PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN

A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

December, 1968   Volume Fourteen   Number Four

Long-Term Research

Nellie M. Stark
Desert Research Institute
University of Nevada

A careful review of published papers over the last decade shows that there are few individual long-term research projects in existence today. By long-term research, I refer to studies which span more than one human lifetime and which follow the original plan laid down by the initiator of the study. By individual, I mean the work of one man (not a committee or commission) which shows promise, but cannot be completed during his lifetime.

There are, for instance, long-term studies planned to cover the viability changes of seeds stored in a vacuum over hundreds of years which were set up in 1947 by F. W. Went. Dr. Beal's seed viability study is an example of a long-term study which has been passed on to other scientists. Another example is the long-term erosion studies set up by Luna Leopold (personal communication). Al-though there are a few other individual studies of long-term duration, it is not the purpose of this report to de-scribe all the long-term studies in existence, but to pave the way for setting up such studies in the future. The main problem appears to be financing. Most existing studies do not have a built-in means of perpetuation and financing.

Some studies, by their nature, can be completed by the originator during his lifetime. Other research can only be productive if carried on for fifty, or one hundred or more years. Often a young researcher is not in a position to plan such studies until he is 40 or 50 years old. This limits the time of his contribution to the work to 20 or 30 years. In many cases, this is not long enough to reap the full harvest of information from a long-term study.

The "publish or perish" policy of many research and educational institutions is contributing to the scarcity of long-term studies. Federal research agencies discourage long-term research by demanding frequent publication, and by transferring scientists from one location to another so often that no follow-through on any particular study by its originator is possible. A change of administrators often means the loss of long-term studies. Private re-search organizations often depend on contract research which rightly demands immediate results for the dollars invested.

Some research, such as studies on the rate of erosion, or the rate of decay of wood, long-term radiation effects, tree genetics, vegetational succession studies, weathering

 

and geological studies, human genetics and aging, meteorological studies and weather modification, the life span of tissues or cultures and others, requires fifty years or more of consistent study to show broad, long-term patterns and cycles. Studies on the position and luminosity of stars require centuries.

There is a need for a legal means of establishing and perpetuating long-term studies which will encourage more scientists to think of planning such work.'

A suggested means of perpetuating long-term research would be through a legal "Last Will and Testament" and a trust fund administered by a recognized university or college, or an organization such as the National Academy of Sciences.

Initially, the scientist plans his work, tests and perfects the techniques and methods during his lifetime, and finally lays a masterplan to continue the study for N years. The masterplan should state objectives, pertinent literature, and give details of techniques, methods and timing, describe freedom to alter the original plan, name three trust agencies, name personnel, list costs, prescribe publication and authorship, with results-to-date appended. One copy of the masterplan is given to the primary trust agency (a university or college, or an agency such as the National or regional Academy of Science) . One copy of the masterplan is given to each of the second and third trust agencies as an insurance against loss by fire, holocaust, or other means. This plan of three repositories for information is presently in use by Luna Leopold for erosion data. If one set of plans or data is lost, two more are available through the second and third trust agencies. A fourth copy of the originator's masterplan is given to the primary trust agency to be turned over to the primary successor when he inherits the research.

The next problem is to select funding to carry out the work. Long-term research could be funded in two ways: a) private resources, b) public money. A scientist may wish to leave a portion of his estate or a gift from some private source to support his work. Alumni-support pro-grams for long-term research could also be established to encourage needed research. Private funds might also come from private research foundations. Private funds could be put in a trust fund or a low-risk mutual fund so that they will increase in value with time. Such funds would be administered by the primary trust agency which should also be the funding agency or other dependable sponsor. If trust funds are used, provisions must be made to reduce

' The author is grateful to Attorney R. Leland for legal advice.

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the principal periodically so that the fund will ultimately be depleted when the research is finished.

Public funds could come from the National Science Foundation or other government agency and would be administered by the supporting agency. In most cases, Federal agencies are funded for one year only. Long-term funding would require special legislation to allow commitment of funds over long periods of time. Much long-term research requires a few months' work every five or ten years so the amount of support needed in many cases might not be large.

The next problem is to select someone to carry on the research. The originator may select one of his students who shows interest in the particular study, or an outsider. Or he may leave the selection of a successor to a special committee of the primary trust agency. It is important that the originator select someone (primary successor) to carry on the work who is honest, of high ethical standards, sincerely interested in the work, convinced of the value of the study, and able and willing to do the work. Ideally, one person should be chosen to carry on the work (primary successor), with two alternates (secondary and tertiary successors) in case of the death of the primary successor. The originator of the study might arrange to have the primary successor work with him for a time so that by actually participating in the study, the younger scientist who will carry on the work will become thoroughly familiar with the techniques and objectives. It is important in many studies that care be taken in the details of collecting and processing data to avoid discovering at a later date that different methods have been used which cannot be compared.

