PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
1967 Volume Thirteen Number Four
Arthur Johnson Eames, A Tribute
in the history of our science there have been those who stood above others
because of their personalities, their intellectual attainments, their contributions
to botanical science, their influence on others, or all of these. Certainly
among such outstanding figures of the present must be numbered Professor Arthur
J. Eames of Cornell, now in his eighty-sixth year.
to Cornell in 1912, after undergraduate and graduate degrees at Harvard and
travels in Australia and New Zealand, Dr. Eames became one of a group that,
within a few decades, established Cornell as an important center for the study
of botany in the United States. During the period of his active professorship
numerous graduate students gathered around him. With some exceptions, their
theses dealt with problems in floral anatomy. These investigations contributed
greatly to a renewal of interest in the anatomical study of the flower initiated
by Van Tieghem, Henslow and other Europeans in the 19th century. Most such
earlier studies, however, were purely descriptive. Eames and his students,
on the other hand, emphasized a broad, comparative point of view, using anatomical
data, not only to add to our knowledge of the fundamental nature of the flower
but also to further the solution of such problems in systematic botany as
the limitation of t axa and the establishment of natural and phyletic relationships.
These investigations demonstrated clearly that evidences of evolutionary modification
are to be found in the internal structure of the flower. Among contributions
by Eames and his students were clarification of the nature of the inferior
ovary and studies on the Salicaceae, Urticales, and Juglandaceae that contributed
to the overthrow of the EngIerian concept of the primitiveness of the Amentiferae.
An early important paper by Eames was "The vascular anatomy of the flower
with refutation of the theory of carpel polymorphism," published in American
Journal of Botany, 1931.
But Professor Eames has been much more than a floral morphologist—his
questing mind and love of plants have led him into many other fields—taxonomy
and general anatomy, and particularly, comparative morphology of the vascular
plants in the widest sense. In 1926 there appeared The Flora of the Cayuga Lake
Basin, New York, by K. M. Wiegand and A. J. Eames, a local flora of some 500
pages and a model of what such floras should be. In 1925 (revised in 1949) there
appeared the first of three books published by McGraw-Hill, Eames and MacDaniels'
Introduction to Plant Anatomy. This may be regarded as the first modern textbook
of plant anatomy, and it has had a great effect upon the teaching of that subject
in America and abroad. Many institutions where the subject had been neglected
now introduced courses because a suitable text-book had become available. Editions
for Great Britain, the continent, and Asia, have been issued, and in 1960 the
publishers sold the rights for translation into Serbo-Croatian.
second book, Morphology of Vascular Plants, Lower Groups, appeared in 1936,
and like the first was unique in its field. During previous decades a large
amount of information on fossil plants had accumulated, but never had this
been brought together with information on related living forms into an integrated
body of knowledge. The emphasis was upon comparative morphology and the establishment
of phylogenetic relationships. This book has gone through twelve printings
and has greatly influenced morphological thought, both in America and abroad.
It was highly influential, for example, in the trend to abandon the obsolete
group names Pteridophyta and Spermatophyte and to substitute names more appropriate
for the major divisions of the vascular plants. As with the Anatomy, the text
undoubtedly stimulated the introduction of courses in plant morphology. Subjects
seldom flourish and acquire disciples unless there are adequate textbooks.
examples of Professor Eames' versatility and wide botanical interests are
shown in the following publications. "Genesis and composition of peat deposits"
(with others), Mein. Cornell Univ. Agr•ic. Expert Stat. 188, 1936; "Illustrations
of some Lycopodium gamctophytes" American Fern Journal, 1942; and a series
of six papers (1949-51) in Science and American Journal of Botany on the anatomical
effects of synthetic growth substances used as herbicides. This last work
was done while the author was a consultant to the U.S. Army Chemical Corps.
Eames retired in 1949 at the age of sixty-eight, but seldom has this word
been so meaningless. In 1953 he was a Fulbright lecturer at the University
of Sydney, and 1961-62 a visiting professor at the Pennsylvania State University.
