Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 2008 v54 No 4 WinterActions

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WINTER   2008

                 VOLUME 54

              NUMBER 4



ISSN 0032-0919

The Botanical Society of America: The Society for ALL Plant Biologists


Leading Scientists



since 1893

Botany in Pakistan...............................................................................................................................130
Tom Croat, Plant Collector at the Missouri Botanical Garden.......................................................135

News from the Society

Meet the New Staff in the BSA Office................................................................................138

News from the Annual Meeting

Women in Botany Luncheon.............................................................................140

BSA Science Education News and Notes.


Editor’s Choice.....................................................................................................141

News from the Sections

BSA Historical Section.......................................................................................142


In Memoriam

Lazarus Walter (Walt) Macior (1926-2007)......................................................143


Eshbaugh Honored for Outreach Efforts.........................................................145
Donation of the Graham Palynological Collection to the Smithsonian


Missouri  Botanical Garden Awards Highest Honor To  Renowned


2008 ESRI User Conference Features Keynote Address by Dr. Peter H.


Professor Dedicated To Study Of Plant Use By Native Americans Will

 Receive William L. Brown Award.....................................................147


Experience in Tropical Botany...........................................................................148
Chicago Botanic Garden and Northwestern University Create Doctorate

Program in Plant Biology and Conservation...................................148

Positions Available

M.S. Student Position: Analysis of Patterns of Gene Flow in Maryland

Populations of Harperella (Ptilimnium nodosum)..........................149

Other News.

Brooklyn Botanic Garden and NYC Department of Parks & Recreation Sign

Breakthrough Conservation Initiative..............................................................150

Rare Book Exhibition Focuses on Children’s Books about Plants, Lenhardt

Library, November 28, 2008 through February 1, 2009...................................150

Missouri Botanical Garden Mounts Milestone Six Millionth Herbarium Specimen..151
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden on Display in Olympic Venues................................152
The Elastic Stability of Palms...............................................................................................153
Wind load analysis for trees...............................................................................................153

Books Reviewed


Books Received.


Botany and Mycology, 2009.............................................................................................................176

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008







POSTMASTER: Send address changes to:

Botanical Society of America
Business Office
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166-0299


Address Editorial Matters (only) to:

Marshall D. Sundberg, Editor
Dept. Biol. Sci., Emporia State Univ.
1200 Commercial St.
Emporia, KS 66801-5057
Phone 620-341-5605


ISSN 0032-0919

Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 4475 Castleman Avenue, St. Louis,
MO 63166-0299.   The yearly subscription rate of $15 is included in the membership dues of
the Botanical Society of America, Inc.  Periodical postage paid at St. Louis, MO and additional
mailing office.

Botany in Pakistan


by Anitra Thorhaug

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan has a spatial
extent of 796 100 km


 (latitudes 24 and 27° N and

longitudes 61 and 75° E). The boundaries include
The Arabian Sea on the south, India to the east,
Afghanistan on the north-west, Iran on the west;
Russia and China on the north. The land mass is
divided into three main geographical regions: 1.)
Mountains occupying northern and western parts
of the country. The northern mountains are the
termination of the Himalayan range (with a number
of peaks above 6 000 m permanently clad with
snow). The sub-mountainous areas are extensive,
forming a number of plateaus and valleys. The
western mountains are not very high with plateaus,
semi-arid valleys and plains, much of which land
is unproductive; 2.)The Indus plain is the western
part of the Indo-Gangetic plain that forms one of the
most prominent and extensive physiographic
features of the subcontinent. The plain is believed
to be more than one thousand meters deep and is
formed by large quantities of alluvial material
deposited since time immemorial by the Indus and
several of its tributaries. The land is fertile and
heavily populated. The original agricultural
civilization of this region was thought to begin here
more than 5000 years ago; 3.)The coastal zone is
a narrow fringe bordering the Arabian Sea. It
includes also the Indus delta and saline marshes.
The climate of the country, which lies in the
subtropical region, is varied due to the wide range
of altitude and distance to sea. In the mountain
regions of the north and west, temperatures fall
below freezing during winter; in the Indus Valley
area, temperatures range between about 32° and
49° C in summer and the average about 13° C in

The geology is recent dating from the event of the
Indian subcontinent bumping into the Asian land

This issue brings an end to 2008 and what an
exciting year it’s been for plant science and the
Society.  We are living our motto of “Leading
Scientists and Educators since 1893” in many ways,
not the least of which is  As you
will read inside, six other plant-science societies
have now formally joined us in this effort as we lead
the grass roots effort to engage school-age students
in learning about, appreciating, and researching
plants.  The efforts of the Society, however, are not
restricted to the United States.  Our lead article,
Botany in Pakistan, is the second in a series from the
Society’s International Affairs Committee focusing
on Botany and Plant Science in developing countries.
Our goal is to strengthen ties between individuals
and institutions in the U.S. and around the world.

Our second article focuses on Tom Croat, plant
collector extraordinaire, who recently was celebrated
by the Missouri Botanical Garden.  Tom provided
PSB with a slightly expanded transcript of the address
he presented at the celebration recognizing the 6
millionth mounted specimen added to the Missouri
Botanical Garden Herbarium.   What an interesting
story!  But the thing that really caught my attention is
at the beginning of his second paragraph.  What got
Tom interested in Botany?  His college botany
professor, Jack Carter.  Jack, now retired in Silver
City, NM, is a long time BSA member who was active
in the BSA teaching section when I first joined the
society.  Jack could not only inspire his students, he
inspired young professionals to continue the tradition
of teaching about the wonder of plants.  As you read
Tom’s story, I hope you are inspired to renew your
dedication to proselytize for botany whenever an
occasion arises.

-the editor

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Editorial Committee for Volume 54

Joanne M. Sharpe (2009)

Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens

P.O. Box 234

Boothbay, ME 04537

Nina L. Baghai-Riding (2010)

Division of Biological and

Physical Sciences

Delta State University

 Cleveland, MS 38677







          Samuel Hammer (2008)
       College of General Studies
            Boston University
           Boston, MA 02215


Jenny Archibald (2011)

Department of Ecology

and Evolutionary Biology

The University of Kansas

Lawrence, Kansas 66045

Root Gorelick (2012)

Department of Biology

Carleton University

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1H 5N1

mass. The mountains in the western and northern
areas uplifted during the late Tertiary and early
Quaternary. During that time the present-day plains
were still under sea. The plains came into existence
as a result of gradual accumulation of silt brought
down by rivers during the upper Tertiary period.

Climatically the country can be divided into arid
(largest part), sub arid (secondary) and humid area
(smallest) (5”-10”- over 50” rainfall in the north). The
mean monthly temperature in summer in plains is


C (100


F). The extreme maximum temperature

rises above 47.2


 C.  In northern and north western

mountains the temperature remains low and the
areas are snow bound until April. Part of the
precipitation in the high hills is received in the form
of snow. Lower down, the annual rainfall averages
between 750 and 900 mm, decreasing
progressively to the west and south to as low as 125

mm in certain areas.

The climate is considerably influenced by monsoon
winds that come from the south-east in summer
and by cyclonic disturbances that originate in the
Mediterranean Sea during winter. About 70 percent
of the average precipitation is received from June to
September. The difference in temperature between
the seasons is relatively high. Most of the hilly area
is denuded and has little soil left. Sub-mountainous
plateaus and the adjoining plains have well drained
alluvial soils and part of the corresponding
agriculture land is very fertile. The Indus plain is
composed of silt, sand, clay and, rarely, gravel.
Much of the land in this basin was desert and has
been developed by irrigation. Due to arid conditions,
evaporation exceeds precipitation and this may
result in the accumulation of salt in the soils,
rendering them less productive ( FAO, 2008).

NOAA satellite image of Pakistan outlining various
provincial borders in white (courtesy of FAO Forestry)

Land cover of Pakistan’s vegetation. Olive green (dk
gray) is shrubland, brown (darkest) is dry and
irrigated cropland, turquoise is mixed and barren
tundra, yellow (lightest) is barren (Courtesy of FAO)

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

The General Organizational Structure of Botany in

There is a Pakistan Botanical Society which has
600 members and there is additionally a Society of
Biology and Pharmacology, Pakistan Society of
Physiology, and a  Wheat Society of Pakistan.  Botany
is taught in a series of Universities: Karachi University
( where  high quality research is being carried out
in different fields of plant sciences such as phycology,
mycology, ecology, taxonomy, physiology,
biochemistry, plant tissue culture, molecular biology
, genetics and natural products); Punjab University
(special emphasis on molecular genetics,
pathology, physiology and biotechnology) ; Agha
Khan University Karachi ;Quaid I Azam University
Islamabad ; Balochistan University ;Peshawar
University; NIAB ;NIBGE ;PARC .


United States Department of State. In 2003, the
Ministry of Science and Technology of the
Government of Pakistan and the United States
Department of State signed a comprehensive
Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement
that established a framework to increase
cooperation in science, technology, engineering
and education for mutual benefit and peaceful
purposes between the science and education
communities in both countries.  In 2005, the United
States Agency for International Development joined
with the Ministry of Science and Technology and the
Higher Education Commission of Pakistan to
support the joint Pakistan-US Science and
Technology Cooperative Program.  This program,
which is being implemented by the US National
Academy of Sciences on the US side, is intended to
increase the strength and breadth of cooperation
and linkages between Pakistan scientists and
institutions with counterparts in the United States.       
Scientific Journals

The leading journals are: Pakistan Journal of
Botanical Society, Pakistan Journal of Marine
Sciences, Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences,
Pakistan Journal of Biology and Biotechnology,
 and the Pakistan Journal of Forestry.
The Ecological Zones of Pakistan

Uniregional elements
Indian, Euro-Siberian, Mediterranean
45.6%,10.6%, 9.1%, 4.5%, 1.3%, 0.5% respectively.

Bi- or Pluriregional elements

I r a n o - T u r a n i a n T r o p i c o - S u b t r o p i c a l E u r o -
M a l a y a n S a h a r o - S i n d i a n — I n d i a n S a h a r o -
S i n d i a n — I r a n o - T u r a n i a n S a h a r o - S i n d i a n —
Mediterranean.  All others: Euro-Siberian—Sino-
Japanese, Euro-Siberian—Mediterranean,

5.2%, 5.07%, 4.5%, 3.5%, 2.6%,

2.03%, 1.5%, 0.9%, 0.9%, 2.1%

Phytogeographical Analysis of The Percent of
Phanerograms in Pakistan and Kasmir
.( Zaida,

1.) The Saharo-Sindian Region.
This region extends from the Atlantic coast of N.
Africa through entire Sahara, Sinai peninsula most
of Arabia, part of Syria, S. Iraq, S. Iran, most parts of
Pakistan, S. Baluchistan, Sind & Punjab–
Rajasthan–India .The area is very dry, has an
average rain/fall between 15-30 cm. Greater part of
the country belongs to this region but the flora is
represented by 10.6% Saharo-Sindian element.
Some plants which represent this region are the
following: Representing the Arab-African north
Anastatica hierochuntica Asteriscus pygmaeus
Astragalus hauarensis Astragalus schimperi
Citrullus colocynthis Eremobium aegyptiacum
Fagonia glutinosa Gymnarrhena micrantha
Gymnocarpos decander Helianthemum lippii,
Launaea nudicaulis Lycium shawii Moricandia
sinaica Neurada procumbens Panicum turgidum
Psoralea plicata,Rumex vesicarius,,Salvia
aegyptiaca Savignya parviflora Trigonella anguina
East- West Blepharis ciliaris,Calotropis
procera,Capparis cartilaginea,Capparis
deciduas,Caralluma edulis ,Cassia
pendulus,Cornulaca monacantha,Cymbopogon
olivieri,Fagonia bruguieri,Fagonia indica,Grewia
2.) The Irano-turanian  region .
This region is characterized by extreme range of

The ecological regions of Pakistan and adjacent
nations showing eco-regions in the area

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

temperature both diurnal and annual ,low
precipitation, hot and dry summers, cold and harsh
winters.The region is dominated by Chaemophytes
and Hemicryptophytes. It  has the highest
percentage (45.6%) of species of phaerograms.
Some species found in this regions are the following:
Haloxylon persicum,Salsola richteri, S. tomentosa,
Convolvulus erinarius,Astragalus chivensis,
Leptorhabdos parviflora,Haploplyllum bungei,
Perovskia abratanoides,Nepeta glomerulosa,N.
praetervisa, Gagea dshungarica,G. capusi,G.
olgae,G. stipitata,G. gageoides,Canlligonum
leucocladum,Suaeda arcuata, Cousinia
schugnanica,C.multiloba,,Eremurus persicus.

3.) The Indian Region
This area is not continuous. Its characteristics are
the following:1.)The eastern part of Punjab and
extreme southern part of Sindh are included in this
region; 2.) The area is characterized by real
monsoon; 3.)It is represented by 4.5% of the total
number of species; 4.) Many of these elements
extend to Saharo-Sindian region.

4.) Sino-Japanese Region
Characteristics are the following: 1.) This region is
characterized by high rainfall (180cm); 2.)Part of
Kashmir, Swat and Kaghan are included in this
region;3.)The flora is one of the richest particularly
in tree species 4.)10.6% of flora belongs to this

Conservation and Sustainability

No red data list is yet available. Only 14 species
have been recorded as threatened which includes
2 species as  endangered, 2 vulnerable, 5 rare and
5 of uncertain status (IUCN, 1998).Only 0.3% of the
total flowering species are   considered as
threatened as compared to    12.5% flora of the world
which is considered    threatened. Two species have
become extinct: Scaveola frutescens (Mill.) Krause
and S. plumieri (L.) Vahl . Obviously, more work and
research is necessary in this area. There is one
biosphere reserve in Pakistan. There are 714 nature
reserves and protected areas up from 205 in 2003.

The Flora of Pakistan

Due to its great diversity in habitat, a great many
species are found in Pakistan. This plus the excellent
level of botanical knowledge and research has
allowed a great deal of botanical information to be
obtained. The Flora of the Pakistan project was
started by  Professor E. Nasir (RAW) & Prof. S.I. Ali
(KUH) in late 1960 through separate projects
submitted to USDA. The best available herbarium
was at Gordon College Rawalpindi with a rich
collection of Stewart. Monumental work of Stewart
An Annotated Catalogue of Vascular Plants of

Pakistan and Kashmir  (published in 1972) provided
the basis for Flora of Pakistan. Prof. Nasir & Prof. Ali
continued to edit  Flora of Pakistan jointly from 1970
to 1989, until the former editor migrated to Canada.
From 1995 till to date Prof. Ali & Qaiser  have
continued working on this. This was difficult best
with problems from the beginning of Independence.
Not a single comprehensive book was available at
the time of creation of Pakistan which could identify
the plants of the whole country. The only Flora
available was that of J.D. Hooker’s Flora of British
(1872-97). It also did not include Baluchistan
and major part of the NW Frontier Province. Some
regional Floras and check lists were also available.
At this time the information about Pakistan’s plant

Ecological zones of Pakistan: tropical desert in
green, cross-hatched green for temperate
mountains, tan for subtropical steppe, pink for
tropical shrubland, yellow for barren, light green
cross hatched for temperate mountains.  (Courtesy
of FAO.  Data sets from U. Maryland and USGS
EROS data center.)

Typical Irano-turanian region vegetation.  (Courtesy
Mudassir Isman)

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

wealth was scattered, incomplete and out dated.
The basic aim in producing the Flora was to provide
a base line information which could be used for
proper identification of all the plants  of Pakistan.
Correct identification of every plant is of utmost
importance. Plant names were the key to the
literature (Vansteenis, 1957). At the time of
independence the following resources for the
Pakistan flora were available. 1.   Hooker, J. D.

Flora of British India; 2.   Boissier

E.1867-1884  Flora Orientalis; 3.   Parker, R. N.
1928,Flora of the Punjab and Delhi; 4.   Cooke,
T.1904-1908 The Flora of Bombay Presidency ;5.
Kashyap, S. R. 1936 Lahore District Flora, Punjab.
6.   Talbot, W. A. 1909-1911 Forest Flora of Bombay
 7.  Blatter, C., E. McCann, and Sabnis,
T.S. 1927-1929 Flora of Indus Delta.  Plant collection
was started as early as 1820. The conditions for
complining a Flora of Pakistan were far from Ideal.
1.) Most of the collection was done by the British with
a few  other Europeans ;2.) The historical collections
were in British Herbaria  like Kew, British Museum
and Edinburgh or Indian Herbaria like Calcutta
(Kolkata) and Dehra Dun ; and 3.) Only few odd
duplicates were present in RAW. Thus the writing of
the Flora of Pakistan by a Pakistani team was
difficult.    Punjab University Herbarium.  Three or 4
mini Herbaria were present in Pakistan  at the time
of its creation except R.R. Stewart Herbarium at
Gordon College Rawalpindi (RAW) which had about
55000 specimen  - who had collected all over
Pakistan for 50 years. TheStewart collection ( 1910-
1960) formed the basis for writing the Flora of
Pakistan. Some new herbaria were also established

(Courtesy Mudassir Isman)

The herbaria in Pakistan.

