Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 2011 v57 No 3 FallActions

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Fall 2011 Volume 57 Number 3

Science, sharing, symposia, and more...

BSA President Steve Weller’s address at 

the close of Botany 2011 85

BSA welcomes new staff 91


In This Issue..............

 Dr. Ann Hirsch receives prestigious 

BSA Merit Award ................. page 82

Botany in Action!

Service project volunteers at Botany 2011....... page 125

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From the Editor

                                                                                     Fall 2011 Volume 57 Number 3




Editorial Committee  

Volume 57

Jenny Archibald  


Department of Ecology 

& Evolutionary Biology 

The University of Kansas 

Lawrence, KS 66045

Root Gorelick  


Department of Biology & 

School of Mathematics & 


Carleton University 

Ottawa, Ontario 

Canada, K1H 5N1

Elizabeth Schussler  


Department of Ecology  & 

Evolutionary Biology 

University of Tennessee 

Knoxville, TN 37996-1610

Christopher Martine 


Department of Biology 

State University of New York 

at Plattsburgh 

Plattsburgh, NY 12901-2681

It’s the end of summer and many of us are trying 

to shift gears in preparation for another academic 

year.  It’s a good time to reflect back on summer 

activities and consider what we can incorporate 

into our classes to excite our students about botany.  

The Society itself provides some good examples, 

some of which we highlight in this issue.   First and 

foremost is to recognize outstanding accomplish-

ment at all levels, from the BSA’s Merit Award to 

outstanding presentations by graduate students in 

individual sections.  As demonstrated in President 

Weller’s address, the Society continues to promote 

excellence in botanical research through the AJB,  

and we continue to extend support and encour-

agement to fellow societies throughout the world, 

such as our Brazilian friends (who will be hosting 

the next Latin American Botanical Congress).  Our 

discipline is thriving.

Also in this issue are two articles, one long and one 

brief, that provide interesting historical perspectives 

on plants in society.  In the past, when I wanted to 

demonstrate the influence of plants on the culture 

of a country, my immediate example was tulips and 

the Dutch Golden Age.  The article by Soediono 

and colleagues on the orchid ‘Kimilsungia’ provides 

an interesting and more immediately relevant ex-

ample of which I was completely unaware.  

Christianson’s brief article emphasizes two points 

that I stress with my students.  First, once something 

is published, as in a textbook, we tend to accept it 

without question.  But questioning can often lead to 

a more thorough and more correct understanding.  

Second, even today, and even in science, there con-

tinues to be value in 

having knowledge of 

a language other than 


Carolyn M. Wetzel 


Department of Biological 

Sciences & Biochemistry 


Smith College 

Northampton, MA 01063 

Tel. 413/585-3687


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Table of Contents

Society News

The Botanical Society of America’s Merit Award ..................................82

Awards presented at Botany 2011 ...........................................................82

Botany 2011 Presidential Address—Dr. Steve Weller ............................85

Letter to Acta Botanica Brasilica............................................................89
Welcome new BSA staff member  ..........................................................91

BSA Science Education News & Notes


PlantingScience  ......................................................................................92

 Editor’s Choice Reviews .........................................................................95


Diane R. Campbell .................................................................................96

Helen Kennedy .......................................................................................96

John Kiss   ..............................................................................................97

Award Opportunities


American Philosophical Society.............................................................98

Courses, Meetings, Symposia


Undergraduate Course in Hawaiian Natural History..............................99



Missouri botanical garden part of collaborative effort to digitize


Charles Darwin’s personal library .........................................................99


Missouri Botanical Garden instrumental in creating and maintaining


Taxonomic Name Resolution Service...................................................100


58th Annual Systematics Symposium, Missouri Botanical Garden......102

Reports and Reviews

‘Kimilsungia’: How an Indonesian orchid oecame a revered symbol 

in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea after  

its name was changed ............................................................................103

“Lavish in variety, thrifty with innovation”: 

Darwin’s paraphrase of Milne-Edwards  ..............................................112

Book Reviews


Books Received


Botany 2011




Get Ready for Botany 2012

Call for Symposia and Workshops now at

Submission sites open September 1, 2011

Botany 2012 The Next Generation 

Columbus, Ohio July 7 - 11, 2012

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The Botanical Society of 

America’s Merit Award

The Botanical Society of America’s Merit Award 

is the highest honor our Society bestows. Each year, 

the Merit Award Committee solicits nominations, 

evaluates candidates, and selects those to receive 

an award. Awardees are chosen based on their 

outstanding contributions to the mission of our 

scientific Society. The committee identifies recipients 

who have demonstrated excellence in basic research, 

education, or public policy, who have provided 

exceptional service to the professional botanical 

community, or who may have made contributions 

to a combination of these categories. Based on 

these stringent criteria, the 2011 BSA Merit Award 

recipient is: 


Dr. Ann Hirsch 

University of California, 

Los Angeles

Dr. Hirsch is recognized for her outstanding 

contributions in the research of plant–microbe 

interactions, bridging the interactions among genes, 

plant growth regulators, signal transductions, and 

microbes. Her research is truly exceptional in 

combining field aspects of basic research and classical 

knowledge with molecular aspects, especially in legume–microbe interactions; she has been described as a 

bold and fearless experimentalist. Ann has also had a long and outstanding record in education where she 

has set very high standards, and her passion for research has created a stimulating laboratory environment 

for many undergraduate students, graduate students, post-docs, and visiting scholars to start or pursue 

careers in science. Dr. Hirsch has excelled in all aspects of her professional life and is richly deserving of 

the 2011 Merit Award.

Awards Presented at Botany 2011

Society News

Charles Edwin Bessey Award

(BSA in association with the Teaching Section 

and Education Committee)

Dr. Susan Singer

Carleton College. 

Dr. Singer is the Laurence McKinley Gould 

Professor of the Natural Sciences at Carleton 

College. She has served as Co-director of the 

Carleton Interdisciplinary Science and Math 

Initiative as well as the Director of the Perlman 

Learning and Teaching Center. At the national level, 

Dr. Singer has served as a program director for the 

National Science Foundation and recently worked 

on the American Association for the Advancement 

of Science’s recent publication “Vision and Change.” 

This document is a call to action that is already 

impacting the future of biology teaching. Dr. Singer 

has received numerous grants, which have often 

resulted in publications including student authors. 

Her recent work as a member of the Education, 

Outreach, and Training Committee of the iPlant 

Collaborative epitomizes the national impact 

her actions have had on creating innovative and 

effective approaches to teaching botany.

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Special Awards


Dr. Kent Holsinger,  

BSA Past-President

The Botanical Society of America presents a 

special award to Dr. Holsinger expressing gratitude 

and appreciation for outstanding contributions 

and support for the Society. Kent has provided 

exemplary contributions to the Society in terms of 

leadership, time, and effort.


Rachel Meyer 

BSA Student Representative to 

the Board, New York Botanical 


The Botanical Society of America presents a 

special award to Rachel expressing gratitude and 

appreciation for outstanding contributions and 

support for the Society.


Isabel Cookson Award 

(Paleobotanical Section) 

Established in 1976, the Isabel Cookson Award 

recognizes the best student paper presented in the 

Paleobotanical Section

Jeffrey Benca  

University of Washington

 Advisor, Dr. Caroline Stromberg, is the 

2011 award recipient for the paper entitled, 

“Morphological variation in the panglobal 

Devonian lycopsid genus Leclercqia: A new species 

from Washington State, Co-authors: Caroline 

Stromberg and Maureen Carlisle.

Darbaker Prize

The Darbaker Prize in Phycology is given each year in 

memory of Dr. Leasure K. Darbaker. It is presented to a 

resident of North America for meritorious work in the 

study of microscopic algae based on papers published in 

English by the nominee during the last two full calendar 

years. This year the Darbaker Award for meritorious work 
on microscopic algae is presented to: 

Dr. Sallie (Penny) Chisholm

Massachusetts Institute of 


Dr. Chisholm’s recent and past publications are 

on the significant role of the microalgal group 

Prochlorococcus. She and her collaborators have 

elucidated their wide distribution in the oceanic 

environment and have demonstrated essential 

critical environmental factors, including light and 

nutrients, which account for the varied distribution 

certain ecotypes and species. Their most recent 

emphasis is on the genomic characterization with 

respect to phosphate uptake, and the potential 

involvement of the cyanophages in the transfer 

of genetic material. She has also offered her well- 

considered opinion in influential scientific journals 

to discourage oceanic iron fertilization since it 

likely will seriously impact the ecosystem.

Lawrence Memorial Award

The Lawrence Memorial Fund was established at the 

Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie 

Mellon University, to commemorate the life and 

achievements of its founding director, Dr. George H. M. 

Lawrence. Proceeds from the Fund are used to make 

an annual award in the amount of $2000 to a doctoral 

candidate to support travel for dissertation research in 

systematic botany or horticulture, or the history of the 

plant sciences.

The recipient of the Award is selected from candidates 

nominated by their major professors. Nominees may 

be from any country and the Award is made strictly on 

the basis of merit, i.e., the recipient’s general scholarly 

promise and the significance of the research proposed. 

The Award Committee includes representatives from 

the Hunt Institute, The Hunt Foundation, the Lawrence 
family, and the botanical community.

Brian Sidoti 

student of  

Dr. Kenneth Cameron  

University of Wisconsin


A  Delicate  Balance  in  a  Dangerous  Place        

Submitted by Cassandra Coleman, 2011 Tri-

arch Botanical Images Student Travel Award

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Margaret Menzel Award 

(Genetics Section) 

The Margaret Menzel Award is presented by 

the Genetics Section for the outstanding paper 

presented in the contributed papers sessions of the 

annual meetings.

Matthew Parks 

Oregon State University

Advisor, Aaron Liston, for the paper “Separating 

the Wheat from the Chaff: Mitigating the Effect of 

Noisy Data in Plastome Phylogenomic Analyses.” 

Co-authors: Richard Cronn and Aaron Liston.

Maynard Moseley Award 

(Paleobotanical and 

Developmental and Structural 


The Maynard F. Moseley Award was established in 1995 

to honor a career of dedicated teaching, scholarship, and 

service to the furtherance of the botanical sciences. Dr. 

Moseley, known to his students as “Dr. Mo” died January 

16, 2003, in Santa Barbara, California, where he had been 

a professor since 1949. He was widely recognized for 

his enthusiasm for and dedication to teaching and his 

students, as well as for his research using floral and wood 

anatomy to understand the systematics and evolution 

of angiosperm taxa, especially waterlilies. (PSB, Spring, 

2003). The award is given to the best student paper, 

presented in either the Paleobotanical or Developmental 

and Structural sessions, that advances our understanding 
of plant structure in an evolutionary context.

John Benedict 

 Arizona State University,

Advisor, Kathleen Pigg, is the 2011 Moseley 

Award recipient, for his paper “The fossil history of 

Zingiberales and new insights based on fossil and 

extant members.” 


Emanuel D. Rudolph Award 

(Historical Section) 

The Emanuel D. Rudolph Award is given by the 

Historical Section of the BSA for the best student 

presentation/poster of a historical nature at the 

annual meetings.

Nuala Caomhanach 

University of Missouri

Advisor, Kim Kleinman, for her presentation: 

Thomas Nuttall and 19th century botany: The St. 

Louis connection.”


George R. Cooley Award 

(Systematics Section and the 

American Society of Plant 


George R. Cooley award for best contributed paper 

in plant systematics. The ASPT’s Cooley Award is given 

for the best paper in systematics presented at the annual 

meeting by a botanist in the early stages of his/her career. 

Awards are made to members of ASPT who are graduate 

students or within five years of their postdoctoral 

careers. The Cooley Award is given for work judged to 

be substantially complete, synthetic, and original. First 

authorship required; graduate students or those within 

five years of finishing their Ph.D. are eligible; must be a 

member of ASPT at time of abstract submission; only one 
paper judged per candidate.

Erin Tripp 

Rancho Santa Ana 

For the talk entitled “Physacanthus 

(Acanthaceae): a heteroplasmic, intergeneric, 

interlineage hybrid?” Co-authors: Lucinda McDade, 

Siti Fatimah Isa, and Iain Darbyshire 

Katherine Esau Award 

(Developmental and Structural 


This award was established in 1985 with a 

gift from Dr. Esau and is augmented by ongoing 

contributions from Section members. It is given to 

the graduate student who presents the outstanding 

paper in developmental and structural botany at 

the annual meeting.

Natalia Pabon-Mora 

New York Botanical Garden

Advisor, Amy Litt, for the paper “Functional 

redundancy of non-core eudicot FUL-like

paralogs in regulating flowering time and petal 

development.” Co-author: Amy Litt.

Honorable Mention  

Chi-Chih Wu  

University Of Colorado 


Advisor, Pamela Diggle, for the paper “The impact 

of the lower genetic relatedness of endosperm to its 

compatriot embryo on maize seed development.” 

Co-authors: Pamela Diggle and William Friedman.

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Edgar T. Wherry Award 

(Pteridological Section and 

the American Fern Society) 

The Edgar T. Wherry Award is given for the best 

paper presented during the contributed papers 

session of the Pteridological Section. This award is 

in honor of Dr. Wherry’s many contributions to the 

floristics and patterns of evolution in ferns.

Monique McHenry 

University of Vermont, 

Advisor and co-author David S. Barrington, for 

her paper; “Investigating morphological diversity 

of Andean Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae): seeking 

explanations for incongruence between sequence 

variation and morphological variation” 

The 2011 Grady L. Webster 


This award was established in 2006 by Dr. 

Barbara D. Webster, Grady’s wife, and Dr. 

Susan V. Webster, his daughter, to honor the 

life and work of Dr. Grady L. Webster. The 

American Society of Plant Taxonomists and 

the Botanical Society of America are pleased 

to join together in honoring Grady Webster. 

Dr. Sherwin Carlquist

Xylem heterochrony: an unappreciated key to 

angiosperm origin and diversifications 

Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 

161, 26–65 

Botany 2011 Presidential Address

Dr. Steve Weller

My goal tonight is to share some personal reflections about who we are as a scientific society, and the 

kinds of changes that I believe will help our society to remain relevant as we look to the future.  My 

curiosity about the composition of the Society and the range of research interests represented among us 

stems from reading and publishing papers in the American Journal of Botany over many years, and serving 

as an associate editor in recent years.  

The journal is especially rich in papers on ecology, reproductive biology, systematics, population biology, 

anatomy and morphology, and genetics.  The content of the American Journal of Botany, and the nature of 

the membership of the Society both reflect a fundamental interest in using plants to test hypotheses, and 

we come together at these meetings because of this interest.  Many of us belong to other societies and attend 

those meetings as well, but we appreciate the opportunity to attend Botanical Society of America meetings 

and enjoy the interchange with others who have the same plant-centric focus.  We also influence a broad 

array of disciplines, however, including many whose members publish their work in diverse journals.

Two examples illustrate the point of how our members broadly influence science.  My first example 

highlights the importance of phylogenetic information for understanding the role of self incompatibility in 

the explosive radiation of flowering plants in the Cretaceous Period—Darwin’s “abominable mystery”.  Self-

incompatibility (SI), was first suggested by Whitehouse in 1950 as the cause of angiosperm diversification.  

The idea has been impossible to test until phylogenies of the flowering plants became available, produced 

by members of this society.  These phylogenies have revealed remarkable evolutionary insights.  

Boris Igic and Josh Kohn have found identical RNases controlling the expression of mating types in 

gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) in divergent plants families.  Their work, using phylogenetic 

trees, shows that these RNases are identical by descent in the Plantaginaceae, Solanaceae, and Rosaceae, 

suggesting that gametophytic self-incompatibility evolved in the common ancestor of the Asteridae 

and Rosidae.  Families included in these lineages constitute about 75% of non-monocot families, which 

suggests that this type of self-incompatibility evolved early in the evolution of flowering plants.  Despite 

the widespread occurrence of gametophytic self-incompatibility, we also know that many families in the 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Asteridae and Rosidae have other forms of self-

incompatibility.  Sporophytic self-incompatibility 

(SSI) in the Asteraceae and other families is one 

example.  These additional instances of self- 

incompatibility systems evolved independently and 

show no homology with GSI.  Clearly, phylogenetic 

information has played an enormously important 

role in understanding these evolutionary questions.

But have we addressed Darwin’s “abominable 

mystery”—the diversification of the flowering 

plants?  To answer that question, we need to 

go deeper into the evolutionary history of the 

flowering plants, to those earliest branching 

lineages, represented here by Amborella and 

Anemopsis, and assess the occurrence of SI in these 

lineages.  When we do that, we find several types 

of self-incompatibility in basal angiosperm clades 

(Allen and Hiscock, 2008).  These patterns suggest 

that different types of self-incompatibility may 

have evolved early in the evolutionary history of 

the angiosperms, and may have been important in 

the evolutionary diversification of the angiosperms.  

But the point I am making is the importance of 

phylogenetic trees to the entire exercise—without 

them, we could not take these approaches, and 

we would have no basis for speculation about 

the role of self-incompatibility in the evolution 

of the flowering plants.  Molecular evolutionary 

approaches have given us important insights into 

the evolution of flowering plants, but we need our 

phylogenetic framework to interpret this work.  Of 

course,  Amborella, the most basal of angiosperm 

lineages, is dioecious, suggesting even more 

complexity to the story.  

For my second example of how we, as members 

of the Botanical Society, influence a broad 

spectrum of research,  I turn to the other end of the 

biological spectrum.  We all recognize how changes 

at the global scale are having profound effects on 

ecosystems due to climate change, introduction of 

invasive species, and other human activities that 

affect the world.  How does our work address these 

important questions?   I approach this question 

using a study of an invasive species that has had 

profound effects on native plant communities, and 

the people who depend on these plant communities.  

