PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
1968 Volume Fourteen Number Four
University of Nevada
careful review of published papers over the last decade shows that there are
few individual long-term research projects in existence today. By long-term
research, I refer to studies which span more than one human lifetime and which
follow the original plan laid down by the initiator of the study. By individual,
I mean the work of one man (not a committee or commission) which shows promise,
but cannot be completed during his lifetime.
are, for instance, long-term studies planned to cover the viability changes
of seeds stored in a vacuum over hundreds of years which were set up in 1947
by F. W. Went. Dr. Beal's seed viability study is an example of a long-term
study which has been passed on to other scientists. Another example is the
long-term erosion studies set up by Luna Leopold (personal communication).
Al-though there are a few other individual studies of long-term duration,
it is not the purpose of this report to de-scribe all the long-term studies
in existence, but to pave the way for setting up such studies in the future.
The main problem appears to be financing. Most existing studies do not have
a built-in means of perpetuation and financing.
studies, by their nature, can be completed by the originator during his lifetime.
Other research can only be productive if carried on for fifty, or one hundred
or more years. Often a young researcher is not in a position to plan such
studies until he is 40 or 50 years old. This limits the time of his contribution
to the work to 20 or 30 years. In many cases, this is not long enough to reap
the full harvest of information from a long-term study.
"publish or perish" policy of many research and educational institutions is
contributing to the scarcity of long-term studies. Federal research agencies
discourage long-term research by demanding frequent publication, and by transferring
scientists from one location to another so often that no follow-through on
any particular study by its originator is possible. A change of administrators
often means the loss of long-term studies. Private re-search organizations
often depend on contract research which rightly demands immediate results
for the dollars invested.
research, such as studies on the rate of erosion, or the rate of decay of
wood, long-term radiation effects, tree genetics, vegetational succession
geological studies, human genetics and aging, meteorological studies and weather
modification, the life span of tissues or cultures and others, requires fifty
years or more of consistent study to show broad, long-term patterns and cycles.
Studies on the position and luminosity of stars require centuries.
is a need for a legal means of establishing and perpetuating long-term studies
which will encourage more scientists to think of planning such work.'
suggested means of perpetuating long-term research would be through a legal
"Last Will and Testament" and a trust fund administered by a recognized university
or college, or an organization such as the National Academy of Sciences.
the scientist plans his work, tests and perfects the techniques and methods
during his lifetime, and finally lays a masterplan to continue the study for
N years. The masterplan should state objectives, pertinent literature, and
give details of techniques, methods and timing, describe freedom to alter
the original plan, name three trust agencies, name personnel, list costs,
prescribe publication and authorship, with results-to-date appended. One copy
of the masterplan is given to the primary trust agency (a university or college,
or an agency such as the National or regional Academy of Science) . One copy
of the masterplan is given to each of the second and third trust agencies
as an insurance against loss by fire, holocaust, or other means. This plan
of three repositories for information is presently in use by Luna Leopold
for erosion data. If one set of plans or data is lost, two more are available
through the second and third trust agencies. A fourth copy of the originator's
masterplan is given to the primary trust agency to be turned over to the primary
successor when he inherits the research.
next problem is to select funding to carry out the work. Long-term research
could be funded in two ways: a) private resources, b) public money. A scientist
may wish to leave a portion of his estate or a gift from some private source
to support his work. Alumni-support pro-grams for long-term research could
also be established to encourage needed research. Private funds might also
come from private research foundations. Private funds could be put in a trust
fund or a low-risk mutual fund so that they will increase in value with time.
Such funds would be administered by the primary trust agency which should
also be the funding agency or other dependable sponsor. If trust funds are
used, provisions must be made to reduce
The author is grateful to Attorney R. Leland for legal advice.
principal periodically so that the fund will ultimately be depleted when the
research is finished.
funds could come from the National Science Foundation or other government
agency and would be administered by the supporting agency. In most cases,
Federal agencies are funded for one year only. Long-term funding would require
special legislation to allow commitment of funds over long periods of time.
Much long-term research requires a few months' work every five or ten years
so the amount of support needed in many cases might not be large.
next problem is to select someone to carry on the research. The originator
may select one of his students who shows interest in the particular study,
or an outsider. Or he may leave the selection of a successor to a special
committee of the primary trust agency. It is important that the originator
select someone (primary successor) to carry on the work who is honest, of
high ethical standards, sincerely interested in the work, convinced of the
value of the study, and able and willing to do the work. Ideally, one person
should be chosen to carry on the work (primary successor), with two alternates
(secondary and tertiary successors) in case of the death of the primary successor.