Location(abbreviation), Number of specimens,  Date
1.   Herbarium, Biological Sciences Dept.,Quaid-i-

Azam University, Islamabad,


175000 1974

2.   Herbarium, Botanical Sciences Division,Pakistan

Museum of Natural History,Islamabad

(PMNH) 60500


3.  National Herbarium, PARC,Islamabad (RAW)

Formerly StewartHerbarium, Gordon



4.  Herbarium, Botany Department ,Karachi

University, Karachi (KUH) 150000 1953

5.  Herbarium, University of the Punjab,Lahore




6.   Herbarium, Botany Department,Islamia College,





7.   Herbarium, PCSIR, Peshawar (PES).



8.   Herbarium, Pakistan Forest Institute,Peshawar

(PPFI). 20000


9.   Herbarium, Botany Department,Peshawar

University, Peshawar (PUP).40000 1952

The Publication of The Flora of Pakistan

Group and Date





Asteraceae – Part II

   (Inuleae, Plucheeae and Gnaphaleae)


















Asteraceae - Part III
(Mutisae and Senecioneae)        in press

Editors of the Flora of Pakistan and numbers of
families produced during their editorship.






E. Nasir & S. I. Ali



S. I. Ali & Y. J. Nasir

1995-  to  date


S. I. Ali & M. Qaiser


215+1(parts I&II)







Illustrated Taxa


Printed Pages


7.6% species are endemic with 405 species
belonging to 43 families and 169 genera, Most of
these are in the central area in the mountains.

Forests and Forest Plantations in Pakistan

Pakistan is deficient in forest resources. The natural
forest cover area in 1990 was 1 855 000 ha
constituting 2.4 percent of the land area. Most of the
forest cover belongs to Hill and Montane forest

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008


Tom Croat, Plant Collector at the

Missouri Botanical Garden

Two milestones were reached simultaneously at
the Missouri Botanical Garden in October 2008—
the MO herbarium mounted its 6 millionth specimen,
and this specimen was veteran plant collector and
Curator Tom Croat’s 100 thousandth plant
collection. To know Tom is to admire him for his
passion for botany and his adventurous spirit.  This
is his story, in his own words….

I was raised on a small farm in Iowa and

came to know plants by their common names and
mostly as weeds in our corn and bean fields.  My
father had died when I was 11, leaving my mother
and my six siblings on a heavily mortgaged farm.

Tom with field collection of Anthurium centimillesimum

(courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden)

formations (FAO, 1993). In terms of plantations, the
Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP 1992) estimates
the total forest area of the country, including
plantations and scrub forests, at 4 220 000 ha.
Plantations, with the exception of nearly 100 000 ha
do not legally constitute forests (Siddiqui, 1997).
Plantations in Pakistan were initially established in
1866 in the plains of Punjab and Sindh provinces to
produce fuel wood for the railways. Due to the arid
and semi-arid climate of the region, these
plantations had to be irrigated through a network of
canals and are referred to as “irrigated plantations”.
Their size varies between 2 000 ha to 10 000 ha
(FAO, 1981 and MFA, 1981). These plantations are
now managed to produce wood for industrial

During the five year plan from 1977 to 1982, 39  872  ha
of regular plantations and 16 200 km of linear (row)
plantations were established, mainly in Punjab.
During the same period 50 825 ha of plantations
were established in watershed areas, mainly in
North West Frontier Province (MFA, 1984). The total
annual planting was on the order of 20 000 ha
during that period. Many trees have also been
planted in farmlands and this constitutes a major
portion of the wood supply. Dalberergia sissoo has
been the main species in the irrigated plantations.
It produces high quality timber as well fuelwood.
Other species subsequently introduced were Morus
alba for sporting goods and Acacia nilotica for the
mining industry (MFA, 1981). In farm forestry
plantations,  Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia nilotica,
Eucalyptus spp., Populus spp., Bombax cieba
Melia azedarach are popular species. Pinus
 is planted in subtropical regions.

What is the Future of Botany in Pakistan?

Obviously, the flora of Pakistan needs to

be completed. Relatively less explored areas should
be botanized such as: North and South Waziristan
;Kurram Agency ;Sulaiman range ; Khirthar range
;Deosai plateu. More material and information is
now available.  First fascicle of Flora of Pakistan
appeared 34  years before. Flora now has to be
revised in light of recent advances in Botany.

Conservation strategies have to be

developed. At minimal red data lists must be
prepared. Over exploitation of our plant wealth has
to be discouraged

Criterion for the classification of threatened plants
has to be developed because every county has
different conditions and the criteria differ for
endangered and threatened plants. Narrow
endemics have to be given first preference followed
by such endemics which are found in more than one

The Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP, 1992)
proposed to increase the forest area of the country
from the existing 4.8 percent to 9.8 percent in
25&nmbsp;years (1993-2017), mainly through
plantations. The plan envisages establishing
3 900 000 ha of plantations on new areas of which
3 600 000 ha will be on private lands - 2 070 000 ha
on farmlands and 1 530 000 ha in watershed areas.
The irrigated plantations will be expanded by only
50 000 ha. ( FAO, 2008)

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

We began a dairy business because nothing else
seemed to bring in a steady or reliable income but
it was an endless spiral of milking, hauling manure
and making hay. After high school I joined the 10


Mountain Division in Germany because in my county
if you weren’t crippled, they eventually drafted you
anyway. I trained as a radar repairman and was
stationed in Bavaria.  The Russians had invaded
Hungary and shortly after I arrived they launched the
satellite Sputnik which alarmed our government
into making funds available for science education.
So after returning home to operate the family farm,
I also went to nearby Simpson College in Indianola,
Iowa. During the summers I ran the farm and
worked  full time with construction jobs, including
working on the roadbed of Interstate 35 and later on
the paving crew that added the concrete.

One of my professors at Simpson, Jack Carter, had
been a student of Bob Thorne then at the University
of Iowa. Carter was a systematist and impressed
me with what he knew about naming plants and I
enjoyed learning the Latin names for plants.  I
became hooked on botany but my first official
collections were made while I later taught high
school in the Virgin Islands near Puerto Rico. I was
impressed with the colorful tropical trees that were
so prevalent there. I dried the specimens in my
apartment oven.

The next summer after school was out, I loaded up
an army duffle bag with a change of clothes, a
sleeping bag and 75 rolls of film, then traveled
23,000 miles by boat, plane, bus and truck
throughout the West Indies and South America
often sleeping in parks and even in jails. The entire
trip cost me only $525! While I took a lot of pictures
of plants and visited botanical gardens all along my
route, I was not equipped to collect or dry herbarium
specimens. I returned home, worked on the Rock
Island Motor Freight dock at night unloading and
unloading 18 wheelers then taught a semester of
high school biology in Knoxville, Iowa before entering
into the University of Kansas in Lawrence to get my
Ph.D. in botany.

At Kansas I took one of the first Organizational for
Tropical Studies courses in Costa Rica in 1965
where I collected plants as well.  On returning to
Kansas I married, Pat Swope, who was teaching
calculus at the university.  She helped me get
through my course in Biological Statistics taught by
Sokal and Rolf, using their as yet unpublished
textbook. Pat and I lived in a large mansion on
Massachusetts Avenue where we acted as curators
of the property. It was one of these plantation style
homes with four huge pillars in front and large,
mostly furnished rooms used by the Lawrence
Women’s Club.  The ballroom had two fireplaces
and was devoid of furniture so it served us well

when I was asked to host my graduating class’s
Ph.D. party.

Most of my first 4000 plant collections were made in
the Great Plains of North America from
Saskatchewan and Montana south to Oklahoma
when I worked with Solidago for my Ph.D. thesis. I
dried these plants with the heat from my 1962 VW
bug engine by propping the press on the bumper
and under the hood cover.

In 1967 I came to the Missouri Botanical

Garden to work on the Flora of Barro Colorado Island
in the Canal Zone of Panama.  The next 12,000
numbers were collected on Barro Colorado Island
and other areas in Panama up until 1972.  Then work
began in Central America, later in 1975 in
Madagascar and Kenya.

It was in Madagascar, the third largest island in the
world off the eastern coast of Africa, that I first
decided to dry plants in my vehicle so that I would be
free to continue collecting without the long return
trips to Tananarive. I collected all over the southern
half of the island.  Most of the terrain was eroded and
dry with only isolated human populations. The
massive vistas allowed me to see where I would be
at the end of a day’s drive. I was driving a long-bed
Land Rover which belonged to John Buetner-Janish,
an anthropologist who lived in New York City but who
was expelled from the Malagasy Republic because
anthropologists generally were mistrusted there.  I
built a large wooden dryer in the rear of the truck and
slept aside the dryer, often on top of piles of dried
As the bundles began filling up the back of the Land
Rover, I slept on top of them. The only serious
problem was that the dryer occasionally caught fire
and I had to put it out by reaching into the box to throw
the smoldering materials outside where I could
snuff out the fire with sand.  I did not have enough
water to waste putting out fires since drinking water
was scarce.

My meals were cooked over the same drying stove.
I had the same meal each night, macaroni mixed
with Magi soup. It was quite tasty.  Breakfast was
French bread and jelly.  Lunch consisted of sardines
and bread.

Three weeks later I reached Tulear.  Due to the
terrible roads, I had ruined one tire and had no
spare.  Two other tires were in bad condition, so I
flew back to the capitol with all my plants, leaving the
plants at the botanical institute where I was
headquartered. I bought two tires and secured a car
to take me back to Tulear.

The car allowed me to complete this trip but no
further public transportation was possible for the

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

next 3 weeks.  I could continue to drive the Land
Rover but since I was supposed to be in a hotel by
dark, I had to be very secretive, camping far away
from cities.  One night I camped along the Indian
Ocean near Finaransoa and my camp light was
seen by the authorities.  They sent soldiers to escort
me to a military base.

On another occasion I was stopped at a military
checkpoint. After the soldier said he would take me
in for interrogation, I raced off and hoped that he
would not take a shot at me.

My arms were covered with scratches from the spiny
plants. They had become infected, perhaps owing
to malnutrition. I visited an American Lutheran
mission hospital and the doctor thought it might be
an endemic disease requiring amputation of each
area of infection but fortunately an antibiotic cured
the condition.

Since no scheduled flights were leaving the country,
it was difficult to leave. I received help from the
Charge des Affairs at the American Embassy, a St.
Louis native.  He got me on an unscheduled flight
to Paris.  I sorted out and boxed up my plants only
to discover that the Land Rover would not start. We
rounded up a group of young men to push it far
enough to start it.

I delivered my huge crate of dried plants to the
Marine guard at the door of the American Embassy
and sped to the airport, barely making the flight. Four
months later, my crate containing 4000 valuable
collections arrived by sea under an Embassy
Customs permit, never having been opened by the
authorities. This is one time the U.S. government
came through for me!

In Central America I used a specialized camper that
I constructed with a built-in dryer which allowed me
to collect 5000 numbers in 9 weeks time. Learning
from my fires in Madagascar, I added baffles to
prevent any flame from reaching any part of the
press and an automatic fire extinguishing system.

It was not until 1980 that I made my first official
collecting trip to South America beginning in Ecuador,
then Peru and Colombia but it was back in Panama
where I collected my 50,000


 number.  In 1981 I took

an extensive collecting trip to Australia, New Guinea,
Philippines, Malaysia and Nigeria. In 1982 I collected
in Brazil, French Guiana, Suriname, Trinidad and
Venezuela. In 1983 and 1984 I collected again in
Colombia, Ecuador and Peru; in 1985 in Panama,
Costa Rica, Venezuela and Puerto Rico.  I made
repeated trips to all of these areas and more over the
course of the next 15 years having collected in all
parts of South America. If you took me blindfolded
into nearly any forested part of South America, I

would recognize the area or be able to tell you where
I was based on the species composition of the

As you might imagine, I enjoy collecting plants
despite all the trials and tribulation as well as the
many injuries I have received.  During one week in
Madagascar I collected 1246 numbers and during
a single day in Panama on Cerro Pirre I collected
225 numbers.

My 100,000


 collection was made in October of last

year in  Ecuador near Volcán Pichincha, in an area
that had been well collected by the Jesuit botanist
Luis Sodiro, at the end of the 19


 Century. He had

collected and described over 250 species of
Anthurium, most of them in the region of Volcán
Pichincha, so I was not expecting anything new to
science.  I was collecting with my student, Monica
Carlsen and Dan Levin, a former President of the
International Aroid Society. On the day that I
approached the magic number of 100,000, I decided
that I must be in an area where there were at least
some interesting Araceae (the group of plants in
the Philodendron family that I work on).  The day
before I had been in a rather weedy area near
Esmeraldas so we drove to Puerto Quito to begin
collecting the next morning.  October 16


 was to be

our last day in the field so I knew that we had to push
over the top. We had only 66 collections to make it
but during the course of the day we really did not
have a way of knowing exactly how many total
collections we found so we just kept collecting. The
first stop was near the Endesa Reserve but I did not
have a permit to collect there so we collected in an

Tom preparing to press his personal 100,000th

specimen,   Anthurium centimillesimum

(Courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden)

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

interesting area along the entrance road.  Then we
drove to Mindo, taking the old road that leads down
to Tandayapa then on to Nono and finally Quito. This
old road was once the major route to the coast for
Quito. I had collected this road before and did not
expect to find anything new but on our second stop
along a steep road bank covered with aroids, I
spotted a huge Anthurium leaf near the top of an
almost vertical road bank 25 feet high.  I climbed
through the fence into a pasture above the bank
then jumped down the bank to get to the plant. It had
a stem 8 cm in diameter and stood well over 2
meters high.  Because it was much lower on the
bank than the edge of the pasture and yet so far
down to the road, I had to heave it back into the
pasture then with considerable difficulty haul myself
out of the hole. I managed to haul the beast back to
the road without even ripping a leaf and on closer
inspection found that it was a new species. Since
it was my 100,000


 collection I named it that, which

in Latin is Anthurium centimillesimum!  The plant
was so large that it required 7 sheets of herbarium
paper to mount it and one of these seven sheets
bears the MO-6,000,000 number.

 I am glad that I was able to play a role in this
significant achievement of acquiring, processing
and mounting the six millionth herbarium specimen
for the Missouri Botanical Garden.  Many people
here at the Garden are involved in this process in
one way or another by collecting plants, typing
labels, filing specimens or determining plant
material. We are all proud to be a part of this great
occasion.  Now let’s set our sights on the next

News from the Society

Meet the new staff in the BSA office

Heather Cacanindin, Director of Membership &


Heather joined the BSA team in August 2007 after
8 years as Program Director at the United Soybean
Board. With a background in association
management and governance, she enjoys the
ongoing work in strategic planning and board/
committee development.  Joining with the efforts of
Wanda Lovan and Bill Dahl, she has helped to
increase BSA membership to a record high of over
3050 members.  Heather also launched an effort to
survey and track members’ opinions and trends in
order to better meet your needs.  She is keenly
aware of the special “community” aspect of the BSA
and is working to foster more ways for members to
interact.  Heather also works with the American
Journal of Botany editorial staff to find more avenues
to market our top-notch journal.  Reaching out to
current and past AJB subscribers, Heather’s goal
is to stop the slow but steady decrease in institutional
subscriptions to the AJB.  From her office at the BSA
World Headquarters in St. Louis, Heather is eager
to talk to all of our members.

Richard Hund, Production Editor, American
Journal of Botany

Richard joined the BSA in January 2008 as the
Production Editor of the American Journal of Botany.
He spent 5 years as a production editor of medical
textbooks for Elsevier and 4 years as a project
manager for SPi (a full-service compositor) before
coming to the AJB. Rich has been working closely
with Managing Editor Amy McPherson and Editor-
in-Chief Judy Jernstedt to increase the AJB’s impact
factor and visibility in both the scientific and general
community, and the team recently launched AJB
Advance Access, which allows for the publication of
articles ahead of print

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Jennifer L. Potratz, Education and Outreach


Since May 2008 Jennifer has been helping
PlantingScience maintain its present position and
move into the next phase of complex program
delivery, including; improved educational/
instructional materials and expanded automation
to reach more students, more efficiently.   Jennifer
has an interdisciplinary Masters in Conservation
Biology and Political Science with a strong
background in Environmental and Outdoor
Education having worked as a naturalist, guide,
ranger, and wilderness emergency trainer in Alaska,
Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and Missouri.