The will through the masterplan should not only name the primary researcher and his alternates, but also should name and locate the three trust agencies, as well as leaving provisions for willing the work to a third generation if necessary. In such a case, it is the papers, data, and notes which are willed. The masterplan should state how much money is to be paid to the primary successor for his work, by whom it should be paid, and when. It should cover the time and means of disposal of any private property or investments involved in the study and the tentative termination dare for the work. The masterplan should also direct a special committee of the primary trust agency to reassign the study to an alternate scientist if the primary successor becomes disabled or incapable of doing the work. The masterplan may direct the primary successor to re-establish a study which is lost or destroyed by some accident.

A special committee of the trust agency should be responsible for seeing that the work is carried out on time, and in the manner prescribed by the originator. It should see that final or progress reports, data and publications are prepared as needed. A board of scholars in the field of the study may be assembled by the primary trust agency to advise the agency on changes in the masterplan if the need arises. Once the initial format for planning, financing, and willing the work is established, the results will be well worth the effort.

LITERATURE CITED

DARLINGTON, H. T. 1941. The sixty-year period for Dr. Beal's

seed viability experiment. Amer. J. Bot. 28:271-273. WD:NT, F. W., AND P. A. MUNZ. 1949. A long-term test of

seed longevity. El Aliso 2(1) :63-75.

NOTES FROM THE EDITOR

Sufficient copy for the "December" issue was not available until now in early January, and therefore it will probably not appear until February. Members are requested to send in as much copy, including appropriate lead articles, as soon as possible so that the Bulletin might again get back to its calendar schedules.

The American Security & Trust Company, 1111 Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W., Washington, D.C. 20004, has asked us to help them locate the someone who purchased a Morgan Guaranty draft from them on July 26, 1968. The draft in question was in the amount of $8.50 payable to the International Society of Plant Morphologists. Apparently the purchaser failed to put his name with the check, and the International Society of Plant Morphologists of Delhi, India has no way of knowing whom to credit for this remittance. And that is why your subscription has not been renewed!

At the present time the Botanical Society of America has a membership somewhat over 3000, but there are a number of newly arrived professional botanists (and some not so new) who deserve the privileges of membership in the Society, and indeed who may in a sense owe it to their fellow botanists to join the organization that has consistently represented their profession at all levels. In subsequent issues we plan to obtain statements and testimony from present and past officers of the Society to show what our organization has contributed to the welfare of botany and botanists. In the meantime we urge you to use the membership form printed on the last page of this issue to sign up a new member. Should you prefer not to destroy your copy, some reasonable facsimile (Xerox, Verifax, Etc.—fax copy) will be equally acceptable. Prepare as many copies as you wish; we are not copyrighted!

 

Plant Science Bulletin

Adolph Hecht, Editor

Department of Botany, Washington State University

Pullman, Washington 99163

Editorial Board

Harlan P. Banks, Cornell University

Norman H. Doke, University of Oklahoma

Sydney S. Greenfield, Rutgers University

William L. Stern, University of Maryland

Erich Steiner, University of Michigan

December, 1968   Volume Fourteen   Number Four

Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society

of America, Inc., Dr. Theodore Delevoryas, Department of Biology,

Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut   06520.

Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Bo-

tanical Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a

year.   Send orders with checks payable to "Botanical Society of

America, Inc." to the Treasurer.

Material submitted for publication should be typewritten, double-

spaced, and sent in duplicate to the Editor.   Copy should follow

the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.

Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University

Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.

 

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E. J. H. Corner and C. R. Metcalfe Elected to Corresponding Membership

Edred John Henry Corner is one of the botanical geniuses of our time and by his own definition "a classical morphologist proudly." Equally as conversant with the intricacies of fungal structure and systematics as he is with the morphology, evolution, and taxonomy of the angiosperms, he has pursued major research problems in these two very different aspects of botany for over forty years. His studies have been reported in some 100 publications including seven outstanding books or monographs. The latter graphically illustrate his mastery and breadth of interest. Way-side Trees of Malaya was first published as a two volume work in 1942 and came out in a second edition in 1952. 1960 had seen the publication of A Monograph of Clavaria and Allied Genera, a 755 page classic. In 1964 Corner published a beautifully illustrated and thought-provoking text-book of elementary botany entitled The Life of Plants. Just two years later came both The Natural History of Palms and A Monograph of Cantharelloid Fungi. In 1967 Fie-us in the Solomon Islands appeared as a 136 page contribution in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, and the impending publication of a mono-graph on Thelephora as a Beiheft of Nova Hedwegia was announced. Few plant morphologists of this century have made so broad and deep a mark upon botanical science.