The originator of the study might arrange to have the primary successor work
with him for a time so that by actually participating in the study, the younger
scientist who will carry on the work will become thoroughly familiar with
the techniques and objectives. It is important in many studies that care be
taken in the details of collecting and processing data to avoid discovering
at a later date that different methods have been used which cannot be compared.
will through the masterplan should not only name the primary researcher and
his alternates, but also should name and locate the three trust agencies,
as well as leaving provisions for willing the work to a third generation if
necessary. In such a case, it is the papers, data, and notes which are willed.
The masterplan should state how much money is to be paid to the primary successor
for his work, by whom it should be paid, and when. It should cover the time
and means of disposal of any private property or investments involved in the
study and the tentative termination dare for the work. The masterplan should
also direct a special committee of the primary trust agency to reassign the
study to an alternate scientist if the primary successor becomes disabled
or incapable of doing the work. The masterplan may direct the primary successor
to re-establish a study which is lost or destroyed by some accident.
special committee of the trust agency should be responsible for seeing that
the work is carried out on time, and in the manner prescribed by the originator.
It should see that final or progress reports, data and publications are prepared
as needed. A board of scholars in the field of the study may be assembled
by the primary trust agency to advise the agency on changes in the masterplan
if the need arises. Once the initial format for planning, financing, and willing
the work is established, the results will be well worth the effort.
H. T. 1941. The sixty-year period for Dr. Beal's
viability experiment. Amer. J. Bot. 28:271-273. WD:NT, F. W., AND P. A. MUNZ.
1949. A long-term test of
longevity. El Aliso 2(1) :63-75.
FROM THE EDITOR
copy for the "December" issue was not available until now in early January,
and therefore it will probably not appear until February. Members are requested
to send in as much copy, including appropriate lead articles, as soon as possible
so that the Bulletin might again get back to its calendar schedules.
American Security & Trust Company, 1111 Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W., Washington,
D.C. 20004, has asked us to help them locate the someone who purchased a Morgan
Guaranty draft from them on July 26, 1968. The draft in question was in the
amount of $8.50 payable to the International Society of Plant Morphologists.
Apparently the purchaser failed to put his name with the check, and the International
Society of Plant Morphologists of Delhi, India has no way of knowing whom
to credit for this remittance. And that is why your subscription has not been
the present time the Botanical Society of America has a membership somewhat
over 3000, but there are a number of newly arrived professional botanists
(and some not so new) who deserve the privileges of membership in the Society,
and indeed who may in a sense owe it to their fellow botanists to join the
organization that has consistently represented their profession at all levels.
In subsequent issues we plan to obtain statements and testimony from present
and past officers of the Society to show what our organization has contributed
to the welfare of botany and botanists. In the meantime we urge you to use
the membership form printed on the last page of this issue to sign up a new
member. Should you prefer not to destroy your copy, some reasonable facsimile
(Xerox, Verifax, Etc.—fax copy) will be equally acceptable. Prepare
as many copies as you wish; we are not copyrighted!
of Botany, Washington State University
P. Banks, Cornell University
H. Doke, University of Oklahoma
S. Greenfield, Rutgers University
L. Stern, University of Maryland
Steiner, University of Michigan
1968 Volume Fourteen Number Four
of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
America, Inc., Dr. Theodore Delevoryas, Department of Biology,
University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520.
for libraries and persons not members of the Bo-
Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a
orders with checks payable to "Botanical Society of
Inc." to the Treasurer.
submitted for publication should be typewritten, double-
and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow
style of recent issues of the Bulletin.
of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University
300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
J. H. Corner and C. R. Metcalfe Elected to Corresponding Membership
John Henry Corner is one of the botanical geniuses of our time and by his
own definition "a classical morphologist proudly." Equally as conversant with
the intricacies of fungal structure and systematics as he is with the morphology,
evolution, and taxonomy of the angiosperms, he has pursued major research
problems in these two very different aspects of botany for over forty years.
His studies have been reported in some 100 publications including seven outstanding
books or monographs. The latter graphically illustrate his mastery and breadth
of interest. Way-side Trees of Malaya was first published as a two volume
work in 1942 and came out in a second edition in 1952. 1960 had seen the publication
of A Monograph of Clavaria and Allied Genera, a 755 page classic. In 1964
Corner published a beautifully illustrated and thought-provoking text-book
of elementary botany entitled The Life of Plants. Just two years later came
both The Natural History of Palms and A Monograph of Cantharelloid Fungi.
In 1967 Fie-us in the Solomon Islands appeared as a 136 page contribution
in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, and the impending
publication of a mono-graph on Thelephora as a Beiheft of Nova Hedwegia was
announced. Few plant morphologists of this century have made so broad and
deep a mark upon botanical science.