Pennisteum  setaceum, or fountain grass, is 

native to the Mideast and invasive in parts of the 

southwestern United States and Hawaii.  In Hawaii 

it has had a huge impact on dry forest ecosystems 

because it is a fire promoter.  Even a single fire cycle 

results in death of the canopy forest, and conversion 

to nonnative grassland in Hawaii.  Loss of these 

native forests results in desertification of large 

regions of Hawaii, and loss of species important to 

native Hawaiians.  Recent efforts to restore of dry 

forests in Hawaii are directly attributable to the 

leadership of native Hawaiians.  Is fountain grass 

equally invasive throughout its range?  The answer 

appears to be no.  In contrast to Hawaii, fountain 

grass seems much less invasive along highways in 

southern California, where unfortunately it has 

been planted by the State Highway Department.  

Populations in southern Arizona seem to have an 

intermediate level of invasiveness.  

We asked whether genetic variability or 

phenotypic plasticity was associated with these 

differences in invasion, information fundamental 

for understanding the nature of invasiveness. 



Fountain grass was known to be apomictic, but 

we expected that there would be some genetic 

variation due to occasional sexual reproduction.  

An analysis using ISSR markers, which should be 

very sensitive to genetic variation, instead indicated 

that populations across this region were genetically 

identical (Poulin et al., 2005).  But would molecular 

approaches be sufficient to rule out relevant genetic 

differences?   Several common garden experiments, 

one in a field plot and another in a greenhouse, 

were used to check for genetic variation that 

could not be detected using molecular markers.  

Results from the common garden experiments 

demonstrated that plants from different regions 

had identical growth and reproduction (Poulin 

et al., 2007).  On this basis, plants from these 

different regions appear to be genetically identical, 

at least in those traits influencing invasiveness.  

Phenotypic plasticity, related to differences in 

summer rainfall, is primarily responsible for the 

differences in invasiveness across the range that 

we sampled.  Watering treatments in a common 

garden mimicked natural differences in rainfall 

in California, Arizona, and Hawaii.  Results from 

the experiment demonstrated reduced growth and 

reproduction under conditions resembling rainfall 

patterns in California, the region where fountain 

grass is least invasive.   The take-home lessons from 

this example are several-fold.  First, fountain grass 

has an enormous effects in ecosystems because it 

promotes fires and converts native to completely 

exotic habitat.  Second, our ability to understand 

the invasiveness of fountain grass depends 

on understanding the breeding system of this 

species and the interplay between the genetic and 

environmental controls on the phenotype.  This 

research was published in the American Journal of 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Botany, and it is hard to imagine a more appropriate 


Recent data confirm that the papers we publish 

in the American Journal of Botany increasingly 

impact science.  The 2010 Journal Citation Report 

from Thomas Reuters shows that our impact factor 

is now 3.052, above 3.0 for the first time in the 

journal’s history and up from 2.684 last year.  The 

journal now ranks 27th  among 187 journals in 

plant science, two rankings higher than last year.  

Special issues such as the Darwin Centennial issue 

in 2009 and the Biodiversity issue in 2011 have 

undoubtedly contributed to the steady increase in 

impact factor of AJB because of the greater breadth 

of topics in these issues.  For example, half the papers 

in the Biodiversity issue focused on community 

and ecosystem ecology, topics that are not normally 

as well represented in the journal.  Indexing by 

PubMed, initiated in 2010, will also increase the 

impact of the journal.  We have our outstanding 

editors, Judy Jernstedt and Amy McPherson, the 

AJB staff, the organizers of species issues, and of 

course all the contributors who submit their best 

papers, to thank for the increasing influence of our 


How do we continue to maintain the vitality 

of our field, and provide the insights critical to 

other disciplines?  This question brings me to the 

second part of my talk—the kinds of changes that 

are taking place in the workforce, and how they 

will affect our Society.  Two influential reports, 

published 10 years apart, have addressed this issue.  

The first report, entitled “Ensuring a Strong U.S. 

Scientific, Technical, and Engineering Workforce 

in the 21st Century,” was published in 2000 by the 

National Science and Technology Council, under 

the Executive Office of the President.  A second 

report, “Expanding Underrepresented Minority 

Participation,” from the National Academy of 

Science, was published in 2010.  Both reports 

emphasize that participation of all ethnic and 

gender groups in the scientific workforce must grow 

to maintain strength in science and technology in 

the United States.  We can use these reports to see 

how the population and science and technology 

workforce have changed over the last 10 years.

In recent history, non-Hispanic white males 

have formed the bulk of the U.S. science, technical, 

engineering, and mathematics (or STEM) 

workforce.  For example, in 1997 white non-Hispanic 

males formed 36% of the population, but 65% of 

the science, technical, and engineering workforce.  

In contrast, white, non-Hispanic women formed 

about 38% of the population, and 18% of the STEM 

workforce.   Women have fared somewhat better in 

the biological disciplines, where they received 42% 

of doctoral degrees in biology in 1996, relative to 

32% of the doctorates in the STEM workforce, and 

presumably constituted a greater part of the biology 

workforce relative to other science and engineering 

disciplines.  A very small proportion of under-

represented minorities pursued advanced degrees 

in science and engineering.  In 1997 Hispanic males 

constituted about 5% of the population, but less 

than 3% of the STEM workforce, and for Hispanic 

women, the percentage of the workforce in science 

and technology was less than 2%.  These individuals 

occurred in such low numbers in the STEM 

workforce that they have limited opportunities to 

serve as role models or mentor other minorities.  

How is the population changing, and what does 

this mean for the future of the science, technical, 

and engineering workforce?  Based on the 2000 

report, the most significant change in the projected 

population from 1995 to 2050 is both a relative 

and absolute decline of non-Hispanic white males 

and females from about 74% of the population in 

1995 to a projected value of 52% in 2050.  What 

ethnic groups are increasing during this period?  

By far, Hispanics are projected to show the largest 

increase, from about 10% (men and women 

combined) to 24% of the population in 2050.  The 

African-American workforce will increase from 

12% to 14%, and the Asian-American workforce 

from 4% to 9%.  The Native American portion 

of the workforce is expected remain the same at 

less than 1%.  In summary, over this period the 

minority portion of the populations is expected 

to increase from about 25% to 48%.  If we are to 

maintain a leadership role in the sciences, then it is 

clear that we must encourage more representation 

of women and minorities in the sciences, and in 

the Botanical Society of America.  If we simply 

continue to train people in science and technology 

as we have in the past, we could see a 9% decline in 

the percentage of 22-year-olds receiving bachelor 

degrees in science and technology from 1995 to 

2050 because of the increase in minorities who are 

less likely to graduate in these areas. This projection 

could change, depending on how successful we are 

in training underrepresented groups.  

Where do we stand at present, 10 years after 

the publication of the first report?  The 2010 

report, “Expanding Underrepresented Minority 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

forefront of science and technology.  As a Society, 

we do our best to achieve better representation of 

women, minorities, and people with disabilities 

because we recognize their contributions to our 

discipline.  Unless these individuals are encouraged 

to participate, the science that we value will be 

relegated to an increasingly smaller segment of the 


Allen, A. M. and S. J. Hiscock.  2008.  Evolution 

and phylogeny of self-incompatibility systems in 

angiosperms.  Pp. 73-101 in V. E. Franklin-Tong 

(ed.), Self-incompatibility in flowering plants—

evolution, diversity, and mechanisms.  Springer, 


Igic, B. and J. R. Kohn.  2001.  Evolutionary 

relationships among self-incompatibility RNases.  

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 

98: 13167-13171.

National Academy of Sciences, National 

Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine.  

2010.  Expanding underrepresented minority 

participation.  The National Academies Press.  

Washington, D.C.  

National Science and Technology Council.  2000.  

Ensuring a strong U.S. scientific, technical, and 

engineering workforce in the 21st century. Office of 

Science and Technology Policy.  

Poulin, J., S. G. Weller, and A. K. Sakai.  2005.  

Genetic diversity does not affect the invasiveness of 

fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum) in Arizona, 

California and Hawaii.  Diversity and Distributions 

11: 241-247.  

Poulin, J., A. K. Sakai, S. G. Weller, and T. 

Nguyen.  2007.  Phenotypic plasticity, precipitation, 

and invasiveness in the fire-promoting grass 

Pennisetum setaceum (Poaceae).  American Journal 

of Botany 94: 533-541.

Whitehouse, H. L. K.  1950.  Multiple-allelomorph 

incompatibility of pollen and style in the evolution 

of the angiosperms.  Annals of Botany 14: 199-216.

Participation”, points out that although the United 

States once led in the attainment of postsecondary 

education in the world, the country is now 

in 11th place in the world.  At the same time 

minority groups underrepresented in science 

and engineering continue to be the most rapidly 

growing part of the U.S. population.  In 2006, 

underrepresented minorities (African Americans, 

Hispanics, and Native Americans) constituted 

28.5% of the population but only 9.1% of the science 

and engineering workforce.  As expected based 

on demographic trends, minority representation 

increased dramatically between 1972 and 2007 in 

public schools, particularly among Hispanics.   At 

the same time we see a progressive decline in the 

representation of underrepresented minorities as 

we proceed up the academic ladder, from 38.8% 

underrepresented minorities in K-12 public 

enrollment, to only 5.4% receiving doctorates.  

Retention of minorities in programs is a critical 

issue.  The 2010 report noted that only about 20% of 

undergraduate minority students enrolled in STEM 

disciplines completed their bachelors degrees, 

compared to 33% of white students in these areas.  

Based on the 2010 report, enrollments of minority 

students are increasing at both the undergraduate 

and graduate level, so we have reason to believe 

that trends are in the right directions, although the 

base for these percentage calculations is quite small.  

Retention of minorities in these areas of studies is 

viewed as critical.  What can be done to increase 

retention of students?  Redesign of undergraduate 

courses to include active learning and collaboration, 

increased social support, and more mentoring 

have all been suggested as ways to increase 

retention of minorities.  Needless to say, increased 

spending will be essential for these programs to 

be implemented and continued, and in today’s 

economic and political climates, the uncertainties 

are tremendous. In the Botanical Society, we have 

continued to support the PLANTS program to 

bring undergraduates to our national meeting, with 

the generous support of the Society and a National 

Science Foundation grant that was just funded to 

support the PLANTS  program.  Doug and Pam 

Soltis, with support from the National Science 

Foundation, have provided significant support to 

increase diversity at our meeting.  PlantingScience 

is a major form of outreach for the Society.  We 

strive to increase diversity, not only because 

we know it’s the right thing to do, but because 

we must if the United States is to remain at the 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Upon the occasion of the 25


 year of publication of 

Acta Botanica Brasilica (ABB) by the Brazilian Botanical 

Society, we off er some refl ections on the importance of 

the American Journal of Botany to the Botanical Society of 

America. As the primary scientifi c journal of our society, 

publication began in 1914, 21 years aft er the society was 

founded in 1893. Our journal, as does ABB, accepts papers 

on every aspect of plant science. Th e journal is particularly 

rich in papers that focus on organismal approaches. Papers 

on plant genomics, molecular evolution, and community 

and ecosystem ecology are less well-represented, although 

research published in the journal informs these topics. 

Because of its organismal focus, the journal is an important 

resource for those researchers looking for information on 

plants. Our journals also attract interest in our societies, 

as researchers become aware of others sharing common 

research interests. Attendance at national meetings and 

interactions with other researchers is one outcome of publi-

cation of our journals. For many of us who were trained as 

botanists, our fi rst introduction to the society was through 

meetings as students. For us, the journal has played a role 

as the venue to publish our research and for information on 

the important research of others in botany. Journals are the 

basic resource for fundamental research in science; most 

major scientifi c societies support some publication that 

contributes to the scientifi c compendium of knowledge in 

the world. However, as we approach our hundredth year of 

publication and as you celebrate your 25


 year, the publi-

cation world is changing rapidly due to electronic access. 

Th is rapidly changing landscape raises important questions 

for authors, societies, publishers, and researchers. Will the 

journal remain the important work, or will the actual article 

become the more important item for consideration? How 

will societies survive on a new business model, independent 

of the income from the purchase of the journal? If access 

to journals is free, who pays for costs of the peer review 

and editing to ensure that papers are of the highest quali-

ty? Time alone will answer these questions, but societies 

must be ready and carefully consider now how to meet the 

challenges ahead. Researchers need to think about paying 

to publish, rather than paying for the published material. 

As we think about our journal and its importance for 

our society, the defi nitions of journal provide thought- pro-

voking material. Of course, a defi nition of “journal”, as the 

defi nition of” acta”, is a periodical presenting articles on a 

particular subject such as plant science. Th e word “journal” 

however, has additional meanings, such as a personal record 

of occurrences, experiences, and refl ections kept on a regular 

basis; a diary. And isn’t that exactly what our journal does 

for our society? It presents the experiences and knowledge 

of our various researchers who have published their hy-

potheses, data, and conclusions over time in the journal. 

Looking back through the topics of the journal, we can 

trace the important emphases of the fi eld of botany – from 

discovery of species and their geographical occurrences, the 

accumulation of these species into fl oras, and the growth 

patterns and processes of these organisms, to more detailed 

morphological and anatomical studies, through genetic and 

physiological processes infl uencing the form and structure of 

plants, to broad ecosystem relationships among all organisms 

including the plants and the physical factors that infl uence 

these organisms. At all levels of botanical investigation, we 

see shift s in experimental approaches with increasing use 

of molecular tools for studies on phylogenies, gene action, 

and cellular processes. Th us, the journal becomes a personal 

refl ection of the growth and development of the society over 

the last century, and provides valuable information about 

the scientifi c process in plant biology. Th is observation leads 

directly to another defi nition of the word “journal” as an 

offi  cial record of daily proceedings, as of a legislative body or 

a ship’s log. Perhaps not daily, but the monthly publication of 

the journal has provided an offi  cial record of the proceedings 

happening throughout the diverse research disciplines of the 

society. Th e journal provides an important historical thread 

that ties the society members together with all who have 

preceded us, and which we hope will continue to form that 

bond with future botanists. 

In addition, the journal provides a record of the best 

in scientifi c research produced by a researcher. An article 

written according to strict guidelines and peer reviewed to 

provide validity for the results becomes part of the scientifi c 

record. Journal articles document the complete research 

Acta bot. bras. 25(2): 253-254. 2011.


Acta Botanica Brasilica 25(2): 253-254. 2011.

Editorial / Editorial

Refl ections on the role of publications by scientifi c societies in 

celebration of the 25th year for Acta Botanica Brasilica

From your sister society to the north: the Botanical Society of America

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Nota Científi ca / Scientifi c Note

Acta Botanica Brasilica 25(1): 1. 2011.

Acta bot. bras. 25(2): 253-254. 2011.


process and provide a means of repeating the research to 

verify the results. Students reading and discussing these 

articles in journals learn the scientifi c method and the rules 

for scientifi c publication, as students have for centuries. Th ey 

will continue to do so, whether these articles are produced in 

printed format on paper or in electronic online publications, 

which is certainly the way most scientists now are accessing 

scientifi c literature. Given the ubiquity of information on the 

web, endorsement of articles by a scientifi c society becomes 

even more critical to verify the authenticity and value of the 

work. A web-based, “rate this article” approach may work in 

some cases, but not in scientifi c disciplines.

Journals have another role as well- they can lead the way 

by encouraging research directions that are likely to lead to 

new and promising results. For example, the editors of jour-

nals and the members of a society can solicit contributions 

for special issues of a journal that bring together papers on 

topics that are important to a fi eld, but may not have been 

well-represented in the journal. Th ese special issues may have 

synergistic eff ects by heightening an awareness of research 

approaches especially benefi cial to a discipline. Special is-

sues may also be useful for refl ecting on the status of a fi eld, 

and integrating research approaches over a broad range of 

disciplines. Two recent issues of the American Journal of 

Botany exemplify these approaches. Th e journal celebrated 

the Darwin Bicentennial by publishing a special issue in 2009 

on Darwin’s “abominable mystery,” the apparently sudden 

appearance of fl owering plants in the Cretaceous Period. 

Th is issue of the journal contained a very broad array of 

papers, emphasizing topics ranging from paleobotany to 

molecular genetics. A reader of this issue would gain a very 

comprehensive approach to research questions surrounding 

the evolution of fl owering plants, and perspective on how 

scientists in other disciplines apply their approach to the 

problem. A more recent issue of the journal published in 2011 

was devoted to biodiversity- in the broadest sense possible. 

Topics covered included diversifi cation of ecosystems throu-

ghout paleohistory, evolutionary diversifi cation of fl owering 

plants, diversity in microbial communities, and the eff ects 

of species invasion on biodiversity. Ecosystem and global 

change issues were especially well represented, and might 

generate more attention to these topics in future issues of 

the American Journal of Botany. Th ese special issues, which 

have been highly cited, indicate the role of a journal in con-

tributing to the growth of a particular discipline or area of 

research, and indicate that even in an age when most readers 

download articles rather than issues, the synthesis of ideas in 

a single location, electronic or otherwise, can be infl uential. 