Following his retirement, he published a number of papers on such diverse
topics as floral anatomy as an aid in generic limitation, the "new" morphology,
the anatomy of the palm leaf, the "seed" and Ginkgo, the ovule and seed of
Araucaria (with Mary H.
and the relationships of the Ephedrales. Then, in 1961, .in his eightieth
year, appeared his third book, Morphology of the Angiosperms. No other botanist
could have written this book, for it involved not only an extensive knowledge
of the literature in the field but also a profound distillation of Professor
Eames' own thinking and experiences in dealing with a group of plants to the
study of which he has devoted much of his life. It will remain a classic for
a long time to come. To those interested I call attention to the superb review
of this book, including a tribute to Dr. Eames, by F. C. Steward in Nature,
Vol. 192 (1961), 8-9.
Eames has received many honors and held important offices in the Botanical
Society; he was secretary (1927-1931), vice-president (1932), and president
(1938). He has been a member of the editorial committees of American Journal
of Botany, Annals of Botany, Botanical Review, and Phytomorphology. In 1941
he was elected to membership in the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
He was one of the first fifty members of the Society to receive a Certificate
of Merit on the 50th anniversary (1956) of the founding of the Botanical Society
of America. In 1956, also, he received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws
from the University of Glasgow. The Promoter's remarks in presenting Professor
Eames for this degree are given below.
is recorded as an earnest of the wisdom of Solomon not only that "he spake
three thousand proverbs," but also that "he spake of trees, from the cedar
that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall." This
biographical detail is symbolic of the majestic sweep of the science of botany,
a science which is linked inseparably with man and his work. The interplay
of nature's challenge and man's research may settle the fate of a million
saplings; and the gardener who succumbs to the charms of a "Dorothy Perkins"
may receive no encouragement beyond a closer acquaintance with the pharmacology
this field of botanical knowledge, calculated to stir the sense of beauty,
to awaken curiosity, and to strengthen feelings of reverence, Dr. Arthur Johnson
Eames has worked with great distinction. More than half a century has passed
since Dr. Fames was an undergraduate at Harvard. His early days as a teacher
were spent in his own university and in traveling abroad. For thirty-six years
he was associated with the New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell—First
in the junior role of instructor, then for twenty-nine years as head of the
Department of Botany.' It is particularly gratifying that in the person of
Dr. Eames we, in Glasgow, salute an emeritus professor of the famous University
of Cornell; for between these two houses of learning there has been much coming
and going. Dr. Fames has been president of the Botanical Society of America,
President of the Section on Morphology at the International Botanical Congress,
and for twenty-two years associate editor of that leading British journal,
Annals of Botany. These are but a few of the many distinctions which proclaim
the high regard in which he is held in the world of science.
Eames' publications include a classic monograph on the morphology of vascular
plants, and a companion volume is in active preparation. A book runni)zg to
some 500 pages —modestly described as "a memoir"—records researches
conducted in collaboration with Karl M. Wiegand; and An Introduction to Plant
Anatomy by Eames and Mac-Daniels has become the staple diet of students of
botany throughout the world. It would thus be difficult to exaggerate the
influence which Dr. Eames has had on teaching and research in plant morphology.
Chancellor, the sensitive layman respects a scientist who—at some inconvenience—pays
due regard to ,the importance of semantics in everyday life. You will recall,
sir, that in our youth we sang of a disconsolate student whose wish it was
to 'hang his harp on a weeping willow tree': we must feel for Dr. Fames who
had first to find a specimen of Salix babylonica. But with his fellow botanists,
his sense of humour allowed hint to tempt providence by calling the forget-me-not
Myosotis palustris semperflorens!-
I present Dr. Arthur Johnson Eames, one of the greatest living plant morphologists,
and ask you, in the name of the senate, to confer on him the degree of Doctor
of Laws, honoris causa,
Eames' vast knowledge of plant life has impressed all who come into contact
with him. This knowledge has been enhanced by his foreign travels, which have
given him a cosmopolitan view of the vascular plants in general and the angiosperms
in particular. His travels include three extended visits to Australia, two
periods of residence at the Atkins Garden and Research Laboratory in Cuba,
collecting in Samoa and South Africa, an exchange professorship at the University
The Promoter was mistaken. Dr. Lames was never head of the
following free translation may be helpful here. A marsh-
ever-blooming mouse ear.
extensive travels in Europe. His wide and deep know-ledge about plants has
been freely shared. The numerous theses for advanced degrees which he supervised
represent only a part of his contributions through others. In addition to
his own former students, many others, at Cornell and elsewhere, have sought
his counsel in the furtherance of their own writings or investigations, both
before and after his retirement.