Corner served from 1929 to 1945 as Assistant Director, Gardens Department,
Singapore. There he gained his love and lore of the tropics, there he taught
monkeys to collect botanical specimens in the treetops, and there while a
prisoner in World War II he was decorated by the Emperor of Japan for his
scientific work. After two years with UNESCO in Latin America, Corner returned
to Cambridge, where he had received his MA. He has been on the faculty of
that distinguished university since then and in 1966 was honored by appointment
to a special chair as Professor of Tropical Botany. Professor Corner was elected
a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1955 and has been honored by award
of the Darwin Medal from that Society in 1960 and the Patron's Medal of the
Royal George Society in 1966.
Russell Metcalfe, Keeper of the Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Garden,
Kew, England, is widely recognized for the scope and high quality of his contributions
to the comparative and systematic anatomy of the angiosperms. In addition
to his many papers on various aspects of plant anatomy, he is the author (in
collaboration with Dr. L. Chalk) of the encyclopaedic two volume work entitled
"Anatomy of the Dicotyledons." This treatise, published in 1950 and characterized
by the painstaking description and collation of data on the structure of the
leaf, stem and wood of representatives of the majority of dicotyledonous families,
is an outstanding landmark in the advancement of botany in the present century.
the ninth International Botanical Congress (Montreal 1959), Dr. Metcalfe announced
the initiation of re-search at the Jodrell Laboratory on the systematic anatomy
of monocotyledons. This highly diversified and poorly understood group of
flowering plants has unfortunately never received the kind of intensive anatomical
study de- voted to dicotyledons, a circumstance which has contributed to a
rather one-sided approach to systematic relation-ships in the angiosperms
as a whole. The publication of a series of volumes dealing with the systematic
anatomy of various monocotyledonous families is however now in progress at
Kew. In 1960, Dr. Metcalfe published, as the first volume in the series, the
results of his many years of study on the systematic anatomy of grasses. At
present, he is engaged in preparing a comparable treatise on the very difficult
family Cyperaceae. Volume II on the palms by Dr. P. B. Tomlinson appeared
in 1961 and other families are now being studied by Dr. Metcalfe and his associates
at the Jodrell Laboratory as well as by various collaborators in the U.S.A.
Thus the project, originally be-gun by Dr. Metcalfe, has awakened international
interest and is proving successful in attracting that type of active botanical
cooperation which is needed to insure its completion.
Metcalfe has been prominent in recent International Botanical Congresses and
has served as chairman or president of the sections devoted to systematic
anatomy. He is a member of many scientific societies in England as well as
abroad, was one of the founder members of the International Association of
Wood Anatomists and has served since 1956 as Botanical Secretary of the Linnean
Society. His outstanding career as Keeper of the Jodrell Laboratory and his
meticulous studies in plant anatomy have earned him the high regard of botanists
throughout the world.
Courses at Mountain Lake Biological Station
University of Virginia announces that the following botanical courses will
be given at the Mountain Lake Biological Station this summer:
Term—June 12 through July 15
Ecology: Dr. Frank McCormick, University of North Carolina
Term—July 17 through August 21
Dr. Constantine J. Alexopoulos, University of Texas
Biosystematics: Dr. C. Ritchie Bell, University of North Carolina
types of National Science Foundation awards are available for research and
study at the Station: (1) Post-doctorate for research, stipend $1300; (2)
Predoctorate for supervised research, stipend $500; and (3) Postgraduate for
training in field biology, stipend $400. Preference is given for studies concerned
with the biota of the region. Application blanks for these awards may be se-cured
from the Director, Mountain Lake Biological Station, Department of Biology,
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903 and must be submitted
before May 1, 1969.
of Darbaker Prize in Phycology for 1969
committee on the Darbaker Prize of the Botanical Society of America will accept
nominations for an award to be announced at the annual meeting of the Society
at Seattle, Washington, in 1969. Under the terms of the be-quest, the award
is to be made for meritorious work in the study of microscopical algae. The
Committee will base its judgment primarily on the papers published by the
nominee during the last two full calendar years previous to the closing date
for nominations. At present, the award will be limited to residents of North
America. Only papers published in the English language will be considered.
The value of the Prize for 1969 will depend on the income from the trust fund
but is expected to be about $250. Nominations for the 1969 award accompanied
by a statement of the merits of the case and by reprints of the publications
supporting the candidacy must be received by June 1, 1969, by the Chairman
of the Committee, Dr. G. F. Papenfuss, Department of Botany, University of
California, Berkeley, California, 94720.