We live in an age where communication oft en seems ins-

tantaneous, and the fl ow of ideas so rapid that new research 

directions rapidly gain momentum. Th e same forces that 

promote this exchange of information may have negative 

consequences for our societies, unless we think carefully 

about new business models for our journals. Several models 

exist, such as the traditional approach where the reader/

user pays, models where the author pays for publishing, 

institutional sponsorship methods, marketing support (but 

these do not work well for specialized scientifi c articles), 

providing portions of articles or special articles for free but 

requiring payment for complete articles or issues of journals, 

or hybrid models of these methods. Th e American Journal of 

Botany off ers free access aft er one year to all the articles but 

if researchers or libraries wish to have more instantaneous 

access, they pay. All these models have issues that have been 

discussed in great detail. As scientifi c societies we need to 

be part of the discussion on the business models of open-

access publishing because we must generate the resources to 

continue to produce solid, verifi able scientifi c articles that are 

openly accessible to all. We owe it to those who established 

the high standards for our society publications and we owe 

it to the students and researchers of the future to provide 

a continuous, historical, reliable, and trusted resource and 

outlet for the best of botanical information.

Judith E. Skog

BSA President

Stephen G. Weller

BSA President-elect

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Welcome New BSA Staff Member 

Beth Parada

Online Publication Editor

Beth joined the AJB editorial team in July 2011 to manage 

the review, editorial, and production process of the online-only 

section  AJB Primer Notes & Protocols in the Plant Sciences. 

Before joining the BSA, Beth was Managing Editor at the 

Missouri Botanical Garden Press, where she managed the 

editorial and production process for the Garden’s two quarterly 

journals, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden and Novon

as well as for titles published in the series Monographs in 

Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden and the 

many flora projects published by the Garden. Her background 

in scientific publishing also includes five years of experience 

with Elsevier as Issue Manager for the Annals of Emergency 

Medicine and coordinating the development and production of 

online courseware.



Each year Harvard University awards a limited number of Bullard Fellowships to individuals 

in biological, social, physical, and political sciences to promote advanced study, research, or 

integration of subjects pertaining to forested ecosystems. The fellowships, which include stipends 

up to $40,000, are intended to provide individuals in mid-career with an opportunity to utilize the 

resources and to interact with personnel in any department within Harvard University in order 

to develop their own scientific and professional growth. In recent years Bullard Fellows have been 

associated with the Harvard Forest, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, and the J. 

F. Kennedy School of Government and have worked in areas of ecology, forest management, policy, 

and conservation. Fellowships are available for periods ranging from six months to one year after 

September 1st. Applications from international scientists, women, and minorities are encouraged. 

Fellowships are not intended for graduate students or recent postdoctoral candidates. Information 

and application instructions are available on the Harvard Forest website (http://harvardforest.fas. Annual deadline for applications is February 1st.

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BSA Science Education  

News & Notes

Master Plant Science Team

Thanks to 2010-2011 Master Plant Science Team 
We extend our gratitude to the 2010-2011 

Master Plant Science Team, a special cohort of 

PlantingScience mentors who commit to mentor 

about 4 teams in both the fall and spring session.  

The Botanical Society of America sponsored: 

Lorraine Adderley, Rob Baker, Kate Becklin, 

Amanda Birnbaum, Angelle Bullard-Roberts, 

Katie Clark, Rafael Rubio de Casas, Melissa Gray, 

Eric Jones, Allison Kidder, Haley Kilroy, Laura 

Lagomarsino, Chase Mason, Dr. David Matlaga, 

Arjit Mukherjee, Kelly O’Donnell, Taina Price, 

Emily Sessa, Kate Sidlar, and Lindsey Tuominen.  

The American Society of Plant Biologists 

sponsored: Robert Barlow, Betsy Justus, Sasha 

Ricaurte, Madhura Siddappaji, and Erica Fishel.

Thank you for your valuable mentoring efforts.  

Thanks also to those helping field-test for your 

insights on the new inquiries.   Your extra efforts 

are a big boost to the PlantingScience community!

Call for 2011-2012 


The Master Plant Science Team (MPST) is 

designed to provide compensation for a cohort of 

graduate students and post-doctoral researchers 

who make a substantial contribution as an online 

mentor during an academic year.  To support your 

extra efforts, there are extra benefits and support 

systems.  MPST members receive free membership 

to the Botanical Society of America for the year 

commitment and 50% off meeting registration fees.

BSA Science Education News and Notes is a quarterly update about the BSA’s education efforts and the 

broader education scene.  We invite you to submit news items or ideas for future features.  Contact:  Claire 

Hemingway, BSA Education Director, at or Marshall Sundberg, PSB Editor, at

PlantingScience—BSA-led student research and science 

mentoring program

Joining the 2011-2012 team involves: 

• participating in online mentorship training 

mentoring about 4 student teams via the web 

during BOTH fall and spring sessions (each 

session lasts about two months)

• posting to student teams about three times per 


• providing extra support and facilitating 

communication for one classroom teacher and 

his/her class

An application is available online:

If you’d like to spark scientific curiosity and 

understanding in today’s youth, but the MPST isn’t 

a good fit for you, consider joining as a regular 

PlantingScience mentor:

2011 PlantingScience Summer 

Institute for Teachers 

2011 Summer Institute teachers and plant science 

leaders share a bit of shade under a famous old 

oak on Texas A&M University campus.

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

The learning fun was sizzling hot in 

College Station, Texas, at this summer’s fourth 

PlantingScience Institute for Teachers (June 23-30, 

2011).  We were once again mightily impressed with 

the number and quality of workshop applicants.  

Having to accept only 32% of the deserving 

applicants made for some hard choices.  Nineteen 

teachers traveled from 13 U.S. states and as far away 

as Seoul, South Korea, to share the experience of 

plant inquiry immersion with Dr. Marsh Sundberg 

of Emporia State University and Dr. Larry Griffing 

of Texas A&M University.  Adding to the rich 

learning environment were teacher leaders Kim 

Parfitt of Cheyenne Central High School and 

Randy Dix of Olathe North High School, who 

field-tested modules last year, and seven teachers 

who previously attended a summer institute and 

participated in online mentored inquiry sessions.  

These are sure signs of a vibrant PlantingScience 

community and a cohort of teachers eager for 

opportunities to engage in deep thinking about 

plant biology and scientific inquiry. 

A discussion of the essay “The Importance of 

Stupidity in Scientific Research” kicked off the 

session and, following a visit to the greenhouse 

to examine plant diversity, teachers were off and 

running on plant investigations that culminated 

in teacher team presentations.  Microscopy and 

ImageJ were tools introduced for both plant 

investigation themes.  Another feature in common 

was the high value placed on mucking-around time 

as an important phase for building background 

knowledge and allowing, sometimes unanticipated 

ideas to surface and connect.  Following the 

five-day inquiry immersion, the focus shifted to 

classroom implementation.  Larry and his wife 

kindly hosted a sumptuous BBQ party for all at 

their farm on the penultimate night, where the 

participants surprised Larry and Claire with 

birthday wishes.  Conversations among workshop 

teachers are continuing on the PlantingScience 

Institute Facebook group set up by Dick Willis.

Larry Griffing (who also co-led the 2009 

institute) introduced teachers to the plant genetics 

workhorse, Arabidopsis, and the use of recombinant 

inbred lines for classroom research on population 

variation and teasing apart roles of genetics and 

environment.  Working with a large amount of new 

information, such small seeds, and classroom sets 

of plants can be challenging, but Larry achieved 

his aim for the module of moving genetics beyond 

Mendel and bringing quantitative reasoning and 

data visualization into prominence.  In fact, the 

teachers investigations were so productive that 

Larry awarded two prizes: the Araba-daba-do award 

for the most innovative data collection and Araba-

daba-data award for the most comprehensive data 


Marsh Sundberg (who also co-led the 2008 and 

2010 institutes) employed his extensive skill in 

asking guiding questions as teacher teams sought 

to cause and explain celery curling in the celery 

challenge, which integrates cell types, osmosis, and 

transpiration.  As one might expect for an open-

ended inquiry such as this, teacher teams explored 

some relationships such as geometry and physics of 

the celery segments that have not previously been 

explored by teams.  For the five returning teachers 

who had experienced the celery challenge last year, 

Marsh posed a related and special challenge to 

design an inquiry for their classrooms using ferns 

to examine osmosis and transpiration.  In keeping 

with tradition established last year, the presentation 

of their work included a song-and-dance routine 

about transpiration.  A number of teachers are 

continuing the labshop challenge with Marsh by 


Teacher teams with their “Tri-comb” awards created 

and bestowed by Larry Griffing for most innovative 

data collection (top) and most comprehensive data 

analysis (bottom) of their Arabidopsis investigations.

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

PlantingScience Student 

Posters at Botany 2011

Kara Butterworth displayed at Botany 2011 

four posters created by student teams in her 

Honors Biology class at Combs High School in 

Arizona.  During the spring 2011 PlantingScience 

online session, Kara had 13 teams of 9th and 10th 

graders investigating C-Ferns.  With advice from 

their online mentors and Kara’s support in the 

classroom, the students asked diverse questions 

including the role of pollution on spores, effects of 

space and density on sex ratios, and relationships 

between pH and timing of life cycle stages and 

rate of growth.  Kara, now living in Colorado, will 

bring the PlantingScience experience to a new set 

of students, and she hopes to bring high school 

students to talk about their posters at future Botany 


This last workshop under our current NSF award 

(DRL-0733280) was again expertly hosted by co-PI 

Dr. Carol Stuessy, Texas A&M University Associate 

Professor of Teaching, Learning, and Culture.  

Carol, her graduate student Cheryl Ann Peterson, 

and other members of the TAMU research team are 

examining the impact of the teacher professional 

development workshops and interactions in the 

online community.  Cheryl Ann Peterson shared 

preliminary data of her dissertation research at the 

Botany 2011 meeting.  Tantalizing findings include 

that a greater percentage of teams whose teachers 

attended the 10-day workshops compared to non-

workshop teachers post evidence of scientific 

thinking regarding particular elements of their 

inquiry projects, such as mentioning confounding 

variables in their experimental design or connecting 

their conclusions of the experiment to the data that 

were collected.  It is exciting to see data on the 

PlantingScience model of scientist-student-teacher 

partnership accumulate as the current grant cycle 

begins to come to a close and we plan for the future.

Kara Butterworth showcases posters created by 

her high school team “The Beatles” on their inves-

tigation of pH level of agar on spore development.  

Note the students’ acknowledgement of their mentor 

Laura Lagomarsino.

Deliberating options for the fern transpiration 


inquiry with Marsh Sundberg (far right).

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Editor’s Choice Reviews

The End Of The Botany Degree in 

The UK.  

Drea, S.  2011.  Bioscience Educa-

tion 17(2)

The decline of botany noted in the pages of PSB 

since its inaugural issue more than 50 years ago 

has not been a phenomenon unique to the United 

States.  According to the author of this article, “The 

last student enrolled in a pure ‘Botany’ degree in 

the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 


Exploring the Complexity of Tree 

Thinking Expertise in an Under-

graduate Systematics Course   


verson, K.L., C.J. Pires, and S.K. Abell. 2011.    

Science Education 95(5): 794-823.  

The authors use multiple assessments, both 

quantitative and qualitative, to uncover student 

misunderstandings involving phylogenetic tree 

interpretations in a plant systematic course.  

Natural Antibiotics: A Hands-on Ac-

tivity on Garlic’s Antibiotic Proper-


 Joāo Fonseca, M. and F. Tavares. 2011.    


he American Biology Teacher 73: 342-346. 

There are a number of protocols out there for 

examining antibiotic properties of a variety of 

organisms, but what I like most about this one 

(aside from the garlic) is that kitchen utensils 

and ingredients are used, along with some basic 

scientific glassware.  The media is “from scratch,” 

starting with boiling meat on the stove, then adding 

sugar and salt (and some agar).  How do you get 

your garlic extract?  Start with a garlic press! Can 

you just use a garlic clove?  Either you try it or read 

the article.

What’s Inside a Sweet Pepper Fruit?  

Thinking About the “Insides” in 


 Kemel, D., B. Druzina, and T. 

McCloughlin.  2011.   Journal of Biological 

Education 45(1): 29-36. 

The simple question in the title of this paper opens 

up to inquiries of the nature of the gas inside 

the chambers of a sweet pepper and alternative 

approaches to testing hypotheses.  For instance, is 

the pepper hollow?  How could you test this non-

destructively?  If it is hollow, is it empty?  What 

does empty mean?  How can this be tested? The 

simple sweet pepper provides all the living material 

needed for a semester-long inquiry to answer the 

initial question!

Perceptions of Strengths ond De-

ficiencies:  Disconnects Between 

Graduate Students and Prospective 


Sundberg, M., P. DeAngelis, 

K. Havens, B. Zorn-Arnold, A.T. Kramer, K. 

Holsinger, K. Kennedy, R. Muir, P. Owell,  K. 

Schierenbeck, and L. Stritch. 2011.  BioSci-

ence 61(2): 133-138. 

A surprising result of the Botanical Capacity 

Assessment Project, which surveyed academic 

botanists, botanists in federal and state agencies 

and NGOs, and botany graduate students, was 

that many of the skills and content areas viewed by 

graduate students as their greatest strengths were 

seen by potential employers as areas in need of 

additional training.  

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Diane R. Campbell

elected Fellow, AAAS

Dr. Diane Campbell, a Professor in the 

Depatment of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, 

University of California, Irvine, has been named 

a Fellow by the American Association for the 

Advancement of Science.  Campbell, who studies 

evolution in natural plant populations and plant-

pollinator interactions, is known for her work 

on plant hybrid zones, the evolution of plant 

breeding systems, and the evolution of floral 

traits.  We apologize for her omission in the list of 

new AAAS Fellows in the last issue of PSB.

Dr. Helen Kennedy Honored 

by Society of Woman 


Dr. Helen Kennedy, Honorary Research Associate 

in the Deptartment of Botany and Honorary 

Curator of Vascular Plants in the UBC Herbarium 

from 1998-2003, has received an Outstanding 

Achievement Award from the Society of Woman 

Geographers, stating: “Your many years of studying 

prayer plants in the fast disappearing rain forests 

all over the world is an inspiration to us all.  And 

hopefully your work and possibly introducing 

them for cultivation will keep these unique plants 

from going extinct.” She was presented the award 

at the Society’s triennial convention in Boulder, 

Colorado, in May 2011.

The Society of Woman Geographers was 

established in 1925 at a time when women were 

excluded from membership in many professional 

organizations, particularly the Explorers Club, 

which did not admit women until 1981. The Society 

of Woman Geographers has previously awarded 

only 33 Outstanding Achievement Awards.

The Next Generation

July 7-11, 2012

Columbus, Ohio

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

John Kiss 

awarded Distinguished 

Professor title

John Kiss, professor of botany, was awarded the title 

of Distinguished Professor by Miami University’s 

Board of Trustees Friday, June 24, effective July 1.  

Established by Miami’s trustees in 1981 to attract 

and retain the most eminent professors, the title 

of Distinguished Professor carries with it a $6,000 

annual stipend for professional expenses. A faculty 

committee screens nominations and conducts 

rigorous appraisals, including evaluations by 

nationally known scholars. 
Kiss, professor of botany and a faculty member at 

Miami University since 1993, earned tenure in 1997 

and was promoted to full professor in 1999. In 2008, 

he was named chair of the department of botany. He 

is internationally known for his research in botany 

and space biology. 

One of his nominators explained that Kiss’ “work 

… contributes to America’s STEM initiatives by stimulating student interest in science and technology, 

recruiting them into undergraduate and graduate programs, providing stimulating didactic learning and 

‘hands on’ experience in research on Earth and, in some instances, opportunities to utilize the International 

Space Station environment for plant biology experiments.” 
Most noted among his research is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-funded 

project, Tropi-2, designed to better understand how plants integrate sensory gravity input from multiple 

light and gravity perception systems. The goal of the project is to determine plants’ potential use as a food 

source during prolonged human time in space. The project highlight was two, six-day experiments on the 

space shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station in February 2010. For his work, he earned the 

2010 NASA Honor Award. He also earned a 2007 NASA Ames Honor Award. 
Kiss’ research also includes 89 published peer-reviewed articles, 122 book reviews and almost 200 invited 

talks at professional meetings and other academic institutions. In addition, he has earned funding support 

of $5 million from more than a dozen major agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), 

the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and NASA. 
In many of his projects, Kiss includes his students in the research. He has taught more than 10 different 

courses to graduate and undergraduate students, advised some 36 undergraduate students’ independent 

research projects, 11 master’s students, seven doctoral students, and five postdoctoral scholars. His 

dedication to his students and to his research was honored by several awards: Miami’s Alumni Enrichment 

Award (1997); University Distinguished Scholar (2006); Distinguished Scholar of the Graduate Faculty 

(2005); and 2001 Researcher of the Year by Miami University’s Sigma Xi, an international scientific and 

research honor society.

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Eligibility - Applicants are expected to have a 

doctorate or to have published work of doctoral 

character and quality. Ph.D. candidates are not 

eligible to apply, but the Society is especially 

interested in supporting the work of young scholars 

who have recently received the doctorate. 

Award From $1,000 to $6,000. 
Deadlines - October 1, December 1; notification 

in February and April.

Lewis and Clark Fund for 

Exploration and Field Research 

Scope - The Lewis and Clark Fund encourages 

exploratory field studies for the collection of 

specimens and data and to provide the imaginative 

stimulus that accompanies direct observation. 

Applications are invited from disciplines with a large 

dependence on field studies, such as archeology, 

anthropology, biology, ecology, geography, geology, 

linguistics, and paleontology, but grants will not be 

restricted to these fields. 
Eligibility - Grants will be available to doctoral 

students who wish to participate in field studies for 

their dissertations or for other purposes. Master’s 

candidates, undergraduates, and postdoctoral 

fellows are not eligible. 
Award - Grants will depend on travel costs but 

will ordinarily be in the range of several hundred 

dollars to about $5,000.