Eames' life has been dedicated to teaching about plants and to productive
scholarship. Botany, to him, has been not a vocation but a way of life. As
a teacher, he was always clear and stimulating, and he neither talked down
to students nor above their heads. He enjoyed teaching, and gave it his best
efforts. To his students, undergraduate and graduate, he was a friend as well
as mentor. He is interested in people, and has a great capacity for friendship.
The warmth of his generous personality has caused him to be sought out wherever
he goes. This fact was strikingly in evidence at one of the gatherings during
the 9th International Botanical Congress (Montreal). Standing at some distance
from him, I was impressed by the number of people, men and women, who converged
toward him from all parts of the hall, just to greet him and shake his hand.
Professor Eames looks back over his busy and productive years he has many
reasons for contentment—his contributions to his science, the honors
he has received, the numerous friends who cherish him, and the students who
honor him—these things have not come to every man.
as a Profession
M. Page Stanford University
selection of a mate and the selection of a career are the most important choices
most people are called upon to make. The selection of a mate is a problem
that is shared by other animals, but choosing a career is a task that is exclusively
human. The desire to influence this choice also appears to be deeply ingrained
in our species. There are doubtless many reasons for this deep-seated desire
of elder humans to have the young follow in their footsteps. Some elders would
claim that their important work must be continued or that essential skills
and traditions must be preserved. A cynic might be more inclined to suggest
that by inducing a young person to follow his occupation, the elder builds
his ego or hopes to achieve a sort of vicarious immortality. Perhaps from
similar motives, professional societies and other groups desire to perpetuate
themselves; hence, they attempt to influence the choice of a career by the
young, and for this purpose they employ such devices as career pamphlets.
as a Profession, a new pamphlet describing career opportunities in the plant
sciences, has just been completed by the Committee on Education of the Botanical
Society of America. This would therefore seem an appropriate time not only
to announce the availability of this publication, but also to tell something
of its background and objectives.
predecessor of the new pamphlet was one called Careers in Botany, which was
prepared about a decade ago by George S. Avery, Harriet Creighton, and others.
1 This booklet emphasized that botany is a diverse field, indicated opportunities
for employment, and suggested training that would be desirable for one contemplating
a career in plant science. Careers in Botany has served the Society well,
and some 30,000 copies have been distributed over the years. As the supply
neared exhaustion, the question of a new edition was referred to the Committee
on Education, which undertook the preparation of a revised careers booklet
as one of its projects.
first step in the preparation of this booklet was to solicit advice from members
of the Committee on Education and various other members of the Botanical Society.
All of those consulted were of the opinion that Careers in Botany should either
be replaced or revised to bring it up to date and make it more colorful. Several
botanists suggested that a professional designer should be retained to supervise
the lay-out and technical details of production. In addition to these general
suggestions, those consulted contributed much helpful advice on design and
content. Next, a rough draft was circulated to serve as a nucleus for the
crystallization of specific ideas and comments. Finally, the text was rewritten,
illustrations were assembled from various sources, and the material was placed
in the hands of the designer.
order to define the objectives of a careers pamphlet, some of the factors
involved in selecting a career must be considered. Selection of a career is
obviously a complex process, and the course followed by any individual is
the resultant of many factors, but the most important of these is awareness.
A person must be aware of the existence of a field before he can choose it
for his vocation. Thus, the primary objective of a careers pamphlet should
be to inform people of the existence of a field. A second objective should
be to tell enough about the field to permit an individual to judge whether
it has any appeal for him.
perform its mission of pointing out the existence of a field to a potential
convert, a careers pamphlet must attract his attention and hold his interest,
but the way to this objective is beclouded by uncertainties about what is
attractive to people at the age at which they are casting about for a vocation.
For example, what colors appeal to them most? Do they prefer representational
or abstract art work? Should designs or illustrations attempt to be cute or
humorous? Should illustrations stress aesthetics or science? Should they show
people or things? If motivational research has been done on these preferences,
the results are doubtless closely-guarded industrial secrets.
same sorts of uncertainties that apply to design apply also to writing, but
in addition, there is the difficulty of communication between generations.