Award in Experimental Plant Morphology
Conservation and Research Foundation has established the Jeanette Siron Pelton
Award in Experimental Plant Morphology, and has invited the Botanical Society
of America (1) to establish a Jeanette Siron Pelton Award Committee to select
three possible candidates for this award, ranked in order of preference, for
consideration by the Trustees of the Foundation, and (2) upon final action
by the Foundation to make the presentation of the Award on behalf of the Foundation
at the annual meeting of the Society. This award, honoring the memory of Jeanette
Siron Pelton, will consist of a $1,000 premium to be given not more often
than annually to a person selected for his sustained and imaginative productivity
in the field of experimental plant morphology. The field may be broadly defined
to include the subcellular, cellular and organismal levels of complexity.
The award will not be restricted as to sex, nationality or society affiliation
of the recipient, nor as to the language in which his work is published. Publications
need not be restricted to reports of original re-search but may include books
and reviews. However, something noteworthy must have been published within
the past five years. There will be no obligations imposed upon the recipient
other than to enjoy the award and the honor which it may bring.
Trustees have suggested a time schedule that might permit the announcement
of the first Award at the Inter-national Botanical Congress in Seattle in
the summer of 1969. Dr. F. C. Steward of Cornell University has agreed to
serve as chairman of the Botanical Society's committee on the Pelton Award
for the first year.
Short Course in Botany at Yale University
botanists of the Department of Biology at Yale University will conduct a course
entitled "Recent Advances in Botany" ( June 22—July 19, 1969) as part
of the National Science Foundation's College Teacher Programs. The objectives
will be to provide comprehensive high-level cov-
of rapidly advancing areas of botanical knowledge to university, college and
junior college faculty members who are teaching botanical subjects. Applications
and in-formation may be secured by writing to:
Arthur W. Galston, Director
Course in Botany
Kline Biology Tower
Haven, Connecticut 06520
Short Course in Mycology at the University of North Carolina
NSF-supported Summer Short Course in Mycology for college teachers is being
held at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, June 9-27. The course
is sponsored by the Botanical Society of America and is designed to bring
the 30 selected participants up to date on recent developments in the field.
The teaching staff will consist of John Couch, Peter Day, A. J. Domnas, Melvin
Fuller, W. J. Koch, L. S. Olive, John Raper, Kenneth Raper, and D. P. Rogers.
For further information, write to the Director, Dr. Lindsay S. Olive, Department
of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 27514.
Research Participation in Botany for College Teachers at the University of
Department of Botany at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, has
been awarded a grant of $16,300 by the National Science Foundation for conducting
a re-search participation program for college teachers during the summer of
1969. The grant provides stipends of $1,000 each for six postdoctoral participants
and $750 each for two predoctoral participants. In addition, each participant
will receive an allowance of $150 per de-pendent and a travel allowance. The
program will begin June 16 and end August 23.
teacher of biological science in a U.S. college or junior college is eligible
to apply. Application forms and a brochure describing the program may be secured
by writing the Director of the program, Dr. Victor A. Greulach, Department
of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 27514.
program is unique among others of the same kind elsewhere as regards the large
number of professors and varied botanical disciplines provided for choice
by the participants, enabling them to do research in a field that is in line
with their interests and backgrounds. The professors available for directing
the research of participants are John N. Couch, Lindsay S. Olive, William
J. Koch, and Clyde J. Umphlett in mycology; Max H. Hommersand in phycology
and algal physiology; A. J. Domnas in plant biochemistry; Edward G. Barry,
Clifford Parks, and Paul Mangelsdorf in genetics; J. Frank McCormick and Howard
T. Odum in ecology; and A. E. Radford, C. Ritchie Bell, and Clifford Parks
in plant taxonomy and systematics.
goal of the program is to provide an opportunity of resumption of research
activity by college teachers who have been unable to continue active investigation
because of lack of time, space, or facilities.
at Carnegie-Mellon University
University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania has acquired the largest and most complete
collection of Linnaeana now in the United States.
collection, now at C-MU's Hunt Botanical Library, was formerly the property
of the family of the noted Swedish physician and direct descendant of Linnaeus,
Dr. Birger Strandell, of Stockholm. It includes all but four minor titles
of every book, pamphlet, and magazine article known to have been published
by Carl Linnaeus.