Deadline - February 1; notification in May.


Contact information

Questions concerning the FRANKLIN and LEWIS 

AND CLARK programs should be directed to: 

Linda Musumeci

Director of Grants and Fellowships

American Philosophical Society

104 S. Fifth Street

Philadelphia, PA 19106



American Philosophical Society

Research Programs

All information and forms for all of the Society’s 

programs can be downloaded from our website, Click on the “Grants” 

tab at the top of the homepage



Awards are made for non-commercial research 

only. The Society makes no grants for academic 

study or classroom presentation, for travel to 

conferences, for non-scholarly projects, for 

assistance with translation, or for the preparation 

of materials for use by students. The Society does 

not pay overhead or indirect costs to any institution 

or costs of publication.


Applicants may be residents of the United States 

or American citizens resident abroad. Foreign 

nationals whose research can only be carried out in 

the United States are eligible, although applicants to 

the Lewis and Clark Fund for Exploration and Field 

Research in Astrobiology must be U.S. citizens, 

U.S. residents, or foreign nationals formally 

affiliated with a U.S. institution. Grants are made 

to individuals; institutions are not eligible to apply. 

Requirements for each program vary

Tax information

Grants and fellowships are taxable income, but the 

Society is not required to report payments. It is 

recommended that grant and fellowship recipients 

discuss their reporting obligations with their tax 





Franklin Research Grants 

Scope  - This program of small grants to scholars is 

intended to support the cost of research leading to 

publication in all areas of knowledge. The Franklin 

program is particularly designed to help meet the 

cost of travel to libraries and archives for research 

purposes; the purchase of microfilm, photocopies or 

equivalent research materials; the costs associated 

with fieldwork; or laboratory research expenses. 

Award Opportunities

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Undergraduate Course in Hawaiian Natural History  

(Summer 2012)

The Department of Biological Sciences at 

Campbell University is now accepting applications 

from undergraduate students for a 4-week field 

course to be held on the Hawaiian Islands of 

Hawaii, Kauai, and Oahu from May 19 to June 17, 

2012. Course participants will explore the origins 

of the Hawaiian archipelago, the diversity of plant 

and animal life across Hawaiian ecosystems, 

evolutionary processes in oceanic island systems, 

and the roles that plant species play in Hawaiian 

culture. Students participating in the program can 

earn four undergraduate credits.

 For additional information, please contact 

course instructor Dr. Christopher Havran by e-mail at or by phone at 740-893-

1732. Additional information, including a tentative course syllabus, is available at the course website:


Missouri Botanical Garden 

Part Of Collaborative Effort 

To Digitize Charles Darwin’s 

Personal Library 

(ST. LOUIS): The Missouri Botanical Garden, 

along with other members of the Biodiversity 

Heritage Library (BHL) consortium, has joined 

the Cambridge University Library, the Darwin 

Manuscripts Project at the American Museum 

of Natural History in New York, and the Natural 

History Museum in London in a collaborative effort 

to digitize the personal scientific library of Charles 

Darwin. The collaboration marks the first time that 

notes and comments scribbled by Darwin on the 

pages and margins of his own personal library will 

be available online.

The majority of Darwin’s personal scientific 

library is held at the Cambridge University Library 

in England. In total, Darwin’s library amounted 

to 1,480 books, of which 730 contain abundant 

research notes in their margins. These annotated 

books are now in the process of being digitized. The 

first phase of this project has just been completed, 

with 330 of the most heavily annotated books 

launched online at the Biodiversity Heritage Library 

for all to read at


 “The Darwin collections are among the most 

important and popular held within Cambridge 

University Library,” said Anne Jarvis, university 

librarian. “While there has been much focus on his 

manuscripts and correspondence, his library hasn’t 

always received the attention it deserves…for it is 

as he engaged with the ideas and theories of others 

that his own thinking evolved.”

Because Darwin’s evolutionary theory covered 

so many aspects of nature, reading served him as 

a primary source of evidence and ideas. Darwin 

once complained that he had become a “machine 

for grinding general laws out of large collections of 


The pages of Darwin’s library, smothered in 

his scrawl, give a direct view of the Darwinian 

intellectual machine in action. With the Charles 

Darwin Library online, now everyone can retrace 

how Darwin systematically used reading to advance 

his science.

Most of Darwin’s personal library rests at 

Cambridge University Library and at Down House. 

Although the majority of the books are scientific, 

some are humanities texts on subjects that Darwin 

transformed into scientific topics.

The series of transcriptions accompanying each 

page allows everyone to see which passages Darwin 

found relevant to his work, stimulated his thinking,  

or just annoyed him as he read the work of others. 

For example, his friend Charles Lyell wrote in his 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

famous “Principles of Geology” that there were 

definite limits to the variation of species. Darwin 

wrote alongside this, “If this were true adios theory.”

The online transcribed marginalia relies on the 

work of two scholars, Mario A. Di Gregorio and 

Nick Gill, published in the 1990s and now greatly 

enhanced by Gill. In addition to images of the 

books and transcribed jots, the information is fully 

indexed so that people can search for topics and 

ideas relevant to their interests or work.

“Getting to make these historic books available 

to the world for the first time is quite an honor,” said 

Chris Freeland, director of the Missouri Botanical 

Garden’s Center for Biodiversity Informatics. 

Freeland and his team of programmers built the 

technology components needed to deliver Darwin’s 

digitized library and handwritten annotations 

to users all over the world. Working closely with 

project scholars, they built new interfaces to handle 

transcriptions and annotations into the existing 

Biodiversity Heritage Library web portal, a freely 

available digital library of more than 90,000 texts 

dating from the 15th century.

The digitization project was jointly sponsored 

by the Joint Information Systems Committee 

(JISC) and National Endowment of the Humanities 

through a Transatlantic Digitization Collaboration 


For more information about the Missouri 

Botanical Garden, visit For more 

information on the Biodiversity Heritage Library, 


Missouri Botanical Garden 

Instrumental in Creating and  

Maintaining Taxonomic Name 

Resolution Service 

Computerized Tool Helps 

Researchers Standardize Lists 

of Biological Names

(ST. LOUIS): The Missouri Botanical Garden has 

been instrumental in aiding iPlant Collaborative, the 

Botanical Information and Ecology Network, and 

others to create the Taxonomic Name Resolution 

Service (TNRS) which assists researchers in 

correctly identifying biological names.

Biological names are compared against those 

in Tropicos®, a database created by the Missouri 

Botanical Garden containing more than 1.2 

million scientific names and 3.9 million individual 

specimen records. Tropicos® is actively maintained 

and updated by taxonomic experts at Missouri 

Botanical Garden and around the world.

In 1753, Carl Linnaeus published Species 

Plantarum, which introduced Latin binomials to 

the world and laid the foundation for how we name 

species and make sense of the diversity of life. This 

taxonomic naming system is still in place three 

and a half centuries later. Today, scientific names 

remain the necessary bond joining observations 

to organisms and data sets to each other. Scientific 

names are the currency of communication for 

ecologists studying tropical diversity, crop scientists 

searching for biological control and systematists 

assembling the Tree of Life. However, it turns out 

that a large fraction of the names that biologists are 

using are incorrect.

“Scientific names are the cornerstone of 

communication in the field of plant science.

Surprisingly, a large fraction of the names that 

biologists are using are actually misapplied, making 

it next to impossible to accurately describe the 

number of species in a particular area. TRNS, 

using the authoritative data from Tropicos®, has the 

ability to quickly and efficiently solve this problem,” 

said Chris Freeland, director of bioinformatics at 

the Missouri Botanical Garden.

Misspelled, outdated, or ambiguous names are 

common and can lead to mismatched observations, 

erroneous conclusions, and an inability to make 

predictions across space and time. Large databases, 

such as Global Biodiversity Information Facility 

and GenBank, suffer from high rates of taxonomic 

Zapatitos Submitted by Pamela Puppo 

2011 Triarch Botanical Images Student 

Travel Award

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

error, with up to 30% of names unmatched to any 

published species name.

Even for published names, 5% to 20% are out-

of-date names. The TNRS provides a web service 

to standardize taxon names so that biologists can 

ensure they are using the correct species names.

The TNRS works by taking names submitted by 

the user and breaking each down to its simplest 

parts. Users submit lists of scientific plant names 

to the TNRS. The names are passed through cycles 

of exact matching, parsing (breaking the name into 

its component parts), more matching, and finally 

“fuzzy” matching. Fuzzy matching searches for 

near matches and enables the TNRS to correct even 

badly misspelled names. Once the names have been 

matched to published scientific names, the TNRS 

converts any out-of-date names (called synonyms) 

to the authoritative, currently accepted name.

“The Taxonomic Name Resolution Service is 

an important step forward for researchers across 

biology. For years, we have been trying to check 

species names for errors and bring them to a 

common taxonomy, painstakingly doing this name 

by name. Now we can do both steps for thousands 

of taxa at one online web service,” said Dr. Amy 

Zanne, of the University of Missouri, St. Louis.

While the process sounds simple, it turns out 

that it is a difficult computational problem to solve. 

Originally, cleaning a list of taxonomic names 

would have to be done manually; a researcher 

would look up each name individually to confirm 

its accuracy. In recent years, some of these steps 

have been automated, but as separate processes. 

The TNRS performs all of these tasks together, 

simplifying and accelerating the chore of taxonomic 

name standardization.

While the TNRS currently resolves names only 

against Tropicos®, in the future it will be extended 

to include other taxonomic databases, such as the 

USDA list of names for plants in the United States, 

with the goal of including all published plant 

names. Because the software’s source code is being 

released with an open source license, developers 

will be able to expand it to resolve scientific names 

of other organisms such as animals and fungi.

iPlant collaborated with researchers Brian 

Enquist and Brad Boyle from Botanical Information 

and Ecology Network, Zhenyuan Lu from Cold 

Spring Harbor Laboratory, Sheldon McKay from 

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and later the 

University of Arizona, and Bill Piel from Yale’s 

Peabody Museum to solve the names problem. 

They created a unique technical design that lead to 

the creation of the TNRS. The Missouri Botanical 

Garden provided vital access to the contents of 

their Tropicos® database of plant names. The 

TNRS builds on the work of Dmitry Mozzherin 

of the Marine Biological Laboratory, whose 

name parser from the Global Names Initiative 

was modified to break submitted names into 

constituent parts for the matching process, and 

Tony Rees of the Commonwealth Scientific and 

Industrial Research Organisation in Australia, 

whose TaxaMatch algorithm was adapted to 

perform fuzzy matching of misspelled names. 

Recently, a new Global Names Architecture effort 

received National Science Foundation funding, 

and iPlant looks forward to collaborating closely 

with this group to tackle the remaining challenges 

in taxonomic name standardization.

For more information about the Missouri 

Botanical Garden’s Tropicos® database visit: http://

For general Missouri Botanical Garden 

information visit:

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

58th Annual Systematics Symposium  

Missouri Botanical Garden  

7-8 October 2011


The United Nations has declared  

2011 to be the Year of the Forest

Organizing committee: P. Mick Richardson and Amy Zanne

Registration must be accompanied by a $50.00 registration fee, which also covers the cost of refreshments 

at the Friday mixer and lunch (but not dinner) on Saturday. The cost of the dinner on Saturday is an 

additional $50.00. 

Information on local hotels and motels will be available to registrants. No refunds will be granted after 

24 September. There is no guarantee of food being available if you register after 24 September. 

Please use electronic registration and payment, at 



With support from the National Science Foundation

Friday 7:30 – 9:30 PM 

Informal mixer in Ridgway Center

Saturday 8:30 AM – 8:30 PM 

Talks in Ridgway Center

Andrew Groover (USDA, Davis) 

What genes make a tree a tree?

David Hibbett (Clark U.) 

Mycorrhizae and fungal breakdown of lignin

David Kenfack (Harvard U.) 

50-Hectare plots

Elisabeth Wheeler (NC State) 

Inside Trees. 100 Million Years of Wood Structure

Speaker to be decided 

Ecophysiology/climate change

Allison Miller (SLU) & 

    Briana Gross (USDA, Fort Collins) 

Domestication of tree crops

Martin Gardner (RBG, Edinburgh) 

Evening speaker: Conservation of conifers

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flower “had previously been named after a great 

man” (Kim, 2007). A number of orchids were 

named after great men well before Dendrobium

Kimilsungia, and some after. Several examples 

which come to mind easily are Cattleya General 

Patton,  the multigeneric hybrid genus Darwinara

Dendrobium Madam Curie,  Paphiopedilum

Winston Churchill, Sophrolaeliocattleya 

Tchaikovsky, Vanda Eisenhower, and Vandaenopsis 

Nelson Mandela  There are many others. 


Dendrobium Clara Bundt (aka Dendrobium

Kimilsungia; Fig. 2A, 2B, 2D, 3G, 8E, 10A) was bred 

(Fig. 1) by C. L. Bundt (Fig. 3E), owner of an orchid 

establishment on 15A Djalan Muchtar Luthfi (now 

spelled Jalan Mochtar Lutfi), Makassar (Unjung 

Pandang, the island of Sulawesi), Indonesia.  The 

establishment still exists.  Two of us (NS, JA) visited 

it in 1981 with our friend George Risakotta on our 

way home in Jakarta from the islands of Banda 

Reports and Reviews

Fig. 1.  Pedigree of Dendrobium Clara Bundt, aka 

Dendrobium Kimilsungia.

Kimilsungia: How an Indonesian 

Orchid Became a Revered Symbol in 

the Democratic People’s Republic of 

Korea After Its Name was Changed

Noes Soediono


, Joseph Arditti



Rubismo Soediono



Flora Sari Orchids, Jakarta, Indonesia (rba-, 



Department of Developmental and Cell 

Biology, University of California, Irvine (jar-



Received 15 October, 2010. 

Accepted 12 April, 2011.


Strange events, controversies and weird stories 

often result from interference by religion, politics, 

government, dogma and cults of personality in 

science, technology, horticulture and other areas 

which must remain free from such interference.  A 

state visit, a meeting between two heads of state, 

and a personality cult are the reasons why the 

Indonesian orchid Dendrobium Clara Bundt (Fig. 1, 

2A, 2B, 2D, 3G, 8E, 10A) was renamed Dendrobium

Kimilsungia in honor of the “Great Leader” and 

“Eternal President” Kim Il Sung (1912-1994; Fig. 

3A, 5A, 5B, 8A, 9, 10B) of the Democratic (sic

People’s Republic of North Korea (DPRNK), where 

it is revered.  A book (Fig. 4) tells the story of this 

orchid from the DPRNK point of view (Kim and 

Pang, 1999).  A fascinating story emerges when 

information about this orchid from inside and 

outside NDPRNK and in the book are combined. 

Before we proceed it is necessary to debunk the 

most obvious inaccuracy, one propounded by Kim 

Il Sung himself, which is that: 1) “a flower named 

after a great man for the first time in the thousands 

of years of human history came in the world” with 

the naming of Dendrobium Kimilsungia, and 2) no 




We thank Dr. Tim Wing Yam, Singapore Botanic Gardens for reading and commenting on the manuscript, the 

pedigree chart of Dendrobium Clara Bundt and for clarifying nomenclatural practices; Dr. Irawati (some Indonesians 

use only one name) former Director, Bogor Botanical Gardens (Kebun Raya Indonesia) for Sujana Kasan’s photograph 

and information about him; Sofie Birri, Kebun Raya Indonesia for photographs of the plaque in Fig. 9 and information 

regarding the director of KRI; and Coralie Hills for a copy of Chequer and Chequer, 2007..

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

and Ambon in the Malukku Archipelago.  By 

then it was owned by his daughter Clara (Fig. 3D, 

8B).  In 1964 Bundt registered his hybrid with the 

Royal Horticultural Society Orchid Registration 

Authority as required for orchid hybrids (Wreford, 

1972) naming it Dendrobium Clara Bundt after his 

daughter (Fig. 10A). 

Because of the registration of the hybrid with 

the   Royal Horticultural Society Orchid Register 


orchidregister/orchidregister.asp; Fig. 10A), its 

name, which conforms with the rules of orchid 

hybrid nomenclature (Cribb, Greatwood and 

Hunt, 1985), is  recognized internationally and was 

valid in the orchid world when Kim Il Sung visited 

the Bogor (which the book consistently misspells 

as Bogoru) Botanical Gardens (BBG) in Indonesia 

in April 1965 (Fig. 3H, 9).  He was accompanied by 

Indonesian President Sukarno (1901-1970; Fig. 3B, 

3H, 8A; in office from 1945 until being deposed in 

1967).  Kim saw (or was shown) the orchid and liked 

it.  According to one account Sukarno named it after 

Kim on the spot despite 1) not having the authority 

to name this or any other orchid hybrid, and 2) the 

fact that the orchid was already named.  That much 

is fact. Other stories about how Dendrobium Clara 

Bundt became Dendrobium Kimilsungia “---aroma 

of flower symbolic of a great man everlasting---” 

(Kim and Pang, 1999; Fig. 4A, 4B) in North Korea 

Fig. 2.  Dendrobium Clara Bundt, aka Dendrobium Kimilsungia (A, B, 

D) and (C) Begonia Kimjongilia (source:   World Wide Web).

are fanciful completely or in part.  It is also not true 

that Dendrobium Kimilsungia is one of two national 

flowers of DPRNK (Chequer and Chequer, 2007).

Some of the story details the Kimilsungia book 

tells/adds are convoluted and at best questionable.  

