Brown 1975). Incapable of restricting their population expansion and already
tied inseparably to world-wide economic competition among rich nations, the
developing countries succumbed to the crushing blow of the "energy crisis."
Furthermore, under relentless advocacy of mechanization and consumerism, great
discrepancies developed between opportunistic rich farmers and illiterate
poor ones. Is there a lesson to be learned from the success of agriculture
in China—a reasonable microcosm for the developing nations (Sprague
1975; Wortman 1975)? We are "back to the drawing board", this time with the
politicians, not the scientists, on center stage.
Have to Believe to See!"
it possible that plants have a secret life that the plant biologists are not
aware of? Tompkin and Bird (1973) assure us: "What makes plants live, or why,
does not appear to be the purview of science". Galston (1974) argues persuasively
that Tompkin and Bird successfully reached many false conclusions by ignoring
accepted rules of evidence.
key expression here is "accepted rules of evidence" which, at present, will
not allow us to "croon to our cattleyas" and "murmur to our mimosas" in order
to make these plants grow better.
may interest readers to learn that I was one of two plant physiologists entrusted
by the Government of India in 1961 to investigate Dr. T. C. Singh's pioneer
claim that musical sounds enhanced plant growth. Contrary to Tompkin and Bird's
implication about Dr. Singh's experiments (see Chapter 10), we failed to confirm
any of his assertions.
evolution of organized knowledge on any subject appears to follow a historical
pattern that has its parallels in many cultures. Since we are probing the
unknown, we have no alternative but to begin with a multitude of assumptions.
The evolution of man's understanding of the plant world is no exception. Over
a period of time, the refinement of our knowledge is brought about by the
interaction between existing social values and the integrity of our measuring
tools—scientific and philosophical rationale.
H. G. 1970. Plants and Civilization (2nd ed.)
Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Inc., p. 23. Brown, L. R. 1974. By Bread
Alone. New York: Praeger
A. W. "The Unscientific Method". Natural History. March 1974. pp. 18-24.
C. B., Jr. 1973. Seeds to Civilization: The Story of Man's Food. San Francisco:
W. H. Freeman and Co., p. 145.
S. K. 1971. The Drama of Man and Nature.
Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Pub. Co., p. 7.
"Vegetarianism: Fad, Faith or
American Scientist 60: 175-179.
H. S. 1942. A Short History of the Plant Sciences.
Mass.: Chronica Botanica Co., p. 38. Sprague, G. F. 1975. "Agriculture in
China". Science 188:
P. and C. Bird. 1973. The Secret Life of Plants. New York: Harper and Row
S. 1975. "Agriculture in China". Scientific American 232: 13-21.
IN THE TROPICS
floristic diversity of woody plants in the tropics is best indicated by analyses
which contrast numbers of species in a given area of tropical and temperate
forest; differences of more than an order of magnitude are easily demonstrated.
The enormous task of recognizing and de-scribing tropical trees continues,
while aspects of structure, growth, function, reproduction, and ecology remain
largely unknown. Generalizations about the biology of woody plants are still
determined with temperate trees as model systems. A more balanced view was
attempted at the Fourth Cabot Symposium, held at Harvard Forest, Harvard University,
April 26-30, 1976, under the title "Tropical Trees as Living Systems." The
approach to the topic was unique; the tree was considered initially as an
individual and its functions were examined from many points of view. This
meant that scientists with widely varying specialization presented an overview
of our current understanding of aspects of the biology of tropical trees.
Early sessions dealt with evolution, diversity and patterns of organization
and included a perspective on fossil evidence of their origins (Doyle, Michigan,
U.S.A.), a study of geographical variation revealed by biochemical analysis
(Whiffin, Melbourne, Australia), discussions of representative families—Palmae
(Dransfield, Kew, England) and Araliaceae (Philipson, Christchurch, New Zealand)
and Araucaria (Veillon, Noumea, New Caledonia). There was consideration of
branching (Tomlinson, Petersham, U.S.A.), modular construction (Prevost, Adiopodoumē,
Ivory Coast), architectural variation (Halle, Montpellier, France) and a precise
analysis of Terminalia-branching was presented (Fisher, Miami, U.S.A.). Roots
were dealt with by Jenik (Prague, Czechoslovakia) and the ecological significance
of leaf shape by Givnish (Cambridge, U.S.A.). Our knowledge of correlative
morphogenetic processes was summarized in relation to branch differentiation
(Nozeran, Paris, France) and to trunk differentiation (Champagnat, Paris,
France). A session considered aspects of floral biology (Baker, Berkeley,
U.S.A.), seeding strategies (Janzen, Michigan, U.S.A.), seedling establishment
(Ng, Kepong, Malaysia) and examples of demo-graphic analysis (Sarukhan, Mexico
City, Mexico). Physiological mechanisms were given attention with a discussion
of hormonal aspects of shoot growth and flowering (Browning, Aberystwyth,
Wales), of extension growth (Longman, Edinburgh, Scotland), and physiological
periodicity in relation to climate (Alvim, Itabuna, Brazil). A survey of abscission
strategies by Addicott (Davis, U.S.A.) emphasized loss of parts as an important
biological process. Water relations were dealt with both in relation to wood
structure (Zimmermann, Petersham, U.S.A.) and to possible regulation of extension
growth (Borchert, Kansas, U.S.A.).