News from the Annual Meeting

Michael Cichan Award

Dr. Maria A. Gandolfo, Cornell University
For her paper: “Fossil Nelumbonaceae from the La
Colonia Formation (Campanian-Maastrichtian,
Upper Cretaceous), Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina.”
Co-author on the paper is N. R. Cuneo

The Isabel Cookson Award

Cyrille Prestianni, Universite de Liege, Géologie
For the paper entitled “”Xenotheca” and
Pseudosporogonites: two Belgian acupulate
seeds?.” Co-authors were Jason Hilton and Philippe

The Darbaker Prize

The two Darbaker prize winners for 2008 are
Debashish Bhattacharya and Virginia (Ginger)
Dr. D. Bhattacharya was nominated on the basis of
his contributions to an international tree of life
project and phylogeny papers published on a wide

range of algal groups during the years of 2006 and
2007, particularly Li, S., T. Nosenko, J.D. Hackett,
and D. Bhattacharya. 2006. Phylogenomic analysis
provides evidence for the endosymbiotic transfer of
red algal genes in chromalveolates. Mol. Biol. Evol.

Dr. V. Armbrust was cited for several notable
research contributions on the biology of diatoms in
2006 and 2007, including the following: Oudot-Le
Secq, M.-P., J. Grimwood, H. Shapiro, C. Bowler, E.
V. Armbrust and B R. Green. 2007. Chloroplast
genomes of the diatoms Phaeodactylum
tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana:
comparison with other plastid genomes of the red
lineage.  Molecular Genetics and Genomics

The Katherine Esau Award

Alana Oldham, Humboldt State University
For her paper “Height-Associated Variation in
Sequoia sempervirens (Coast Redwood) Leaf
Anatomy: Potential Impacts on Whole-Tree Carbon
Balance.” Her co-authors were Stephen Sillett and
George Koch.

The George H.M. Lawrence Memorial Award

Mr. Dylan O. Burge, a student of Professor Paul
Manos at Duke University. The proceeds of the
award will help support his travel for field and
collections-based work in an integrative research
study of the genus Ceanothus.

The Margaret Menzel Award

Michael Barker, University of British Columbia
For the paper “Evolutionary genomics of
hybridization: Detecting ancient hybridization and
introgression by the inference of intrologs in plant
.” Co-author was Loren H. Rieseberg.

The Maynard Moseley Award

Eric Madrid, University of Colorado
For his paper “Female Gametophyte Developmental
Evolution in Piperales. ” His co-author was Ned

Ecological Section Best Student Presentation
& Poster Awards

Iman Sylvain, of Howard University, for her poster,
“Comparison of Seedling Fitness in the
Hyperaccumulator, Alyssum murale Waldst and
Kit. (Brassicaceae) in Soils With and Without Nickel.”

Genetics Section Graduate Student Research

Renate Wuersig, Purdue University (PhD student)

Historical Section Emanuel D. Rudolph


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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Sarah Kelsey, Rutgers University
for her poster: “The Establishment and Persistence
of Plants Introduced to New Jersey by Solid Ballast
on Ships.” Co-authors were Sasha Eisenman and
Lena Struwe.

Physiological Section Li-COR Prize

Uromi Manage Goodale, Yale University, for her talk
“Physiological acclimation of pioneer species to
changing light environments.” Her co-authors were
Graeme P. Berlyn, Mark S. Ashton, and Kushan U.

Physiological Section Best Student

Nicole Hughes of Wake Forest University, for her
poster entitled, “Coordination of anthocyanin decline
and photosynthetic maturation in juvenile leaves of
three deciduous tree species.” Her co-authors are
Christianna Morely and William Smith.

Women in Botany luncheon

The first of many Women in Botany luncheons took
place during Botany 2008 in Vancouver.  The event
was well attended with well over 90 participants.
Karen Renzaglia, Pam Soltis and Muriel Poston
moderated a discussion about the strategies for
women to succeed in science. We began with a
brain-storming session that focused on the positive
attributes women bring to science.  We then turned
to ideas on how to make our professional
environment supportive and responsive to the needs
of women.  The interactions were lively and
insightful......creativity abounded.

The event provided an excellent means for women
at all stages of their career to network and share
experiences. We will host a second luncheon in
Snowbird during Botany 2009. It is hoped that more
than one man will attend the luncheon.  The input
and collaboration of men in botany are essential to
the success of their female counterparts.

note: The Botanical Society of America's "Women in
Botany" networking Listserv is now operational.  To join
the list, please go to

 and/or contact Amy


) or Heather


) at the BSA office for details.

BSA Science Education News and Notes is a
quarterly update about the BSA’s education efforts
and the broader education scene.  We invite you to
submit news items or ideas for future features.

Contact:  Claire Hemingway, BSA Education
Director, at

 or Marshall

Sundberg, PSB Editor, at


PlantingScience  —  BSA-led student research
and science mentoring program

Planting Science continues to grow by leaps and
bounds!  The fall 2008 session again broke our
previous record of number of students, teachers,
and scientists partnering in the online mentored
inquiry projects.   We are delighted to welcome
scientists from the new societies as mentors.  Seven
Scientific Societies are now partnering in the
program:  American Society of Agronomy,
American Bryological & Lichenological Society,
American Fern SocietyAmerican Society of Plant
,  American Society of Plant
Society for Economic Botany and,
of course, the Botanical Society of America.

Plant IT — BSA-led Plant IT Careers, Cases, and
Collaboration project collaborates with Dr. Biology.
Last July Charles Kazelik, aka Dr. Biology, modeled
science interview techniques and podcast
technology for students and teachers participating
in the Plant IT Summer Institute for Teachers and
Student Career Camp held at Texas A&M University.
Charles’s podcast with Forensic Palynologist Dr.
Vaughn Bryant is online at the Ask a Biologist
website of the Life Sciences Department of Arizona
State University.

Pollen Podcast Interview

h t t p : / / a s k a b i o l o g i s t . a s u . e d u / p o d c a s t s /

Web article

Pollen gallery

Check out also the Investigative Case resources
Ethel Stanley and Margaret Waterman prepared for
Summer Institute teachers to explore pollen and
remote sensing, and some of the pollen images
and case materials developed by teachers.

Spotlight on BSA Member Contributions to
Science Education

In this segment I highlight the communal effort of
BSA members to take botanical education to the
national science education meetings.   BSA
members were well represented at the 2008
National Association of Biology Teachers meeting

BSA Science Education

News and Notes

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

(Oct. 15-18) in Memphis:  Beverly Brown, Kim Sadler,
Steven Saupe, Ethel Stanley, Kumkum Prabhakar,
Phil Gibson, Gordon Uno, James Wandersee, Linda

KumKum Prahbakar and Steven Saupe at the BSA
Booth staffed by Jen Potratz and Claire Hemingway

Weinland.  Look for your colleagues’ contributions
in the program guide.


And consider building the botanical presence at the
2009 NABT meeting in Denver or the 2009 NSTA
meeting in New Orleans.  The BSA will again host
a booth exhibit and distribute information about the
BSA-led PlantingScience and Plant IT projects.  We
welcome your engaging booth ideas and interest in

Science Education in the News
High School Graduates Score Lowest in Science
The 2008 ACT College Readiness Report of 1.42
million high school graduates indicate stable scores
across years in math, reading, and science.  The
disturbing news is that only 28% of the high school
graduates taking the test met or surpassed the ACT
College Readiness Benchmarks for science.  Math
was the next lowest content area, yet 43% of the high
school graduates me or exceeded the ACT

Cultural Constrictions on the Math Pipeline
—How does US culture derail youth with high math
aptitude?  In a comprehensive analysis of decades
of data on students identified with high math aptitude,
the authors document that the majority of top
mathematicians in the U.S. were born elsewhere
and identify influences that have deterred U.S. youth

from career trajectories in the mathematical
sciences.  They also use the rich database to tackle
the controversial idea that girls lack the intrinsic
aptitude to excel in math.

Andreescu, T., Gailian, J.A., Kane, J.M.,

Mertz, J.E.  2008.  Cross-Cultural Analysis of
Students with Exceptional Talent in Mathematical
Problem Solving.  Notices of the American
Mathematical Society. 55. (10). 1248-1260

The Science Education Interactive Timeline Project
 —The University of Arkansas’s Program to Advance
Science Education has launched a website
designedas a snapshot of the evolution of science
education in the U.S.  Links to events and documents
noted in the timeline provide further information
about the events.

Franklin, Wilfred.  Investigating Effects of Invasive
Species on Plant Community Structure.  2008.
American Biology Teacher 70(8): 479– 482.
“Can’t see the trees for the forest?”  Franklin describes
a series of activities she uses to introduce basic
plant ecological sampling and use it to answer
some questions about invasive species.   She is
lucky to have a small forest on campus nearby but
the exercises could easily be adapted to an urban
landscape.   The effectiveness of the activities in
combating “plant blindness” (see Schussler below)
is indicated by students’ frequent spontaneous use
of their cell phones to document their plant

Jensen, Philip A and Randy Moore.  Students’
Behaviors, Grades & Perceptions in an Introductory
Biology Course.  American Biology Teacher 70(8):
For the last several years Randy and his colleagues
have been quantitatively examining many of the
“truisms” about introductory science students most
of us who teach have come to accept.  There are not
a lot of surprises for experienced teachers, however,
as Jensen and Moore suggest, it may be more
effective in promoting change in student behaviors
if we can present actual data supporting our
contentions, such as, “It’s important to attend every
class” than for us to simply say it!  In this paper they
present data on attendance, homework, extra credit,
help sessions, and student expectations.

Schussler, Elisabeth E. and Lynn A Olzak.  It’s Not
Easy Being Green: Student Recall of Plant and
Animal Images.  2008.  Journal of Biology Education
42(3) summer: 112-118.
Remember plant blindness? (PSB 47[1]:2-9)  In

Editor’s Choice

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

this paper Schussler and her colleague provide
additional substantiation that the phenomenon is
real and, in fact, has a gender component – women
are less “plant-blind” than men.  The most
discouraging finding, however, is that students
enrolled in a botany course did NOT differ
significantly from control students taking psychology!
Clearly we have some work to do.

Flannery, Maura.  2008.  Biology Books for Young
People:  Plants and Invaders.  BioScience  58: 880-
881. Text and illustrations of nine books introducing
plant content to audiences aged 4 to 12 are reviewed.

Jordan, Nicholas R., Bawden, Richard J., and
Bergmann, Luke.
 2008.  Pedagogy for Addressing
the Worldview Challenge in Sustainable
Development of Agriculture. Journal of Natural
Resources and Life Sciences Education
Critical civic debates and classroom conversations
about the rapid shifts in agriculture and increasing
emphasis on production of ecological services in
farmed landscapes are the focus of this article.

Dyer, William E.  2008. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid
Synthesis and Elongation.  Herbicide Discovery
and Screening.  Journal of Natural Resources and
Life Sciences Education.  
The first of these Web
Lessons/Learning Activities provides an overview
of fatty acid synthesis and elongation and explains
how herbicides inhibit the pathway.  The second
web lesson describes historical and current
approaches to identify herbicides.

Stark, L. 2008. Plant movements revealed.  CBE
Life Sciences Education
 7(3): 284-287.  A review of
websites, including the familiar Roger Hangarter’s
Plants in Motion and the new YouTube Quick Time
movies, for teaching and learning about biology
with a focus on plant movement and carnivorous


Dolan, E.L., Lally, D.J., Brooks, E., and Tax, F.E.
2008. PREPing students for authentic science.  The
Science Teacher 
75(7): 38-43.  An overview of the
Partnership for Research and Education in Plants
program, a partnership among high school students
and teachers and plant scientists, which provides
students with authentic science opportunities to
identify noteworthy phenotypes of Arabidopsis

News from the Sections

BSA Historical Section:

We are writing to encourage those of you that are
interested in the history of plant biology to consider
becoming part of the Historical Section of Botanical
Society of America.  To those of you that have already
indicated affiliation through your BSA registrations
and emails we say - Thank You.

Botany meetings are always a time to catch up with
old friends, to meet new people, and to discover
what is happening in the various fields of plant
biology.  The meeting in Vancouver, Canada was a
great success and as always the talks and posters
were excellent.  Those who ventured away from the
UBC campus, either on field trips or on your own,
surely found that the sub-alpine and timberline
plant communities, the botanical gardens, and the
beautiful beaches were worth the trip. This year, the
Historical Section had three outstanding posters.
As you passed by the registration desk we hoped
that you had time to meet and talk with some of these
young students.

Next year, the annual Botanical Society of America
meeting will be back at Snowbird, Utah.  We look
forward to seeing you and invite and encourage you
and/or your students to consider presenting a paper
or poster in the Historical section.

You may recall that The Emanuel Rudolph Award
was established in 2006, at the Historical Section
annual meeting in Chico, CA for the best student
paper on a historical subject in botany.  The
qualifications were revised in 2007 to reflect and
highlight excellence in the area of historical
presentations at the Botanical Society of America
meetings.  Students presenting historical papers in
any section or symposium are eligible for this
award.  The first award was given in 2007 to students
organizing "A Symposium in Honor of Sherwin
Carlquist."  This year's award was given to a student,
who co-authored a poster on “The Establishment
and Persistence of Plants Introduced to New Jersey
by Solid Ballast on Ships.”  The award recipients are
announced in the Plant Science Bulletin and on the
BSA website.

We encourage your comments and thoughts about
the types of lectures or symposia you would like our
section to sponsor and we look forward to a great
session at Snowbird, Utah – Botany 2009.  Our
email addresses are listed below and our contact
information is on the BSA Website:

h t t p : / / w w w . b o t a n y . o r g / g o v e r n a n c e /

We hope to hear from you.

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008


Carol Kelloff, Secretary/Treasurer

Lee B. Kass, Section and Program Chair

Marissa Jergenson, Co-Chai


In Memoriam:

Lazarus Walter (Walt) Macior (1926-

Lazarus Walter (Walt) Macior passed away on
October 5, 2007 after a long illness with Parkinson’s
disease.  Walt (Walter Aloysius Macior, Jr.) was
born on August 26, 1926 in Yonkers, New York.  He
received his first degree from Columbia University
before enlisting in 1945 to serve in the United States
Army as a Japanese linguist during the final months
of World War II.  After his war service, he received a
Master of Arts degree from Columbia University.
Walt then entered a Catholic seminary, becoming
a priest in 1956 as a member of the Franciscan
Friars of the Assumption BVM Province (taking the
religious name Lazarus).  He completed a Ph.D. in
1959 from the University of Wisconsin.  In 1960, the
results of his dissertation were published in the
Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 87(2): 99–138,
title: “The tetrakaidecahedron and related cell forms
in undifferentiated plant tissues.”  His first college
teaching position (1960 to 1962) was Instructor of
Biology at St. Francis College in Burlington,
Wisconsin and it is here that he began his life-long
investigation of pollination mechanisms.  In the
summers of 1960 and 1961 and from 1962 to 1964,
he was a lecturer at Marquette University.  Between
1965 and 1967, he was Assistant Professor of
Biology at Loras College in Dubuque, Iowa.  In 1967,
he came to the University of Akron where he
continued his research of Pedicularis and remained
as Professor Emeritus beyond his retirement in
2000.  He also held visiting and adjunct positions
at various times during his career.  From 1966 to
1968, he was a Visiting Research Assistant at the
Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (University of
Colorado); between 1971 and 1973, he was an
Adjunct Faculty Research Associate at Ohio State
University Institute of Polar Studies; and during a
sabbatical leave in 1984, he was a Faculty Research
Associate in the Department of Entomology at the
University of California in Davis.  During his career,

he published over fifty research articles.  Although
his research interests were in the field of pollination
biology, he was by training and avocation a botanist
and taught Plant Morphology, Plant Anatomy, and
Plant Development while at the University of Akron
in addition to Evolution and Bioethics.  During his
tenure at the University of Akron, he was named a
Distinguished Professor of Biology and was given
the honor of Outstanding Teacher by the Alumni
Association in 1990.  He also established two
scholarships for graduate study in botany: the
Lazarus Walter Macior Graduate scholarship in
Botany and Plant Sciences, and the Alice and Walter
Macior Award in Plant Sciences for students, which
is named in honor of his parents.