According to the book the Great Leader saw the 

orchid on his visit to BBG, liked it, and modestly 

demurred (“I have done nothing extraordinary”) 

when Sukarno proposed to name it after him, but 

was overruled (“Your respected Excellency has 

already rendered enormous services to mankind”).  

Thus  Dendrobium Clara Bundt got its DPRNK 

name, Dendrobium Kimilsungia 

whereupon “enthusiastic 

applause and cheers arose . . . 

[and a] children’s chorus began 

to sing the Song General Kim 

Il Sung,” and a “new variety of 

flower was named after the great 

man” (Kim and Pang, 1999).  

One cannot help but wonder 

where the children’s choir came 

from.  Was the choir prescient 

and came to BBG knowing that 

an orchid would be (re)named 

in honor of Kim Il Sung?  And, 

how would Indonesian children 

in Bogor know a North Korean 

song?  This part of the story 

is hard to accept as fact.  It is 

also hard to believe that the 

Great Leader who allowed or 

maybe even encouraged great 

adulation and a personality 

cult for himself would be too 

modest to allow an orchid to be 

named for him.

Kim Il Sung’s son, Kim Jong Il, the Dear Leader, 

has a slightly different version (Kim, 2007) of the 

story (our comments are in bold face in brackets).  

“Forty years have passed since then, but I still 

recall with deep emotion the days when I visited 

Indonesia with President Kim Il Sung . . . When 

visiting the Bogor Botanical Garden, I felt more 

deeply how much President Sukarno respected 

and revered President Kim Il Sung.  With a long 

history, this world-renowned botanical garden 

was well worth visiting.  With flowers of the orchid 

family, cactuses, and other rare tropical flowers 

in full bloom, I felt as if I were visiting a world 

flower fair.  When we approached a display in a 

greenhouse of the botanical garden, Sukarno took 

a pot of flowers [presumably as shown in Fig. 8A

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Fig. 3. Individuals and orchids associated with 

Dendrobium Clara Bundt, aka Dendrobium Kimil-

sungia.  A. President Kim Il Sung of the Democratic 

People’s Republich of North Korea.  B. President Su-

karno of Indonesia.  C. Sujana Kasan, Director  of 

the Bogor Botanical Garden (Kebun Raya Indone-

sia) at the time.  D. Clara Bundt.  E. C. L. Bundt.  

F. Dendrobium moniliforme.  G. Dendrobium Clara 

Bundt, aka Dendrobium Kimilsungia.  H. President 

Kim Il Sung (left wearing white hat) and President 

Sukarno (right wearing a black traditional Indone-

sian songkok hat) accompanied by aides meeting in 

the orchid house at the Bogor Botanical Gardens 

(source: A, B, C, E-H, World Wide Web; D, courtesy 

Dr. Irawati, Bogor Botanical Gardens).

Fig. 4. The book Kimilsungia by I. G. Kim and H. J. 

Pang (translated into English by K. J. Coe and J. H.  

An).  Published by the Foreign Languages Publish-

ing House, Pyongyang, Democratic People’s Repub-

lic of Korea.  A. Cover.  B. Title page (source: scans 

of a copy of the book owned by J. A.).

from the director [Sujana Kasan (27 December 

1916 to 15 February 1974) was the director of the 

Bogor Botanical Gardens from 1959 until 1969

of the botanical garden, and asked President Kim Il 

Sung how he liked the flowers [this is one version, 

another is that Kim Il Sung was attracted by the 

flowers and approached them].  The director 

explained that it was a variety of the orchid family 

a famous florist of the garden [another claim is 

that the breeder was Sujana Kasan (old spelling 

Soedjana Kasan) himself, the director of the 

garden at the time, but the actual breeder was C. L. 

Bundt in Makasar who was not part of the garden 

staff] had bred after long, painstaking research 

[orchid breeding may benefit from experience 

by the breeder, intuition and some luck, but 

“painstaking research” is not required to breed 

a simple hybrid like Dendrobium Clara Bundt], 

and it was a peculiar flower in that it blossomed 

twice a year, being in bloom for two to three 

months [it is not uncommon for Dendrobium 

hybrids to bloom for long periods because not all 

inflorescences come into bloom at the same time, 

each flower opens slowly and flowers can last a 

long time]. After looking at the flower for a while, 

President Kim Il Sung said that it was very beautiful 

and expressed thanks to his host for showing him 

such a fine flower.  Then, Sukarno said sincerely 

that he wanted the flower [sic, the hybrid] to be 

named after President Kim Il Sung. The director 

of the botanical garden, too, expressed his wish to 

call it Kimilsungia. President Kim Il Sung gently 

declined their suggestion, saying that he had done 

nothing so special and that there was no need to 

name a flower after him. Sukarno replied, ‘No.  You 

have rendered enormous services to mankind, so 

you deserve a high honour.’ He refused to withdraw 

his request.  Back in Jakarta, he repeatedly brought 

the matter to us. On receiving a report about 

it, President Kim Il Sung said that if President 

Sukarno and the Indonesian  people  wished  it  so 

sincerely, he would accept the suggestion as a token 

of their esteem for our people ... President Sukarno 

promised that he would ensure that the technique 

of cultivating the flower would be completed 

[no special techniques are required to grow a 

Dendrobium plants in Indonesia; developing 

a specific method for growing a tropical orchid 

in North Korea may require time, but it must be 

developed there,  not in the tropics] and that it 

would be sent to our country in one or two years. 

But the flower failed to come to our country for 

several years . . . the director of the Bogor Botanical 

Garden and the florist who had bred the flower 

disappeared without a trace [simply not true, the 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Fig. 5.  Images of Great Leader Kim Il Sung (left) 

and Dear Leader Kim Jong Il (right) standing be-

hind Dendrobium Kimilsungia (purple) and Bego-

nia Kimjongilia (red) with a young couple (A) and 

mothers and their children (B).  C, D. Dendrobium 

Kimilsungia exhibits (source: World Wide Web). 

Fig. 6. Cultivation of Dendrobium Kimilsungia in 

the Democratic People’s Republich of North Korea. 

A. External view of the Kimilsungia greenhouse 

in the Central Botanical Garden. B. Interior of the 

Kimilsungia greenhouse (source: scans of a copy of 

the book owned by J. A.).

passing of Sujana Kasan’s in 1974 was known 

and mourned, and the C. L. Bundt orchid garden 

remained in existence].  However, convinced that 

Kimilsungia would have been preserved and grown 

with care . . . I sent officials to Indonesia in 1974 

to find the flower.  They traced the flower with the 

assistance of the local people, found it and fetched 

two pots of the flower to our country. Looking at 

the flowers I could confirm that they were identical 

with the Kimilsungia I had seen 10 years previously 

at the Bogor Botanical Garden. Kimilsungia is a 

beautiful flower; the more one looks at it, the more 

one feels attracted and attached to it.  Flowers of 

the orchid family are known for their beauty but 

Kimilsungia, with its pinkish-purple petals and 

graceful and elegant shape, is extraordinarily 

beautiful [Dendrobium Clara Bundt aka 

Dendrobium Kimilsugia is an attractive but 

certainly not an “extraordinarily beautiful” 

hybrid and according to Dr. Irawati a former 

recent director of the Bogor Botanical Garden, it 

does not grow well there], and evokes ennobling 

emotions . . . After its arrival in our country, I 

ensured that the flower was sent to the Central 

Botanical Garden for study of the methods of its 

cultivation and propagation. It was no easy task to 

adapt the flower to the climatic and soil conditions 

of our country, and propagate it [Dendrobium 

species and hybrids are easy to propagate clonally 

both horticulturally and in vitro].  But, convinced 

that the officials and researchers of the Central 

Botanical Garden would succeed, I ensured that 

they were given positive assistance by the Party: 

A special greenhouse was built; an institute with 

highly qualified researchers was organized and 

the latest equipment and materials necessary for 

their work were provided; and many seedlings of 

pure breed were also provided [plants, mature or 

seedlings other than those of Kimilsungia would 

not be needed].  The researchers [presumably 

the group shown with Ms Clara Bundt in Fig. 

8B], after repeated painstaking study and research 

under our Party’s deep concern and care, found 

at long last many methods for propagating in our 

country the flower that had been bred in a tropical 

zone.  They succeeded in finding the method of 

propagation by tissue culture, which thus made it 

possible to produce many seedlings [sic, plantlets

of the flower at one time.  The flower was officially 

registered [Fig. 8C, 8D] in a scientific name with 

an international orchid-related society in Britain 

[the orchid hybrid register is maintained by the 

Royal Horticultural Society, not by an orchid 

society: see the Nomenclature and Registration 

section below for further discussion] in 

the early 1980s, coming to be known as a 

particularly celebrated flower [this is true only 

in DPRNK]” (


One claim in the book is that President Sukarno 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Fig. 7. Dendrobium  Kimilsungia stamps (A) and (B) 

song (sources: A, World Wide Web; B, Kim and Pang, 


prepared for Kim Il Sung’s visit by asking for a new 

flower (i.e., hybrid) to be ready for the occasion.  

Bundt supposedly came up with “Dendrobium 

moniliforme which he had recently produced” at a 

request by “Sujanakasan” [a misspelling of Sujana 

Kasan (Fig. 3C; 1916-1974)].  This is clearly 

impossible because Dendrobium moniliforme (L.) 

Sw. (Fig. 3F) is not a hybrid which can be “produced” 

by a breeder, or anyone else for that matter.  It is 

a natural species, ironically native to Korea (and 

also China and Taiwan.  Furthermore, Dendrobium 

moniliforme  is not part of the breeding line (Fig. 

1) of Dendrobium Clara Bundt (aka Dendrobium

Kimilsungia) and does not even resemble it (Fig. 

2A, 2B, 2D 3G vs Fig. 3F). 

In addition to this account of events in Bogor in 

1965, the book adds a secondary and an even more 

improbable report that Kim Il Sung received the 

orchid in 1975 (but see the annotated citation above 


english/2007/2007-06-20-r2.htm).  The book states 

that a “deeply moved” Bundt “finally succeeded in 

breeding Kimilsungia and sent it to Pyongyang in 

1975.”  If the hybrid existed and plants were in flower 

when Kim Il Sung visited Indonesia in 1965 (Fig. 

9), Bundt would not have had to “finally succeed” 

in 1975.  Nor would he have to re-breed an existing 

and thriving hybrid.  Also, why would Bundt send 

to Pyongyang in 1975 an orchid he named after his 

daughter in 1964?  Furthermore, since Sukarno 

was deposed in 1967 and died in 1970 and Sujana 

Kasan passed away in 1974, they could not send an 

orchid to Pyongyang.  Moreover, if the hybrid was 

registered in 1964 (Fig. 10A) and bloomed in 1965, 

it was bred before that, not in 1975.  And finally, 

if Bundt came up with Dendrobium moniliforme

in 1965, why would he bother or need to produce 

another orchid in 1975?  This part of the book 

makes no sense.  Altogether, three different and 

contradictory accounts regarding the origin of 

Dendrobium Kimilsungia are described in the 

DPRNK book:

1.  The Great Leader visited BBG, saw 

Dendrobium Clara Bundt,  liked it and President 

Sukarno named it after him.  This possible and 

likely, but does not render the name Dendrobium

Kimilsungia valid (Cribb et al., 1985; Fig. 10B).

2.  Dendrobium moniliforme was produced 

for Kim Il Sung’s visit to Bogor by C. L. Bundt at 

the behest of Sujana Kasan.  This is impossible as 

explained above.

3.  C. L. Bundt produced Dendrobium

Kimilsungia and sent it to Pyongyang in 1975.  

This makes little sense.

As presented in the book the history of 



is convoluted, 

inconsistent, replete with contradictions, rife with 

inaccuracies and loaded with invented “facts.”  

Sukarno and Soejana Kasan are dead and cannot 

tell their sides of the story, but Kimjongilia, a 

Begonia named after Kim Il Sung’s son, Dear Leader 

Kim Jong Il and introduced in 1988, can tell about 

itself and by implication also about Dendrobium


One of the perks DPRNK leaders have seems to 

be at least one namesake plant.  The Great Leader has 

his orchid, Dendrobium Kimilsungia.  His son Kim 

Jong Il, the Dear Leader, has Begonia Kimjongilia 

(Fig. 2C, 5A, 5B).  According to information from 

DPRNK,  Begonia Kimjongilia was bred by the 

Japanese horticulturist Mototeru Kamo (b. 1930) 

who was reported to have produced another Begonia 

in 2010 in honor of Kim Jong Eun (also spelled 

as Kim Jong Un), the Dear Leader’s son and heir 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

apparent (will it be named Kimjongunia?).  Bomi 

Lim, a reporter for Bloomberg reached Mototeru 

Kamo by telephone at his home in Kakegawa, Japan 

and reported that “Kamo . . . said he has visited 

North Korea about 10 times, [but] denied sending 

a new flower to commemorate Kim Jong Un, [and] 

neither had the 1988 begonia been intended for the 

father [of Kim Jong Un i. e., Kim Jong Il].  Kamo 

also said that ‘At the time, no one knew anything 

about Kim Jong Il . . .  Therefore, there’s no way I 

could create a flower to suit his image.’” He added 

further  that “Horticulture and politics should 

be separate” (http://www.humanflowerproject.


dictator_theorists/).  Thus, if the North Koreans 

contrived stories about two begonias, they probably 

did the same for one Dendrobium

How an Indonesian orchid found its way to 

North Korea where it was given a new name, is 

cultivated in a special facility (Fig. 6A, 6B), became 

revered (Fig. 5A, 5B) and lavishly exhibited (Fig. 

5C, 5D) in a festival named after it every April, put 

on stamps (Fig. 7A), and memorialized in song (Fig. 

7B) will probably remain a mystery.  An account 

that contains at least some of the real plausible facts 

associated with this story has been circulating for 

a long time.  It suggests that seeing Kim Il Sung’s 

admiration for the flower, Sukarno told him that it 

was a newly bred hybrid at BBG and still unnamed.  

He named it Kimilsungia on the spot.  After that 

plants were probably taken or shipped to North 

Korea.  Soejana Kasan did not breed this hybrid.  

One of us (JA) knew him as a very pleasant and 

erudite man, a great story teller and an excellent 

horticulturist (and cook) who knew orchids well, 

but was not interested enough in them to breed 

any.  The orchid Sukarno named Kimilsungia was 

and still is Dendrobium Clara Bundt. 

The 1999 Kimilsungia show (perhaps similar to 

the one in Fig. 6C and 6D), held to honor the 87


birthday of the “revered President Kim Il Sung,” 

contained 2,000 flowers, was visited by 260,000 

people and included speeches by international 

dignitaries praising the “unparalleled great man” 

and the “revolutionary flower.”  A report in the 

German magazine Spiegel Online International

24 October 2010


 carries a description dated 19 

October 2010 by Andreas Lorenz about a recent 

show: “On the 60th anniversary of the North 

Korean Communist Party, Kim Jong Il wallows 

in a cult of personality.  In an auditorium on the 

Taedong River in Pyongyang, two special blooms 

appear in an ocean of flowers: the violet Kimilsungia 

and the red Kimjongilia. Cross-bred from orchids 

and begonias, the special flowers are named after 

the “Dear Leaders” of North Korea -- Kim Il Sung, 

President for Eternity, who died in 1994, and his 

son, Kim Jong Il.  Thousands of people push past 

the flowerpots and have their photographs taken 

for 600 won (about four dollars) in front of giant 

paintings of the two Kims.” (




Another description of this show can be found 

in the  Economist, 14 October 2010. “Sometimes 

there are Kimilsungia exhibitions.  Sometimes 

there are Kimjongilia ones.  Citizens of Pyongyang 

are also treated to combined Kimilsungia and 

Kimjongilia shows.  One such got underway at 

the beginning of this month, at the Kimilsungia-

Fig. 8. Dendrobium Kimilsungia personali-

ties and documentation.  A. President Sukarno 

(right) showing and orchid plant (presumably 

the oneto be named Dendrobium Kimilsungia) 

to Great Leader Kim Il Sung in the Bogor Bo-

tanical Gardens (Kebun Raya Indonesia) orchid 

house.  B. Clara (misspelled as Klara) Bundt 

interacting with the Kimilsungia Research 

Group.  C. Application for the registration of 

Dendrobium Kimilsungia with the Royal Hor-

ticultural Society International Orchid Register 

on 20 April 1982. The photograph is not clear 

enough to be read.  D. Guntur Sukarno Putra 

(President Sukarno’s son) signing the application 

for registration. E. Grouped Kimilsungia flow-

ers  (Sources: A-D, http://songunpoliticsstudy-, E, 

World Wide Web).

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Kimjongilia Exhibition House: innumerable pots 

filled with the same two kinds of plant, a monotony 

alleviated only by a guide’s prediction that North 

Korea will one day get a third variety. . .  Kim Il 

Sung officially remains president, against the 

odds, but the Kimjongilia, a giant red begonia, 

somehow leaves its visual stamp on Pyongyang 

even more pervasively than the Kimilsungia, a 

normal-sized purple orchid.  It might be said that 

the Kimjongilia’s bouffant petals echo the hairstyle 

of North Korea’s eponymous ruler, but a guide 

at the exhibition has a more politically correct 

explanation of the flower’s appearance.  Its bright 

red hue, she says, reflects Kim Jong Il as a ‘person of 

passion, with a very strong character....’ A journalist 

asked whether different temperature requirements 

made it difficult to keep begonias and orchids 

together.  “We grow them with our hearts,” said the 

guide.  In August North Korea’s Kimilsungia and 

Kimjongilia Research Centre came up with what 

might be a more reliable way of getting the best out 

of the Kimjongilia.  After “years of research,” said 

the state news agency KCNA, it devised a chemical 

agent that could lengthen the blooming period 

by a week in summer or by 20 days in winter. . .  