Professor Corner served from 1929 to 1945 as Assistant Director, Gardens Department, Singapore. There he gained his love and lore of the tropics, there he taught monkeys to collect botanical specimens in the treetops, and there while a prisoner in World War II he was decorated by the Emperor of Japan for his scientific work. After two years with UNESCO in Latin America, Corner returned to Cambridge, where he had received his MA. He has been on the faculty of that distinguished university since then and in 1966 was honored by appointment to a special chair as Professor of Tropical Botany. Professor Corner was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1955 and has been honored by award of the Darwin Medal from that Society in 1960 and the Patron's Medal of the Royal George Society in 1966.

Charles Russell Metcalfe, Keeper of the Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, England, is widely recognized for the scope and high quality of his contributions to the comparative and systematic anatomy of the angiosperms. In addition to his many papers on various aspects of plant anatomy, he is the author (in collaboration with Dr. L. Chalk) of the encyclopaedic two volume work entitled "Anatomy of the Dicotyledons." This treatise, published in 1950 and characterized by the painstaking description and collation of data on the structure of the leaf, stem and wood of representatives of the majority of dicotyledonous families, is an outstanding landmark in the advancement of botany in the present century.

At the ninth International Botanical Congress (Montreal 1959), Dr. Metcalfe announced the initiation of re-search at the Jodrell Laboratory on the systematic anatomy of monocotyledons. This highly diversified and poorly understood group of flowering plants has unfortunately never received the kind of intensive anatomical study de- voted to dicotyledons, a circumstance which has contributed to a rather one-sided approach to systematic relation-ships in the angiosperms as a whole. The publication of a series of volumes dealing with the systematic anatomy of various monocotyledonous families is however now in progress at Kew. In 1960, Dr. Metcalfe published, as the first volume in the series, the results of his many years of study on the systematic anatomy of grasses. At present, he is engaged in preparing a comparable treatise on the very difficult family Cyperaceae. Volume II on the palms by Dr. P. B. Tomlinson appeared in 1961 and other families are now being studied by Dr. Metcalfe and his associates at the Jodrell Laboratory as well as by various collaborators in the U.S.A. Thus the project, originally be-gun by Dr. Metcalfe, has awakened international interest and is proving successful in attracting that type of active botanical cooperation which is needed to insure its completion.

Dr. Metcalfe has been prominent in recent International Botanical Congresses and has served as chairman or president of the sections devoted to systematic anatomy. He is a member of many scientific societies in England as well as abroad, was one of the founder members of the International Association of Wood Anatomists and has served since 1956 as Botanical Secretary of the Linnean Society. His outstanding career as Keeper of the Jodrell Laboratory and his meticulous studies in plant anatomy have earned him the high regard of botanists throughout the world.

NEWS AND NOTES

Botany Courses at Mountain Lake Biological Station

The University of Virginia announces that the following botanical courses will be given at the Mountain Lake Biological Station this summer:

First Term—June 12 through July 15

Plant Ecology: Dr. Frank McCormick, University of North Carolina

Second Term—July 17 through August 21

Mycology: Dr. Constantine J. Alexopoulos, University of Texas

Plant Biosystematics: Dr. C. Ritchie Bell, University of North Carolina

Three types of National Science Foundation awards are available for research and study at the Station: (1) Post-doctorate for research, stipend $1300; (2) Predoctorate for supervised research, stipend $500; and (3) Postgraduate for training in field biology, stipend $400. Preference is given for studies concerned with the biota of the region. Application blanks for these awards may be se-cured from the Director, Mountain Lake Biological Station, Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903 and must be submitted before May 1, 1969.

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Announcement of Darbaker Prize in Phycology for 1969

The committee on the Darbaker Prize of the Botanical Society of America will accept nominations for an award to be announced at the annual meeting of the Society at Seattle, Washington, in 1969. Under the terms of the be-quest, the award is to be made for meritorious work in the study of microscopical algae. The Committee will base its judgment primarily on the papers published by the nominee during the last two full calendar years previous to the closing date for nominations. At present, the award will be limited to residents of North America. Only papers published in the English language will be considered. The value of the Prize for 1969 will depend on the income from the trust fund but is expected to be about $250. Nominations for the 1969 award accompanied by a statement of the merits of the case and by reprints of the publications supporting the candidacy must be received by June 1, 1969, by the Chairman of the Committee, Dr. G. F. Papenfuss, Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California, 94720.