Walt’s earliest papers concentrated on the
pollination dynamics of herbs of deciduous forests,
alpine zones, and tundra.  He showed an early
interest in buzz-pollinated flowers with vibratile
anthers (Dodecatheon and Solanum), which
provided him insight into his later, major work on
Pedicularis.  With his training as a plant
morphologist, he understood the significance of
adaptive modifications to floral structures.  His
fieldwork took him throughout the Northern
Hemisphere to the Yukon Territory, Japan, India,
Kashmir, and China.  I once asked him why
Pedicularis and he related to me that he came upon
it quite by accident.  One day while he was studying
the pollination of Aquilegia, he discovered that all
the bumblebees ignored it in preference for P.
,  “Having nothing to study that day, I
turned my attention to the curious little lousewort
plant that was stealing the pollinators from my
subject plant and I’ve been hooked ever since.”
Thus began his research focus and he often relayed
this story to his students to remind them of the
importance of serendipity in science.  Walt was a
stickler for making carefully conducted field studies
and had little patience for those who assumed a
mechanism merely based upon extrapolation of a
pollination syndrome.  He took pride in proving them
wrong with actual data.  A case in point is his study
of Pedicularis groenlandica.  An earlier investigator
had assumed that its flowers had nectar because
its bumblebee pollinators entered the flower in an
upright position, but when Walt presented his data
at a symposium, revealing that the flowers are
nectarless and the bees collect pollen by buzzing,
this investigator took great umbrage refusing to
speak to Walt for several years!  In fact Peter
Bernhardt, a close friend and colleague of Walt,
portrayed his approach as forensic, “Walt didn’t
believe that the mere, repeated presence of an
animal on a flower made it a true pollinator or even
a prospective pollinator.  He wanted and got hard
evidence to back it up each time.   When he captured
an insect he noted where pollen was deposited on
its body, removed it and identified grains under the

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

microscope by matching it to the grains produced
by the host flower.   Walter called this protocol “pollen
load analysis.”  In this way, he presented some of
the earliest hard data on the fidelity (faithfulness) of
foraging insects to a particular plant species.  He
also understood that if anthers repeatedly deposited
pollen on a bee’s head, then the head of a true
pollinator must repeatedly contact the receptive
stigma of another flower of the same species, so
important in his studies of the bizarre, elephant-
nose  Pedicularis  groenlandica and P. attollens.
 Walter’s papers typically contain a Table analyzing
the pollen load contents carried by dozens of flower
visitors.  Even today, very few field workers recognize
the value of cross-referencing a pollinator specimen
with its pollen load.”  With his attention to detailed
field analysis, he also revealed that some
Pedicularis of China with extremely long corolla
tubes do not contain nectar as had been assumed.
Rather than being a vessel for nectar, Walt suggested
that the long, nectarless tube elevates the distal
petals above surrounding vegetation to enhance
their display.  Walt was also the first botanist to study
the federally endangered Furbish’s lousewort
(Pedicularis furbishiae) in the 1970’s.  His reports
and publications about its life-cycle, habitat, and
distribution helped save the plant from extinction
because he showed that the major population
would not survive flooding if a proposed dam was
built on the site.  To conduct his studies in remote
areas in North America, Walt owned a medium
sized Airstream travel trailer.  He stocked it with all
the necessary field and laboratory equipment, and
it served as his mobile field station, mess hall, and
sleeping quarters.  One of his favorite pieces of
equipment was a still camera modified to take
close-up stereo photographs that he used to discern
the precise fit of pollinator to flower.  To reveal floral
patterns only visible under ultraviolet illumination,
he had another camera outfitted with a quartz lens.
He was also an accomplished cinema
photographer and accumulated many hours of film
documenting pollinator behavior on Pedicularis
flowers.  In later years even as his health started to
decline, he made several field study trips to China,
and Walt would be pleased to see that many of his
Chinese colleagues have since taken up the study
of  Pedicularis pollination.

Walt’s teaching influenced many students.  He was
a keen observer of nature and used many examples
in the classroom and on field trips.  His style of
teaching was to pose a problem or question and
then let the class attempt to answer before giving a
detailed explanation.  Exams were often done the
same way; he expected you to synthesize knowledge
learned in lecture and lab by posing novel questions
for the student to answer.  On field trips, he often
presented open ended questions that sometimes

inspired laboratory investigations.  I once asked if
he knew the answer and he replied, “Nope, just
wanted to see if anyone would take the initiative.”  He
always had time to talk to his students about any
topic.  One student recollects of a time when, after
failing a test, he went to Dr. Macior’s office. “I well
recall Dr. Macior’s posted office hours being followed
by the words ‘or gladly by appointment.’ Would he
really be glad to see me? To my surprise, he was!
As I found out in subsequent years, Dr. Macior was
glad to see all such poor fish that washed up at his
door.”  His door was also open to others as well.  As
he also taught evolution class, sometimes
creationists would take up their cause with him.  Not
suspecting that he was also a Franciscan priest
whose views of science and faith were perfectly
compatible, they would quote scripture to him to
prove their point.  Walt soon had them squirming by
posing theological, philosophical, and scientific
questions to which they had no answer.  His
approach, however, was never mean-spirited and
his final reply to them would be, “Sometimes doubt
is good for the soul.”  Among his graduate students,
Walt expected investigative thoroughness.  I
remember one student who spent many hours
sectioning and staining Pedicularis haustoria and
then taking great lengths to explain its detailed
anatomy only to have Walt exclaim, “Well, you forgot
one very important aspect.  How is the anatomical
structure of the host affected?  Report back to me
when you figure that out.”  Walt also took time to
answer all letters from inquiring graduate students
and young scientists and indeed a colleague
described him as an old fashioned ‘Man of Letters’.
He recalls exchanging many correspondences with
Walt while working on his Masters, “Walter was
willing to read and critique my Masters thesis even
though he was not on my graduate committee and
his early intervention saved me valuable revision
time.  In later years, I soon learned to recognize his
style when a refereed manuscript came back from
a journal.  Walter’s critiques were always invaluable
because he knew how to itemize problems in a
paper in a clear and progressive manner.  He never
made the author feel stupid because his critiques
were like road maps.  He pointed you in the right
direction starting at A and ending at Z.”

Not only was Dr. Macior an extraordinary teacher,
scientist, and mentor, he was a good friend as well.
Over the years that I knew him, we had many great
discussions about science, philosophy, religion,
and life in general.  His greatest legacy to his
students, colleagues, and friends is that he made
you think!  We have lost a great pollination ecologist,
botanist, teacher, mentor, and humanitarian.  He
influenced many students’ careers and will be
missed by all.

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Donation of the Graham

Palynological Collection to the

Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in
Panama is proud to announce that it has received
the donation of the best collection of neotropical
pollen in the world, the Graham Palynological
Collection, thanks to the generosity of Alan Graham,
Professor Emeritus at the Kent State University and
current curator at the Missouri Botanical Gardens.

This collection began as part of an early palynology
laboratory set up in the herbarium of the University
of Texas in 1954, and expanded with original
preparations, and also with exchanges with
numerous laboratories throughout the world. It
comprises over 25,000 pollen slides of modern
taxa, mostly from the neotropics, thousands of
pollen slides from Dr. Graham’s work on the
geological history of the forests of Central America,
as well as pollen residues and an impressive
collection of literature (over 16,000 reprints related
primarily to the biology and geology of the New
World with emphasis on Latin America). The modern
reference component has the added virtue that all
the original preparations can be referenced to a
specific herbarium collection, allowing scientists to
verify the identification of fossil material and
specimens used in taxonomic studies.

Alan Graham in the field

Eshbaugh Honored for Outreach


W. Hardy Eshbaugh, Miami University professor
emeritus of botany, received the Peter H. Raven
Award for his outreach in the areas of public
education and conservation. Presented by the
American Society of Plant Taxonomists during its
conference this summer, the award recognizes a
plant systematist for exceptional outreach efforts to

Eshbaugh’s public education outreach includes
giving public lectures, leading field trips and
ecotourism trips throughout the world and writing
papers on natural history for various publications.
His conservation outreach at the international and
national level has encompassed serving on the
boards of the Nature Conservancy (Ohio), National
Audubon Society, Atlantic Salmon Federation, St.
Mary’s River Association (Nova Scotia) and Hawk
Mountain. Locally, he has served on the boards of
Audubon Miami Valley, the Avian Research and
Education Institute and Three Valley Conservation

In 2007, Eshbaugh was recognized with the Herbert
Osborn Award from the Ohio Biological Survey and
the Distinguished Economic Botanist Award, the
highest honor given to professionals by the Society
for Economic Botany.  He was elected President of
the Botanical Society of America in 1988 and received
the Society’s Merit Award in 1992 and both the
Centennial and Bessey Awards in 2006.  He was
elected President of the American Institute of
Biological Sciences in 1995.

Eshbaugh was a member of Miami’s faculty from
1967-98, including positions as chair of the
department and director of Miami’s W.S. Turrell


Bruce W. Robart, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Biology
The University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown (UPJ)
Johnstown, PA 15905

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Missouri  Botanical Garden Awards

Highest Honor to Renowned


Dr. Thomas E. Lovejoy, president of the Heinz
Center for Science, Economics and the Environment,
has received the Henry Shaw Medal from the
Missouri Botanical Garden. The award was
presented by Dr. Peter Raven, president of the
Missouri Botanical Garden, during the annual Henry
Shaw dinner on Oct. 13. Awarded since 1893, and
named for the Garden’s founder, the medal honors
those who have made a significant contribution to
the Missouri Botanical Garden, botanical research,
horticulture, conservation or the museum

A renowned ecologist, Dr. Lovejoy has worked in the
Brazilian Amazon since 1965 studying the interface
of science and environmental policy. Beginning in
the 1970’s, Dr. Lovejoy helped bring attention to the
issue of tropical deforestation, and in 1981,
published the first estimate of global extinction
rates in the Global 2000 Report to the President.  Dr.
Lovejoy also conceived the idea to conduct the
Critical Size of Ecosystems project, a long term
study on forest fragmentation in the Amazon.

Dr. Raven praised Dr. Lovejoy for coining the term
“biological diversity,” later shortened to “biodiversity,”
and for originating the concept of debt-for-nature
swaps. A debt for nature swap is an agreement
between a developing nation in debt and its creditors
to forgive the debts in return for the promise of
environmental protection. Dr. Lovejoy established
the concept in 1981, largely to minimize the negative
effect debt has on developing nations and to
minimize the environmental destruction that such
nations frequently cause.

Dr. Lovejoy is the founder of the public television
series “Nature.” He has served as the Senior Advisor
to the President of the United Nations Foundations,
Chief Biodiversity Advisor and Lead Specialist for
the Environment for the Latin American region for
the World Bank, Assistant Secretary for
Environmental and External Affairs for the
Smithsonian Institutions, and Executive Vice
President of World Wildlife Fund-US. He has also
served on advisory councils in the Reagan, George
H.W. Bush, and Clinton administrations.

Dr. Lovejoy received his B.S. and PhD in biology
from Yale University.

2008 ESRI User Conference

Features Keynote Address by Dr.

Peter H. Raven

Renowned Botanist and Environmentalist

Speaks at World’s Largest GIS Gathering

The 2008 ESRI International User <


>  Conference

(ESRI UC) featured renowned botanist,
environmentalist, biodiversity expert, and president
of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Dr. Peter H.
Raven. Raven discussed the significance of
biodiversity and the environment for sustaining our

At STRI, we are grateful and honored to be hosting
this collection, which is an invaluable resource for
our scientists. Soon, we hope to have all components
in digital format, to share it on the web with everyone
who might be interested, worldwide.

Carlos Jaramillo

Maria Adelaida Cubides

Center for Tropical Paleoecology  and Archaeology
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Tel: (507) 212-8057

Part of the Graham Pollen Collection

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Professor Dedicated To Study Of

Plant Use By Native Americans Will

Receive William L. Brown Award

The William L. Brown Center (WLBC) of the Missouri
Botanical Garden in St. Louis will award its highest
honor, the William L. Brown Award for Excellence in
Genetic Resource Conservation, to ethnobotanist
Dr. Nancy Turner of the University of Victoria in
British Columbia, Canada. The biennial award
recognizes the outstanding contributions of an
individual in the field of genetic resource
conservation and use. It is made possible through
the generous support of the Sehgal Family
Foundation, in cooperation with the family of Dr.
William L. Brown. Dr. Turner will receive the award
prior to delivering the keynote address at the 2008
WLBC Symposium, Ethnobotany: Integrating
Biology and Traditional Knowledge. The event will
take place Friday, Nov. 7 at 7:30 p.m. at the Garden.
It is free and open to the public.

Dr. Turner has devoted her career to the study and
preservation of indigenous plants used by native

peoples of northwestern North America. Her major
research contributions include demonstrating the
pivotal role of plants in past and contemporary
aboriginal cultures, language and knowledge. She
has documented how traditional management of
plant resources has shaped the landscapes and
habitats of western Canada. She has spent much
of her professional career fostering lasting
relationships with Native Americans to further
understanding of indigenous plant management,
and in turn preserve plant genetic resources for
future use. Her efforts on behalf of traditional land
management, sustainable use of non-timber forest
products, and the relationship of human and
environmental health has globally impacted the
field of ethnobotany.

Immediately following the award presentation, Dr.
Turner will present on “Western Redcedar: An
Endangered Cultural Icon of Northwestern North
America.” Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is an
iconic tree in the culture of the indigenous population
of the northwestern coast of North America. It is a
critically important part of the coastal temperate
rainforest ecosystem and a valuable economic
species in the forest industry. Although young cedars
are common, old-growth cedars have become rare
due to industrial logging and global climate change.
Turner will use the tree species to illustrate the
clash of values and approaches that have
characterized land and resource use since colonial
times, and to show how ethnobotany and
conservation biology, embracing ideas and
concepts from indigenous peoples, can help to
reinstate the species for the future.

The award presentation and keynote address will
take place Friday, Nov. 7 from 7:30 to 9 p.m. at the
Shoenberg Theater of the Missouri Botanical
Garden, 4344 Shaw Blvd. in St. Louis. The audience
is also invited to attend a multi-author ethnobotany
book signing in the Garden Gate Shop from 5 to 6:30
p.m. Participants include conservation scientist Dr.
Gary Nabhan, who will sign copies of his new
release, Where Our Food Comes From, and
Missouri Botanical Garden President Dr. Peter
Raven, who will sign the new book, Missouri
Botanical Garden: Green for 150 Years. Both events
are free and open to the general public.

The events are being held in conjunction with the
two-day symposium, Ethnobotany: Integrating
Biology and Traditional Knowledge, presented by
the WLBC and the International Union of Biological
Sciences. The WLBC is one of the largest and most
active programs in economic botany in the world. It
operates under the auspices of the Science and
Conservation Division of the Missouri Botanical

“Dr. Raven has played a vital role in teaching others
about the importance of biodiversity and in
researching our planet’s ecosystems,” says Jack
Dangermond, president, ESRI. “He’s making a
difference in securing our environmental resources.
We’re honored to have him as our guest and we’re
excited about the opportunity our users will have to
hear from such a distinguished individual.”

The ESRI UC, the largest conference in the world
devoted to geographic <


>  information system (GIS)

technology, was held August 4-8 at the San Diego
Convention Center in California. The conference
drew approximately 13,000 users from more than
120 countries who came together to learn,
collaborate, and discover the latest developments
in GIS technology. The conference theme this year
was GIS: Geography in Action.

Raven talked about the importance of biodiversity
and how it influences our daily lives. He discussed
the threats-including loss of habitat,
overconsumption, and climate change-that impact
biodiversity and the solutions available for us to
preserve and improve our planet’s sustainability.
As part of the presentation, GIS was used to analyze
ecosystems and the myriad of plant and animal life
that inhabit them. In addition, GIS was used to
model future impacts to these bionetworks.

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Experience in Tropical Botany

Harvard University Summer School, in collaboration
with The National Tropical  Botanical Garden
announces the following course in 2009.

Dates:                 June 15 to July 11  2009

Location:  The Kampong Garden of the National
Tropical Botanical Garden, 4013 Douglas Road,
Coconut Grove, Miami FL 33133

The Class will use the newly-constructed  Kenan
Teaching Laboratory at The Kampong (wet bench
and microscope facilities) and be accommodated
in comfortable dormitory style housing in the same
location (Scarborough House).

Course title: “Biodiversity of Tropical Plants

Instructor: Professor P. Barry Tomlinson ,
Professor of Biology Emeritus, Harvard University &
Crum Professor of Tropical Botany, National Tropical
Botanical Garden.

“Biodiversity” is commonly interpreted as a catalogue
of species richness in a given environment and how
it might be preserved, but it can mean much more
if an investigation considers the functioning, not just
the systematics, of the organisms in a given area,
i.e.,  their biology. Clearly biodiversity in this broad
context can be studied best in the tropics, where
diversity is richest.

South Florida offers a sampling of this richness,
conveniently located in the continental United States.
And the course offers an opportunity at many levels
to become more familiar with tropical plants and
their biological mechanisms.

The course is intensive and intended to present an
overview of the rich plant diversity in natural
environments (e.g. The Everglades National Park,
Biscayne Bay National Park) and especially the rich
collections of introduced tropical plants at
collaborating Institutions, notably Fairchild Tropical
Botanic Garden and Montgomery Botanical Center,
Coral Gables. Here we have an estimated 10,000
species representing most major biological groups
of plants. For example, there are well over 500
species of palms (tropical icons) available, and
over 100 plant families not represented in natural
environments in the United States.

Emphasis is on morphology and anatomy in both a
systematic but and functional context and involves
both field and laboratory study. The course structure

Chicago Botanic Garden and

Northwestern University Create

Doctorate Program in Plant

Biology and Conservation


Local response to global plant conservation


The Chicago Botanic Garden and Northwestern
University announced a one-of-a-kind doctorate
program in plant biology and conservation, in
response to the urgent need to train scientists who
will embark on a far-reaching course to address
pressing conservation issues.