last session had the task of analyzing interactions of processes in the communities
of individuals we recognize as forests. This included a discussion of primary
productivity (Kira, Osaka, Japan), of architecture (Oldeman, Quito, Ecuador)
and crown-shape (Ashton, Aberdeen, Scotland) in relation to the successional
mosaic which makes the forest. Regeneration (Hartshorn, San Jose, Costa Rica)
and forest dynamics (Whitmore, Oxford, England) were discussed. In this progression
from form to function of the individual the speakers uniformly treated tropical
forests as living systems.
results of this Fourth Cabot Symposium, to be published, will hopefully stimulate
research on woody plants in the tropics. At the moment we seem to lack the
wisdom to protect and preserve tropical forests and their diverse biota. This
wisdom may come when we have knowledge of the way in which trees grow and
interact to make forests.
University, Harvard Forest Petersham, MA 01366
SYMPOSIUM ON THE USE OF INDUCED MUTATIONS for improving disease resistance
in crop plants will be convened in Vienna, Austria on January 21 to February
4, 1977 under the auspices of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the
United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Additional
information can be obtained from John H. Kane, Office of Public Affairs, U.S.
Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, D.C. 20545.
SYMPOSIUM ON THE GRASSES AND GRASS-LANDS OF OKLAHOMA will be convened as part
of the fall meeting of the Oklahoma Academy of Sciences at Northwestern Oklahoma
State University at Alva, Oklahoma on November 12, 1976. Topics will include
the ecology of native and introduced grasses and the production of cereal
and small grain crops. Additional information can be obtained from James R.
Estes, Department of Botany & Microbiology. University of Oklahoma, Norman,
AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY (Volume 1, No. 1 January 1967) is being published
for the Ecological Society of Australia by Blackwell Scientific Publications,
Oxford OX2 OEL, England.
NINTH ANNUAL JESSE M. GREENMAN AWARD, a cash prize for the best paper in plant
systematics based on a doctoral dissertation was awarded to Stephan Robert
Gradstein for "A Taxonomic Monograph of the Genus Acrolejeunea (Hepaticae)
published in Bryophytorum Bibliotheca 4, 1975. Papers published in 1976 rre
now being considered for the 1977 award. Reprints of such papers should be
sent to Alwyn H. Gentry, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2315 Tower Grove Road,
St. Louis, Missouri 66130, before May 1977.
AMERICAN HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY has just published a list of environmentally
tolerant plants. The 30-page compilation, "Environmentally tolerant trees,
shrubs, and ground covers" was supported by the Founder's Fund of the Garden
Club of America. Copies can be obtained for $2.95 from the American Horticultural
Society, Mount Vernon, Va. 22121.
MASTER INVENTORY OF PLANT RECORDS has been prepared by the Plant Sciences
Data Center, Mt. Vernon, Va. 22121. The Master Inventory is a computer listing
of the plant records from 29 North American botanical gardens and arboreta
and includes a total of 139,162 records of living plants cultivated in public
gar-dens. It is available in microfiche for $25.
SECTION annual business meeting-luncheon was called to order by chairperson
Howard Bonnett on 2 June 1976 at Tulane University. Among other business,
the following items of concern were approved. 1. To improve communication
among members, publication of reports of Section activities should continue
to be published in Plant Science Bulletin. 2. Don Kaplan, Bill Jacobs and
Jerry Miksche were gently persuaded to volunteer to review and update the
By-laws of the section. 3. Archives of the Botanical Society of America, now
at the University of Texas, should include items from the Developmental Section.
4. Joint programming with the Structural Section was approved and will be
continued. 5. The Wampler Bill (HR 11743) establishes a National Agricultural
Policy Committee to make policy decisions on priorities of agricultural research
and will assure that the research is effectively planned, coordinated and
evaluated. It also provides $15 million for the first year of a competitive
grants program. Since the grants program can become an important additional
source of support for individuals in developmental botany and can improve
the funding climate for the Developmental Biology Program of the National
Science Foundation, members of the Section are urged to write their congressional
representatives, informing them of the importance of a competitive grants
program to basic research and urging them to support the bill.
S. Lane Wilson, Department of Biology, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa
50311 has five shoeboxes of moss specimens. The material was collected about
1950, primarily from Dickinson and Emmet counties in Iowa by C. M. Goodwin
with determinations made by H. S. Conard and R. V. Drexler. About 300 species
are identified and index cards, sketches, etc. are attached. Dr. Wilson would
like to transfer this material to an herbarium where active moss research
is under way.
Plant Science Bulletin can always use interesting and instructive articles
on teaching innovations, ideas and concepts on botany, announcements and reports.
AND PROFESSOR, DIVISION OF BIOLOGY
State University's Division of Biology has 45 faculty members in all areas
of Biology and offers both undergraduate and graduate degrees in Biology,
Micro-biology and Fisheries and Wildlife Biology. The Director will be responsible
for administrative leadership and future development of the Division. Qualifications
include out-standing records in research and teaching. Candidates should submit
a CV with the names of three persons qualified to evaluate in depth the qualifications
of the applicant. Applications should be sent by November 15, 1976 to Dr.