Pelton Award in Experimental Plant Morphology

The Conservation and Research Foundation has established the Jeanette Siron Pelton Award in Experimental Plant Morphology, and has invited the Botanical Society of America (1) to establish a Jeanette Siron Pelton Award Committee to select three possible candidates for this award, ranked in order of preference, for consideration by the Trustees of the Foundation, and (2) upon final action by the Foundation to make the presentation of the Award on behalf of the Foundation at the annual meeting of the Society. This award, honoring the memory of Jeanette Siron Pelton, will consist of a $1,000 premium to be given not more often than annually to a person selected for his sustained and imaginative productivity in the field of experimental plant morphology. The field may be broadly defined to include the subcellular, cellular and organismal levels of complexity. The award will not be restricted as to sex, nationality or society affiliation of the recipient, nor as to the language in which his work is published. Publications need not be restricted to reports of original re-search but may include books and reviews. However, something noteworthy must have been published within the past five years. There will be no obligations imposed upon the recipient other than to enjoy the award and the honor which it may bring.

The Trustees have suggested a time schedule that might permit the announcement of the first Award at the Inter-national Botanical Congress in Seattle in the summer of 1969. Dr. F. C. Steward of Cornell University has agreed to serve as chairman of the Botanical Society's committee on the Pelton Award for the first year.

Summer Short Course in Botany at Yale University

The botanists of the Department of Biology at Yale University will conduct a course entitled "Recent Advances in Botany" ( June 22—July 19, 1969) as part of the National Science Foundation's College Teacher Programs. The objectives will be to provide comprehensive high-level cov-

erage of rapidly advancing areas of botanical knowledge to university, college and junior college faculty members who are teaching botanical subjects. Applications and in-formation may be secured by writing to:

Dr. Arthur W. Galston, Director

Short Course in Botany

Department of Biology

904 Kline Biology Tower

Yale University

New Haven, Connecticut 06520

Summer Short Course in Mycology at the University of North Carolina

An NSF-supported Summer Short Course in Mycology for college teachers is being held at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, June 9-27. The course is sponsored by the Botanical Society of America and is designed to bring the 30 selected participants up to date on recent developments in the field. The teaching staff will consist of John Couch, Peter Day, A. J. Domnas, Melvin Fuller, W. J. Koch, L. S. Olive, John Raper, Kenneth Raper, and D. P. Rogers. For further information, write to the Director, Dr. Lindsay S. Olive, Department of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 27514.

Summer Research Participation in Botany for College Teachers at the University of

North Carolina

The Department of Botany at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, has been awarded a grant of $16,300 by the National Science Foundation for conducting a re-search participation program for college teachers during the summer of 1969. The grant provides stipends of $1,000 each for six postdoctoral participants and $750 each for two predoctoral participants. In addition, each participant will receive an allowance of $150 per de-pendent and a travel allowance. The program will begin June 16 and end August 23.

Any teacher of biological science in a U.S. college or junior college is eligible to apply. Application forms and a brochure describing the program may be secured by writing the Director of the program, Dr. Victor A. Greulach, Department of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 27514.

The program is unique among others of the same kind elsewhere as regards the large number of professors and varied botanical disciplines provided for choice by the participants, enabling them to do research in a field that is in line with their interests and backgrounds. The professors available for directing the research of participants are John N. Couch, Lindsay S. Olive, William J. Koch, and Clyde J. Umphlett in mycology; Max H. Hommersand in phycology and algal physiology; A. J. Domnas in plant biochemistry; Edward G. Barry, Clifford Parks, and Paul Mangelsdorf in genetics; J. Frank McCormick and Howard T. Odum in ecology; and A. E. Radford, C. Ritchie Bell, and Clifford Parks in plant taxonomy and systematics.

The goal of the program is to provide an opportunity of resumption of research activity by college teachers who have been unable to continue active investigation because of lack of time, space, or facilities.

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Linnaeana at Carnegie-Mellon University

Carnegie-Mellon University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania has acquired the largest and most complete collection of Linnaeana now in the United States.

The collection, now at C-MU's Hunt Botanical Library, was formerly the property of the family of the noted Swedish physician and direct descendant of Linnaeus, Dr. Birger Strandell, of Stockholm. It includes all but four minor titles of every book, pamphlet, and magazine article known to have been published by Carl Linnaeus.

The acquisition of the Strandell Collection, funded by grants from the Richard King Mellon Charitable Trusts and The Hunt Foundation, was announced at the annual meeting of the Advisory Committee of the Rachel Mc-Masters Miller Hunt Botanical Library.