It would be hazardous to attempt humor, for example, and nothing is more repellent
than obsolete slang. Most young people are saturated with generalities, and
they are suspicious of vagueness and uncertainty. Clarity is desirable, but
anyone resents being "written down to".
Botany as a Profession is successful in attaining its primary objective of
informing people of the existence of the field of botany, the credit must
go to its designer, James M'Guiness. It is his work, after all, that will
determine whether the booklet will be picked up and examined by potential
botanists or by their advisers. M'Guiness has made the booklet distinctive
and attractive in external appearance. Even its shape, which is almost square,
is unusual. The cover design, a pattern of longitudinal and transverse sections
of flowers alternating with mushrooms, all in bright colors, is printed on
glossy, heavily-coated stock. Thus, in its shape, color, and texture, the
booklet is so different from that of any other society or agency, that it
is certain to attract attention. Moreover, it is unlikely that it will be
discarded or misplaced by guidance counsellors or teachers.
photographs that illustrate the booklet were chosen for various reasons. A
few, such as an enlarged photograph of a chickweed flower and a transverse
section of oak wood, are purely decorative. Others, such as a fine electron
micrograph of a portion of an onion root tip cell prepared by the freeze-etching
technique, are of scientific interest as well as being aesthetically satisfying.
Finally, four photographs on one page show people to emphasize that there
really are positions for botanists in educational institutions, government
agencies, and industrial organizations, and that they do different kinds of
the illustrations assist in approaching the second objective of a careers
pamphlet, the text must assume the major part of the burden of telling an
individual enough about the field of botany to enable him to determine whether
it offers positions that are compatible with his interests, aptitudes, and
aspirations. The text of Botany as a Profession, which consists for the most
part of answers to a series of questions which might be posed by one inquiring
about the field, attempts to tell what kinds of plant scientists there are,
who employs them, and what kinds of work they do. It also provides information
on salaries, opportunities for women, and the training required for various
types of positions. Finally, a section is devoted to suggesting a few practical
and purely scientific problems which remain to challenge the imagination and
ingenuity of botanists of the future.
is obvious that no brief career booklet, no matter how imaginatively designed
or how skillfully written, can really give a prospective botanist a feel for
the profession. To gain any real insight into what the field offers and what
botanists do requires personal conversation with a member of the profession.
The concluding paragraph of Botany as a Profession urges the reader to talk
with a botanist, and suggests that he try to make an appointment with one
by writing either to the head of the botany department at any college or university
or to the director of a nearby experiment station or other botanical institution.
Perhaps this general suggestion is not enough. It would be desirable to have
a list of specific names of botanists in various parts of the country with
whom prospective botanists could confer. This idea was discussed informally
by some of the members of the Committee on Education, and it was agreed that
it would be desirable to attempt to assemble such a list, which could be kept
in the office of the Secretary of the Society to aid him in answering inquiries,
and it might be possible to distribute mimeographed copies with Botany as
am therefore calling for volunteers. If any member of the Botanical Society
who is willing to talk with prospective botanists will write me, I will be
pleased to add his name to the list. Conferring with young people contemplating
a career in plant science should not be time-consuming and it should be rewarding.
The profession will welcome your help.
of Botany as a Profession may be obtained from the Office of the Secretary,
Botanical Society of America, Department of Botany, Indiana University, Bloomington,
Indiana 47401. One to three copies, no charge; more than three copies, 25
FROM THE EDĪTOR
William L. Stern of the Department of Botany at the University of Maryland
has graciously agreed to serve as editor during my absence on sabbatical leave
this coming spring and summer. Since Bill was the previous editor he is well
aware of both the problems and the pleasures of the job; please inundate him
with such good copy for the next two or three issues that only the latter
aspects of this assignment will be his lot. Articles for these issues, there-fore,
should be sent directly to Dr. Stern.