acquisition of the Strandell Collection, funded by grants from the Richard
King Mellon Charitable Trusts and The Hunt Foundation, was announced at the
annual meeting of the Advisory Committee of the Rachel Mc-Masters Miller Hunt
Conservancy To Offer 6 Island Hawaii Tour
Nature Conservancy will offer a 6 Island Tour of Hawaii following the National
Convention in Seattle August 22 and 23, 1969. The tour will depart from San
Francisco or Los Angeles August 23 and Seattle August 24, bound for 14 days
in our 50th state. Priced at $524 from San Francisco (or $544 from Seattle),
the tour will visit Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Hawaii, Kauai, and Lanai, all six
further information, write: Unitours of San Francisco, Inc., Sausalito, California
Botanical Gardens Technical Bulletins
Royal Botanical Gardens, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada announces a new serial
publication, Royal Botanical Gar-dens Technical Bulletins. Generally these
bulletins are de-signed to present and interpret botanical information in
a format suitable for the use of biologists, including advanced amateurs,
while incorporating more technical and specialized information than is usually
feasible in strictly popular publications.
Bulletins appear at irregular intervals and are paged separately.
1. Aquatic Plants for Fish and Wildlife, by W. John Lamoureux. 1963. 29 pp.
2. The Common Aster Species of Southern Ontario, by James S. Pringle. 1967.
3. The Common Solidago Species (Goldenrods) of Southern Ontario, by James
S. Pringle. 1968. 14 pp.
in preparation include: Checklist of the Spontaneous Vascular Flora of the
Royal Botanical Gardens, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; and Guide to Field Identification
of Gentiana Species in Eastern North America. Future Technical Bulletins will
include descriptions of new cultivars being introduced by the Royal Botanical
Gardens, as well as additional guides to plant identification.
issues previously published are still available on request from the Royal
Botanical Gardens, Box 399, Postal Station "A", Hamilton 20, Ontario.
of Interest for Conservationists
The Federal Committee on Research Natural Areas has published a "Directory
of Research Natural Areas on Federal Lands of the United States of America."
This di-rectory is available from the Superintendent of Documents for seventy
cents. This useful directory lists the location, holding agency, vegetation
type and special geological or faunistic features. Over 300 natural areas
are listed and cross indexed.
Spring 1968 issue of "The Nature Conservancy News" gives a complete listing
of all of their land holdings with sizes, locations, and principal features.
Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the U.S. Senate and the Committee
on Science and Astronautics of the U.S. House of Representatives of the
90th Congress have jointly issued a Congressional White Paper on "A National
Policy for the Environment." This very important document may be obtained
from either of the above committees. An appendix lists all of the legislation
pertaining to environmental quality which was introduced in the 90th Congress.
18 member Governments of the Council of Europe have agreed that 1970 will
be a European Nature Conservation Year (E.C.Y.). The E.C.Y. will formally
open in February 1970 with a conference in Strasbourg. Subsequent national
and regional conferences and information campaigns will be launched throughout
Europe. Further information can be obtained from the Direction de L'Information,
Du Conseil de L'Europe, 67 Strasbourg, France.
National Committee for INQUA Announces Travel Support Program For Eighth INQUA
Congress in Paris
U.S. National Committee of the International Union for Quaternary Research
(INQUA) is undertaking a travel support program to insure that the United
States will be represented by a substantial number of qualified scientists
at the VIII International Congress of INQUA, to meet in Paris, August 30-September
5, 1969. Funds for this purpose, now being solicited from a number of government
agencies and private foundations, will be administered by a Travel Grants
Subcommittee, with Dr. William S. Osburn, Jr., as Chairman. This subcommittee
will establish criteria for judging applications for travel support, will
receive and screen the applications, and will select those to receive grants.
you are interested in applying for support you should write Dr. Osburn at
the Environmental Sciences Branch, Division of Biology and Medicine, U.S.
Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.C. 20545, and provide information
as to your circumstances. You should indicate what specific role you are to
play in the Congress and/or its General Assembly. If planning to present a
paper, you should if possible enclose an abstract or a copy of the text. If
you will have any special functions (e.g. chairman of a session, member of
a discussion panel, or other official responsibility), you should so indicate.
You should also specify the sum of money needed. If you expect to receive
partial travel support from other sources, and you apply
the U.S. National Committee for a correspondingly reduced grant, this may
improve your chances of receiving a grant. In any case, grants by the U.S.
National Committee will be limited to economy-fare transportation costs, and
will not include living expenses.
for travel grants should be received in Dr. Osburn's office by March 15, 1969.
Grants will be awarded on or about May 1, 1969.
Proteus, Hopkins Marine Station's New Research Vessel
96-foot tuna clipper is being purchased by Stanford University to replace
the sailing schooner TE VEGA in the biological oceanographic teaching and
research pro-gram conducted by Stanford's Hopkins Marine Station at Pacific
NSF will continue its support of the program in operations of the new research
vessel—to be named the RV PROTEUS. The new program will recruit qualified
faculty and students in biological oceanography from with-in Stanford University
rather than nationally and internationally as before. Two courses already
have been planned for teaching aboard the ship. The emphasis will be on re-search
by faculty and by students preparing theses for advanced degrees.