Nature Conservancy To Offer 6 Island Hawaii Tour

The Nature Conservancy will offer a 6 Island Tour of Hawaii following the National Convention in Seattle August 22 and 23, 1969. The tour will depart from San Francisco or Los Angeles August 23 and Seattle August 24, bound for 14 days in our 50th state. Priced at $524 from San Francisco (or $544 from Seattle), the tour will visit Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Hawaii, Kauai, and Lanai, all six islands.

For further information, write: Unitours of San Francisco, Inc., Sausalito, California 94965.

Royal Botanical Gardens Technical Bulletins

The Royal Botanical Gardens, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada announces a new serial publication, Royal Botanical Gar-dens Technical Bulletins. Generally these bulletins are de-signed to present and interpret botanical information in a format suitable for the use of biologists, including advanced amateurs, while incorporating more technical and specialized information than is usually feasible in strictly popular publications.

Technical Bulletins appear at irregular intervals and are paged separately.

No. 1. Aquatic Plants for Fish and Wildlife, by W. John Lamoureux. 1963. 29 pp.

No. 2. The Common Aster Species of Southern Ontario, by James S. Pringle. 1967. 15 pp.

No. 3. The Common Solidago Species (Goldenrods) of Southern Ontario, by James S. Pringle. 1968. 14 pp.

Titles in preparation include: Checklist of the Spontaneous Vascular Flora of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; and Guide to Field Identification of Gentiana Species in Eastern North America. Future Technical Bulletins will include descriptions of new cultivars being introduced by the Royal Botanical Gardens, as well as additional guides to plant identification.

All issues previously published are still available on request from the Royal Botanical Gardens, Box 399, Postal Station "A", Hamilton 20, Ontario.

Items of Interest for Conservationists

1) The Federal Committee on Research Natural Areas has published a "Directory of Research Natural Areas on Federal Lands of the United States of America." This di-rectory is available from the Superintendent of Documents for seventy cents. This useful directory lists the location, holding agency, vegetation type and special geological or faunistic features. Over 300 natural areas are listed and cross indexed.

  1. The Spring 1968 issue of "The Nature Conservancy News" gives a complete listing of all of their land holdings with sizes, locations, and principal features.

  2. The Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the U.S. Senate and the Committee on Science and Astronautics of the U.S. House of Representatives of the 90th Congress have jointly issued a Congressional White Paper on "A National Policy for the Environment." This very important document may be obtained from either of the above committees. An appendix lists all of the legislation pertaining to environmental quality which was introduced in the 90th Congress.

  3. The 18 member Governments of the Council of Europe have agreed that 1970 will be a European Nature Conservation Year (E.C.Y.). The E.C.Y. will formally open in February 1970 with a conference in Strasbourg. Subsequent national and regional conferences and information campaigns will be launched throughout Europe. Further information can be obtained from the Direction de L'Information, Du Conseil de L'Europe, 67 Strasbourg, France.

U.S. National Committee for INQUA Announces Travel Support Program For Eighth INQUA Congress in Paris

The U.S. National Committee of the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) is undertaking a travel support program to insure that the United States will be represented by a substantial number of qualified scientists at the VIII International Congress of INQUA, to meet in Paris, August 30-September 5, 1969. Funds for this purpose, now being solicited from a number of government agencies and private foundations, will be administered by a Travel Grants Subcommittee, with Dr. William S. Osburn, Jr., as Chairman. This subcommittee will establish criteria for judging applications for travel support, will receive and screen the applications, and will select those to receive grants.

If you are interested in applying for support you should write Dr. Osburn at the Environmental Sciences Branch, Division of Biology and Medicine, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D.C. 20545, and provide information as to your circumstances. You should indicate what specific role you are to play in the Congress and/or its General Assembly. If planning to present a paper, you should if possible enclose an abstract or a copy of the text. If you will have any special functions (e.g. chairman of a session, member of a discussion panel, or other official responsibility), you should so indicate. You should also specify the sum of money needed. If you expect to receive partial travel support from other sources, and you apply

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to the U.S. National Committee for a correspondingly reduced grant, this may improve your chances of receiving a grant. In any case, grants by the U.S. National Committee will be limited to economy-fare transportation costs, and will not include living expenses.

Applications for travel grants should be received in Dr. Osburn's office by March 15, 1969. Grants will be awarded on or about May 1, 1969.

RV Proteus, Hopkins Marine Station's New Research Vessel

A 96-foot tuna clipper is being purchased by Stanford University to replace the sailing schooner TE VEGA in the biological oceanographic teaching and research pro-gram conducted by Stanford's Hopkins Marine Station at Pacific Grove, California.

The NSF will continue its support of the program in operations of the new research vessel—to be named the RV PROTEUS. The new program will recruit qualified faculty and students in biological oceanography from with-in Stanford University rather than nationally and internationally as before. Two courses already have been planned for teaching aboard the ship. The emphasis will be on re-search by faculty and by students preparing theses for advanced degrees.