Brian Spooner, Biology Directorship Search Committee, c/o Dean of Arts and
Sciences, Eisenhower Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506.
Department of Biological Sciences of Illinois State University has a position
open for an Assistant Professor as a plant ecologist committed to both teaching
and research. The appointee will teach graduate-level courses in plant ecology
and advanced ecology plus involvement in a team-taught course in biology for
non-science majors. Applications and three letters of recommendation should
be sent to Dr. Howard R. Hetzel. Chairman, Department of Biological Sciences,
Illinois State University, Normal, III. 61761.
DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY
Department of Biology, Winthrop College, Rock Hill, So. Carolina 29733 invites
applications for a full professor and chairman of the department. A doctorate
in a biological field is required and applicants in botany are especially
desired. The appointment will start on 1 July 1977 and applications will be
accepted until 1 December 1976. Applications and names of three recommendees
should be sent to Dr. L. V. Davis, Chairman of the Search Committee, Department
of Biology, Winthrop College, Rock Hill, South Carolina 29733.
Herbarium of the University of California. Los Angeles has an opening for
a museum technician. Desirable qualifications include a B.S. or B.A. in botany,
biology or plant sciences with a major including course work and training
in plant systematics. Applications should be sent to Dr. Frank Almeda, Department
of Biology, University of California. 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90024.
Department of Horticulture of Washington State University announces a Horticulturist
position at WSU's irrigated Agricultural Research and Extension Center in
Prosser, Washington. A Ph.D. in horticulture, plant science or related discipline
with a strong background in plant physiology in plant growth and water relations
is required. The position is 100% research on vegetable crop production
and physiology. Complete resume, transcripts and three letters of reference
should be sent to Dr. O. E. Smith, Department of Horticulture, Washington
State University, Pullman, WA 99163.
DID YOU SAY?
HAS LONG BEEN KNOWN..." I didn't bother to check the original reference.
GREAT SCIENTIFIC INTEREST . . ." It piqued my interest.
THANK MY RESEARCH ASSISTANT . .." Jimmy actually did the experiments.
RESULTS ARE GIVEN ..." These are the only data I have.
STUDIES WILL BE REPORTED . .." I will get another paper from this study.
IS BELIEVED THAT . . ." I think so, but am afraid to admit it.
IS GENERALLY BELIEVED THAT .. ." My students believe it too.
IS GENERALLY ACCEPTED THAT . . ." A guy at a meeting thought so too.
COULD BE ARGUED THAT . . ." My colleague down the hall isn't sure.
WITHIN AN ORDER OF MAGNITUDE ..." Probably wrong.
HIGH PURITY . . ." Label on bottle was smudged.
STIMULATE RENEWED INTEREST . . ." Let someone else get frustrated.
WITH EXTREME CARE DURING PREPARATION ..." Not dropped on the floor.
TO THE TYPE SPECIMEN . . ." At least in the same family.
STAINED ..." Accidently left overnight in fast green.
SAMPLE CHOSEN FOR DETAILED STUDY ..." Fixed material smashed in transit.
Jere Brunken, a recent graduate of the University of Illinois, has been appointed
assistant professor of botany and curator of the Herbarium at The Ohio State
University. He is currently working on a revision of the genus Pennisetuun
OF 1973 — Public Law 93-205
Endangered Species Act of 1973, enacted by the Senate and the House of Representatives,
is of importance to botanists. The Act is designed to "provide for the conservation
of endangered and threatened species of fish, wildlife and plants ..." Quoting
again (p. 2), "The purposes of this Act are to provide means whereby the ecosystems
upon which endangered species and threatened species depend may be conserved,
to provide a program for the conservation of such endangered species and threatened
species and to take such steps as may be appropriate to achieve the purposes
of treaties and conventions ..." to which the United States has pledged its
sup-port in the worldwide conservation of wild fauna and flora.
principal authority holding responsibility for the enforcement and the operation
of the Act is the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, through its Office of Endangered
Species. Other agencies of the federal government involved in the implementation
of the Act are the U.S. Department of Commerce, the U.S. Department of Agriculture
and the Smithsonian Institution.
lists of plants have been prepared by the Smithsonian Institution and these
have been published in the Federal Register, Department of the Interior volume
40, Part V on 1 July 1975. Listing is by states and includes the family, genus
and species of plants considered to be endangered or threatened. The Office
of Endangered Species has set criteria for listing. Before the final listing
of a plant as threatened or endangered, the Office must have a status report.
Quoting from a letter received from the botanists in the Office of Endangered
Species, "Obviously, we may not know certain items for a species, but must
be able to indicate enough in terms of the current threats listed in the Act.