issue features the first of what we hope may become a series of tributes to
distinguished living botanists. Although the number of persons we can honor
in this way must necessarily be kept small, your nominations for future tributes
are requested. The Council of the Botanical Society or a designated committee
thereof will probably decide which persons are selected for recognition in
P. Badenhuizen, Chairman of the Department of Botany, University of Toronto
(Toronto 5, Canada), has notified us of an opening in his department for a
vascular plant taxonomist with an interest in data processing applications
in herbarium procedures, and involving both teaching and research. The areas
of taximetrics, floristics, and phytogeography will also be considered. We
have not ordinarily published notices of position vacancies in the Bulletin,
but I can see no reason not to carry short notices of this sort when space
Section of the Botanical Society of America
the August, 1967, meeting of The Botanical Society of America, the Council
of the Society authorized the organization of a Phytochemical Section. The
formation of a new section devoted to all aspects of the chemistry of plants
seems particularly appropriate at this time because of the increasing emphasis
on chemical approaches to a wide variety of biological problems. Investigations
of the role of secondary plant constituents such as alkaloids, pigments, terpenes,
phenolics, and macromolecules including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and
nucleic acids, in the
and development of plants, have attracted the attention of an ever-increasing
number of the members of the Society. The importance of chemical investigations
in connection with genetics, physiology and systematics is already well established.
new Phytochemical Section may (from time to time) arrange joint programs and
symposia with the general, developmental, microbiological, systematic, and
phycological sections. In addition, joint meetings between the PhytochemicaI
Section and Phytochemical Society of North America will bring together for
mutual benefit a vast spectrum of individuals interested in modern plant science.
new section will hold an organizational meeting during the 1968 annual meeting
of the Botanical Society for the election of officers including a chairman,
vice-chairman, and secretary. In addition, a short Phytochemical program consisting
of two main lectures is planned for the 1968 meeting.
interested in participating in organizing the Phytochemical Section should
contact Dr. Tom J. Mabry, Department of Botany, The University of Texas at
for a Series of Two-Day Refresher Conferences in Basic Concepts in Botany
of general botany, actively involved in research, may find it difficult to
read literature beyond the area of their research interests. Some areas in
botany have advanced so rapidly in the recent years that one who has completed
his requirements for the Ph.D. before 1960 may well be out-of-date to the
point of doing a disservice to his students, unless his research interest
is one in these particular areas. Since the future of botany depends not only
on good, but also well-informed, students, the necessity of excellence in
their education becomes a matter of concern to us all. The proposal below
is offered as a practical way for achieving this goal, by making it possible
for all to keep abreast of the developments in the major concepts in botany.
propose that a two-day conference be held before each annual AIBS meeting
at the location of these meetings. We suggest that a limited number of most
important concepts in botany be considered at each conference (ten in a cycle
of five years; to be determined by polling the membership of BSA).
suggest that in such a conference participants considered to be authorities
in these concepts be asked to share from their wisdom and experience whatever
they think might help those who convey the concepts to sndents. We suggest
that workshops or demonstration-laboratory type of sessions be included in
these conferences as well as lectures and discussion. We think that the concepts
should: be traced from their origin with emphasis on the present interpretation;
be considered in light of the "lower plants" and the "higher ones"; be considered
for several types of environmental situations; be related to changes within
finance such a conference a registration fee of $10.00 could be charged of
each participant. Grants would be sought to cover expenses beyond those met
from this fee. Participants whose budgets could not stand the above fee, or
the extended two-day per diem costs, could apply for help from this grant
fund. It would be expected that participants would be attending the AIBS meetings
anyway for self-improvement, and the refresher conference would be only a
slight extra financial burden.
example of subjects for one year might be "Morphocenesis and Reproduction."
Authorities could be found to consider the concepts in lower plants, in higher
plants, as controlled by genetics, as controlled by factors in the environments,
as associated with changes in the components of the cell in strategic areas
of the organism at critical times in ontogeny.
example for another year could be "Respiration and Photosynthesis." These
could be considered as physical-chemical processes in an energy cycle, as
associated with cellular components, whose change could be observed in electron-microscope
studies, as controlled by factors in the external environment and by factors
in other parts of the plants.
we are to proceed with this proposal the Education Committee of BSA needs
the information from the questionnaire below. Please send this to Professor
Helena A. Miller, Assistant to the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences,
Duquesne University, Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania 15219.
proceeding with this proposal the Education Committee of the Botanical Society
would like to have a sampling of opinion from the members of the Society.
Any general suggestions you may have and,answers to the following questions
you be interested in attending these conferences? If so, how frequently....
every summer they are held? Once in about five years? Every two or three
you be willing to pay your own way, or would you require a small grant?