One display was of potted Kimjongilias supposedly 

donated by foreign diplomatic missions.  China’s 

was uppermost, together with a photograph of 

Kim Jong Il shaking hands with China’s president, 

Hu Jintao.  Individual European countries were 

conspicuous by their absence, but there was one 

pot plant there in the name of the European Union.  

Oddly for plants that have acquired such crucial 

political significance in North Korea—the army has 

its own huge breeding centre for them—since both 

are actually foreign creations.  The Kimilsungia 

was presented in 1965 by Indonesia’s founding 

president, Sukarno, and the Kimjongilia arrived in 

1988, courtesy a Japanese botanist.  Kim Jong Un, 

Kim Jong Il’s anointed successor, who was seen by 

foreign journalists for the first time on October 

9th and 10th, has yet to acquire a flower.  ‘In future 

we will have one,’ assures the guide” (http://www.


Scientific meetings regarding Kimilsungia were 

or are also being held in DPRNK. One example 

is a seminar held in 2005 “to commemorate the 

40th anniversary of Kimilsungia, the flower of the 

sun” (

news/dprk/2005/dprk-050416-kcna04.htm).  It 

included talks on “Photosynthesis Features of 

Kimilsungia and Environmental Conditions for 

the Cultivation Based on Them”,  “Researches into 

Nurturing Pure Line of Kimilsungia”, “Ways of 

Blooming Kimilsungia on the Day of the Sun” and 

the “Researches into Ways of Bringing Kimilsungia 

into Full Bloom on the Day of the Sun and Other 





news04/16.htm). “Prior to the seminar leader Kim 

Jong Il’s famous work ‘Kimilsungia Is an Immortal 

Flower Blooming in the Hearts of Humankind in 

the Era of Independence’ . . . was conveyed” (Kim, 




We were not able to find and obtain 

published papers based on these presentations.

The meeting in 2006 and ones held in 2006, 2007, 

and 2009 are reported to have been attended by a 

person named Ri Pyong Sang who is described as 

being the “chairman of the American Kimilsungia-

Kimjongilia association (

item/2005/200504/news04/16.htm; http://www.;

dprk/2007/dprk-070414-kcna03.htm; http://www.



A search on Google found: 1) no 

information about a Ri Pyong Sang, 2) no evidence 

for the existence of an American Kimilsungia-

Kimjongilia association, and 3) that the North 

European Kimjongilia Association was formed in 

Sweden in 1995, followed by the establishment of 

the Mongolian Kimjongilia Association in 1997, 

formation of the Japanese Kimjongilia Fanciers 

Society in 1998 and founding of the American 

Kimilsungia-Kimjongilia Association in the United 

States in 2004.  Therefore it was not possible 

to contact Ri Pyong Sang and the American 

Kimilsungia-Kimjongilia Association (even if they 

do exist).

Nomenclature and 


C. L. Bundt registered Dendrobium  Clara 

Bundt (Dendrobium Ale Ale Kai × Dendrobium 

Pompadour) in 1964 (


asp?ID=57200; Fig. 10A). This is the hybrid 


President Sukarno named Kimilsungia in 1965 in 

honor of Kim Il Sung. Thus, the name Dendrobium 

Kimilsungia is considered a synonym by the Royal 

Horticultural Society Orchid Register (http://apps.

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Fig. 9. A plaque in the Bogor Botanical Gardens (Ke-

bun Raya Indonesia) orchid house commemorating 

DPRNK president Kim Il Sung’s visit and Indonesian 

President Sukarno’s presentation to him of the orchida-

ceous hybrid which is called Kimilsungia in North Ko-

rea.  The name of the orchid on the plaque is incorrect. 

Dendrobium Clara Bundt, not Dendrobium Kimil-

sung Flower was renamed Dendrobium Kimilsungia 

(photograph of the plaque Sofie Biri at the request of 

Dr. Irawati, both at the Bogor Botanical Garden).

orchiddetails.asp?ID=130396; Fig. 10B). According 

to Gruss (2003) Dendrobium Kimilsungia is an 

invalid grex (Gruss, 2003) and not a cultivar of 

Dendrobium Clara Bundt.  If so, which is probable, 

Part II, Rule 13 on page 14 of The Handbook on 

Orchid Nomenclature and Registration  [(Cribb, 

Greatwood and Hunt, 1985) should be followed.  

“The specific, collective or grex epithet must never 

be omitted when citing or publishing the cultivar 

name of an orchid except where to context makes the 

identity of species, natural hybrid or grex clear (e.g. 

in a list of cultivars of the one particular species or 

one particular grex)]  which governs orchid hybrid 

nomenclature,  a cultivar name would have to be 

written as Dendrobium  Clara Bundt ‘Kimilsungia.’  

An attempt to register Dendrobium Kimilsungia 

was made on 3 July 2003 (


asp?ID=130396) or 20 April 1982 (Fig. 8C, 8D), but 

it only succeeded in affirming its synonym status 

(Fig. 10B).  Be all this as it may, Ms Clara Bundt 

does not seem to be upset by the effort to rename 

the orchid her father named for her.  She even 

visited a Kimilsungia festival and interacted with 

the research group (Fig. 8B) which works with the 

orchid  (


According to the Royal Horticultural Society 

Orchid Registrar,  at one time it was not clear 

whether the Kimilsungia which  is celebrated in 

DPRNK,  is the Dendrobium Clara Bundt grex 

itself or a cultivar derived from it. The registrar 

added the following note to the list of new orchid 

hybrids list for March 2003: “Dendrobium 

Kimilsungia.  Periodically the registrar receives 

queries about this plant.  The name is widely used 

in North Korea for a hybrid Dendrobium derived 

from Den. Ale Ale Kai ×  Den. Pompadour, which 

grex was originally registered as Den. Clara Bundt 

by the originator in 1964 [Fig. 10A].  This plant was 

also named Kimilsungia by Indonesian President 

Sukarno, in honour of Kim Il Sung of North Korea 

on the occasion of his visit to Indonesia in April 

1965.  It is not clear to the registrar whether the 

name Kimilsungia applies to the grex or a cultivar 

derived from it.  There is also a similarly named 

grex, Den. Kimilsung Flower, which is derived 

from Den. Ale Ale Kai x Den. Lady Constance.” The 

registrar  subsequently  changed his mind about 

the “not clear” above.   Dendrobium Kimilsungia  

is listed as a synonym (Fig. 10B) on the current  

Royal Horticultural Society Orchid Register web 

site (

orchidregister/orchiddetails.asp?ID=130396) . 

If claimed to be the grex itself, Dendrobium 

Kimilsungia is invalid or “wrong” (Gruss, 

2003). And, if it is a cultivar the proper name 

is  Dendrobium  Clara Bundt ‘Kimilsungia’, not

Dendrobium Kimilsungia (see quote in brackets 

above and Cribb et al., 1985).  More confusion 

is added to this nomenclatural circus by the  

Dendrobium Kimilsung Flower (Dendrobium Ale 

Ale Kai × Dendrobium Lady Constance) which 

is mentioned above.  It is  a hybrid related to 

Dendrobium Clara Bundt which  was originated by 

C. Bundt (since an “L.” is not part of the name this 

could be Clara itself rather than her farther C. L.) 

and  registered in 1982 by G. Putera,  (http://apps.

orchiddetails.asp?ID=63165). Despite its name 

this hybrid is not revered anywhere. We could not 

locate a photograph.

Cultivation, Propagation and 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Fig. 10. Dendrobium Clara 

Bundt (A) and Dendrobium 

Kimilsungia (B) registration. Ar-

rows point to the synonym status 

of the grex names.


Dendrobium Clara Bundt was bred to be grown 

outdoors in the tropical climate of Sulawesi, 

Indonesia.  As “Kimilsungia . . . the immortal 

flower symbolizing the sun, the great man . . .” (Fig. 

2E) it must be grown in greenhouses (Fig. 6A, 6B) 

in a country with a climate which is anything but 

tropical.  To their credit, it seems that DPRNK 

orchid specialists studied this hybrid very carefully 

and developed appropriate cultivation techniques.  

They also formulated methods which bring the 

plants into flower at specific times and year around.  

One of the flower-inducing methods utilizes a 

lanolin paste containing 0.25-0.5% benzyladenine 

(BA).  Altogether the horticultural approach 

to the orchid in DPRNK seems to be excellent.  

Dendrobium  growers in countries with a similar 

climate  can learn from it.

In recent years investigators and growers in 

other parts of Asia found that BA can bring about 

flowering in Dendrobium (for a review see Chia 

et al., 1999).  However, 1)  the time Dendrobium

Clara Bundt (aka Dendrobium  Kimilsungia) was 

taken to Pyonyang (sometime between 1965 and 

1975), and 2)  the likelihood that Western or even 

Asian journals are probably not be available in 

DPRNK raise the possibility that the discovery may 

have been made independently  in North Korea.  

Useful clonal (in vitro and by division) and seed 

propagation for this type   Dendrobium were also 

developed in DPRNK


Dendrobium Clara Bundt did not become 

very popular and was/is not cultivated widely 

throughout the world.  The same is true for it as 

Dendrobium Kimilsungia.  However in DPRNK 

it became, and still is, a revered orchid, which is 

grown and displayed in large numbers.


Joseph Arditti dedicates his efforts to Vince 

Galasso, a friend and neighbor for more than a 

quarter of a century.

Literature Cited

Chequer, G., and G. Chequer. 2007. Orchids as 

national and local floral icons. Orchids Australia 19: 


Chia, T. F., J. Arditti, M. I. Segern, and C. S. Hew. 

1999. In vitro flowering of orchids. Lindleyana 14: 


Cribb, P. J., J. Greatwood, and P. F. Hunt. 1985. 

Handbook on orchid nomenclature and registration

The Royal Horticultural Society, London.

Gruss, O. 2003. Kimilsungia, eine 

Orchideenhybride mit falschen Namen. Die 

Orchidee 54: [117].

Hansen, E. 2000. Orchid fever. Vintage Books, 

New York.

Kim, I. G., and H. J. Pang. 1999. Kimilsungia. 

Foreign Languages Publishing House, Pyongyang, 

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Translated 

by Coe, K. J., and An, J. H. 

Kim, J. I.  2007. Kimisungia is an immortal flower 

that has bloomed in the hearts of mankind in the 

era of independence. Talk delivered to the Senior 

Officials of the Information Department of the 

Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Korea, 

April 6, Juche 94 (2005). http://www.uriminzokkiri.


Wreford, M.(Registrar). 1972. Sander’s list of 

orchid hybrids. The Royal Horticultural Society, 


Note: Some of the figures are of very low quality 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

1859). Whether one is interested in finding Milne-

Edwards’ original text to up-grade Darwin’s 

paraphrase for modern audiences, or to see how 

well Darwin’s paraphrase captured the meaning of 

Milne-Edward’s, actual words, one needs to find the 

original Milne-Edwards, source. 
Perhaps because Darwin thought that his 1859 

book, On the Origin of Species, was a mere outline 

of a longer work that was to follow, it is a book 

remarkably free from any citations to literature 

quoted, paraphrased or otherwise referred to in 

the text. Fortunately, the scientific literature is 

increasingly well indexed, and the University of 

California libraries are sufficiently comprehensive 

that I was able to find and peruse works by Milne-

Edwards that pre-date the 1859 publication of 

Origin of Species.
One such work contains text that could be 

translated or paraphrased as Darwin did (p 437, 

Milne-Edwards, 1867, quoting verbatim a work of 

1851). Much of Darwin’s library has been digitized 

( and inspection of 

Darwin’s copy of Milne-Edwards (1851) finds the 

quoted passage to have underlined phrases and a 

marginal notation referring to further comments 

by Darwin. I provide the entire paragraph for 

context, with what appears to be the portion used 

by Darwin in boldface. 
 “Mais, lorsqu’on vient à étudier avec plus 

d’attention cette multitude d’animaux variés, on 

ne tarde pas à s’apercevoir que la nature, tout 

en satisfaisant si largement à la loi de la diversité 

des organisms, n’a pas eu recours à toutes les 

combinaisons physiologiques qui auraient été 

possibles. Elle se montre, au contraire, toujours 

sobre d’innovations. On dirait qu’avant de recourir 

à des ressources nouvelles elle a voulu épuiser en 

quelque sorte chacun des procédés qu’elle avait mis 

en jeu; et autant elle est prodigue des variétés 

dans ses créations, autant elle paraît économe 

dans les moyens qu’elle emploie pour diversifier 

ses oeuvres.” (p 8-9, Milne-Edwards, 1851)
Given that Milne-Edwards is referring to the 

rhetorical Mother Nature, his use of the adjective 

“économe,” or “thrifty,” alludes to its use as a 

noun meaning “housewife.” Had Milne-Edwards 

intended to suggest the stinginess conveyed by the 

English word ‘”niggard” he would have used any 

of the several words with that meaning in French, 

e.g.,  ciche, ladre, pingre, mesquin.  Similarly, 

because “prodigal” in modern English includes the 

Brief Note to Plant Science 


“Lavish in variety, thrifty 

with innovation”: Darwin’s 

paraphrase of Milne-Edwards


Michael L. Christianson


Department of Plant Sciences

One Shields Avenue

University of California, Davis CA 95616

Manuscript received 4/25/2011. 

Revision accepted 5/29/2011.


 I appreciate the library holdings at the Davis 

and the Berkeley campuses in the University of 

California system, and gratefully acknowledge 

support from the Grady L. Webster Memorial 

Research Fund; this paper is a consequence of 

access to first and subsequent editions of Origin of 

Species at the University of Kansas and the emphasis 

placed by my major professors at Michigan State 

University, Drs. L. W. and R. P. Mericle, on the 

importance of seeing original sources.


 author for correspondence, e-mail: mxianson@</p>


Premise: Darwin repeats his paraphrase of Milne-

Edwards’ words twice in Origin of Species. 

Tracking down the original Milne-Edwards source 

not only finds the work that influenced Darwin, 

it provides an independent check on the accuracy 

of his translation and allows for a translation into 

modern, not Victorian, English.
Modern work to understand the evolution of 

development is largely a story of extant genes 

re-purposed to produce novel morphologies or 

evolutionary innovation (e.g., Carroll, 2008). 

As modern as this idea is, it was an evolutionary 

concept already recognized by Darwin (1859).  

Darwin credits Milne-Edwards as the source of 

the idea that Mother Nature is “prodigal in variety, 

but niggard in innovation” (p 194, Darwin, 1859). 

Further, Darwin found the observation sufficiently 

important to also refer to it in the Recapitulation 

with which the book concludes (p 471, Darwin, 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011


Carroll, S. B.  2008. Evo-Devo and an expanding 

evolutionary synthesis: a genetic theory of 

morphological evolution. Cell 134: 25-36.
Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species by 

Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation 

of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. John 

Murray, London, England. (in facsimile edition, 

with forward by E. Mayer, 1964, Harvard University 

Press, Cambridge,  Massachusetts)
Milne-Edwards, M. 1851. Introduction á la Zoologie 

Générale,  ou Considerations sur les Tendances de 

la Nature dans la Constitution du Regne Animal. 

Victor Masson. Paris, France.
Milne-Edwards, M. 1867. Rapport sur les Progrès 

récents des Sciences Zoologiques en France. 

L’Imprimerie Impériale. Paris, France.

connotation of imprudence, a modern translation 

of “prodigue” might use the word “lavish.” 
Incorporating these changes, Darwin’s paraphrase 

would credit Mine-Edwards with the observation 

that nature is lavish in variety, but thrifty with 

innovation. Indeed, a loose translation of the 

entire Milne-Edwards’ phrase, strengthening the 

metaphor of Mother Nature as housewife, could 

be “as lavish as she is with the banquet of (bio)

diversity, Mother Nature seems correspondingly 

thrifty with the ingredients she uses.”  
It is certainly useful to have an alternative 

translation of Milne-Edwards’ words. It precludes 

confusion between “niggard” and other words 

beginning with N. It also removes the value 

judgment contained in the word “prodigal” and 

the implication of stinginess, a character trait that a 

Mother Nature might have, but not one possible for 

a modern conception of an impersonal nature or 

natural selection. Ultimately, the importance of this 

alternative translation lies in capturing an accurate 

sense of the original text. “Lavish in variety, thrifty 

with innovation” shows exactly how perceptive a 

naturalist in the first half of the nineteenth century 

could be, and helps us understand the context that 

gave rise to the special genius of Darwin.

The United Nations 


2011 International 

Year of Forests

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Books Reviewed

Developmental and Structural

Atlas of Stem Anatomy in Herbs, Shrubs, and Trees...............................................114


Carnivorous Plants and their Habitats, Volumes 1 and 2........................................ 118


Catalogue (of the) Thirteenth International Exhibition of Botanical Art and 

Illustration ............................................................................................................... 119

Discovering New World Orchids ............................................................................ 119


Bamboos at TGBRI ................................................................................................ 121

Flora of China, Volume 25, Orchidaceae.................................................................122

Book Reviews

Developmental and 


Atlas of Stem Anatomy in Herbs, 

Shrubs and Trees.  

Schweingruber, F., A. Börner, and S. Ernst-

Detlef.  2011. Vol. 1. 

(Cloth US$139) 495 pp. Springer, Heidel-

berg. pp. 495. 