One of our main functions is to seek those data from the botanical community;
we have sufficient contract money at this time to aid the effort." Anyone
with sufficient information can request or petition the Office of Endangered
Species to consider a species for listing. The Office is now responsible for
some 24,000 species, but is clearly inadequate with regard to mention or listing
is clear that the botanists to whom the task of organizing the compliance
with the Act has been given are going to need help. It is hoped that the concerned
specialists who are members of the Botanical Society, as well as other interested
individuals, will cooperate in every way possible in assisting in the registration
of endangered and threatened species of plants. Drs. Bruce MacBryde (Chief
Botanist) and Dr. Gail S. Baker (Botanist) are charged with the development
of the program. Their address is:
States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service
of Endangered Species
Office has prepared a publication which will be of interest to botanists concerned
with the matter: "Liaison Conservation Directory for Endangered and Threatened
Species." Botanists are urged to get involved in this important activity.
G. Solheim, Chairperson Conservation Committee, 1975
Robert W. Long died in his sleep on 21 July 1976. During the 1971-1975 period,
Bob was the Editor of the Plant Science Bulletin. His tenure in this office
was marked by many innovations in the Bulletin, all of which succeeded in
making the Bulletin into a publication of distinction in science. He was a
distinguished teacher and research scientist and Botany has lost one of our
DAVID AND LEE WEDBERG. Botany: A Human Concern. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.
1975. 401 pp., illustrated. Instructor's Manual available.
Botany students have a variety of needs and expectations. Some are beginning
a career; others are forced to take the course. Members of either group may,
however, be in the other camp before the semester ends, so every student has
a need in common: the course must provide a working grasp of what Botanists
do, what they claim to know, what the goals of research are, where the frontiers
and doubts lie, and how problems are approached and solved. Because the authors
faced this responsibility, and to a large extent succeeded, Rayle and Wedberg's
Botany: A Human Concern is a fine new textbook for Introductory Botany.
book is readable and intelligently organized. After discussing photosynthesis,
for instance, the importance of the process to the biotic world is discussed,
along with man's impact on it. In presenting data to illustrate a point, the
authors often pause to discuss the experiment and who performed it. This integration
of method and background with botanical concepts clarifies the nebulous images
many people have of scientists and their activities. The conversational style
of the book is pleasant, but I object to the authors' use of contractions.
major theme, presented through introductions to physiology, taxonomy, ecology,
anatomy, evolution and agriculture, is that the biotic world is complex, often
beyond man's understanding, yet that man's needs are satisfied by exploiting
it, often with unpredictable consequences. The authors do not pander doomsday
tales, but encourage reflection on disquieting facts, presented fairly and
convincingly. This device conveys the relevance of biological phenomena and
intrigues students with plant-related interests. It draws and warms them without
intimidating less involved students.
basic information is presented, with valuable reflection and commentary. The
result is the successful conveyance that Botany has both substance and soul.
Davis University of Vermont
E. W. Soil Conditions and Plant Growth. 10th Ed. Longman, New York. 1974.
xviii plus 849 pp. $23.50.
10th Edition reaffirms this book as a classic on soil conditions and plant
growth. As soil is indispensable to the growth of most plants, adequate knowledge
of soils is necessary for most botanists. If this book were to be dissected
for content specific to a unit area of plant science, I believe the plant
physiologist would get first share. This reflects Russell's great knowledge
of soil and plant chemistry and physics. The ecologist would likewise find
a rich harvest, mycologists could hardly fail to be well rewarded, and morphologists,
geneticists, and taxonomists may find viewpoints or data of interest from
an otherwise unfamiliar field. In comparing the 10th with my well-used 8th
Edition an expected similarity in content is evident. Its size has been increased
and new material has been added. The literature coverage is extensive and
impressive and substantial coverage is given tropical and arid regions, so
the book is definitely not limited to topics of interest in Britain. There
is an author index, but no bibliography.
10th Edition has a heightened scientific quality and authority but I found
it not so consistently readable as the 8th, sometimes because of the technical
aspects of a topic and sometimes because of the style. Editorial gremlins
were not fully exorcised in the preparation of the text or figures. The breadth
of coverage, the excellence of topical presentation, and the command of the
literature all commend this book strongly to botanists. Its use could rescue
students from the deplorable presentations of the nitrogen cycle found in
all too many biology and ecology texts these days.
J. B. AND C. F. VAN SUMERE (eds.). The Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant
Proteins. Academic Press (London). 1975. $30.75.
is need for a general reference volume on plant proteins. Unfortunately, that
need will remain for a while. In spite of its title, this volume is simply
a collection of papers presented at the Phytochemical Society Symposium in
Sept. 1973. The ten papers are individually well-organized and illustrated,
and cover amino acid sequence analysis, immunochemistry, storage proteins,
barley proteins, protein synthesis, mitochondrial and chloroplast biogenesis,
effect of phenolics, protein sweeteners, and taxonomy. If your interests lie
here, you will be well-served. Many topics of obvious interest to the plant
biochemist or student are not included, nor is there a general summary or
attempt to put these individual topics into a phenomenological or historical
context. Whatever the merits of the individual papers, I find myself disappointed
with tantalizingly titled books which turn out to be multi-authored potpourris.