Would you be able to pay the proposed $10 registration fee plus living
topics would you like to have covered, and who would you consider are
among the best per-sons to handle each of these topics?
L. Turner has replaced Harold C. Bold as Chairman of the Department of Botany
at the University of Texas. Dr. Bold continues, of course, in his duties as
Professor of Botany and Education. Two new members of the department as of
September 1, 1967, are Guy Thompson, recently in the Department of Biochemistry
in the Medical School at the University of Washington, as Associate Professor
of Botany, and Clyde Smith, who recently completed requirements for the doctorate
at Cornell Uni-
as Faculty Associate. Professor Kenneth Smith of Cambridge University continues
in his appointment as. Visiting Professor of Botany.
S. Olive, who has for some time been Professor of Botany at Columbia University
will join the faculty of the University of North Carolina on January 1, 1968,
as Professor of Botany. Other recent appointments to the Department of Botany
at the University of North Carolina include Helmut Lied). formerly of Stuttgart,
Germany, as Associate Professor, and Clifford Parks, formerly of the Los Angeles
Arboretum. as Assistant Professor. Edward Barry, Clyde J. Umphlert, and A.
Domnas have recently been promoted to the rank of associate professor in the
department. After a distinguished career of 45 years at the University of
North Carolina, Kenan Professor John N. Couch's retirement became effective
on June 30, 1967. Dr. Couch's international reputation as a mycologist has
been recognized by his many honors, including member-ship in the National
Academy of Science of the United States and of the National Academy of Science
June 15 and August 13 of this past year Professor and Mrs. A. J. Sharp were
accompanied by Dr. Zennoske Iwatsuki of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory (Nichinan.
Japan) for extensive bryophyte forays in Alaska. Some 6000 collections were
L. Smother. who recently received his doctorate in systematics at the University
of Texas, has joined the staff of the Herbarium, Department of Botany, University
of California, Berkeley, as Assistant Research Botanist.
of Darbaker Prize in Mycology for 1968
committee on the Darbaker Prize of the Botanical Society of America encourages
nominations for an award to be announced at the annual meeting of the Society
at Columbus, Ohio, in 1968. Under the terms of the bequest, the award is to
be made for meritorious work in the study of the algae. Persons not members
of the Botanical Society are eligible for the award. The Committee will base
its judgment primarily on the papers published by the nominee during the last
two full calendar years previous to the closing date for nominations. At present,
the award will be limited to residents of North America. Only papers published
in the English language will be considered. The value of the Prize for 1968
will depend on the income from the trust fund but is expected to be about
5250. Nominations for the 1968 .award must be accompanied by a statement of
the merits of the case and by reprints of the publications supporting the
candidacy. The dead-line is June 1, 1968. Chairman of the Committee, Dr. Frank
R. Trainor, Department of Botany, University of Connecticut. Storrs, Connecticut
Oceanographic Expedition 18 will commence April 3, 1968, from Guayaquil, Ecuador,
and terminate June 16, 1968, at Monterey, California. During this period,
the RV TE VEGA will study the shallow water benthos along the coast of the
Eastern Tropical Pacific from northern Peru to southern Mexico. Intensive
ecological and physiological studies will be conducted in selected areas and
related to the geographic distribution of particular marine organisms. Applications
for this Expedition will be accepted until January 1, 1968, and advance inquiries
are encouraged. Applicants may be of either sex, must be research-oriented
graduate students or "young professionals" in biology, should be in good academic
standing, and in excellent physical and emotional health. The Expedition represents
an intensive 15-unit graduate-level course in Biological Oceanography given
at sea by a faculty of three (Drs. Donald Abbott, Stanford University; William
Evans, University of Alberta; Richard Bovbjerg, University of Iowa). Ten NSF
Awards covering subsistence, full tuition, and transportation to and from
the vessel are available. Contact Dr. Malvern Gilmartin, Hopkins Marine Station,
Pacific Grove, California 93950, for further information.