This remarkable book is the first of two volumes 

that represent the fruit over 40 years work 

by Fritz Schweingruber on the stem anatomy 

of dicotyledonous herbs, shrubs and trees. It 

represents a monumental effort to document stem 

anatomy across a wide range of dicotyledonous, 

and to make this information accessible for 

future generations. The first volume covers the 

Magnoiliids and Eudicots, but excludes most of the 

Asterids which are covered in the forthcoming Vol. 

2. I emphasize the accessibility of the work because 

the presentation of this research extends beyond 

the physical volumes published by Springer to the 

online Xylem Database and accompanying data 

tables, parts of which predate the publication of the 

book (Schweingruber and Landolt, 2005-2010). I 

will return to a discussion of these online resources 

after reviewing the book.
The Atlas differs from the Anatomy of the 

Dicotyledons (Metcalfe and Chalk, 1983) in 

several important respects. First, although some 

taxa without secondary growth are included in 

the Atlas, the emphasis is on those with secondary 

growth. This is not to say that all of the study 

species are “woody” in a traditional sense, as many 

would have been classified as “herbaceous” before 

the production of this work. In fact, many so-called 

herbaceous plants produce at least some secondary 

growth, and sometimes have abundant secondary 

growth (Dulin and Kirchoff, 2010). For instance, 

individuals of Arenaria biflora (Caryophyllaceae) 

in the alpine and sub-alpine zones have been 

found with up to 43 annual rings. Clearly, this is 

no ordinary herb. As long as we restrict ourselves 

to a simplistic understanding of plant growth that 

divides plants into those with secondary growth 

(woody plants) and those without (herbs), we will 

never understand the full range of plant growth 

forms, or be able to realistically relate these growth 

forms to anatomical structures. Sherwin Carlquist 

has been making this point for years with respect to 

shrubby, suffrutescent, pachycaulous, and lianoid 

growth growth forms (Carlquist, 1962, 2001). 


The Atlas extends this work to cover so-called 

herbaceous plants, while confirming and enlarging 

our knowledge of stem anatomy in shrubs and trees.
The book’s use of standardized character 

descriptions leads to the second difference with 

the Anatomy of the Dicotyledons. The authors use, 

and extend, the International Association of Wood 

Anatomist’s (IAWA) character definitions (a type of 

controlled vocabulary) to describe the structure of 

the xylem (Wheeler et al., 1989), and produce their 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

own standard characters for the description of the 

bark. Though my co-authors and I have pointed out 

the limitations of controlled vocabularies when used 

across wide ranges of taxa and structures (Kirchoff 

et al., 2008), I believe controlled vocabularies have 

a place of when their domain of applicability can 

be clearly circumscribed, such as in the description 

of wood. In most cases the wood anatomical 

structures described in the Atlas are relatively 

homogeneous, at least with respect to the wide 

range of variation in structures one finds in, for 

instance, flower structure across the angiosperms. 

There may be disagreements about the best way to 

describe a libriform fiber, or the degree of vessel 

size difference must be present between the early 

and latewood for the wood to be called ring porous, 

but these types of discrepancies pale in comparison 

to the difficulties encountered when trying to find 

a single set of terms that allow the determination 

of homologies  between flowers as diverse as those 

of Euphorbia and Magnolia (Kirchoff et al., 2008). 
If controlled vocabularies are to be used, they are 

best when each term is illustrated, preferably with 

multiple examples (Leggett and Kirchoff, 2011). 

The original IAWA term descriptions employ this 

practice to good effect (Wheeler et al., 1989), and 

the Atlas follows the same example, improving 

on it in some ways. Approximately 20 pages at 

the front of the Atlas are devoted to illustrated 

definitions of technical characters. Using the IAWA 

classification as a starting point, the authors extend 

the characters to take new data into account. For 

instance, Character 2 in the IAWA classification 

is “Growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent,” 

but this character definition does not differentiate 

between annual plants with second growth, and 

plants with no secondary growth. Both types of 

plants are covered in the Atlas. Because of this, the 

authors create two new sub-characters (character 

states): 2.1 “Only one ring (Annual plants)” and 

2.2 “Without secondary growth.” Character 2.1 is 

illustrated with 12 photographs, while Character 

2.2 is illustrated with six.


 I am pleased to see this 

use of multiple illustrations, as my colleagues and 

I have advocated the use of multiple photographs 

to document character and character state variation 

(Kirchoff et al., 2007; Kirchoff et al., 2011; Leggett 

and Kirchoff, 2011). When multiple illustrations 

are used in this way, problems with interpreting 

the meaning of the verbally defined characters 

are mitigated (Stevens, 1991). In addition to 

Character 2, many of the other IAWA characters 

are also refined for use in the Atlas. In this way, the 

Atlas serves not just as a repository of anatomical 

descriptions, but also as an updated character and 

character state reference, similar to the original 

IAWA publication (Wheeler et al., 1989). 
The heart of the Atlas consists of xylem and bark 

anatomical descriptions arranged by family. Each 

family chapter begins with a brief summary of 

the number of species studied, the life forms of 

the species, and the vegetation zones in which 

they are found. The opening page also contains 

representative images of the study species. The 

body of each chapter consists of lavishly illustrated 

descriptions of the characteristics of the xylem, and 

of the phloem and cortex of the covered species. 

If ecological trends emerged from the study, then 

these are noted in a separate section. There is also a 

brief discussion of the previous literature on xylem 

and bark anatomy of the family. Each chapter 

ends with a frequency table of characters found in 

the family. For instance, of the 161 species of the 

Brassicaceae that are investigated 105 had growth 

rings that were distinct and recognizable (character 

1), 18 had growth rings there are indistinct or 

absent (character 2), and 36 had only one ring 

(character 2.1). The astute reader will notice that 

this tabulation leaves two species unaccounted for. 

It also leaves open the question of how many of the 

18 species that have growth rings that are indistinct 

or absent also lack secondary growth (character 2.2, 

which does not appear in the table). These types of 

discrepancies are perhaps inevitable when dealing 

with huge data sets like this, though they are always 

frustrating and one hopes that the authors have 

taken every precaution to minimize them. 
Before going on to some limitations and technical 

problems with the Atlas, I want to return to the 

Xylem Database and its downloadable list of 

anatomical features (Schweingruber and Landolt, 

2005-2010). All of the images in the Atlas are 

available in the Xylem Database, and may be 

used royalty-free in other publications (Fritz 

Schweingruber, personal communication). Newly 


 A complete (unillustrated) list of the character definitions can be downloaded in a Word document from 

the online Xylem Database Schweingruber, F. H., and W. Landolt. 2005-2010. The xylem database. Swiss 

Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research. Birmensdorf, Switzerland.


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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

available from the Database (as of April 1, 2011) is 

a character by taxon matrix in the form of an Excel 

file with 3357 entries. Each entry row represents 

a species, while each column contains presence 

or absence information on each wood and bark 

character. The wood characteristics are listed by 

their extended IAWA code, while the bark features 

are classified according to the new character 

descriptions provided in the Atlas. This detailed 

character by taxon information is not available in 

the Atlas, which only provides summary tables 

as discussed above. The availability of the full 

matrix makes it possible to conduct correlation 

analyses that are not included in the Atlas. Dr. 

Schweingruber is to be commended for making 

this data freely available, something that few other 

scientists have ever done.
Having covered many of the strong points of the 

Atlas, I now turn to a brief consideration of some 

of its weaknesses. While the production quality of 

the Atlas is, on the whole, excellent, the resolution 

of some of the images has been degraded because 

of they are oversaturated in the magenta (Fig. 1). 

Comparison of the published images with those 

available from the Xylem Database shows that these 

are clearly production errors, and are not due to the 

original quality of the images. One expects better 

from Springer. 
A second unusual feature of Springer’s production 

relates to their release of the Atlas through the 

SpringerLink website.


 Although Springer offers 

this book through SpringerLink to subscribing 

institutions, only the title pages, table of contents, 

list of abbreviations, and the index, are available 

online. The whole text of the book is missing from 

the online version. One wonders at the thought 

process behind the decision to place the book 

online, but exclude all of its contents.
While I am very happy with the visual treatment of 

character definitions in the Atlas, I still feel that more 

can be done to clarify characters through visual 

means (Kirchoff et al., 2007; Leggett and Kirchoff, 

2011). For instance, the distinction between 

ring porous (character 3) and semi-ring porous 

(character 4) secondary growth has always been a 

matter of degree. How much difference in vessel 

size must exist between the early and late wood for 

a species to be classified as ring porous? Neither 

the IAWA character definitions nor the Atlas deal 

with this problem. One approach to this seemingly 

intractable problem is to define the character states 

based solely on visual criteria. This can be done 

by creating groups of images that represent the 

two main categories, ring porous and semi-ring 

porous. Intermediate states between these two 

main categories can also be represented by groups 

of images. In this approach the groups of images 

themselves become the character definitions. Terms 

are used only as secondary labels for the groups 

of images. This procedure is illustrated for the 

inudentum of oak leaves in Fig. 2. The black (and 

grey) boxes in this figure represent the character 

states for this character. These character states are 

not described verbally, but labeled with letters (A – 

E) so that they may be easily referenced. The image 

groups themselves define the character states. In 

one case, character state E, there are subsidiary 

states (groups) within the main character state. This 

subdivision of character state E illustrates the fine 

type of distinctions that can be made with visual 

definitions. Using a visual approach it is possible 

to define characters and character states in very 

precise ways, yet at the same time show the variation 

within each state. As visual character definitions are 

used in practice, new images can be added to the 

character state groups so that a record is kept of the 

variation within each character state. In this way it 

is possible to continually reevaluate the viability of 

each state as new data (images) are added. It is also 

possible for new investigators to quickly evaluate 

the quality of the characters and character states 

that have been used in previous studies. I hope that 

method such as this will come into wider use in the 

near future.
In summary, the Atlas of Stem Anatomy in Herbs, 

Shrubs and Trees is an important new contribution 

to our knowledge of stem anatomy, and particularly 

to our knowledge of the occurrence of secondary 

growth in so-called herbaceous plants. In addition 

to completely changing our concept of what it means 

to be herbaceous, the Atlas provides important 

information on the structure of the bark in many 

species that have not been previously studied. 

Coupled with the information available through 

the online Xylem Database, the Atlas has to be 

viewed as one of the most important publications 

in plant anatomy and morphology of recent years.


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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Figure 1: Simulation comparing a normal image (A) with one with oversaturated magenta (B). The 

fine details (pits, etc.) are obscured in the oversaturated image. The images are from Fig. 6 (Ambroella 

trichopoda) from the chapter of the Atlas on the Ambrollaceae (Schweingruber et al., 2011). The photo-

graph is of a radial section showing upright ray cells with bordered pits in uniseriate axial rows. To pro-

duce the figure the raw image was downloaded from the Xylem Database (Schweingruber and Land-

olt, 2005-2010), duplicated and brought into Photoshop CS. The RGB image was converted to CMYK, 

after which a Hue/Saturation adjustment layer was used to adjust the magenta +8 points so that the digi-

tal images were as close as possible to the published image in hue. The channel mixer was then used with 

a clipping mask on the right image (B), and magenta was increased to +114% on the magenta channel.

 The resulting right image (B) matched the detail that is visible in the printed original.

Figure 2: Visual character description – inudentum on abaxial surface of oak leaves. Character states are 

defined by the images in each box, not verbally. Inclusion of multiple images is used to show variability in the 

state. In this example each character state is denoted by a letter (A-E), and one (E) has two sub-states (E1, 

E2).  Species identification follow. A, Quecus alba. B, Q. muehlenbergii (left),  

Q. macrocarpa (right). C,  

Q. bi-color (above), Q. prinus (below left), Q. michauxii (below right). D. Q. stellata (above), Q. falcata (be-

low). E1, Q. velutina. E2, Q. schumardii (above left), Q. phellos (above right), Q. palustris (below left), Q. nigra 

(below right).

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Carlquist, S. 1962. A theory of paedomorphosis in 

dicotyledonous woods. Phytomorphology 12: 30-45.
Carlquist, S. 2001. Comparative wood anatomy: 

systematic, ecological, and evolutionary aspects of 

dicotyledon wood, 2nd. edition. Springer, Berlin.
Dulin, M., and B. K. Kirchoff. 2010. Paedomorphosis, 

Secondary Woodiness, and Insular Woodiness in 

Plants. Botanical Review 76: 405-490.
Kirchoff, B. K., R. Leggett, V. Her, C. Moua, J. 

Morrison, and C. Poole. 2011. Principles of visual 

key construction with a visual identification key to 

the Fagaceae of the southeastern United States. AoB 

Plants: doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plr005.
Kirchoff, B. K., E. Pfeifer, and R. Rutishauser. 2008. 

Plant structure ontology: How should we label 

plant structures with doubtful or mixed identities? 

Zootaxa 1950: 103-122.
Kirchoff, B. K., S. J. Richter, and D. L. Remington. 

2007. Characters as groups: A new approach to 

morphological characters in phylogenetic analysis. 

Taxon 56: 497-492.
Leggett, R., and B. K. Kirchoff. 2011. Image use 

in field guides and identification keys: review 

and recommendations. AoB Plants: doi: 10.1093/

Metcalfe, C. R., and L. Chalk. 1983. Anatomy of 

the Dicotyledons, 2nd edition. Oxford University 

Press, Oxford.
Schweingruber, F., A. Börner, and S. Ernst-Detlef. 

2011. Atlas of stem anatomy in herbs, shrubs and 

trees. Springer, Heidelberg.
Schweingruber, F. H., and W. Landolt. 2005-

2010. The xylem database. Swiss Federal Institute 

for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research. 

Birmensdorf, Switzerland.

Stevens, P. F. 1991. Character states, morphological 

variation, and phylogenetic analysis: a review. 

Systematic Botany 16: 553-583.
Wheeler, E. A., P. Bass, and P. E. Gasson. 1989. 

IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood 

identification. IAWA Journal 10: 219-332.
-Dr.  Bruce Kirchoff, Department of Biology, UNC 

Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402

Received: 5/18/2011   

Accepted: 5/25/2011


Carnivorous Plants and their Habi-

tats Volumes One and Two. 

 McPherson, Stewart. 2011. (£34.99 each) 

1441 pages, 799 images total.

Stewart McPherson, the author of Carnivorous 

Plants and their Habitats Volumes One and Two, 

frightens me. This is a good thing, as I work 

on carnivorous plants, and Stewart’s incredible 

output to date, 8 volumes of 500-plus pages each, 

is a wonderful motivator. Thank God he’s not a 

physiologist or I soon might not have anything 

to work on. His work is even more remarkable 

when one considers the quality (reams of gorgeous 

and informative photos, eminently readable text, 

detailed history, current phylogenetic approach, 

These two volumes cover carnivorous plants, first 

conclusively confirmed to be such by Darwin, in 

total and in detail. McPherson begins with overall 

discussions of the history of our understanding 

of these plants and a general overview of 

currently accepted groups. He then considers 

their evolution, associated organisms other than 

prey, and habitats in a general sense. The various 

groups of carnivorous plants are considered by 

the type of trap (e.g. pitcher plants) rather than 

taxonomically, and, finally, their future, troubled as 

it is by habitat degradation and loss. The Appendix, 

Bibliography, and Index round out this two-volume 

set. The grouping by trap type makes great sense 

given the similar habitats of plants with similar 

traps and the way that enthusiasts of carnivorous 

plants usually think about these green monsters.

This is a very complete work, in many ways the 

most complete work on carnivorous plants done 

by anyone, anywhere. McPherson even works 

in the newly identified carnivorous and barely 

known genus Philcoxia (there have been no 

more than a tiny handful of papers on it) with 

lovely habitat shots and closeups. He includes UV 

reflection images of various traps to indicate the 

view that insects receive. He includes many, many 

genera (briefly) of sub-/proto-/hemicarnivorous 

plants. The taxonomic discussion is deep and 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

thoroughly in line with the most current systematic 

information—and on and on. At most one might 

niggle at one or two of the hundreds of photos, such 

as the one or two too-dark images of Darlingtonia 

in the field, but really one has to hunt for errors 

or items to negatively criticize. This work is a 

tremendous accomplishment. It belongs, given 

the general interest in carnivorous plants and their 

value in promoting botany to non-botanists and to 

students, on every university library shelf and on 

every professional bookshelf. Get a copy today.
-Douglas Darnowski, Department of Biology, Indi-

ana University Southwest


Catalogue [of the] 13th Interna-

tional Exhibition of Botanical Art & 


Bruno, Lugene B.  

2010.  ISBN 978-0-913196-84-7 (Paper 

US$25.00)  198 pp.  Hunt Institute for 

Botanical Documentation, 5th Floor, Hunt 

Library, Carnegie Mellon University, 4909 

Frew Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890.

The Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, 

one of top two or three repositories of botanical 

art in the world, has produced the catalog of 

their 13th International Exhibition, displayed 

in the Fall of 2011. Once again, the catalog 

is worth having if you are at all interested in 

botanical art, a colorful delight full of both 

scientific information and aesthetic pleasure.

One interesting change, perhaps related to the 

maturation of the ongoing renaissance in botanical 

illustration, is the increase in the fraction of the 

volume which is dedicated to works other than 

those created using watercolor or gouache on 

paper. One often first thinks of watercolor on paper 

(or perhaps vellum) as the medium of choice for 

portraying plants—think of Ehret and Redoute, 

among others. Here, however, there seem to be 

represented many more works on vellum as well 

as quite a few more prints of various sorts than in 

past catalogs from the Hunt. Watercolor pencil also 

features more heavily than in prior years. These 

different types of illustrations are not formally set 

off, but they are, however, mostly grouped together 

as one proceeds through this work.  Some especially 

striking works, at least to the eye of this reviewer, 

include the Hawthorne with searingly red fruits (p. 