Racusen University of Vermont
J. B. (ed.). Plant Carbohydrate Biochemistry. Academic Press (London). 1974.
is a collection of 16 papers presented at the Phytochemical Society Symposium
in April 1973. As in the volume reviewed above, there is a considerable gap
between the very general title and the specialized content. However, that
discrepancy is not felt as keenly because the need for a reference volume
on carbohydrates is less pressing. The coverage of topics is wide and timely:
from photosynthetic carboxylation to the synthesis and degradation of polysaccharides,
including three papers on the lesser known carbohydrate relatives: polyols,
glycolipids, and glycoproteins. The papers are well-organized and illustrated.
I was especially happy with Walker's diagrammatic comparison of chloroplasts
in the light and dark (p. 12) and Sharon's "spectrum" of glycoprotein carbohydrate
content (p. 238). This volume would be a good addition to biochemistry departmental
Racusen University of Vermont
C. A. (ed.). Hybridization and the Flora of the British Isles. London: Academic
Press, 1975. Pp. xiii + 626. $39.25.
A. Stace has brought together the descriptive and experimental knowledge accumulated
on hybrids of the British vascular plants. With the collaboration of 86 specialists,
Dr. Stace has provided a useful reference work for the botanist interested
in cytotaxonomy. All of the hybrids recorded from the British Isles are represented
here in a systematic review.
the Introduction, Dr. Stace presents a useful summary of the topic of hybridization.
A general review of evolutionary significance, structural features and recognition,
establishment, sterility and fertility, nomenclature, and chemical studies
is presented. This background provides an up-to-date, practical aid for anyone
interested in studying hybrids.
the systematic section, accounts of over 1400 hybrids are given. Dr. Stace
has used Dandy's List of British Vascular Plants as the definitive list of
plants naturalized in this area. Brief mention is made of the occurrence of
foreign hybrids. Information concerning naturalized hybrids is divided into
several paragraphs covering valid binomial and important synonyms, summary
of characteristics, ecological and geographical distribution, survey of experimental
work, and known chromosome numbers of hybrids and parents. For each hybrid,
background literature and illustrated publications are cited.
is an excellent reference for use in cytotaxonomic research and teaching as
well as for the field botanist interested in hybrids.
R. Sullivan University of Vermont
ULRICH AND JACK DAINTY (eds.). Membrane Transport in Plants. Springer-Verlag,
New York, 1974. 473 pp. illust. $30.00.
February, 1974, an "International Workshop on Membrane Transport in Plants"
was held at the Nuclear Research Centre, Julich, West Germany. The Workshop
brought together expertise from all fields related to membrane transport for
clarification of the problems facing membranologists. The need to survey the
fields in the form of a workshop reflects the failure of the literature to
re- view adequately recent advances. Membrane science has fractured into many
subtopics which are now the subject of reviews, and the goal of the Workshop
was to integrate the progress made in each of these subfields. Zimmermann
and Dainty's book, an account of the proceedings of the Workshop, is a survey
rather than a review.
book consists of sixty-four papers representing nine topics and sessions with
an edited "Round Table Discussion" by participating scientists following each
session. Papers are short (six to nine pages) and documented. Although the
papers present some new data, they are written to give concise descriptions
of particular problems. Topics include thermodynamics of synthetic membranes,
electrical properties of bio-membranes, osmosis, regulation of transport,
transport in algae, cell suspension cultures, chloroplasts, and organs of
higher plants. The only comment on conflicting data and/or hypotheses is in
the Round Table Discussions. These are well-edited and are the most important
part of the book. No attempt was made to bridge the topic gap, e.g., between
membrane ATPases and osmotic regulation. Thus, the book presents most of the
problems but provides little insight into possible solutions. This underscores
the need for a comprehensive re-view of our current understanding of membranes.
students and investigators will find this book to be a quick directory to
the literature and a source of contemporary membrane theory. The potpourri
of approaches to understanding membranes should spark ideas along new avenues
P. Briggs University of Vermont
SHERWIN. Ecological Strategies of Xylem Evolution. University of California
Press, Berkeley. 1974. 259 pp., illust.
very literate author has attempted to attribute ecological significance (or
functional significance or selective value) wherever possible to histological
features of the xylem. In this he has to a large degree succeeded. His arguments
are persuasive, backed by considerably more evidence than were the interpretations
of earlier physiologically-minded anatomists who indulged in intuitive reasoning.
In Carlquist's book one will find answers (or probable answers) to such questions
as: Where (in which habitat, in which organ, in a young or old organ, in a
plant of what habit) would you expect to find longer or shorter xylem elements,
wider or narrower elements, simple or scalariform perforation plates, etc.?
Why do the Hawaiian Islands have a flora with simple perforation plates? All
of this he treats from a functional point of view. His chapters on conifers,
monocots and dicots are by far the best. Other taxa are less well treated
and in certain instances important characteristics bearing on his arguments
are overlooked or are obscured by generalizations. I'll assign the book to
my students and I'll likely read it again a time or two.