Book Reviews

DAVIS, P. H. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands.

Edited by P. H. Davis, assisted by J. Cullen and M. J. E. Coode, University of Edinburgh. Volume two, Edinburgh, at the University Press, 1967; xii, 581 pages, 16 full-page line illustrations, 68 distributions maps. Price 9 pounds, nine shillings. North American agent, Aldine Publishing Company, 320 West Adams St., Chicago 60606. U.S. price, $33.50.

This second volume, of what is planned as an 8-volume flora, continues the arrangement begun in Volume 1, following in general the order of Boissier's Flora Orientalis. Thirty-three families are treated, beginning with Portulacaceae and ending with Celastraceae. The Caryophyllaceae and the related Illecebraceae together occupy almost half the book. American botanists will be interested in the treatments of Polygonaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae, in which not only genera but many species are familiar. The genus Hypericum (Guttiferae) , with 69 species, is one of the largest genera in the flora; Linunn, Geranium, and Rhamnus are also represented by numerous species.

The plan and scope of the flora as a whole were presented in the initial volume, which appeared in 1965. An informative and readable review of Volume 1, by F. A. Stafleu, appeared in Taxon (Vol. 15, pp. 77-78. 1966). The quality of the present volume is equal to that of the first; the type is clear and easy to read, the illustrations are of excellent quality, the paper and binding are good. There are more than twice as many distribution maps as there were in the first volume.

One unique feature of Volume 2 is the inclusion of a list of the principal botanical collectors in Turkey since 1888 (i.e., since the completion of Boissier's Flora Orientalis). For about 200 collectors the following information

(when available) is given: reference to relevant literature; years when collections were made; itineraries, keyed to a map divided into 25 numbered areas; herbaria where the collections are represented.

The map referred to above was used in the first volume of flora as a basis for summarizing and characterizing the different types of distribution of species within Turkey. The 25 numbered subdivisions bore more or less familiar names, many of them classical Greek (like Lydia, Phrygia, Cappadocia, Bithynia, etc.), that were also familiar to the users of the Flora Orientalis. Readers of the second volume will find it more difficult to visualize distributions of species within Turkey, as in deference to the wishes of the Turkish Government, the editor has discarded the traditional place names, and cited specimens with reference to a system of numbered squares (Al, B2, etc.) or to the more than 60 political subdivisions called vilayets.

It is to be hoped that the editors will be able to complete the flora on schedule. A thoroughly modern floristic treatment of the Turkish flora, which has not been described as a whole for almost a century, will be an invaluable reference work for taxonomists and plant-geographers everywhere.

Rogers McVaugh

PURSEGLOVE, J. W. Tropical Crops, Dicotyledons. Vol.

1 (pp. 1-332) and Vol. 2 (pp. 333-719). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. $8.50 each volume.

Almost all crop plants of the temperate zone are grown on a commercial scale somewhere in the tropics. Thus, a complete treatment of tropical crops would include temperate crops also. The task of writing a treatise on the economic botany of all these crops is almost too formidable for any one man. Nevertheless, Dr. Purseglove has done a magnificent job of covering the wide field. A few crop plants have been missed, including the pili nuts (Canarium species), quite a number of minor fruits (including Flacourtia), some minor vegetables, and temperate fruits grown in restricted areas of the tropics.

The volumes are arranged by alphabetical ordering of the families (Vol. 1, Anacardiaceae to Leguminosae; Vol. 2, Malvaceae to Urticaceae). Twenty-two families of lesser importance are combined in the final chapter, "Other Useful Products." An appendix lists all families and species mentioned in the text. This and a conventional index are well-organized and easy to use. Most major sources of information concerning tropical crops are listed as "General References." However, sources of information on individual crops are often not well-documented. Latest references are not always included. This leads to some inaccuracies and unwarranted generalizations. The cover-age of Latin American literature is frequently inadequate.

A series of topics such as nomenclature, origin and distribution, husbandry, diseases and pests, production, etc. are discussed for each crop or group of related crops. Some of these topical divisions are unnecessary, as the information presented consists of as few as three words. On the other hand, major plantation crops are discussed in great detail. An excellent, well-documented chapter concerns the origin and distribution of tropical crops.

Illustrations, although not as abundant as desirable, are

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line drawings of excellent quality. The writing is clear, but not elegant, and definitely British.