P. H. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands.
by P. H. Davis, assisted by J. Cullen and M. J. E. Coode, University of Edinburgh.
Volume two, Edinburgh, at the University Press, 1967; xii, 581 pages, 16 full-page
line illustrations, 68 distributions maps. Price 9 pounds, nine shillings.
North American agent, Aldine Publishing Company, 320 West Adams St., Chicago
60606. U.S. price, $33.50.
second volume, of what is planned as an 8-volume flora, continues the arrangement
begun in Volume 1, following in general the order of Boissier's Flora Orientalis.
Thirty-three families are treated, beginning with Portulacaceae and ending
with Celastraceae. The Caryophyllaceae and the related Illecebraceae together
occupy almost half the book. American botanists will be interested in the
treatments of Polygonaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae, in which not
only genera but many species are familiar. The genus Hypericum (Guttiferae)
, with 69 species, is one of the largest genera in the flora; Linunn, Geranium,
and Rhamnus are also represented by numerous species.
plan and scope of the flora as a whole were presented in the initial volume,
which appeared in 1965. An informative and readable review of Volume 1, by
F. A. Stafleu, appeared in Taxon (Vol. 15, pp. 77-78. 1966). The quality of
the present volume is equal to that of the first; the type is clear and easy
to read, the illustrations are of excellent quality, the paper and binding
are good. There are more than twice as many distribution maps as there were
in the first volume.
unique feature of Volume 2 is the inclusion of a list of the principal botanical
collectors in Turkey since 1888 (i.e., since the completion of Boissier's
Flora Orientalis). For about 200 collectors the following information
available) is given: reference to relevant literature; years when collections
were made; itineraries, keyed to a map divided into 25 numbered areas; herbaria
where the collections are represented.
map referred to above was used in the first volume of flora as a basis for
summarizing and characterizing the different types of distribution of species
within Turkey. The 25 numbered subdivisions bore more or less familiar names,
many of them classical Greek (like Lydia, Phrygia, Cappadocia, Bithynia, etc.),
that were also familiar to the users of the Flora Orientalis. Readers of the
second volume will find it more difficult to visualize distributions of species
within Turkey, as in deference to the wishes of the Turkish Government, the
editor has discarded the traditional place names, and cited specimens with
reference to a system of numbered squares (Al, B2, etc.) or to the more than
60 political subdivisions called vilayets.
is to be hoped that the editors will be able to complete the flora on schedule.
A thoroughly modern floristic treatment of the Turkish flora, which has not
been described as a whole for almost a century, will be an invaluable reference
work for taxonomists and plant-geographers everywhere.
J. W. Tropical Crops, Dicotyledons. Vol.
(pp. 1-332) and Vol. 2 (pp. 333-719). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
$8.50 each volume.
all crop plants of the temperate zone are grown on a commercial scale somewhere
in the tropics. Thus, a complete treatment of tropical crops would include
temperate crops also. The task of writing a treatise on the economic botany
of all these crops is almost too formidable for any one man. Nevertheless,
Dr. Purseglove has done a magnificent job of covering the wide field. A few
crop plants have been missed, including the pili nuts (Canarium species),
quite a number of minor fruits (including Flacourtia), some minor vegetables,
and temperate fruits grown in restricted areas of the tropics.
volumes are arranged by alphabetical ordering of the families (Vol. 1, Anacardiaceae
to Leguminosae; Vol. 2, Malvaceae to Urticaceae). Twenty-two families of lesser
importance are combined in the final chapter, "Other Useful Products." An
appendix lists all families and species mentioned in the text. This and a
conventional index are well-organized and easy to use. Most major sources
of information concerning tropical crops are listed as "General References."
However, sources of information on individual crops are often not well-documented.
Latest references are not always included. This leads to some inaccuracies
and unwarranted generalizations. The cover-age of Latin American literature
is frequently inadequate.
series of topics such as nomenclature, origin and distribution, husbandry,
diseases and pests, production, etc. are discussed for each crop or group
of related crops. Some of these topical divisions are unnecessary, as the
information presented consists of as few as three words. On the other hand,
major plantation crops are discussed in great detail. An excellent, well-documented
chapter concerns the origin and distribution of tropical crops.
although not as abundant as desirable, are
drawings of excellent quality. The writing is clear, but not elegant, and
of its excellent coverage, the present work outdates Cobley, 1956, "An Introduction
to the Botany of Tropical Crops," and Macmillan, 1949, ."Tropical Planting
and Gardening." Whereas coverage far surpasses that of Ochse, et al., 1961,
"Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture," the former lacks the detailed treatment
of soils and climate which makes the latter valuable. Spanish-speaking people
may find Leon, 1968, "Fundamentos Botanicos de los Cultivos Tropicales," a
more useful source, especially concerning minor fruit and vegetable crops
but the emphases of the two publications differ.
volumes should be in every agricultural Iibrary as basic reference materials.