W. Bierhorst University of Massachusetts
Studies in the People's Republic of China: A trip report of the American Plant
Studies Delegation. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 1975. xiii
+ 205 pp. $7.25.
a year after the opening of the gates of New China to the United States, delegations
of scientists from the U.S. and the People's Republic were visiting their
in the other country. In the United States, most official visits were handled
by the National Academy of Science's Committee on Scholarly Communication
with the People's Republic of China. This book is the report of one such sponsored
visit, from August 27-September 23, 1974.
by Sterling Wortman of the Rockefeller Foundation, the U.S. delegation included
Nobelist Norman Borlaug, Nyle Brady of the International Rice Research Institute
in the Philippines, seven other crop and plant scientists, an Asian specialist
and translator, and a staff member of the Committee. They traveled from Canton
in the south to Ch'angch'un in the north, Shanghai, Peking, Nanking and Sian
as well as other stops. The visitors met scientists, agricultural workers,
officials and political leaders, their liaison and comfort being assured by
a Chinese plant physiologist and four staff members assigned to them. Each
delegation member accepted responsibility for preparation of a portion of
many American travelers before them, the delegation found China's development
"remarkably successful." They noted that "crops looked good wherever the team
traveled." They credit the Chinese for efficient organization and for excellent
use of existing information and technology, noting possibilities for improvement
through extended use of chemical fertilizers and breeding for in-sect and
disease control. Like others, they are puzzled by the educational aftermath
of the Cultural Revolution, and cannot judge what will happen to the education
of scientists in the near future. They note and applaud the effort to reduce
population growth rate.
is a valuable publication, as far as it goes. It accurately reports what the
members saw and heard, and will undoubtedly inform many Americans of facts
they still insufficiently appreciate. Yet, in some respects, the book misses
the mark by not emphasizing what has made China so uniquely able to transform
itself from a back-ward, destitute nation to a disciplined, self-sufficient,
healthy country where education is available to all and literacy is the rule.
The price paid, in loss of personal freedom, is unacceptable to western democracies,
yet China is an attractive model for emerging third-world and fourth-world
nations. The agricultural communes of China, on which more than six hundred
million people now live and work, may well be the most important social instrumentality
on earth outside the family. On the security and prosperity of these huge
cooperative enterprises, less than on biological innovation, rests the future
of the New China. In not giving adequate emphasis to these political realities,
the delegation fails to see the agriculture for the plants.
W. Galston Yale University
MERION, S. L. RANSON AND J. A. RICHARDSON. Plant Physiology (5th edition).
Long-man Group Limited, London. 1973.
are many ways to teach and to write about plant physiology, but this book
chooses what must be one of the dullest. Nowhere is the excitement or the
wonder of plant function permitted to shine through. Rather, information is
presented dryly, with parsimonious use of pictorial material. The result is
a verbose and monotonous presentation, unpunctuated with data to help the
reader discriminate between major and minor considerations. Given that the
text is over a thousand pages long, this is too much to ask of any student.
I, for one, feel that this is a shame, since the book does present much valuable
information on many aspects of plant physiology. Some of it is very dated,
and has not really been brought up to the 1970's, despite the recent date
of publication. A note on p. 739 informs us that the revision was completed
in 1965, and supplemented only in particular places by Dr. D. R. Thomas. The
strongest points in the book are the extensive and authoritative treatments
of intermediary metabolism and general plant biochemistry. The weakest points
concern growth phenomena. Despite its drawbacks as a text, this volume will
make a useful addition to the reference shelf.
W. Galston Yale University
DAVID H. S. The vanishing lichens, their history, biology and importance.
Hafncr Press, Macmillan Publishing Co., New York. 1974. 231 pp., 68 fig. $12.00.
excellent popular work on lichens is a summary of recent literature. After
a brief chapter on the history of lichenology, a summary of lichen growth
rates is used to date glacial moraines and the megaliths of Easter Island.
Assuming tombstones were erected within a year or two of death, rates of growth
over a period of years can be determined by measuring the diameters of thalli
of the same species in the same cemetery. Another chapter discusses the role
of lichens in soil formation, and in erosion of surfaces of statuary, tombstones,
and stained glass.
were widely used as dyestuffs in northern Europe before the advent of aniline
dyes. Roccella sp. were used in the production of litmus until the synthesis
of sulfonephthallein indicators during the First World War, resulting in the
practical extinction of the genus in Baja California and greatly reduced yields
on other coasts.
have been used as human food and Cladina rangiferina forms an important food
for caribou in the Subarctic. Many lichens produce antibiotics, but none commercially.
Lichens are used as bases for perfumes in central Europe. Mites, insects and
gastropods feed on lichens and some birds use fragments of foliose and fruticose
lichens in building their nests.
interesting aspect of lichen growth is their use as indicators of atmospheric
pollution, especially to sulfur dioxide and by metals such as nickel and copper.
Atmospheric pollution has eliminated lichens from large centers of population.
If one follows a road to outlying areas, one notes the absence of lichens
in the center, then the beginning of depauperate thalli on trees after several
miles, then better developed sterile thalli and, finally, normally-reproducing
lichens twenty to thirty miles from the center.
popular work is provided with a large bibliography of recent literature, mostly
in English, for further reading.