Because of its excellent coverage, the present work outdates Cobley, 1956, "An Introduction to the Botany of Tropical Crops," and Macmillan, 1949, ."Tropical Planting and Gardening." Whereas coverage far surpasses that of Ochse, et al., 1961, "Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture," the former lacks the detailed treatment of soils and climate which makes the latter valuable. Spanish-speaking people may find Leon, 1968, "Fundamentos Botanicos de los Cultivos Tropicales," a more useful source, especially concerning minor fruit and vegetable crops but the emphases of the two publications differ.

These volumes should be in every agricultural Iibrary as basic reference materials. Investigators with broad interests in tropical agriculture will also find them worth-while. The student of a particular crop will find these volumes a useful introduction, but will frequently have to make his own detailed literature search. As a text, the present work is much more complete than any other available. The needs of the amateur gardener, field man, or small scale agriculturalist should be well-satisfied.

The completion of this series by publication of comparable information on monocotyledons will enhance the value of the work, and it is to be hoped that such publication is not long delayed.

Franklin W. Martin

HARPER, R., E. C. BATE SMITH, AND D. G. LAND. Odour Description and Odour Classification. American Else-vier Publishing Company, Inc., New York. 1968. 191 pages + viii. $7.50.

At first glance this book hardly appears to be one that might interest botanists, and my first inclination was to return the review copy to the publisher. But a statement in the Editor's Foreword, "The approach to the subject matter of this book is above all multidisciplinary, involving especially psychology, botany and biochemistry," is well borne out by the contents of the volume. In a historical review we learn that the first really effective system of odor classification was founded by Linnaeus, 1752, whose examples were all from botany. Other botanical systems, including those involving odors of fungi, are discussed in considerable detail. Information is provided about a number of other systems, both subjective and chemical methods, for describing and classifying odors. Depending upon one's skill and experience, the number of individually distinguishable odors ranges from 16 for trained students to about 150 for expert perfumers. A bibliography of over 200 references is followed by both author and subject indices.

Adolph Hecht

WARDLAW, C. W. Essays on Form in Plants. University of Manchester Press, Manchester and Barnes & Noble, New York, 1968. 399 pages. $8.75.

These essays of C. W. Wardlaw cover a period of development and transition in the field of plant morphogenesis and may be considered as a record of concept, deed, and expostulation over more than two decades. The writer has led the way in plant morphogenesis taking his cues from Hofmeister, Sachs, and von Goebel, on the one hand,

and his directions from modern biochemistry and biophysics, on the other, in an attempt to explain the hows and whys of plant form. Now an elder statesman of "this ancient, liberal, and humane subject," that is, botanical science, Wardlaw has sought to achieve the fullest possible integration of the multifarious branches of phytology through the common denominator of plant morphogenesis. His efforts are recounted in this series of essays.

The book itself is divided into three parts: Part one is an historical introduction tracing the conceptual evolution of plant morphology through Wardlaw's early work; part two contains thirty of Wardlaw's papers published between 1944 and 1966, printed exactly as in the original, except that the bibliographies are carried together in a terminal part of the volume; in part three Wardlaw timorously outlines his thoughts on future trends in plant morphogenesis. The first and third parts attempt to tie the essays together, which indeed they do. As a record or outline of Wardlaw's prodigious botanical activity, this volume achieves a goal. But, the reader must always bear in mind that these essays only provide a tantalizing glimpse of Wardlaw's botany.

William L. Stern

Minutes of the Business Meeting, Botanical Society of America

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

September 3, 1968

1. President Arthur W. Galston called the meeting to order at 11 A.M. in Room 352 of Denney Hall. The 79 members present at the beginning of the meeting constituted a quorum.

  1. The Minutes of the Business Meeting of 1967 as published in the Plant Science Bulletin were approved.

  2. The Chairman of the Election Committee, Dr. D. W. Bierhorst, presented the names of the newly elected officers for 1969:

President:   Harlan P. Banks

Vice-President:   B. L. Turner

Member of the

Editorial Board:   Harold C. Bold

The Treasurer, the Secretary, and the Program Director continue in their respective offices for 1969.

  1. The Secretary presented the recommendation of the Committee on Corresponding Members. Dr. E. J. H. Corner of Cam-bridge University and Dr. Charles R. Metcalfe of the Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, were proposed for membership and were unanimously elected. This raised the total number of such members to 39. In view of the Constitutional limitation of 40 and in order that a number of names might be proposed for 1969 on the occasion of the International Botanical Congress, it was voted that an amendment to the Constitution should be circulated to the membership prior to the next annual meeting which would increase the maximum number of corresponding members to 50. The President will instruct the past-presidents who serve as a Committee for selection of corresponding members to make every effort to review nominations in order that the candidates may be elected at the next annual meeting, following the expected pas-sage of the amendment increasing the total to 50.