Investigators with broad interests in tropical agriculture will also find
them worth-while. The student of a particular crop will find these volumes
a useful introduction, but will frequently have to make his own detailed literature
search. As a text, the present work is much more complete than any other available.
The needs of the amateur gardener, field man, or small scale agriculturalist
should be well-satisfied.
completion of this series by publication of comparable information on monocotyledons
will enhance the value of the work, and it is to be hoped that such publication
is not long delayed.
R., E. C. BATE SMITH, AND D. G. LAND. Odour Description and Odour Classification.
American Else-vier Publishing Company, Inc., New York. 1968. 191 pages + viii.
first glance this book hardly appears to be one that might interest botanists,
and my first inclination was to return the review copy to the publisher. But
a statement in the Editor's Foreword, "The approach to the subject matter
of this book is above all multidisciplinary, involving especially psychology,
botany and biochemistry," is well borne out by the contents of the volume.
In a historical review we learn that the first really effective system of
odor classification was founded by Linnaeus, 1752, whose examples were all
from botany. Other botanical systems, including those involving odors of fungi,
are discussed in considerable detail. Information is provided about a number
of other systems, both subjective and chemical methods, for describing and
classifying odors. Depending upon one's skill and experience, the number of
individually distinguishable odors ranges from 16 for trained students to
about 150 for expert perfumers. A bibliography of over 200 references is followed
by both author and subject indices.
C. W. Essays on Form in Plants. University of Manchester Press, Manchester
and Barnes & Noble, New York, 1968. 399 pages. $8.75.
essays of C. W. Wardlaw cover a period of development and transition in the
field of plant morphogenesis and may be considered as a record of concept,
deed, and expostulation over more than two decades. The writer has led the
way in plant morphogenesis taking his cues from Hofmeister, Sachs, and von
Goebel, on the one hand,
his directions from modern biochemistry and biophysics, on the other, in an
attempt to explain the hows and whys of plant form. Now an elder statesman
of "this ancient, liberal, and humane subject," that is, botanical science,
Wardlaw has sought to achieve the fullest possible integration of the multifarious
branches of phytology through the common denominator of plant morphogenesis.
His efforts are recounted in this series of essays.
book itself is divided into three parts: Part one is an historical introduction
tracing the conceptual evolution of plant morphology through Wardlaw's early
work; part two contains thirty of Wardlaw's papers published between 1944
and 1966, printed exactly as in the original, except that the bibliographies
are carried together in a terminal part of the volume; in part three Wardlaw
timorously outlines his thoughts on future trends in plant morphogenesis.
The first and third parts attempt to tie the essays together, which indeed
they do. As a record or outline of Wardlaw's prodigious botanical activity,
this volume achieves a goal. But, the reader must always bear in mind that
these essays only provide a tantalizing glimpse of Wardlaw's botany.
of the Business Meeting, Botanical Society of America
State University, Columbus, Ohio
President Arthur W. Galston called the meeting to order at 11 A.M. in Room
352 of Denney Hall. The 79 members present at the beginning of the meeting
constituted a quorum.
Minutes of the Business Meeting of 1967 as published in the Plant Science
Bulletin were approved.
Chairman of the Election Committee, Dr. D. W. Bierhorst, presented the
names of the newly elected officers for 1969:
Board: Harold C. Bold
Treasurer, the Secretary, and the Program Director continue in their respective
offices for 1969.
Secretary presented the recommendation of the Committee on Corresponding
Members. Dr. E. J. H. Corner of Cam-bridge University and Dr. Charles
R. Metcalfe of the Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, were proposed for membership
and were unanimously elected. This raised the total number of such members
to 39. In view of the Constitutional limitation of 40 and in order that
a number of names might be proposed for 1969 on the occasion of the International
Botanical Congress, it was voted that an amendment to the Constitution
should be circulated to the membership prior to the next annual meeting
which would increase the maximum number of corresponding members to 50.
The President will instruct the past-presidents who serve as a Committee
for selection of corresponding members to make every effort to review
nominations in order that the candidates may be elected at the next annual
meeting, following the expected pas-sage of the amendment increasing the
total to 50.