W. Dodge University of Vermont
Brasiliensis, Volume III, parts IV-VI. C.F.P. de Martius, A.G. Eichler (successors
to Ignatius Urban), editors. Orchidaceae, parts I-III (including all plates),
written by Alfred Cogniaux, 1893-1906. Reprint 1975 by Otto Koeltz Science
Publishers, D-624 Koeningstein, West Germany. Subscription price DM 540 (about
$230); post publication price DM 650 (about $277).
classic orchid books are now out of print and rare. When available, they are
expensive because collectors, scientists, libraries, speculators and (disgustingly)
interior decorators (who tear them up and use the illustrations to paper powder
rooms) snap up every available copy. Libraries often refuse to lend them on
interlibrary loan be-cause of their rarity and great value. Thus, one must
often bypass careful, first-hand examination of such books.
of the firms which has been very active in orchid book reprinting is Otto
Koeltz Antiquariat. They are in the process of reprinting all of Schlechter's
books and have republished the three orchid volumes of Flora Brasiliensis
by Alfred Cogniaux. These are Volume III, part IV, originally published 1893-1896
(Orchidaceae I); Volume III, part V, originally published in 1893-1902 (Orchidaceae
II) and Volume III, part VI, 1904-1906 (Orchidaceae III), which contain text
only. A fourth volume contains the illustrations. The quality of reproduction
and binding are excellent. The nomenclature and approach may not be considered
entirely correct today but they will prove extremely useful to those trying
to resolve problems which still exist.
the rarity of the originals (they are virtually unobtainable), their high
price (if available) and the importance of this work, the four volumes are
inexpensive, if not for individuals, at least for libraries.
STEPHANNE BARRY. In China's Border Provinces. The Turbulent Career of Joseph
Rock, Botanist-Explorer. 334 pp. New York, Hastings House. $9.95.
Ernest "Chinese" Wilson opened the door of the Far East to western horticulture,
Joseph Rock brought new dimensions to Chinese and Tibetan exploration. Those
who have examined Rock's meticulous specimens will agree with Egbert Walker
on his "thorough and unstinting" habits of work.
Franz Karl Rock was born in Vienna in 1884, attended Benedictine primary school,
and was destined for the ministry. At thirteen he taught himself Chinese and
after the Gymnasium, wandered over Europe and North Africa dodging penury,
poverty, and bouts with tuberculosis. By his early twenties he was in New
York, then in Texas, Mexico, and finally, still in search of a victory over
tuberculosis, he arrived in Honolulu in 1907.
competence in ten languages—"a linguistic smorgasbord"—lead to
an appointment teaching Latin and natural history at Mills School in Honolulu.
Soon he was collecting seeds and herbarium specimens for the Territorial Division
of Forestry. He published forty-five titles between 1911 and 1921, including
his classic Indigenous Trees of the Hawaiian Islands (1913).
left Hawaii in 1920. He went to Burma for chaulmoogra, valued for leprosy,
and began a long association with the National Geographic Magazine. His search
for blight-resistant chestnuts took him into the China he had longed to know.
Rock's own recollections quoted from his diaries and a manuscript autobiography,
which Rock called his "funnybook," are so rich and pungent that we often wish
for less Sutton and more Rock.
Ewan Tulane University
H. E., Editor-in-chief. Tissue Culture and Plant Science. Academic Press,
New York. 1974. xii + 502 pp., illust. $19.75.
book is a collection of the nineteen plenary leccures given at the Third International
Congress of Plant Tissue and Cell Culture held in Leicester, England in the
summer of 1974. Of the nineteen chapters (plus a summary chapter), I thought
those on organogenesis in epidermal and subepidermal cells, protoplast fusion,
selection of biochemical mutants, and genetic transformation in plants were
outstandingly excellent. Some chapters I thought were rather ordinary. No
doubt, other readers might express a different set of preferences. The point,
however, is that the obligation to publish the major invited papers presented
at a meeting such as this always runs the risk of producing just such a heterogeneous
collection of chapters. This book has value in that it gives one an overview
of what certain people consider to be the current research front in plant
tissue culture, but a good deal of old ground also is replowed. The book is
printed by offset from double-spaced typescript. I would feel a little more
positive about it if it had been single-spaced and printed on recycled paper.
Norstog Northern Illinois University
CLAIR A. Wildflowers of Louisiana and Ad-joining States. Louisiana State University
Press, Baton Rouge. xi + 247 pp. $10.00.
A. Brown has prepared a useful and welcome guide to many of the wildflowers
in Louisiana and adjacent states. There are other similar works available
in the Southeast, but none which cover at a reasonable price specifically
this area. Dr. Brown's many years in Louisiana brought a familiarity with
the flora evident throughout the book.
extensive introduction covers many points which will be useful to the amateur
and the professional botanist. Significance, nomenclature, and classification
of plants are discussed in sufficient detail for the beginning enthusiast.
A concise, but very thorough section on the structures of flowers, including
those of certain families, is especially useful. The section on the vegetation
of Louisiana includes a map of the regions.
bulk of the work consists of color photographs accompanied by short descriptions.