“We are in a global extinction crisis.  Biodiversity is
facing more threats than it ever has,” said Dr. Kayri
Havens, director of plant science and conservation
at the Chicago Botanic Garden.  “There is great
need for a graduate program that will bring more
scientists into the field of studying plant diversity,
since this is the foundation of all ecosystems,” she

is extensively enquiry-based and is intended to
develop skills in investigative techniques and
philosophical approaches which can be applied
subsequently in Graduate Study. Students are
introduced to many tropical plant families (especially
the iconic Arecaceae) and such topics as, e.g., tree
architecture, pollination biology, the morphology of
vines and epiphytes as well as distinctive tropical
ecosystems like seagrass meadows and
mangroves. Laboratory work emphasizes anatomy
and dissection of fresh material, using implements
ranging from chain saws to scalpels.

Admission to the course depends on some
demonstrated previous familiarity with at least
elementary Botany and is intended to cater for
students who are already enrolled in a graduate
program in Botany or Biology or plan to do so in the
near future.

Students will be required to register with The Harvard
Summer School and will receive 4 credits.
Estimated Cost.: Harvard Summer School tuition;
travel to and from Miami; Kampong accommodation
at $25 per day.  Tuition and Travel scholarships may
be available for qualifying students.

For further information:-
P.B. Tomlinson at the above Miami address, or
 Harvard Forest, Harvard University,  324 N.Main St.
Petersham  MA  01366

And  Harvard  Summer School on-line in 2009


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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

According to the World Conservation Union, 30
percent of the world¹s plants are threatened with
extinction by 2050. Students will have the opportunity
to gain experience, skills, and knowledge to become
scholars, leaders and practitioners, in the effort to
stem the loss of plant life worldwide.

“This is an effort to find global solutions. With the
creation of the doctorate program, the Garden will
be a national home to far-reaching education and
research programs, able to train professionals in a
variety of plant science disciplines, which are critical
to the Garden¹s mission to save the plants and save
the planet,” said Sophia Siskel, president and CEO
of the Chicago Botanic Garden.

The program begins in fall 2009 and will be housed
in the Daniel F. and Ada L. Rice Plant Conservation
Science Center at the Chicago Botanic Garden.
Ground was broken on the Rice Science Center in
June of 2008.

When completed in the fall of 2009, the 38,000
square-foot Rice Science Center will serve as an
international center for plant conservation research
providing a world-class teaching and state-of-the-
art laboratory facility designed specifically to meet
the needs of students and teachers.

In 2005, the Garden partnered with Northwestern
University to create a Master¹s degree program in
plant biology and conservation.  Since the program¹s
inception, twenty-one students have enrolled; five
have graduated and are currently pursuing careers
in the fields of plant conservation or are attending
doctorate programs.

“The resources of Northwestern University and the
Chicago Botanic Garden complement one another
to create a learning environment that could not be
duplicated by either one alone,” said Northwestern
University Provost Daniel Linzer.

The doctorate program will provide a foundation in
plant ecology, evolution and biology and in applied
plant conservation theory and methods. The
program offers advanced courses taught by
distinguished faculty members and scientists from
the Chicago Botanic Garden and Northwestern
University. The program includes over 15 teaching
and research faculty from Chicago Botanic Garden
and Northwestern in fields such as ecology,
population genetics, restoration ecology, invasive
plant biology, pollination biology, plant evolution,
taxonomy, paleontology and climate change.  The
doctorate program will offer a comprehensive
scholastic program that contributes to the field of
plant biology. Students typically should complete
the degree in five years.

Positions Available

M.S. Student Position: Analysis of

patterns of gene flow in Maryland

populations of Harperella

(Ptilimnium nodosum)

Funding is available for a graduate teaching
assistantship in the Department of Biological
Sciences at Towson University. The successful
candidate will assist in a research study regarding
patterns of gene flow in Maryland populations of
Harperella (Ptilimnium nodosum), a federally-
endangered stream macrophyte.  The study will
focus on examining patterns and relationships
between gene flow via seed and pollen using
molecular markers. Understanding historical and
contemporary patterns of gene flow and their effects
on genetic diversity and genetic structure is
necessary to manage and restore populations of
Harperella.  Identification of more genetically diverse
plants may be key to restoring viable populations as
these carry more adaptive genetic variance.
Additionally, if we understand historical patterns of
gene flow we can formulate more educated
hypotheses about the manner of restoration efforts,
in particular, we can identify the most genetically
diverse subpopulations for protection and use in
restoration activities. Students would be expected
to use data generated from their studies for a
Master’s thesis at Towson University. The stipend
is currently $12,000/year, plus a full tuition waiver
and travel costs. The assistantship will begin in
August 2009. Deadline for applications is 15 March
2009, but early applications are encouraged.

The ideal student for this position is self-motivated,
works well independently, and has a strong interest
in conservation biology, plant molecular ecology
and evolution. The position will require long hours
in both the field and laboratory. Prior experience with
field research and molecular ecology is preferred
but not required.

Towson University is located just a mile north of the
vibrant city of Baltimore, Maryland.   TU’s Department
of Biology offers outstanding opportunities for
graduate students in several areas including
ecology, conservation biology and molecular
ecology.  Previous graduate students have gone on
to Ph.D. programs at a number of major institutions
or have found employment with state or federal
management agencies.

A complete list of departmental facilities, our current
Graduate Faculty, and their teaching and research
interests is available on our web site at: 


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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Rare Book Exhibition Focuses on

Children’s Books about Plants

Lenhardt Library, November 28,

2008 through February 1, 2009

Plants and gardens have long been places of
wonder for children and excellent opportunities to
teach them about science. A new exhibition from the
Rare Book Collection of the Lenhardt Library
provides a glimpse into rare children’s books about

Brooklyn Botanic Garden and NYC

Department of Parks & Recreation

Sign Breakthrough Conservation


BROOKLYN, NY–SEPTEMBER 22, 2008–Today, in
the shade of the Native Flora Garden at Brooklyn
Botanic Garden (BBG), New York City Department
of Parks & Recreation (Parks) commissioner Adrian
Benepe and Brooklyn Botanic Garden president
Scot Medbury signed a historic memorandum of
understanding (MOU), committing the resources of
the Garden and Parks to the conservation of plants
native to New York City. This is the first-ever
comprehensive conservation initiative targeting New
York City’s native plants. The conservation effort will
be conducted primarily through ecological and
molecular assessments of remaining plant
populations in the city’s 23 ecosystems, leading to
management protocols to improve the long-term
sustainability of these plants.

The MOU acknowledges that of the over 1,450
species that once occurred in the city, over 600 are
gone and 500 are vulnerable. “Little attention has
been given to the management of rare species in
the urban context and virtually no attempt has been
made to assess and manage the more common,
yet declining species found in urban, fragmented
habitats,” the memorandum reads. The
conservation agreement will work toward increased
conservation of the area’s flora. BBG will utilize the
resources of its New York Metropolitan Flora project
(NYMF) and other related BBG science programs.
Parks brings to the initiative its expertise from the

Greenbelt Native Plant Center and Natural
Resources Group. Through the MOU, Parks and
BBG will collect plants and seeds for research and
seed banking purposes, analyze the genetic diversity
of plants, and raise awareness about the
conservation of New York City’s native plants.

Brooklyn Botanic Garden has long been committed
to researching and promoting the native flora of the
region. The Native Flora Garden was the first “garden
within the Garden” opened to the public at BBG, in
1911. In 1990 the Garden embarked on the New
York Metropolitan Flora project, a multiyear effort to
document the flora in all counties within a 50-mile
radius of New York City.

New York City may be known to many for its towering
skyscrapers and pulsing urban lifestyle, but few are
aware of the incredible biodiversity and plant life
found within the city. “We are proud to collaborate
with Parks and work toward the common goal of
conserving the area’s native plants,” said Scot
Medbury, BBG’s president. “Through the work of
BBG’s respected Science department, we will be
able to engage in detailed analysis—down to the
molecular level—to help us understand the
condition of New York City’s native plants. This in
turn will help us formulate ways to both conserve
current populations and preserve them for the future,”
Medbury explained. “In addition, I have asked BBG’s
interpretive staff to develop signage to better explain
the initiative to the Garden’s visitors, so that more
people will learn of the work being done to protect
the plants that will populate our great city for
generations to come,” Medbury added.

“The conservation initiative is an important step to
not only preserve New York City’s flora but also to
provide information on the state of plant life
throughout the five boroughs,” said Commissioner
Benepe. “Plants provide numerous benefits, from
helping to clean the city’s air to cooling the
environment to beautifying our streets and parks.
We are pleased to partner with Brooklyn Botanic
Garden for this vital study to make the city a greener,
greater New York.”

Other News

w w w n e w . t o w s o n . e d u / b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s /

For additional information, contact:
Roland P. Roberts          

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Missouri Botanical Garden Mounts

Milestone Six Millionth Herbarium


Collection is Among the World’s Largest

The Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis operates
one of the largest and fastest growing herbaria in

the world, and the second largest in the western
hemisphere. With the addition of a specimen of
Anthurium centimillesimum, a gigantic new aroid
species from Ecuador, the Garden’s permanent
collection of pressed and dried plant specimens
has reached a milestone of six million specimens.

A herbarium is essentially a “library” of plant
specimens. The Garden’s herbarium includes
about five-and-a-half-million vascular plants
(flowering plants, ferns and conifers) and 500,000
bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts).
The bryophyte collection is also one of the largest
of its kind in the world.

“The importance of these ‘libraries’ of plants cannot
be overstated,” said Vice President, Science and
Conservation, Dr. Robert Magill. “There are an
estimated 300,000 recognized, named species of
plants, with perhaps an additional 100,000 species
still to be discovered. Herbaria are vital resources
that allow botanists to organize information about
this enormous diversity of plant life. Without a system
of documentation that includes actual samples of
the plants, it would be nearly impossible to make
conclusions about the roles and relationships of
plants, or to even verify the discovery of a species
new to science.”

Plant specimens are collected in the wild, pressed
in newspaper folds, and dried in a wooden-framed
plant press before being sent to the Garden’s
herbarium for study and identification. At the Garden,
newly received specimens are counted, recorded,
and treated by freezing to kill insects that might eat
them. Permanent labels are prepared from the
collector’s field catalog for each specimen. The
label contains information on where and when the
specimen was gathered, by whom, and any features
about the plant that are not readily apparent from the

plants and the natural world. The exhibition will be
on display in the Lenhardt Library from November
28, 2008 through February 1, 2009.

One of the earliest books written specifically for a
young reader was published in Paris in 1545.
Entitled De re Hortensi Libellus, it was written by
Charles Estienne for his eight-year-old nephew,
Henri Estienne. In the late eighteenth and early
nineteenth centuries, an explosion of books for
children were published, many of which were quite
small. Les Plaisirs de la Campagne, published in
1825, is about the size of a postage stamp. Later in
the nineteenth century, children’s books took on a
slightly fantastic nature to make the scientific aspects
of the text a little more digestible and they usually
included many colorful illustrations. An interesting
example is The Little Flower Seekers: Being
Adventures of Trot and Daisy in a Wonderful Garden,
by Moonlight, published in London in 1873 and
written by Rosa Mulholland Gilbert. By the end of the
nineteenth century, fictional stories used gardens
and botany as a background, as in The Secret
Garden by Frances Hodgson Burnett. The Lenhardt
Library’s copy is the first American edition published
in New York in 1911.  Approximately fifteen books
will be on display in the exhibition.

A free library talk, “Early Editions of Well-Loved
Stories,” will be given by Susan Boothe, curator of
exhibitions at the Chicago Botanic Garden at 2 p.m.
on Saturday, January 10, 2009.

The Lenhardt Library is the primary research tool for
students of the Joseph Regenstein, Jr. School of
the Chicago Botanic Garden. Visitors are
encouraged to research their latest gardening
project, thumb through inspiring garden journals
and magazines, or see the display of selections
from the Garden¹s rare book collection.

The Lenhardt Library is located in the Regenstein
Center. Hours are from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday
through Saturday and from noon to 4 p.m. on Sunday.
On Tuesdays, the Lenhardt Library is open until 7
p.m. Closed on holidays. Members have borrowing
privileges. visit

From Left: Dr. Robert Magill, v.p. Science and

Conservation, Dr. Thomas Croat,discoverer,  Dr. James

Soloman, Curator of the Herbarium. (Courtesy

Missouri Botanical Garden)

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden

on Display in Olympic Venues

A global audience  gained knowledge of the all-
important, sustaining work of botanic gardens
throughout the world this summer in Beijing.
Together with other botanical gardens and arboreta,
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden (RSABG) in
Claremont was featured in the World Botanic
Gardens Exhibition, “Homes for Plants - Gardens
for Humans,” - located in the active Olympic venues
of Beijing.

RSABG botanical field studies coordinator, Naomi
Fraga submitted exhibit materials on the local 86-
acre California native plant garden to the Botanic
Garden Council International (BGCI). The RSABG
exhibit includes historical information, the Garden’s
mission and programmatic work.

Inclusion in this important Olympic exhibit
underscores the importance of maintaining public
and private gardens for scientific research,
conservation, restoration, education and public
enjoyment. RSABG is pleased to be acknowledged
for its mission in support of these critically essential
world-wide endeavors.

Ann Joslin
Director of Visitor Services & Community Relations
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden
California’s Native Garden
1500 North College Ave., Claremont, CA 91711
909.625.8767 ext. 251 | 951.743.4649  (cell)

pressed specimen. The specimens are then studied
by plant taxonomists with specialized knowledge of
the group to which the plant in question belongs.
Taxonomists will either identify the specimens, or
recognize them as new to science. One specimen
from each collection is mounted and added to the
Garden’s herbarium. Any duplicates are distributed
to other herbaria in exchange for specimens from
their areas of activity; the Garden exchanges
specimens with about 400 other herbaria worldwide.

The Missouri Botanical Garden’s six millionth
herbarium specimen was collected in late 2007 by
Dr. Thomas Croat, P. A. Schulz Curator of Botany.
Croat discovered Anthurium centimillesimum while
on a collecting trip in Ecuador’s Pichincha province,
in an area of tropical premontane rain forest. The
giant plant was found growing on a steep bank next
to a pasture.

“At first I considered it impossible that this species
was new, simply because the area was previously
well collected,” said Croat. “Still, after returning to
the Garden, I went through all the existing species
and none came close to this Anthurium.”

Croat has been collecting plant specimens in the
wild for over 41 years as part of the Garden’s
science and conservation team. Anthurium
centimillesimum is the 100,000th collection made
by Croat, making him the fourth most prolific plant
collector in the history of botany. Of his vast
collections, all but 4,500 have been deposited at the

The new Anthurium is a member of the aroid or
Araceae family, also known as the Philodendron
family. Aroids make up the largest group of
ornamental pot plants, and more aroid species are
counted among the top dozen plants in North
American sales than any other plant family. The
Missouri Botanical Garden is a major center of aroid
research, with one of the largest living collections in
the world. In some cases, it is unknown whether the
species are still found in nature, or whether the
Garden’s plants are the only survivors.

Garden scientists conduct field research in 36
countries and six continents around the globe in an
effort to collect, identify, and preserve plant
specimens. Staff focus their efforts on areas of high
biological diversity, with the goal of characterizing
and grouping the plant life they discover.

The expansiveness of the Garden’s science and
conservation programs allows the institution to
coordinate in-house editorial activity through MBG
Press, the Garden’s publishing arm. Plants collected
in the wild and accessioned to the herbarium form
the basis of scholarly publications, including floras,

which document the known information about the
plant species found in a particular geographic
region. These taxonomic tools allow the Garden’s
wealth of plant information to be readily accessed
by a wide variety of users throughout the worldwide
scientific community.

“A fundamental part of our mission is to characterize,
describe, and name the patterns of diversity found
in the plant world,” said Dr. James Solomon,
herbarium curator. “We then build the tools that
allow people to learn about, understand, and
communicate about that diversity. In order to find
medicines or sustainably manage lands, you have
to be able to recognize and know the species
involved. Our work is helping to synthesize
knowledge from around the globe to make this

For more information on the Missouri Botanical
Garden’s science and conservation work, visit

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

The Elastic Stability of Palms

Peter Sterken


A mathematical model and hypothesis are
presented, which goal is to enhance visual palm
diagnosis. Firstly, the safety factor of the palm trunk
regarding elastic stability is calculated. This factor
has to be higher than 100%, in order not to buckle
under its own weight. If this factor is satisfied, the
palm can withstand a certain amount of additional
loads, like the weight of a climber or wind loads.
Secondly, the additional wind loads are estimated
which enables to optimize artificial supports of the
palm. The wind load in the palm, and the resulting
loading of the supporting structure, has to be
assessed undeniably. The input of the expected
wind speed for the area, temperature and altitude,
enable to optimise this wind load analysis. Thirdly,
a hypothesis has been formulated (Sterken, 2005c)
which could heighten the efficiency of visual
assessment. It is suggested that the critical wind
speed for failure of the palm stem depends
significantly on the relationship between the
modulus of elasticity, the form of the cross-section
(not only diameter), the slenderness of the palm
(ratio of height vs. the thin stem), dynamic wind
loading and mechanical behaviours. Deductions
from the Leonardo Da Vinci – Euler - Bernoulli theory
and the theory of elastic stability are introduced. The
guidelines that are given is to combine the visual
assessment of mechanical catastrophic behaviours
with the safety factor regarding elastic stability and
the wind load analysis for cabling the palm tree.