T. Delevoryas presented the Treasurer's report. As in the past this report
will appear in the forthcoming Yearbook. It was pointed out that the proposed
budget for 1969 was balanced only because of the unusually small contribution
from the Society to the American Journal of Botany. This decreased contribution
circumvented an increase in dues at this time, which would other-wise
have been necessary. The Budget for 1969 was approved unanimously.
Business Manager of American Journal of Botany, Dr. L. Crockett, presented
a report on the finances of this major activity of the Society. Due in
part to income from page charges the Journal is in excellent condition.
The Business Manager emphasized that no paper is ever turned down because
of lack of money from grants or university sources to cover the page charges;
he pointed out that page charges are never mentioned until after the paper
has been accepted for publication.
Charles Heimsch, Editor of the American Journal of
gave a short report on the editorial aspects of the Journal. He pointed out
that by August 15th nearly as many new manuscripts had been received as during
the whole of 1967. He noted that the individual issues of the present volume
have appeared on time and that due to close work with the printer as well
as a change in type and quality of paper there had been considerable improvement
in the quality of illustrations. In an effort to speed the reviewing process
the telephone has been used in arranging reviews. Publication time now averages
between seven and eight months from submission of the manuscript, e.g., one-half
of the articles in the October issue now in press were received in March,
while some were received as late as April and May. There is no backlog of
revised manuscripts. A motion was proposed and passed expressing the thanks
of the Society to the Editor and his staff and the Business Manager and his
staff for the excellent work they are doing for the Society.
President Galston summarized for the membership at the Business Meeting the
various actions of the Council taken at its meeting on September 2, as follows:
Botanical Society has been asked by the Conservation and Research Foundation
to establish an award committee to recommend candidates for the Jeanette
Siron Pelton Award honoring the memory of Mrs. Pelton. The award of $1000
is to be given annually to a person selected for his sustained and imaginative
productivity in the field of experimental plant morphology, broadly defined
to include the subcellular, cellular and organismal levels of complexity.
The award is to be made annually at the Annual Dinner of the Botanical
Society. The Council recommended acceptance of this invitation.
is customary, the sites of future meetings must be selected several years
in advance in order to allow for necessary arrangements. In 1969 the Society
will not hold any paper-reading sessions but will hold its regular Council
and Business meetings during the International Botanical Congress in Seattle.
The membership is urged to support the activities of the Congress and
to plan to attend the Business Meeting which will he held there. In 1970
the Society will meet with the AIBS at Indiana University in Bloomington.
In 1971 .the Society will meet separately from the AIBS; the site and
the type of meeting are yet to be decided. The Program Director, Dr. Ritchie
Bell, will appreciate any suggestions from the membership in this regard.
One possibility is a meeting in Canada with the Canadian Botanical Society.
Pre-Conference Symposium was a success this year and a second one is planned
for our next regular meeting in Bloomington in 1970.
Council has endorsed the Summer Institute in Botany planned for 1969 by
Dr. Lindsay Olive of the University of North Carolina.
new career booklet "Botany as a Profession" has been well-received. It
is available from the Secretary's office; 1 to 3 copies are free-of-charge
but multiple copies cost 5.25 each. President Galston expressed the sense
of great loss to the Society in the death of Dr. Robert Page, who was
responsible for the new edition of the careers booklet.
Secretary's office has just issued a new edition of the GUIDE TO GRADUATE
STUDY IN THE U.S. This booklet of 87 pages describes 115 departments which
offer Ph.D. degrees in some area of the plant sciences. It is available
from the Secretary at a cost of $3.00 each postpaid.
Galston called on Drs. Kenneth Raper and Kenneth Thimann, respectively
in charge of arrangements for and President of the XI International Congress,
for comments on plans for the Congress. Dr. Raper pointed out that although
the Congress finances were not as plush as one could have hoped for, we
would have a good Congress "cake but nor so much icing." He expressed
again the appreciation of the Organizing Committee of the Congress for
the financial support given by the Botanical Society and other plant societies.
The Botanical Society of America will have a Business meeting at the Congress
and will also host foreign visitors either at a reception preceding the
Congress Banquet or at a banquet of its own. The usual awards and citations
will be presented at that time.
A. J. Sharp presented a resolution which was passed with unanimous approval:
Botanical Society wishes to express its gratitude to the administrative officers
of The Ohio State University, to the staff of the American Instinue of Biological
Sciences and its local representative, Dr. Bernard S. Meyer, and to our local
representative, Dr. Ronald L. Stuckey, for their work in planning for the
excellent arrangements and facilities provided for the 1968 meeting."
motion duly seconded and approved, the meeting adjourned at 12:25 P.M.
submitted, Richard C. Starr