Generally, two species are treated per page. The descriptions are short, but
diagnostic. Habitat and distribution by state are briefly mentioned. The species
chosen for treatment are not always those one would expect. A few such as
Ottelia alismoides and Mertensia virginica are known only from one or two
locations within the area. In my opinion, a few photo-graphs do not show enough
of the plant for the beginner, and some are not as clear as would be liked
and some reproductions of colors are not exact. The illustrations for Liatris
pycnostachya and L. squarrosa are reversed, though other errors are few. These
minor criticisms should not detract from the usefulness of the book.
McDaniel Mississippi State University
HELEN I. Aquatic Plants of Australia. A Guide to the Identification of the
Aquatic Ferns and Flowering Plants of Australia, Both Native and Naturalized.
Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria, April 1974. xv + 368 pp., 138
figs., 83 maps. $34.65 (USA).
latest addition to the rapidly growing bookshelf of aquatic botany is this
elegantly illustrated small book
Helen I. Aston. The 138 accurate and detailed line drawings, many of them
full-page plates, were done by the author from freshly-collected material.
They are extremely informative and artistically arranged.
author has defined aquatic vascular plants rather narrowly so that only truly
submersed, floating, or emersed species in permanent bodies of water are included,
thus treating only 222 species of the rich aquatic and sub-aquatic Australian
flora. Woody plants and rushes and most aquatic sedges and grasses are excluded.
This narrow interpretation eliminates the fascinating ephemerals of temporary
pools and wetland plants of salt marshes, man-grove swamps, bogs, and shallow
fresh-water marshes and swamps. The author fully considers and delineates
marine phanerogams often ignored by other botanists.
taxonomic treatment is conservative and even-handed. The alphabetical arrangement
of taxa within each class or subclass is especially laudable. The marine aquatics
are split rather unrealistically, but generally I can find little fault with
the taxonomy. The author seems quite up-to-date in her knowledge of taxonomic
and distributional literature. Specialists and well-informed amateurs will
not miss a key to families, but many environmentalists and aquarists will
flounder about in the pages of this book examining the drawings to spot the
family and genus of the aquatic in hand. A simple family key would save an
enormous amount of time and prevent much exasperation.
addition to the superb illustrations, there are 81 dot maps to show the distribution
of key species in Victoria. The rest of Australia is not entirely slighted;
Appendix 3 is a 7-page distribution chart indicating the known range of each
aquatic in each of Australia's states and territories, with one column added
for "Ex-Aust." There are also good location maps for Victoria and for the
whole of Australia with Tasmania. No botanical library nor enthusiastic aquarist
can afford to by-pass this excellent volume.
F. Thorne Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden
RAM, H. Y., J. J. SHAH AND C. K. SHAH (eds.). Form, Structure and Function
in Plants. Professor B. M. Johri Commemorative Volume. Santa Prakashan, Nauchandi,
India. 1975. x, 457 pages, illustrated. $30.00 postpaid.
is appropriate that Professor B. M. Johri was honored by a commemorative volume
on the occasion of his retirement from the Botany Chair at the University
of Delhi. Not only is he part of a distinguished botanical tradition, but
he has been a powerful driving force in botany both in India and internationally.
As one expects in such a volume, it is a collection of papers by students,
colleagues and friends, some of them original contribu-
SCIENCE BULLETIN DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT BURLINGTON, VERMONT
some general reviews, and some little more than laboratory reports. The collection
is heterogeneous and there is little underlying theme that binds the papers
in a section or the various sections together. A major impression one gets
of the volume is the broad range of botanical research sparked by Professor
Johri and the extent of his influence on plant science.
M. Klein University of Vermont
GEORGE W. The Plant Kingdom. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York. 1974. 540
plus ix pages, illustrated.
was a pleasure to examine George Burns' introduction to the diversity of plants,
The Plant Kingdom, for the quality and clarity of his thought is apparent
throughout. The book begins with a discussion of the variety and importance
of life cycles, and introduces a vocabulary and clear diagrammatic system
used consistently throughout the book. He stresses the universality and necessity
of syngamy and meiosis for true sex, and indicates the range and evolutionary
plasticity of the various cycles. Too many students in plant diversity courses
attain this under-standing late in the semester or not at all, and become
mired in an endless and seemingly meaningless variety of life cycles.
one foundation thus firmly established, Burns clarifies a second core idea.
He examines the historic plant/animal dichotomy and its weaknesses, then introduces
the five kingdom concept, not without the admonition that it, too, is not
inviolate. The book then proceeds through the plant divisions. Burns does
not cover the viruses, and chooses to delineate four gymnospermous di-visions.
Discussions of morphology, phylogenetic trends and economic importance are
certainly not unique. In this book, however, they are readable and thought-provoking.
The study questions at the end of each chapter are intriguing and heuristic.
I have never so enjoyed such questions in a comparable book. When Burns examines
the evolutionary history of a group he presents the evidence clearly enough
that students new to such considerations will be able to follow the logic.
Life cycle diagrams are clear but other diagrams and photographs are not consistently
so. Readers will note the paucity of biographical material. Certainly, everything
cannot be included, and no criticism is intended in my pointing out its absence.
Burns describes the plant world rigorously, faithfully and readably.
Davis University of Vermont