Earlier components of this model have recently
been published in the scientific peer-reviewed
Arboricultural Journal , Vol. 29, pp 243-265. The
content of this publication has been published
earlier as a part of the Spanish paper on the modelling
of forest trees and palms in Foresta (Sterken2008).

Key-words: Palms · Safety · Critical wind speed
Data of the complete publication:
Sterken, P. 2008. The Elastic Stability of Palms. 15p.
Royal Belgian Library
Keizerslaan,  4
B-1000 Brussel
Adaptation of the original version: © Peter Sterken,
Original version: © Peter Sterken, April 2007

Wind load analysis for trees

Peter Sterken

 In accordance with Eurocode 1, part 2-4.







 Data input=




Tree characteristics




 Species (see list of species)=

Quercus robur










Height  trunk=




245.00 cm






Residual wall thickness,t=9.50



Cw-value (see list of species)=






 (see list of species)
























Expected wind speed for

the area=

 130.00 km/h



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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008






 Wind load analysis for trees






183.78 m * m

















   4380.55 kg

Wind induced bending moment=

525.17 kNm







Bending fracture of the sound stem=



Critical wind speed=




179.43 %


Required residual wall thickness=








Torsion safety of the closed and concentric
residual wall=

Critical wind speed=




262.61 %







 Bending fracture of the residual wall=







Critical wind speed=




110.05 %



















Equivalent wind load=
















Please consult the following publications, in order
to interpret correctly wind load analysis for trees:






Sterken P (2006)  Prognosis of the development of
decay and the fracture-safety of hollow trees.
Arboricultural Journal. Vol 29: 245-267


  Sterken P (2005) A Guide for Tree-stability Analysis.
Second and expanded edition.  University and
Research-centre of Wageningen: 


 Sterken P (2008) Modelización de la estabilidad
del arbolado y palmeras. FORESTA. Asociación y
Colegio Oficial de Ingenieros Técnicos Forestales
Nº 38: 59-67.

 Sterken P (2006) Prognose van de breukvastheid
van holle bomen. KPB Nieuwsbrief. Kring
Praktiserende Boomverzorgers
. Dutch ISA chapter.
Vol. 27: 1-10. Nederland.






 Disclaimer: While every effort has been made to
validate the solutions in this worksheet, Peter
Sterken is not responsible for any errors contained
and is not liable for any damages resulting from the
use of this material, nor for any interpretation of the
calculations. These calculations are only intended
for educational purposes and should only be
employed by a professional trained in this method.


  © Peter Sterken 2006













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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008


Teaching Plant Anatomy Through Creative Laboratory Exercises.  R. Larry Peterson, Carol A. Peterson,
Lewis Melville - P. Barry Tomlinson..................................................................................................................156


Ecology of Weeds and Invasive Plants, 3


 ed. Steven R. Radosevich, Jodie S. Holt and Claudio M. Ghersa.

- Marcek Rejmánek..............................................................................................................................................157

Trees, Truffles, and Beasts: How Forests Function.  Maser, Chris, Andrew W. Claridge, and James M.
Trappe - Chester Wilson....................................................................................................................................158

Economic Botany

The Curious World of Carnivorous Plants: A comprehensive guide to their biology and cultivation by
Wilhelm Barthlott, Stefan Porembski, Rüdiger Seine, Inge Thiesen [Translated by Michael Ashdown]. -
Root Gorelick........................................................................................................................................................159

Duke’s Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible.  Duke, James A. with Peggy-Ann K. Duke and Judith
L. duCellier. - Douglas Darnowski...................................................................................................................160

Edible Medicines: An Ethnopharmacology of Food. Etkin, Nina L - Dorothea Bedigian.......................160

Gardens, City Life and Culture. Conan, Michel and Chen Whangheng (eds.) - Dorothea Bedigian...161

Timber Press Pocket Guide to Palms.  Riffle, Robert Lee. - Douglas Darnowski.................................163


Gods and Goddesses in the Garden - Greco-Roman Mythology and the Scientific Names of Plants.
Peter Bernhardt. - Russell L. Chapman..........................................................................................................164


The Origins of Genome Architecture. Lynch, Michael. -Root Gorelick......................................................165


Fruits and Plains: The Horticultural Transformation of America.  Philip J. Pauly.- Joanne Sharpe...166

Middle East Garden Traditions: Unity and Diversity. Conan, Michel (ed.) - Dorothea Bedigian..........167

Musa Cliffortiana: Clifford’s Banana plant. Linnaeus, Carl (Reprint and translation of the original edition
[Leiden 1736]). Translated into English by Stephen Freer - Gerhard Prenner.........................................168


Physiology and Behaviour of Plants.  Scott, Peter. - John Kiss..................................................................169


Field guide to Wisconsin sedges, An introduction to the genus Carex (Cyperaceae), by Andrew L. Hipp,
illustrations by Rachel D. Davis. - Tyler Smith................................................................................................170

Flora of the Northeast: A Manual of the Vascular Flora of New England and Adjacent New York. Dennis
W. Magee and Harry E. Ahles.- Robert F. Capers..........................................................................................172

. Weeds in South Texas and Northern Texas: A Guide to identification. James H. Everitt, Robert I. Lonard,
and Christopher R. Little - Nathan Leclear......................................................................................................174

Woody Plants of the Southeastern U.S.: A Field Botany Course on CD.  Kirchoff, Bruce. - Douglas

Books Reviewed

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Teaching Plant Anatomy Through Creative
Laboratory Exercises. 
 R. Larry Peterson, Carol A.
Peterson, Lewis Melville 2008. ISBN 978-0-660-
19798-2 National Research Council Press, Ottawa,
Ontario, Canada.  ix +154 pp +CD. ($US 59.95

Plant Anatomy is fun! This “hands-on” book has the
objective of providing “students, teachers and
researchers with simple methods to investigate the
structure of plant cells, tissues, and organs using
fresh material and a minimum of supplies”. It
achieves this objective and may well go beyond that.
It is a practical guide to the study of plant anatomy
and can help to reintroduce this important subject
into biology curricula in schools and universities,
from which it has virtually disappeared, by making
the subject visually attractive and enjoyable.

The standard texts in plant anatomy, as listed in this
books Appendix, do not do this. They vary from the
encyclopedic to the sophomoric with, in some
instances, an attempt to relate the subject to its
applied aspects (e.g. industry, agriculture, forensics,
pharmacology), but do little to teach plant anatomy
as a practical discipline and largely fail to connect
internal structure to the whole plant (which is rarely
illustrated). The present book achieves this objective
because it moves from fresh material of whole
plants to what can be revealed under the microscope
entirely at the hands of the student. This is done
through the medium of sections cut with double-
edge razor blades, stained in various ways and
mounted as temporary wet preparations to be viewed
directly under the microscope, all within minutes.
The book is profusely illustrated with color
photographs taken directly from sections prepared
in this way. They show the kind of result that students
themselves can produce. In fact, the numerous
photo credits to the plates suggest that many of
them were actually made in class by
undergraduates. Hey, guys let’s write our own text-

Students do like hands on activity in the lab and plant
anatomy is NOT fun if it is presented via prepared
slides in which xylem is always red and phloem
green, or as PowerPoint images remote from the
original plant. My experience is that motivated
students, with a little practice and a sympathetic
instructor, can become very proficient in section
preparation and staining so as to produce results
which when seen under the microscope are easily
of the quality of the many illustrations in this book.
In addition an ace preparation shared among
classmates scores points without competition and
inflates egos nicely. The lab soon fills with “Wows!”
and “Cool”! As an aside here I recommend 50%
glycerine/water as a mounting medium rather than
water alone as it is more permanent.

The book begins with the use of the compound
microscope and has a useful scale chart that
connects microscopic dimensions to the real world
(but misses out the hand-lens, the cheapest
microscope of all). There is then a short chapter on
the simple methods advocated for section cutting,
based on double-edged razor blades, but
complemented throughout the book by boxes which
describe other methods like maceration and
clearing together with some experiments and even
guides to growing the fresh material. Recipes for
stains and reagents are in the Appendix. The
obligatory beginning is an introduction to cells and
organelles but largely dealing with their visible
products. Cell types and simple tissues introduces
the metachromatic stain toluidine blue (TBO - good
old Tol Blue) which turns up extensively in the
illustrations. Complex tissues refer largely to xylem
and phloem, but dealt with inadequately. Secondary
xylem is scarcely illustrated because of the
limitations of flexible double-edge blades; single
edge blades would have been better here because
they are firmer (and cheaper). Phloem is difficult to
study with freehand sections – the usual conclusion
is that if it does not stain and you can identify
everything else, it must be phloem. There are
separate chapters on roots, stems and leaves, the
root chapter especially well illustrated because this
is the Peterson’s area of research expertise. The
flower is briefly dealt with, (with pictures of flowers!)
but nothing on the fruit. The best tool here would
probably be a machete. The Appendix has further
useful information, especially on the recognition of
microscopic artifacts, often a problem for the
beginning microscopist.

Those remaining practitioners of this disappearing
art (e.g., my students!) will have their own special
take on methods and approaches which are in no
way detrimental to the objectives of the book. I
missed a description of Kohler illumination even
though there is almost a whole page of space
available for it. The temperate bias is obvious and
herbaceous. The dissecting microscope can be
used extensively for bulky organs, especially with
transmitted light capability. As a simplistic and
minimalist approach fluorescent techniques with
ultraviolet light and Nomarski optics seem a little
out of place but, as demonstrated, can produce
spectacular results. Polarized light is similar, here
made accessible by the ingenious recommendation
to disassemble polarizing sun-glasses.

 One last comment is that the motivated student (all
of them at the end of the first class?) will enthuse
over being able to see images from their own
preparations as good, if not better than the images
in this text. Therefore they should be assisted in
recording them. I find students are very enterprising
with the use of their own digital cameras and will

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

take pictures through the eyepiece, but it is important
to make sure they produce annotated drawings in
quantity so that the instructor can check that accurate
information has been retained. . Students thus
build up a portfolio that becomes invaluable for
presentations and revision. A class camera with an
appropriate eyepiece will complement the book –
so throw away the book’s accompanying CD of all
the plates, it is an unnecessary distraction.

The book is highly recommended for its originality
and diversity of color so that it cannot fail to be
attractive to students at all levels, especially as they
will find they can work the magic themselves.
Advanced researchers should also take in its
message and use it to learn about the microscopic
structure of organisms they may work on, since this
is the basis for all the internal mechanisms of the
plant. After all one would have little faith in an auto
mechanic who had never looked under the hood!

-P. Barry Tomlinson. Harvard Forest, Harvard
University, 324 N. Main St., Petersham MA 01366.and
The Kampong of the National Tropical Botanic
Garden, 4013 Douglas Rd., Miami FL 33133

Ecology of Weeds and Invasive Plants, 3



Steven R. Radosevich, Jodie S. Holt and Claudio M.
Ghersa. 2007. ISBN 978-0-471-76779-4 (cloth,
US$75.00) xvii + 454 pp. Wiley-Interscience,
Hoboken, New Jersey. The third edition of this well
known textbook on weed ecology now has a longer
title (and Invasive Plants) and shorter text (454
instead of 589 pages). More importantly, this edition
is more affordable for students ($75.00 instead of
$175.00). While three excellent textbooks of weed
ecology have appeared since the second (1997)
edition (Liebman et al. 2001; Booth et al. 2003;
Myers & Bazely 2003), this third edition is still very
useful as a textbook and reference.

The text is divided into nine chapters: (1) Weeds and
invasive plants, (2) Principles, (3) Invasibility of
agricultural and natural ecosystems, (4) Evolution
of weeds and invasive plants, (5) Weed demography
and population dynamics, (6) Plant-plant
associations, (7) Weed and invasive plant
management approaches, (8)Herbicides, (9)
Systems approaches for weed and invasive plant
management. Over 1400 references (an over 60%
increase since the last edition) will serve as
important sources of primary contributions and
review publications.

Inevitably, like in many ecology textbooks, there are
some mistakes in the text. Logistic equation was

not developed by Lotka (1925) and Volterra (1926)
(p. 54), but by Verhulst (1838). B


 terms in population

transition matrices are not age-specific fecundities
(p. 137 & 138), but age-specific fertilities (numbers
of viable offspring produced per unit of time).



misconception can lead to incorrect construction of
population models (e.g., Figure 2.9). Rejmánek
(2000) discussed in detail this frequent mistake. In
the first chapter (p. 3-11), the authors struggled
quite a bit with terminology. However, the result is
not completely satisfactory. After reading this
chapter, my students remained unsure whether
invasive plants are a subset of weeds or vice versa.
When we read the first six lines on p. 4, we should
not be surprised. Also, it looks like the authors
believe that non-native agricultural weeds are not
invasive plants. Terminological clarification in this
area is highly desirable (Pyšek et al. 2004). Just a
detail: the word anthropomorphic should be
replaced by anthropocentric (p. 5-7). Surprisingly,
rather limited space in the book on invasive plants
is dedicated to plant dispersal (p. 142-149, 178-
179). Now, however, this can be compensated for
with supplementary reading from Cousens et al.
(2008). Some important topics are clearly
underrepresented (apomixis, vegetative
propagation, aquatic plants, invasive vines, invasive
Cactaceae). Some are not mentioned at all (Allee
effects, residence time, species range modeling,
climate change).

Despite these weaknesses, the strengths of this
book are many. Growth analysis, design of
competition experiments, and management
implications are three of them. Over the last 22
years, I have been using progressively all three
editions of this textbook in my classes on weed
biology. Very likely, I will continue to do so. This is the
best textbook of weed ecology currently available.

– Marcel Rejmánek, Department of Evolution and
Ecology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Literature Cited
Booth, B. D., Murphy, S. D. & C. J. Swanson. 2003. Weed
ecology in natural and agricultural systems
Publishing, Wallingford, UK.

Cousens, R., Dytham, C. & R. Law. 2008. Dispersal in
plants. A population perspective
. Oxford University Press,

Liebman, M., Mohler, C. D. & C. P. Staver. 2001. Ecological
management of agricultural weeds.
 Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, UK.

Myers, J. H. & D. R. Bazely. 2003. Ecology and control of
introduced plants
. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,

Pyšek, P., Richardson, D. M., Rejmánek, M., Webster G.,
Williamson M. & J. Kirschner. 2005. Alien plants in checklists

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Trees, Truffles, and Beasts: How Forests Function.
Maser, Chris, Andrew W. Claridge, and James M.
Trappe.  2008.  ISBN 978-0-8135-4226-3 (Paper
US$26.95) 288 pp.  Rutgers University Press, 100
Joyce Kilmer Avenue, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8099.

Maser, Claridge, and Trappe try to write three books
in one:  a guidebook to the natural history of forests
in the North America’s Pacific Northwest and
Australia’s southeast, an analysis of disturbance
and succession in these forests, and a
philosophical discussion of ecology and evolution.
The guidebook is interesting, the treatment of
disturbance and response to disturbance is superb,
but the philosophical musing alternately
disappointed and annoyed me.  When I started
reading Trees, Truffles, and Beasts:  How Forests
Function, I saw it as part of my eternal search for
books to use with undergraduate biology seminars.
At first the philosophy of ecology the authors present
made me hesitate to use their book, but I am slowly
getting over it.  It might make for even better

Mycorrhizal interactions between fungi and plants,
animals eating fungi and thereby dispersing fungal
spores, and coevolution among the three groups of
creatures provide a thread unifying the three books.
The creatures involved are presented in the first
chapter, “The Forest We See” and the last large
chapter, “Of Lifestyles and Shared Habitats”.  The
descriptions of predominant species in both regions
are done in a way comparing animals, plants, and
fungi in terms of niches, which allows direct
comparison of the two communities.  Re-reading
these sections before the next International Botanical
Congress in Melbourne will definitely be worthwhile!

Three chapters about mycophagy, including one on
coevolution and one about the importance of fungi
in the diets of animals that eat them along with a
short summary of ecosystem services provided by
mycophagy, begin the book’s midsection.  Having
spent a fair amount of time foraging for chanterelles
in Oregon I was aware of generalities of these
topics, but the detailed natural history in these
chapters added a great deal to my understanding
of this interaction.