Evolution and Revolution" will be the central theme for the first AIRS interdisciplinary
meeting, which is scheduled to be held at the University of Wisconsin, June
16-20, 1968. Six societies will cooperate in these sessions; of greatest interest
to botanists is the cooperation of the Ecological Society of America, the
Society of the Study of Evolution, and the America Society of Limnology and
Oceanography. In addition to the contributed papers two symposia are being
organized, one on "The Process of Ecological Change," and the other on the
topic, "Man and Nature." March 1, 1968. is the deadline for all contributed
papers. Chairmen for the three societies mentioned above are Carl Monk. Department
of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens 30601 for the Ecological Society,
Herbert Baker, Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley 94720
for the Evolution Society, and Clifford H. Mortimer, Center for Great Lakes
Studies, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee 53201 for the Limnology-Oceanography
Society. The annual AIBS meetings will be held as scheduled at Ohio Stare
University, September 3-7, 1968, and some of the societies participating in
this interdisciplinary meeting will also hold sectional meetings at time of
the main AIRS sessions.
Vth International Congress on Photobiology will be held August 26-31, 1968,
at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire. The second announcement of the
Congress is now available. It contains detailed information on the Congress
and application forms for registration and presentation of papers. This announcement
and further information may be obtained by writing to the Secretariat, Vth
International Photobiology Congress, Argonne Nation-al Laboratory-202, Argonne,
Widmer Bailey (1884-1967)
death on May 16, 1967, of Professor I. W. Bailey represents an irreplaceable
loss to botanical science. Truly he was a "man for all seasons" because his
broad interests, unique knowledge of plant structure, and mastery of many
techniques were combined in research on such diversified subjects as the cytology
and function of the vascular cambium, the physical and chemical organization
of cell walls, the structure and evolution of tracheary elements, and the
phylogcny of the angiosperms. In his latter years, Irving Bailey renewed his
earlier efforts to illuminate the "abominable mystery" of the origin of angiosperms
and in this connection was a pioneer in initiating comparative morphological
studies on many members of the "Ranales." While he made no claim to have solved
the central mystery of the ancestors of modern flowering plants, his clear,
beautifully documented papers dealing with all phases of the anatomy of vegetative
and reproductive structures in angiosperms will surely be a very significant
part of the evidence which future palcobotanists and morphologists must use
in their own efforts to interpret evolution.
his failing health in recent years, Professor Bailey in 1960 began an intensive
comparative study of the anatomy of the genera of leaf-bearing Cactaceae.
Very shortly before his death, he had nearly completed the manuscript for
the sixteenth paper in the series dealing with his studies on Pereskia, Pereskiopsis,
and Ouiabentia. To the very end of his life, Irving Bailey was a true "practitioner"
the period 1923-1926 it was my good fortune to carry on and to complete my
graduate research at the Bussey Institution under Irving Bailey's guidance.
I look back now at those formative years at Harvard with the grateful realization
of how very much his wise counsel, high standards in research, and great personal
integrity meant to me as a young man. We hear much debate and discussion today
of ways and means for promoting "communication" between teacher and student
Professor Bailey readily solved this "problem" simply by practicing the fine
art of communication, i.e.. by giving generously of himself and of his vast
knowledge of plants to all his students in accordance with their needs. On
the other hand, his strong conviction of the importance of the early development
of self-reliance by his graduate students would doubtless seem austere and
"puritanical" in many quarters of "Academe" today. He never to my knowledge
"assigned" specific papers which a graduate student should use in the preparation
of his thesis. His viewpoint was much broader than merely "keeping up" with
current literature, and he encouraged the acquisition of a "classical background"
in the subject whenever possible. In my case, for example, he directed me
to the superb library of the Arnold Arboretum with the remark that "probably"
I would find articles pertinent to my graduate research "buried" in the bound
volumes of the various European botanical journals. This suggestion at first
was like trying to navigate a ship without a compass, but soon the real joy
of personal discovery of basic articles in one's own field of interest justified
the initial discouragement and all the labor. Certainly Professor Bailey drew
the attention of all his students to the ancient virtues of independence and
facet of Irving Bailey's character which I consider pertinent to the present
tribute concerns his opinion of the need for balance and cooperation in the
scientific study of plants. This sensible outlook was fully illustrated in
a paper analyzing the role of research in the development of forestry in North
America. Although the brief excerpt which I will now quote was written nearly
/0 years ago, I think it has special meaning today for those responsible for
the organization of botanical research-groups or of departments of botany.