20), the Nasturtiams on p. 23 (though the leaves, 

as opposed to the flowers, are rather dull), the Iris 

germanica on p. 108, and the ripe sunflower on the 

cover, with its strikingly vibrant and warm earth 

tones. If you like plants as both art and science, get 

a copy today.
-Douglas Darnowski, Department of Biology, Indi-

ana University Southwest.

Discovering New World Orchids. 

Manning, S. 

2010. ISBN 978-0-9565594-0-1 (Hard cover, 

US$96). Published by the author at 4 The 

Cedars, Nantwich, Cheshire, CA5 5GZ, UK

An old adage and the title of a science fiction novel 

about the conquest of earth by space aliens I read a 

long time ago are that when new lands/planets are  

discovered  the three M (missionaries, merchants, 

military) arrive quickly in the order listed and 

colonize them.  What the adage leaves out is orchid 

collectors who were among the first to arrive in 

newly discovered lands on earth in past centuries to 

explore, collect (we would call it poach and pillage 

at present) and ship vast numbers of plants (many 

of which perished en route) to dealers in Europe 

and the UK. And, as the author of this book so 

aptly puts it, “Every one of the estimated 25,000 

to 30,000 different orchids . . . has a (sic) history 

. . . those of tropical America carry with them 

exciting, thrilling, fascinating and at times almost 

unbelievable stories.” Actually orchids from other 

areas also carry fascinating stories, but this book 

happens to deal with the Americas.
These stories are associated with the adventurers/

collectors who often risked and sometimes lost life 

and limb (and still do) to find new and rare orchids. 

The stories of these individuals are not always 

well known. Or, one has to be steeped in orchids 

and orchid literature and have access to rare and 

obscure books and journals to find the stories. Not 

many have this luxury.
This book, although it emphasized the author’s 

genus of interest, Masdevallia, tells the story of 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

(Ossenbach, 2008a, 2008b; for a review see Arditti, 

2009) is inevitable. Ossebach paints a larger canvas, 

tells a much broader story and places orchid history 

in the context of general historical developments. 

His books are designed more conservatively to 

good advantage.  They are very well illustrated, but 

contain no color and are produced modestly. This 

book is more sumptuously produced, has color and 

is less concerned with general history. Ideally, those 

interested in orchids and orchid history should read 

both works because they complement each other. 
As a rule self-published books must be approached 

with caution. Many pursue specific agendas, ride 

hobby horses and/or are merely ego food. This 

book is an exception.  It is informative, well written, 

nicely produced and fun to read despite its quirks.

Literature Cited

Arditti, J. 2009. Orchids and orchidology in Central 

America. Plant Science Bulletin 55: 173.
Ossenbach, C. 2008a. History of orchids in central 

America,  vol.  I.  Carlos  Ossenbach,  Sabanilla                                 

de Montes de Oca-Horquetas de Sarapiqui, San 

Jose, Costa Rica.
Ossenbach, C. 2008b. History of orchids in central 

America, vol. II. Carlos Ossenbach, Sabanilla de 

Montes de Oca-Horquetas de Sarapiqui, San Jose, 

Costa Rica.

many collectors, adventurers and some rascals 

(and their sponsors, antagonists, friends and 

enemies) who went to the New World (actually 

mainly Central and South America) in the 1700s, 

1800s, and even 1900s in search of orchids. The 

book is excellently illustrated with new and very 

old (some of these are fuzzy) color and black-and-

white images of orchids, non-Orchidaceous plants, 

indigenous people, various individuals, schools, 

houses, graves, grave stones, stamps, waterfalls, 

mountains, rocks, birds, slaves and masters, 

flags, coins, steamboats, locales, advertisements, 

structures and assorted odds and ends.  
There are many stories in the book including that 

of the Czechoslovakian collector Benedikt Roezl, 

who was tall, bronzed, had a flaxen moustache and 

a hook in place of his right arm which was lost in 

a machine. His “dexterity with that curved piece of 

iron was something to marvel at.” Interestingly, a 

statue of Roezl in Charles Square near the Botanic 

Gardens in Prague shows him with both arms.  

Another interesting individual was Benjamin “Ben” 

Williams whose image in the book suggests that he 

too may have been an adventurer/collector or even 

an individual to stay away from. In fact, he was a 

home-bound excellent writer on orchid cultivation, 

an orchid grower for a man of wealth and later the 

owner of a famed orchid establishment. He was 

certainly not a person to stay away from.  Not 

to be forgotten are the odd kings, despots, sea 

captains, emperors, empresses, nobles and wealthy 

individuals who funded expeditions, supported 

collectors and/or collected and grew orchids. Their 

pictures and stories are also in the book.
The book is not free of problems. Its design, 

fonts, use of text boxes, placement and labeling 

of footnotes, reference to cited literature and the 

listings of references are unusual and quirky. 

There are also illustrations which add little 

or nothing to the book, clutter pages and 

could, or even should, have been left 

out. Further, it would have been good 

to provide the birth and death dates of 

all, not just some, individuals in the text 

and/or in figure captions. Such information 

is not always easy to find, but it is available 

for many, perhaps most of the individuals 

mentioned in the book.  Should there be a 

second edition, it would benefit greatly from 

a professional copy editor and designer.
A comparison with Carlos Ossenbach’s two-

volume History of Orchids in Central America 

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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Bamboos at TBGRI.  

Koshy, K.C. 

2010. ISBN 978-81-920098-0-3 (paperback) 

104 pp. Tropical Botanic Garden and Re-

search Institute, Palode, Kerala, India.

This is a wonderful book on a developing 

bambusetum, a living collection of bamboo 

species.  The site is part of the Tropical Botanic 

Garden and Research Institute (TBGRI) in Kerala, 

India, in the foothills of the Ghat Mountains in the 

country’s southwest.  The Garden was founded in 

1979 and the bambusetum in 1987.  It is the latter’s 

founder, K.C. Koshy, who is the book’s author, and 

his passion for the collection comes through in his 

description of its development.  He began with a 

small plot of about 2 acres with a handful of species.  

Over the years, the area has grown to 16 acres with 

68 species and 12 hybrids.  The growth was thanks 

to over 900 accessions.  
Koshy tells the story of the project in a 

straightforward fashion, discussing the obstacles 

encountered and the successes achieved.  He notes 

the advantages of a bambusetum: the accessibility 

of a collection for scientific study including the 

flowering cycle, the availability of material for 

farmers or foresters, and the possibility of studying 

the other species which form communities with 

bamboo.  He also describes bamboo-collecting 

expeditions and their fruits.
Among other notes on these plants, Koshy makes 

clear the major hurdle to studying bamboos:  they 

flower very rarely, and in many cases only once in 

a life cycle.  Since the vegetative forms of many 

species look very similar to each other, it was 

difficult for Koshy to even know how many species 

he had, particularly at the early stages of the project.  

In addition, such infrequent flowering makes it not 

easy to create hybrids, though his team has managed 

to produce twelve, which are all listed here.  
Also included are short discussions about the roles 

a number of botanists played in developing the 

collection.  There is even a short section on the 

VIPs who have visited the bambusetum, including 

Ghillian Prance, then Director of the Royal Botanic 

Gardens at Kew.  

Following this introductory material, Koshy then 

presents the heart of the book, an annotated list 

of the bamboos species at TBGRI.  Many of the 

descriptions, which include information both on 

the living plants and herbarium specimens, are 

accompanied by photographs.  There are data here 

on when the plants were accessioned, on flowering 

if known, and statistics on length of internodes 

and the size of leaves.  These descriptions are brief 

and are presented more as lists than narratives.  

However, they would be useful to those studying 

bamboos and having some knowledge of the family.
After this section, which takes up about three-

quarters of the book, there is information about the 

TBGRI’s bamboo museum and about its nursery.  

The book ends with a discussion of future plans as 

well as a list of references, and finally an index to 

bamboo scientific names.  
This 104-page paperback is beautifully produced 

with many photographs, including a number of 

full-page ones showing close-ups of particular 

species as well as views of the TBGRI.  The volume 

was obviously a labor of love for Koshy and for 

the Garden.  It is not a general introduction 

to bamboos, but it would be a shame if it were 

missed by someone seeking to learn more about 

these plants.  The introductory material as well as 

the explanations of how hybrids were developed 

provide excellent general descriptions.  The detailed 

information on each species would be interesting 

to an expert, and in the years ahead it will serve as 

documentation for what this bambusetum held at a 

particular moment in its history.
-Maura Flannery, Department of Biology, St. John’s 


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Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

Flora of China Volume 25 Orchidaceae

Chen Xinqi, Liu Zhongjian, Zhu Guanghua, 

Lang Kaiyong, Ji Zhanhe, Luo Yibo, Jin Xiao-

hua, Phillip J. Cribb, Jaffrey J. Wood, Stephan 

W. Gale, Paul Omerod, Jaap J. Vermeulen, 

Howard P. Wood, Dudley Clayton, and Alex-

andra Bell. 

Text volume, 2009. ISBN 978-7-03-025533-

4/Q-2353.0101, 978-1-930723-90-0 (V. 25), 

9278-0-915279-34-0 (entire work), Hard 

cover, 570 pages, one map, $125.

Illustrations volume, 2010. ISBN 978-7-03-

025959-2/Q-2374, 978-1-930723-89-4 (V. 25), 

9278-0-915279-34-0 (entire work), 

Hard cover, 642 illustrations, 666 pages, one 

map, $175.

Science Press, Beijing, China and the 

Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, 


A third of a century has passed since the “ping pong 

diplomacy” that opened China to the West and 

China has changed dramatically. Orchid businesses 

flourish and large international orchid shows which 

contain many western hybrids and native Chinese 

species attract huge crowds (Arditti, 2011). Orchid 

books are published freely (for example, Perner 

and Luo, 2009). Robust research programs study all 

aspects of the Orchidaceae and result in numerous 

publications in international peer reviewed 

journals. The two volumes under review here deal 

with the 1,388 orchid species (491 endemic) in 

As can be expected, a work which covers that many 

orchids is very large (1,236 pages total). Still, space 

is at a premium. Therefore descriptions of species 

are sorted and in most cases do not exceed 130 

words. However, they are complete, informative 

and describe every species adequately. This is 

accomplished in part by using a concise style and 

small (I would guess 6-8 point), but easily readable 

print as well as not providing ethymology for 

both generic names and specific epithets. These 

would have been nice to have, but are not strictly 

necessary. Besides, this information can be found 

easily on the World Wide Web with a few clicks of 

a mouse. 
Chromosome numbers are included if available. 

The number of species and their distribution as well 

as those found in China and endemic taxa are given 

for every genus. Distribution in China is given at 

the provincial level.

Also included are Chinese names followed by 

pinyin transliterations, synonyms, a reference to the 

original/first description and relevant comments 

when necessary. I read many (though not all) 

descriptions in the book. Some were of species 

with which I was familiar and others that were 

new to me. In both cases I found the descriptions 

to be well written, easy to read and satisfactory. A 

master key to genera is included in the text volume. 

There are also keys for each genus. I did not have 

an opportunity to test any of the keys with living 

plants, but they seem workable.
A vexing problem with the descriptions is that they 

do not contain references to the illustrations. This 

would not be a problem if the illustrations were 

arranged alphabetically, but they are not. They are 

arranged according to tribes, genera and species. 

This required hunting through the volume, or 

referring to the index, both of which waste time. 

A list of new nomenclature, indexes to Chinese,  

pynyin and scientific names and plant families in 

the Chinese flora conclude the text volume.
Some, perhaps most, of the 642 line drawing plates  

in the illustrations are of one species, others are of 

two, three or more. Therefore many more species 

than 642 are illustrated. The illustrations are by 48 

artists whose styles are different. This is inevitable 

in a large work like this one and does not detract 

from it scientifically, but is unpleasant to the eye. 

What does detract somewhat is that some of the 

drawings (page 1 for example) do not show enough 

detail to be useful and many do not contain scales. 

The amounts of information, levels of detail and 

number structures shown in different illustrations 

also vary.  Indexes to Chinese, pynyin and scientific 

names and families in the Chinese flora conclude 

the illustrations  volume.
This is a major work with a minimal number of 

minor, perhaps insignificant, flaws which are easy 

to compensate for, not miss or overlook. One 

improvement which would benefit a possible 


second edition would be to place the illustrations 

next to the relevant species. This would still result 

in two volumes but it would be nice to be able to 

look an illustration while reading the description to 

which it pertains, or vice versa.
-Joseph Arditti, University of California, Irvine.

Literature Cited

Arditti, J. 2011. Conservation through propagation. 

Orchids 80: 114-116.
Perner, H. and Y. Luo. 2009. Orchids of Huandong. 

Sichuan  National  Park,  Sichuan  Publishing           

Group, Sichuan Art Publishing House.

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Books Received

The Future of the Western Hemisphere, the Next Fifty Years, 

the Path to Sustainability.  

Thorhaug, Anitra, et al. (Paper US$25.00) Greater Carib-

bean Energy and Environment Foundation, Inc. 1359 SW 22 TER, Suite1, Miami, FL 33145.

An  Illustrated Guide To Common Plants Of San Salvador Island, Bahamas, 

3rd edition   

 Lee B. Kass.  2009.  ISBN 0-935909-85-0 ($25.00) 183 pp. The Gerace Re-

search Centre, San Salvador Island, Bahamas.

Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic History of Latin American Vegetation and 

Terrestrial Environments.   

Graham, Alan. 2010.  ISBN 978 1 930 72368 9 (Cloth 

US$95.00) 618 pp.  Missouri Botanical Garden Press, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299.

A Natural History of the New World. The Ecology and Evolution of Plants 

in the Americas.  

Graham, Alan. 2010.   ISBN  978 0 226 30679 7 (Cloth US$110.00) 408 

pp. University of Chicago Press, 1427 E. 60th Street Chicago, IL 60637 USA.

Pollination and Floral Ecology  

 Willmer, Pat.  2011.  ISBN 978-0-691-12861-0. (Cloth 

US$95.00)  828 pp.  Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, New Jersey 


RNAi and Plant Gene Function Analysis: Methods and Protocols.   


Hiroaki; Komamine, Atsushi (Eds).  2011.   ISBN 978-1-61779-122-2 (Cloth US$119.00).  Hu-

mana Press. 333 Meadowlands Parkway, Secaucus, NJ 07094.

Spatio-Temporal Heterogeneity: Concepts and Analyses.    

Dutilleul, Pierre R. 

L. 2011.  ISBN 978-1-107-40035-1 (Paper US$57.00) 393pp.  Cambridge University Press, 32 

Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013.

News from the International Botanical Congress

Botanists have brought plant taxonomy into the 21st century.  The international botanical 

code was amended to allow on-line publication of new species, rather than solely print 

publication.  Furthermore, the plant description may now be either in Latin or English.  

(Yes, scientific names remain in Latin.)  

The immediate response in Nature 475: 424 “Zoologists should follow botanists…”

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Scientific conferences are not actually about the science; they’re about 

the people who do science.  You can learn about the science of botany 

from published papers and books, but you can only learn about the 

people who do the science of botany by attending botany conferences  

 -Dr. Joseph Armstrong,  member, Botanical Society of America

Plant Science Bulletin 57(3) 2011

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Plant Science Bulletin 

 Featured Image

Fall 2011 Volume 57 Number 3

Plant Science 


ISSN 0032-0919 

Published quarterly by  

Botanical Society of America, Inc.  

4475 Castleman Avenue 

St. Louis, MO 63166-0299 


The yearly subscription rate 

of $15 is included in the BSA 


Periodicals postage is paid at 

St. Louis, MO and additional 

mailing offices. 


Send address changes to:


Botanical Society of America 

Business Office 

P.O. Box 299 

St. Louis, MO 63166-0299


Address Editorial Matters (only) 


Marshall D. Sundberg 


Department of Biological 


Emporia State University  

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Emporia, KS 66801-5057 

Phone 620-341-5605

The Botanical Society of America 

is a membership society whose 

mission  is to: promote botany, the 

field of basic science dealing with 

the study and inquiry into the form, 

function, development, diversity, 

reproduction, evolution, and uses of 

plants and their interactions within 

the biosphere.

Botany in Action!

At Botany 2011 a group of enthausitic botanist volunteers braved 

the sweltering St. Louis heat and gathered to help support the efforts 

of Gateway Greening, the  non-profit organization promoting urban 

neighborhood gardening.   

Gateway Greening is a non-profit organization celebrating 27 years of 

promoting urban neighborhood vitality and stability, healthy living and 

quality of life through community food projects, education and wellness 

programs and civic greening.

Gateway Greening forms alliances with non-profit organizations, 

faith-based institutions, institutions of higher learning and 

neighborhood groups to provide resources for citizen-managed open 

spaces that encourage healthier, safer and more enriched lives. Gateway 

Greening provides the resources and knowledge that enable them 

to develop food-producing gardens and landscaped areas on public 

land. Gateway Greening also works with area schools and institutions 

of higher learning to bring gardening programs into the classroom; 

educating children on the wonders of gardening.

This first time event at a Botany 2011 was a major success and one that 

we hope to continue at future conferences—the spirit of giving back to 

our host cities!

Much more about Botany 2011 in future issues of the Plant Science 


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July  7-11 2012 

Columbus Convention Center

Columbus, Ohio

Make your plans NOW!

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