  2. Dr. T. Delevoryas presented the Treasurer's report. As in the past this report will appear in the forthcoming Yearbook. It was pointed out that the proposed budget for 1969 was balanced only because of the unusually small contribution from the Society to the American Journal of Botany. This decreased contribution circumvented an increase in dues at this time, which would other-wise have been necessary. The Budget for 1969 was approved unanimously.

  3. The Business Manager of American Journal of Botany, Dr. L. Crockett, presented a report on the finances of this major activity of the Society. Due in part to income from page charges the Journal is in excellent condition. The Business Manager emphasized that no paper is ever turned down because of lack of money from grants or university sources to cover the page charges; he pointed out that page charges are never mentioned until after the paper has been accepted for publication.

  4. Dr. Charles Heimsch, Editor of the American Journal of

8

Botany, gave a short report on the editorial aspects of the Journal. He pointed out that by August 15th nearly as many new manuscripts had been received as during the whole of 1967. He noted that the individual issues of the present volume have appeared on time and that due to close work with the printer as well as a change in type and quality of paper there had been considerable improvement in the quality of illustrations. In an effort to speed the reviewing process the telephone has been used in arranging reviews. Publication time now averages between seven and eight months from submission of the manuscript, e.g., one-half of the articles in the October issue now in press were received in March, while some were received as late as April and May. There is no backlog of revised manuscripts. A motion was proposed and passed expressing the thanks of the Society to the Editor and his staff and the Business Manager and his staff for the excellent work they are doing for the Society.

8. President Galston summarized for the membership at the Business Meeting the various actions of the Council taken at its meeting on September 2, as follows:

  1. The Botanical Society has been asked by the Conservation and Research Foundation to establish an award committee to recommend candidates for the Jeanette Siron Pelton Award honoring the memory of Mrs. Pelton. The award of $1000 is to be given annually to a person selected for his sustained and imaginative productivity in the field of experimental plant morphology, broadly defined to include the subcellular, cellular and organismal levels of complexity. The award is to be made annually at the Annual Dinner of the Botanical Society. The Council recommended acceptance of this invitation.

  2. As is customary, the sites of future meetings must be selected several years in advance in order to allow for necessary arrangements. In 1969 the Society will not hold any paper-reading sessions but will hold its regular Council and Business meetings during the International Botanical Congress in Seattle. The membership is urged to support the activities of the Congress and to plan to attend the Business Meeting which will he held there. In 1970 the Society will meet with the AIBS at Indiana University in Bloomington. In 1971 .the Society will meet separately from the AIBS; the site and the type of meeting are yet to be decided. The Program Director, Dr. Ritchie Bell, will appreciate any suggestions from the membership in this regard. One possibility is a meeting in Canada with the Canadian Botanical Society.

  3. The Pre-Conference Symposium was a success this year and a second one is planned for our next regular meeting in Bloomington in 1970.

  4. The Council has endorsed the Summer Institute in Botany planned for 1969 by Dr. Lindsay Olive of the University of North Carolina.

  5. The new career booklet "Botany as a Profession" has been well-received. It is available from the Secretary's office; 1 to 3 copies are free-of-charge but multiple copies cost 5.25 each. President Galston expressed the sense of great loss to the Society in the death of Dr. Robert Page, who was responsible for the new edition of the careers booklet.

  6. The Secretary's office has just issued a new edition of the GUIDE TO GRADUATE STUDY IN THE U.S. This booklet of 87 pages describes 115 departments which offer Ph.D. degrees in some area of the plant sciences. It is available from the Secretary at a cost of $3.00 each postpaid.

  7. President Galston called on Drs. Kenneth Raper and Kenneth Thimann, respectively in charge of arrangements for and President of the XI International Congress, for comments on plans for the Congress. Dr. Raper pointed out that although the Congress finances were not as plush as one could have hoped for, we would have a good Congress "cake but nor so much icing." He expressed again the appreciation of the Organizing Committee of the Congress for the financial support given by the Botanical Society and other plant societies. The Botanical Society of America will have a Business meeting at the Congress and will also host foreign visitors either at a reception preceding the Congress Banquet or at a banquet of its own. The usual awards and citations will be presented at that time.

  8. Dr. A. J. Sharp presented a resolution which was passed with unanimous approval:

"The Botanical Society wishes to express its gratitude to the administrative officers of The Ohio State University, to the staff of the American Instinue of Biological Sciences and its local representative, Dr. Bernard S. Meyer, and to our local representative, Dr. Ronald L. Stuckey, for their work in planning for the excellent arrangements and facilities provided for the 1968 meeting."

Upon motion duly seconded and approved, the meeting adjourned at 12:25 P.M.

Respectfully submitted, Richard C. Starr

Secretary

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