However, the two chapters coming next, about
landscape patterns, fire, succession, and habitat
dynamics, are the gems that make the book
worthwhile.  After broad description of fire in forests,
the authors summarize the fire histories of the two
regions, examine several cases in detail, and then
talk about the fungal and specifically mycorrhizal
responses to disturbance.  I have never encountered
such a nicely written and engaging discussion of
succession from a fungal point of view and organized
around the role of fungi in the community’s response
to disturbance.  These two chapters are strong,
informative, and enlightening.  They tend to make
me forgive the book’s less pleasant aspects.

On a technical note, one of those less pleasant
aspects is the bibliography.  Too many of the citations
are wrong, even those of the authors’ own
publications.  Many of the papers I tried to look up
either had incorrect page numbers or the volume
numbers given did not match the years.  Several
times this was obvious without going to the library
because the beginning page number was higher
than the ending page number.

The aspect of the book that bothered me the most,
though, is a philosophy of ecology (and evolution)
sprinkled throughout every topic.  I could not decide
whether I was reading a later-day revival of
Clementsian ideas about communities and
ecosystems or a subtle advocacy of Gaia.  Repeated
suggestions that evolution works for the greater
good, and possibly intentionally and directionally,
pop up in almost every chapter.  I do not know
whether the authors share this inclination, but many
of my students would find this aspect of the book
supportive of sentimental and even spiritual ideas
about nature.  Maybe I am over-reacting to a very
strong emphasis upon coevolution, but I would
hesitate to offer such ideas within a scientific treatise.
Still, the section on fire ecology is very good, and my
mid-western students could always use exposure
to the ecology of other climates and continents.
Perhaps they are ready for discussions about the
philosophy of ecology that could grow out of this
book along with the particular content that the authors
present so well.

-Chester Wilson, Department of Biology, University
of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN.

and floras: towards better communication between
taxonomists and ecologists. Taxon 53: 131-143.

Rejmánek, M. 2000. On the use and misuse of transition
matrices in plant population biology. Biol. Invasions 2: 315-

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

The Curious World of Carnivorous Plants: A
comprehensive guide to their biology and
 by Wilhelm Barthlott, Stefan Porembski,
Rüdiger Seine, Inge Thiesen [Translated by Michael
Ashdown]. Timber Press: Portland. 224 pages, 158
illustrations, 2 maps. ISBN-13: 9780881927924,
ISBN-10: 0881927929. US$39.95.

This is an exquisite book, truly covering both biology
and cultivation of carnivorous plants. It provides an
up-to-date review of scientific work on these plants,
much of it done by the authors. It also contains a lot
of obscure older references. The photos are
remarkable. While not particularly artistic - there are
no gorgeous panoramas with these plants, as can
be found in other recent volumes, such as Stewart
McPherson’s  Pitcher Plants of the Americas -
Barthlott et al. provide photos with such lush detail
that you can really begin to understand the intricacies
of these plants.

This book begins with curious and far-ranging
history, that covers everything from the first
suspicions of carnivory, to the not-so-subtle sexual
innuendo in the binomial of the Venus flytrap, to
Charles Darwin, and molecular systematics. After
a short digression into distributions and diversity,
the authors move on to six lovely chapters on how
carnivorous plants make a living: attracting, trapping,
and digesting their meals, sometimes with the help
of other organisms. After another short digression
into conservation and cultivation, the book launches
into chapters on each family of carnivorous plant,
although the terms “carnivorous”and “plant” are
used liberally.

The book is filled with fascinating details. Although
Darwin titled his seminal monograph “Insectivorous
 many carnivorous plants have diets
composed of things other than insects or even other
arthropods. Although it will hardly surprise anyone
that bladderworts (Utricularia) eat rotifers (which
curiously do not appear in the index), they also eat
mollusks and protists, including algae. Many
carnivorous plants eat a fair amount of pollen, with
some butterworts (Pinguicula) making up 70% or
more of their catch in pollen. Barthlott, who has done
much work with epiphytic cacti, also highlights
epiphytic carnivorous plants. Utricularia reniformis
can grow epiphytically on tussocks of grass.
Utricularia nelumbifolia and U. humboldtii grow
epiphytically in the water-filled rosettes of
bromeliads, where they can spread vegetatively
from bromeliad to bromeliad, including the
carnivorous bromeliad genus Brocchinia. Some
Nepenthes and Pinguicula species are also
epiphytes, including P. lignicola, which only grows
on pines. The authors also report some amazing
observations about longevity of single flowers.
Utricularia meziesii in cultivation had a single flower

that was open for over two months! If unpollinated,
some female flowers of Nepenthes can remain
viable for several weeks.

This book is, however, not without problems. The
authors use archaic terminology. Describing taxa
as primitive or advanced, instead of ancestral and
derived, carries too much pejorative baggage.
Contrary to standard usage for at least a quarter
century, the authors consider lichens and fungi to
be plants. The authors use the term “precarnivorous”
for plants that do not meet all their criteria for
carnivory, such as bromeliads that catch and kill
insects in cisterns (pitchers) but do not have digestive
enzymes, instead relying on bacteria for digestion.
This is like saying that termites do not eat wood or
cows do not eat grass because they rely on microbes
for their digestion. Furthermore, the term
precarnivorous is a teleological nightmare in that it
needlessly implies that descendants of these plants
will evolve what the authors call true carnivory.

The authors assert correctly that carnivorous leaves
and (non-carnivorous) flowers use the same
mechanisms to attract insects. They then claim that
carnivorous plants have tall inflorescences to keep
pollinators from being eaten. This is a too
adaptationist—and untested. Moreover, the
cosmopolitan  Drosera rotundifolia has relatively
short inflorescences.

Disturbingly, this book does not contain information
on ISBN, year of publication, place of publication, or
information on who did the translation from the
2004 German text. I had to go to the publisher¹s
website for most of this information, although I still
could not easily locate the year of publication. Lack
of information on the translator is particularly
disturbing because of errors in botanical
nomenclature (e.g.,  Discocactus horstii absorbs
water via spines, not thorns) and failure to detect
silly errors, such as in the etymology of Heliamphora,
and confusion between figures 26 and 27. There is
also the odd production maneuver of filling up blank
space with uncaptioned repeats of photos that have
been used elsewhere in the book. I am not sure if
lack of care with production is attributable to Timber
Press, the last great independent North American
botanical publisher, having been recently acquired
by Storey and Workman Publishing. However, such
essential information, especially full credit to the
translator, needs to be given.

Regardless of these shortfalls, this is a superb
book, at a reasonable price, that beautifully covers
both biology and horticulture of a group of plants that
have fascinated people for centuries.

Root Gorelick, Ph.D., Department of Biology and
School of Mathematics & Statistics, Carleton
University, Ottawa, Ontario  K1S 5B6  Canada

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Edible Medicines: An Ethnopharmacology of Food.
Etkin, Nina L. 2008. ISBN 978-0-8165-2748-9 (Paper
US$24.95) 320 pp. The University of Arizona Press.
355 S. Euclid Avenue, Suite 103, Tucson, AZ 85719.

Nina Etkin’s Edible Medicines, reprinted from its
original (2006) hardcover edition, reflects its broad
appeal, and its value as a textbook in University
courses e.g., anthropology, economic botany or
ethnobotany.  Edible Medicines surveys the
medicinal properties of foods across continents
and cultures. Etkin’s status as medical
anthropologist and her original work on the
pharmacologic implications of plant use are well-
established with an earlier book: Eating on the Wild
 (1994), which she edited.

In this wide-ranging book, Etkin reveals the medicinal
properties of foods in the specific cultural contexts
in which they are used. She addresses some of the
physiological effects of foods through history, taking
into account the complex dynamics of food choice.
Showing that food choice is more closely linked to
health than is commonly thought, she helps us to
understand the health implications of people’s
food-centered actions documented with examples.
Foods are set in a global perspective e.g., we learn
that most of the world population is lactose intolerant.
The social history of coffee, tea, cocoa and alcohol
shows that the invention of those beverages
imparted prestige and their appeal inspired rapid
dispersal. Drawing on her research among Nigeria’s
Hausa people and studies of other indigenous
cultures, Etkin addresses the medicinal properties
of social foods and masticatories, e.g., kava, khat,

Focal chapters with appeal to botanists are: Food
in the History of Biomedicine; Spices: the
Pharmacology of the Exotic; little-discussed,
Fermented Foods and Beverages; Lives of Social
Plants, foods consumed in company; Health in the
Marketplace: Complementary and Alternative
Medicine, Functional Foods, and More.  The book
closes with a 7 page Appendix titled Some Common
Spices; 7 pages of Notes; 36 pages of References,
including both scholarly and popular sources; a 13
page General Index; and a 5 page Scientific Index.
There are 11 black and white photos, most taken
during the author’s fieldwork in Nigeria.

In her succinct analytical Conclusions, Etkin’s writing
shines, as she describes her objectives and
theoretical foundations: that cultural construction
and social transaction of all aspects of food-
production, transformation, circulation,
consumption-are both undergirded by, and have
impact on, food culture and human physiology. She
observes the “extranutritive meaning of foods that
embody sociability or star in origin myths,” not just

Duke’s Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible.
Duke, James A. with Peggy-Ann K. Duke and Judith
L. duCellier.  2008.  ISBN 978-0-8493-8202-4 (Cloth
US$89.95)  528 pp.  CRC Press/Taylor & Francis
Group, LLC.  6000 Broken Sound Parkway, NW,
Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487

Duke’s Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible
attempts to present a range of Biblical plants and
their pharmaceutical uses. In doing so, the author
is only partly successful.

The book opens with extensive introductory
material, including charts of the many, many
abbreviations used throughout the text. This
introduction also includes a less-than-professional
multi-page diatribe against large pharmaceutical
companies and current medical practice. The
author should be free to state his objections, but
they should come in a more professional voice. He
also uses the term “Farmaceuticals” which the
reviewer found rather offputting.

The main section of Duke’s Handbook of Medicinal
Plants of the Bible then proceeds from one plant to
the next, providing ample discussion of what exaxt
species might match the terms used in Scripture.
Common names, ethnopharmacological uses in
(sometimes many cultures), etc. are listed, with
heavy reliance on the abbreviations tables from the
front of the book for references and other explanatory
information.Toxicity, dosing, and natural history of
the particular species follows in each entry.

One particularly odd aspect of these entries is the
translations of the Bible which the author uses—
each entry has a relevant verse or verses from up
to three translations: the King James Version, the
Revised Standard Version, and the New World
Translation. These are given to help in identifying
the Biblical term with a modern Latin name. Why
use three derivative English translations? True, the
author does discuss words from the original, but
why not give at least something as old as the
Vulgate or Septuagint? Failing that, the most
immediate translation into English from those
sources, the Douay-Rheims. Using original texts
or translations only one step removed from them
would certainly give a more accurate identification.

While there is a true wealth of information here
which might be of use to ethnopharmacologists
and bioprospectors, the very long lists of uses and
the heavy reliance on many, many abbreviations
are sure to make this book cumbersome to use. It
deserves a place in university and some
professional libraries, but may not find as wide as
use as it might.

-Douglas Darnowski, Department of Biology, Indiana
University Southeast

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

their phytochemical profiles, and admires “people-
food relationships that are apparent in the structure
of cuisines” and their roles in “creating and
sustaining community and identity.”  Here too, Etkin
points out the “rapid globalization of some foods
beyond their source areas (e.g., chocolate, chile)
compared to the sluggish radiation of others from
points of origin (e.g., tomato) and the narrow range
of consumption of still others (e.g., kola and betel
nuts).”   “The history of the spice trade is a series of
encounters with political and economic
asymmetries: mercantile capitalism,
Euromonopolies, colonialism, wars.”

Given a subject this broad, an author cannot be an
expert on all foods, and Etkins relies heavily upon
Simmoons’ Food in China (1991).  Finding the plant
I know best, corrections are wanted on p. 23, Table
1.3, Origins of Some Domesticated Plant and Animal
Foods. Sesame did not originate in Africa although
numerous authors continue to state that as fact, but
on the Indian subcontinent (Bedigian 1988, 1998,
2000, 2003a, 2003b, 2004, Bedigian et al. 1985,
1986) bringing to attention the perils of overreliance
upon secondary sources, in this case Davidson’s
Oxford Companion to Food (1999), rather than
searching the originals.  This reliance reappears
on p. 89 in the section A Cultural History of Spices,
where inexplicably, Etkin wrote, “United States,
Canada and Europe are significant sources of
sesame seed” when in fact, China (825,531 MT)
and India (620,000 MT) are the world’s principal
producers (IPGRI 2004). Myanmar, Sudan, Uganda,
Nigeria, Pakistan, Ethiopia (exceeding Bangladesh,
and displacing Thailand from the top 10 in 2005),
and Central African Republic, are other major
sesame growing countries (FAO Economic and
Social Department 2005; IPGRI 2004).  Here and
there one can find a typo, e.g., Hamid Dirar (p 252).

-Dorothea Bedigian, Research Associate, Missouri
Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO

Literature Cited
Bedigian, D.  1988. Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae):
Ethnobotany in Sudan, crop diversity, lignans, origin, and
related taxa. In: P. Goldblatt and P.P. Lowry, eds.  Modern
Systematic Studies in African Botany 25: 315-321.   AETFAT
Monographs in Systematic Botany, Missouri Botanical
Garden, St. Louis, MO.

Bedigian, D.  1998. Early history of sesame cultivation in
the Near East and beyond. Pages 93-101 In: A.B. Damania,
J. Valkoun, G. Willcox and C.O. Qualset, eds. The Origins
of Agriculture and Crop Domestication.  The Harlan
Symposium. ICARDA, Aleppo.


Bedigian, D.  2000. Sesame. Pages 411-421 In: K.F. Kiple
and C.K. Ornelas-Kiple, eds. The Cambridge World History

of Food, Vol. I.  Cambridge University Press, NY.

Bedigian, D.  2003. Evolution of sesame revisited:
domestication, diversity and prospects.  Genetic Resources
and Crop Evolution 50: 779-787.

Bedigian, D.  2003. Sesame in Africa: origin and dispersals.
Pages 17-36 In: K. Neumann, A. Butler and S. Kahlheber,
eds. Food, Fuel and Fields - Progress in African
Archaeobotany.  Africa Praehistorica. Heinrich-Barth-
Institute, Cologne.

Bedigian, D.  2004. History and lore of sesame in Southwest
Asia.  Economic Botany 58(3): 329-353.

Bedigian, D., D.S. Seigler and J.R. Harlan.  1985. Sesamin,
sesamolin and the origin of sesame.  Biochemical
Systematics and Ecology 13: 133-139.

Bedigian, D., C.A. Smyth and J.R. Harlan.  1986. Patterns
of morphological variation in sesame. Economic Botany 40:

Davidson, A. 1999.  The Oxford Companion to Food.
Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Etkin, N.L., ed. 1994. Eating on the Wild Side, the
Pharmacologic, Ecologic and Social Implications of Using
Noncultigens. University of Arizona Press, Tucson/London.
FAO Economic and Social Department. Statistics Division.
2005. Major Food and Agricultural Commodities Producers,



recent data posted]

IPGRI. 2004. Descriptors for Sesame (Sesamum spp.).
International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome,

Simmoons, F.J. 1991. Food in China: A Cultural and
Historical Inquiry. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Gardens, City Life and Culture. Conan, Michel and
Chen Whangheng (eds.) 2008. ISBN 978-0-88402-
328-9 (Paper US$40.00) 274 pp, 33b/w illustrations,
80 color photographs. Harvard University Press, 79
Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138.

Gardens, City Life and Culture is a critical exploration
of public garden spaces through history. It shows
that gardens have profoundly influenced the cultural
development and social life in many world capitols.
Gardens have provided an opportunity to break
social barriers, and to enact in public, behavior once
unseemly.  Gardens permit the presentation of self
in everyday life, and play a role in transformation of
culture, mores and lifestyles.  The collection surveys
gardens from ancient Roman Pompeii through the

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008



 century, in China, India, Constantinople, Genoa,

Paris, Vienna and the United States. Pertinent to all
those involved in urban planning, it examines the
dire lack of a municipal garden policy in modern
Beijing and Marrakech. Exhaustive reviews of park
and garden planning reveal the successes and
failings of different policies in Stockholm, Tokyo,
Kerala India, historic Suzhou China, and three US
“New Towns” of the 1960s.

Arranged more or less chronologically, the contents
appear in two sections: Historical Contributions of
Gardens to City Life, and Gardens in Modern Cities.
A significant contribution of this tome is that it draws
together and makes accessible in English, new
literatures from many different languages: Arabic,
Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese,
Spanish, and Swedish; the Ottoman bibliography
includes four works translated from Armenian into
Turkish and in one case, Italian.  The contents are
many and varied; limited space allows comment on
only a few.

Gardens and Garden life in Pompeii in the First
Century AD reviews the varieties of social roles
gardens played in Pompeii, in temples, public
baths, food, gardens for dead, religious worship,
and mystery cults, involving perfume, incense,
libations or blood sacrifice.