Bailey remarks: "The compilation, codification and analysis of descriptive
data and the formulation of valid correlations arc not only of great practical
significance in the development of the biological arts, but are indispensable
in the visualization and definition of those fundamental problems which biology
seeks to solve. Nor should it be inferred that this work when well done is
of an inferior intellectual quality. The descriptive method requires capabilities
and disciplines which are by no means inferior to those used in the exact
sciences. In fact, the successful employment of cumulative circumstantial
evidence—e.g. Darwin and the Theory of Evolution—demands qualities
which are rarer and often more finely discriminating than those employed in
the exact sciences." One can only hope that Bailey's open-minded viewpoint
will eventually be more widely adopted. particularly because of the obvious
trend in recent years toward the elimination of organographic morphology and
an almost exclusive preoccupation, in university botanical teaching and research,
with the biochemical and ultra-structural aspects of plant cells.
Bailey's long and distinguished career has unhappily come to an end, but it
is some consolation to realize that his diverse contributions to botany for
more than half a century have brought distinction to his name and to the science
which he so significantly enriched by his labors.
Henry Took 1889-1967
Eben Henry Toole. a retired seed physiologist in the Agricultural Research
Service. U.S. Department of Agri-culture, and a world authority on seed physiology,
died Wednesday. August 2, 1967. at his home, 9227 Annapolis Road, Lanham,
Toole was a native of Baraboo, Wisconsin. He did his undergraduate mud graduate
work at the University of Wisconsin, where he received his Ph.D. in 1920.
He was assistant botanist at the University of Wisconsin, Instructor at Kansas
State University, and Assistant Plant Physiologist and Plant Pathologist at
Purdue University during the period 1915 to 1919.
joined the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1920 as head of research in the
Division of Seed Investigations. He was transferred to the Crops Research
Division in 1938 as Investigations Leader for vegetable seed investigations,
a position he held until he retired in 1959.
the early years Dr. Toole played an important role in developing methods and
rules for seed testing. He was an honorary member of the Society of Commercial
Seed Technologists, receiving the Meritorious Award of the Association of
Official Seed Analysts in 1959. He was on the executive committee of the Inter-national
Seed Testing Association for many years and attended five ISTA Congresses.
Toole made important contributions to the physiology of seed storage and during
the war organized extensive investigations of seed production.
to and following his retirement Dr. Toole worked extensively in the field
of light physiology of seed germination, and he participated in the experiments
that led immediately to the discovery of phytochrome.
Toole was a collaborator in the Plant Physiology Pioneering Research Laboratory
throughout his retirement. Immediately following his retirement he was a consultant
with the Asgrow Seed Company for a few years. He was a member of the Botanical
Society of America, the American Society of Plant Physiologists, the American
Society for Horticultural Science, the Washington Academy of Sciences, the
Washington Botanical Society, the Berwyn United Presbyterian Church, and the
Cosmos Club. He was a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement
of Science and a member of Sigma Xi.
Department of Agriculture
Society Committees (with expiration dates)
on Corresponding Members*
(1968) Ralph Emerson (1970), Harold C. Bold (1969) ; Aaron J. Sharp (1968).
(1968) Richard C. Starr; Subcommittee Chair-men: Council Representative from
the Geographical Sections.
(1968) Frank R. Trainor (1970) University of Connecticut; Robert F. Scagel
(1969) University of British Columbia; Richard D. Wood (1971) University of
Rhode Island; Joyce Lewin (1972) University of Washington.
(1968) A. S. Foster (1968; Carlos O. Miller (1969); John N. Couch (1970).
Ex officio: President.
Standing Committees. New York Botanical Garden Award
(1968) Henry N. Andrews; Robert M. Page, John G. Torrey, Harlan F. Lewis.
S. N. Postlethwait; Harriet B. Creighton, E. C.
R. B. Channell, Robert M. Page, Russell B.
C. E. Taft, Richard Klein, Helena A. Miller.
Ex officiis: President; Secretary; Secretary Teaching Sec-
Editor, P.S.B.; Rep. to AAAS Coop. Committee.
(1968) David Bierhorst (1968) ; C. C. Bowen (1969) ; Leonard Machlis (1970)
; Robert W. Lichtwardt (1971).
(1968) Hugh Iltis; Aaron J. Sharp, Richard Goodwin, John Thomson, Ourie Loucks.