Royal Gardens and City Life in Paris (1643—1789)
by Editor Michael Conan argues for the promotion
by gardens of new mores and breaches in previously
accepted social norms, blurring social differences:
Abbeys flirt with women, new permissive gender
relations, encouraged development of fashion and
conspicuous consumption, illicit sexual activities,
fostered social movements, existing norms of civility
were challenged by the social forces they repressed.

Garden Sociability in Eighteenth-Century Ottoman
Istanbul points out that women were “seldom visible
in mostly male recreational universe of taverns and
coffeehouses.” Garden visits allowed “complete
collapse of gender boundaries triggered by a
frivolous gaze, or by the location of a swing.”  Its
spotlight on public fountains - a focal point, around
which all activities converged, reminds this reader
of resemblances to similar settings around wells in
other cultures, in Sudan and Yemen, where women
are secluded.  There girls, usually sheltered, were
able to converse with unknown men.  The sources
provided here include writings of the famous 17



Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi and his Armenian
counterpart, Eremya Çelebi.  Readers gain insight
into the evolution of mosque gardens and
refurbishment of old imperial gardens- the passage
from courtly to urban.

The Shanghai Gardens in Transition from the

Concessions to the Present Times points out “As
leisure entertainment moved from an essentially
agricultural focus on seasonal festivals to weekly or
daily recuperative activities, the for-profit garden
also hastened the transformation of its space from
a localized phenomenon marked by class hierarchy
and centered on family to open public
space…dominated by market consumption.”  The
section Medium for Importation of Western Culture
indicates Shanghai was at the vanguard of
Westernization.  After 1860, all Chinese and foreign
commodities were assembled there. For-profit
gardens utilized every kind of entertainment to entice
consumers with an eye on profit, and to parade the
new. Besides flower and moon viewing, they offered
billiards, dancing, magic and circuses. Display of
foreign rarities, e.g., an exhibition of electric lights
spurred the spread of electric lights in that city. In
1896, before the arrival of a cinema house, films
were screened at Xu Garden. Zhang Garden used
scenic sites for souvenir outdoor photography, as
well as for banquets, meetings with friends, birthday
parties and weddings, “for the powerful and for
prostitutes.” Exceptional illustrations are included,
e.g., a scenic railway built by the foreign circus, and
Lamp Boats.  An anti-Russian Congress was held
there – outside the control of the Qing court, it was
the site of special public gatherings and public
speeches. Urban gardens, born from the pollution,
congestion and turbulence that accompanied the
Industrial Revolution in the latter 19


 c functioned to

improve the quality of the urban environment. Urban
forests were the “green lungs of Shanghai.”

Part I closes with the review Parks, Parkways, and
Suburban Communities: Frederick Law Olmsted
and the Modern Metropolis, and the view that the grid
was an unfortunate choice for a city plan. Part II
opens with Swedish Mid-Century Utopia: Park
Design as a Tool for Society Improvements. It points
out that in agricultural societies, men and women
shared work responsibilities and made mutual
economic contributions. Industrialization ruined the
gender balance; now men have greater
responsibilities to contribute financial support.
Women were tied at home, and this created
economic dependency.

Cities in the Garden: American New Towns and
Landscape Planning, features Reston VA,
Columbia MD and Irvine CA. The findings disclose
that despite the planners’ intent, designed cities
such as Reston VA and Columbia MD did not lead
to decreased auto use. With no viable transit
alternative, an internal bus system that barely
functions, planning has failed to diminish the
American love affair with automobiles. Irvine CA has
traffic problems as serious, perhaps worse than
other new towns. “Convenient schools, shopping
and community centers are primarily patronized by

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

people arriving in cars. As in the other new towns,
the environmental ethic has not transformed daily
lives of individuals in any appreciable manner.”

I was deeply moved reading Marrakech: An
Ecological Miracle and its Wanton Destruction (1071-
2000 AD), Mohammed el Faïz’ powerful petition for
its preservation and exposé of its annihilation. It
reminded me of another, the totally ruined historic


 century Armenian capitol, Ani 


  Marrakech is

the only city in Morocco to be classified by UNESCO
as a World Heritage site for both its physical
environment [akin to Ani], and its cultural riches.
Urbanizing tendencies of the last two decades are
dooming Marrakech’s ecological heritage.  They
have sapped the basis of its ecosystem and threaten
to destroy it in short order.  There were powerful
causes such as sharp rise in population and urban
development.  Now, the Medina has lost all the
traditional park space of its historic legacy: gardens
paved over; paving of streets and plazas smothered
the root systems, causing many trees to die. I
observed these changes myself, during three visits:
1995, 1996 and 2000. Human negligence, i.e.
through uncontrolled urbanization, appears in two
photographs: Fig. 8, The Triumphant Desert, and
Fig. 9, The Time of Vandalism. Invoking the Hanging
Gardens of Babylon, “Countless gardened
enclosures have been destroyed through human
negligence.” “To stop this degradation, each
individual needs to view the whole planet as a
garden and to act in harmony with nature and not
against it. Loss of cultural inheritance is irreversible.”
Appropriate to so many world regimes, el Faïz
concludes: No remedy in the world can cure a
ravaged national conscience or restore to a nation
its lost garden art.”

The Promenades and Public Parks of Tokyo: A
Tradition Permanently Reinvented shows “beyond
the rupture of the ancient balance and the apparent
disorder of its megalopolitan development, Tokyo
demonstrates a capacity to regenerate itself from
principles of engagement with space and nature
issuing from a deep-rooted cultural matrix.”

Horticulturalists may be especially interested in
Ecological and Socioeconomic Dimensions of
Home Gardens of Kerala, India. Kerala, compared
with other states of India, is distinctive in its village
system. Gardens feature the agrosilvopastoral
approach, combining herbaceous crops, woody
perennials and animals. Using the authors’ phrase,
‘Homegardens’ play a negligible role in conservation
of wild species outside protected areas. However,
they serve as informal experiment stations for
transfer, trial and adaptation of domesticated
species and a “genetic backstop” for preserving
species not economic in field production and planted

in small scale for taste preference, tradition or
available planting materials. World over, of
approximately 300 major vegetables, 200 are
produced in homegardens, while only 20 in field
cultivation.  Addressing the role of women in
homegarden management, the drastic transition
from subsistence to cash crop monocultures will
increasingly marginalize women. The authors
conclude that traditional homegardens in Kerala
help conserve crop diversity and reduce pressure
on local national forests as sources of fuel, fodder
and medicinal plants. They observe a shift in
multiple crop patterns toward monocropping.  There
is a growing disinterest among farmers toward
long gestation tree crops. There is a lack of solid
research data of the ecological properties of plant
components of homegardens, particularly trees,
the economics of homestead farming, resource
management and utilization. The authors argue
this will be possible only when the same priority is
given to resources of homegardens, as is given to
control pests and diseases of cash crops and to
breeding new varieties of rice.

This substantial volume has a nine page index, and
illustrated generously with color and black and
white photographs, aerial photographs, drawings,
engravings, miniature paintings, other paintings,
and garden site plans. It will appeal to city planners,
environmentalists, historians, landscape architects
and preservationists. Resembling other
publications in this series printed on high quality
paper stock, it is well-bound, as warranted by its

-Dorothea Bedigian, Research Associate, Missouri
Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO

Timber Press Pocket Guide to Palms.  Riffle,
Robert Lee.  2008.  ISBN 978-0-88192-776-4 (Flex
US$19.95) 244 pp.  Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W.
Second Avenue, Suite 450.  Portland, OR 97204-

The Timber Press Pocket Guide to Palms by Robert
Lee Riffle presents itself as a guide for gardeners
who want to identify palms, either those commonly
cultivated or some few deserving, in the author’s
opinion, wider cultivation. The now-deceased author
was an authority in horticulture, particularly on
palms in cultivation.

Certainly the book is very complete, both in terms
of the large number of species, even those rarely

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

cultivated, and in terms of the information provided
for each species. This list includes wild distribution,
habit, number of trunks, crown shaft presence/
absence, leaf details, flower structure, fruit edibility
and description, growth rate, climatic requirements,
sun exposure requirements/tolerances, soil
preference, water needs, salt tolerance, possibility
of indoor cultivation, seed germination parameters,
and a descriptive paragraph. All of these listings
follow an introductory chapter on the botany and
horticulture of palms. The images are uniformly
pleasant and useful, though not masterful, with
many needing more contrast to highlight important
details (for example, see p. 72 and the photo there
of Caryota gigas).

There are some deficiencies. This is supposed to
be a “pocket” guide, but it would take an enormous
pocket to hold it, so taking this book and a notebook
through a garden might be more awkward than
needed. Given the nature of the photographs, a
smaller, truly pocket-sized edition might have been
a better option. In addition, the great majority of the
photographs of plants in cultivation are taken in the
US, while more photographs from outside the US
would probably give the book more of an
international appeal. Finally, and this may just be
the reviewer’s own personal reaction, the book is
full of annoying, personal reactions to particular
plants, methods of pruning dead leaves, etc. Not so
surprising in a horticultural book, but still not always

This would be a useful work for horticulturists,
university libraries, and gardeners in warmer zones
where many palms are within reach, climatically.

-Douglas Darnowski, Department of Biology, Indiana
University Southeast

Gods and Goddesses in the Garden - Greco-
Roman Mythology and the Scientific Names of
.  Peter Bernhardt.  Rutgers University Press.
239 pp.  ISBN 0-8135-4266-9.

The title of this short, but pleasant addition to one’s
collection of reference books certainly makes it
clear what is covered.  What is not immediately
known from the title is exactly how the author will
approach the subject.  In fact, there could be a
question about whether this book is intended for
serious, well-versed botanists or for non-scientists,
non-botanists who just like plants, just like
mythology, or just like the etymology of plant names.
Bernhardt has done a good job of balancing his
approach and a non-scientist might find the volume
a bit more detailed than he or she wants, and a hard

core botanist might find the treatment a bit simplistic
(especially the introductory Chapter 1 (“In the
Cyclop’s Orchard: The Why and How of Scientific
Names”), so presumably the balance is just right.
The book could easily “teach” a lay person some
basic features of plant taxonomy (and taxonomy in
general) rather painlessly as the reader moves
through the first two chapters to get to the core
chapters (3 through 7).  Certainly the seven-page
glossary could be very helpful to the lay reader.

The organization and titles of the chapters are part
of the charm of the book and one instantly wonders
what information will be found under the chapter
titles (e.g., “Mortal Monarchs and Monsters,” and,
“Troy and Its Aftermath”) and the numerous chapter
subtitles (e.g., “Chaste or Constant Nymphs,”
“Meleager and the Fates,” and “The Interrupted
Voyage of Odysseus”).  The small book is filled with
interesting (fascinating, perhaps) tidbits about the
gods, goddesses, demigods, and humans
associated with some of the botanical names.  Just
one example of historical trivia that some potential
readers might appreciate (as I certainly did) was the
fact that “Greek and Roman herbalist would not
gather peony roots or seeds by day.  They believed
that if Hades saw them, the underworld god would
send a woodpecker to pick out their eyes!”  Now, if
perchance you were not already aware of the quarrel
between Hades and Asclepius and did not know the
role of Paeonius in the story you would not fully
appreciate the quoted historical factoid.  I was
certainly aware of none of this and thoroughly
enjoyed gaining some erudition rather painlessly
as I read through this delightful volume.  For those
more interested in sex and incest, Berhardt provides
some of that as, for example, in the tale of Myrrha and
King Cinyras (sex, drugs, attempted murder, and a
strange birth of handsome Adonis – wow!).  In terms
of the humans mentioned there are also interesting,
sometimes humorous comments on the botanists
who did the science and chose the names.  The
author’s approach has created an interesting
reference work that does not read with page-turning
excitement of a murder mystery, but is a very
enjoyable romp through a lot of mythology, a lot of
botanical history, and a lot of science including the
chemistry of interesting plant compounds.

The rather narrow (esoteric?) focus of this book
presumably would not lead to massive sales and
if that is indeed the case, it is too bad.  Because it
would be wonderful to see the book succeed well
and appear in a new, heavily illustrated version.  I’ve
underscored the word “heavily” because ideally it
would be fantastic to have many photos of the plants
mentioned and many illustrations of works of art
portraying the mythology stories recounted in the
book.  This would be a much larger and much more
expensive book but what a gem it would be.  Perhaps

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

an online version would be the cost effective way to
bring some visual richness to the trove of information
that Bernhardt has compiled.  The rather minimal
illustrations that are provided were for the most part
the only thing I did not like about this otherwise
simply delightful addition to my library.  On the other
hand, the jacket illustration of Hyacinth from “Flora’s
Feast” (1892) by Walter Crane is an absolutely
charming and appropriate piece of art to adorn the
cover of this delightful reference work.

-Russell L. Chapman, Center for Marine Biodiversity
and Conservation, Scripps Institution of
Oceanography, UCSD, La Jolla, California.

The Origins of Genome Architecture. Lynch,
Michael.  2007.  ISBN 978-0-87893-484-3 (cloth
US$59.95)  494 pp.  Sinauer Associates, Inc.  P.O.
Box 407, Sunderland MA 01375-0407.

This is a truly remarkable book, which will forever
change your view of evolutionary biology. Anyone
with even tangential interest in evolution needs to
read the preface, epilogue, and especially the fourth
chapter on population size. Lynch takes a detailed
knowledge of molecular genetics and genomics,
combined with a refined fluency in population
genetics, to create sound sweeping descriptions
and predictions about evolution.

Lynch shows how modern genomic data imply that
large eukaryotes - e.g. plants and animals - are
largely immune from selection. Drift and mutation
are much more salient drivers of their evolution,
virtually mocking adaptationist explanations.
Empirically, he shows how small effective population
size also results in reduced recombination,
increased linkage disequilibrium, greater genetic
hitchhiking, and increased mutation rates. By
contrast, with small eukaryotes with few cell types,
selection reigns supreme. This does create tension.
Rich Lenski pioneered experimental evolution in
prokaryotes, a field that others have expanded to
protists and fungi, showing that selection drives
evolution of large populations. For better or worse,
Lynch shows that such results cannot be
extrapolated to larger, more complex eukaryotes.
He thereby resurrects Sewall Wright¹s early vision
that drift matters. Botanists need to heed his words
and stop always looking for adaptationist
explanations. For example, why are angiosperm
radiations invariably thought to be adaptive?

Evolutionary botanists need to look elsewhere for
answers, especially to the roles of gene duplications,
where polyploidy is the most dramatic case, in
driving drift, mutation, linkage, epistasis and

This book is not aimed at botanists. In fact, Lynch
knowledgeably covers all life and even life¹s
progenitors. The chapter on gene duplications,
which are prevalent in plants, will probably be most
useful to plant scientists, especially his discussions
of neo- and sub-functionalization, which is greatly
strengthened by Keith Adams¹ beautiful work on
reciprocal epigenetic silencing of homeologous
genes in cotton.

Alex Haley¹s Autobiography of Malcolm X was
ironically not an autobiography.  Charles Darwin¹s
Origin of Species was ironically not about the origin
of species. Lynch follows in this grand tradition. His
book is not is much about the origins of genome
architecture, but rather about ramifications of that
architecture to evolutionary trajectories.

The only faults that I could find with this book are
extremely minor. More extensive coverage of
epigenetic effects would have been nice. His
discussion of centromeres omitted mention of
karyotypic fission and perpetuated the inaccurate
suggestion that only one of four products of meiosis
survives in most female organs (cf Ed Klekowski¹s
wonderful diagrams of angiosperm
megagametophytes, which show more than just
the textbook Polygonum type). While Lynch¹s index
is moderately good, a more comprehensive index
would be a great addition to any revision.

This is not a book for the meek. The genetic and
population genetic details, while accessible, are
still extraordinarily rich in detail. Many of the
arguments are cumulative throughout the volume.
But it is worth the effort wading through these
details, which, while important in their own right,
add up to an expected synthesis that selection is not
the primary driver of plant (or animal) evolution.
Casting the hand-waving aside, Lynch shows that
it is only by looking at the details of genome
architecture and associated population genetics
that we can really see how important non-adaptive
evolutionary explanations can be.  While most
botanists abhor mathematics, it is worth trying to
understand the nicely presented and simplified
mathematics herein. Read Lynch¹s book, have your
students read it, and let¹s revise our views of

-Root Gorelick, Department of Biology, Carleton
University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S
5B6 Canada.

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Fruits and Plains: The Horticultural Transformation
of America.
  Philip J. Pauly. 2007.  ISBN-13: 978-0-
674-02663-6.  337 pages.  Harvard University Press;
Cambridge Massachusetts.

“Fruits and Plains” is a deceptively simple title for a
book that covers a wide range of horticultural
subjects and geographic areas from the time of the
arrival of Europeans in North America to the present.
It seems that the urgent challenges of today such as
invasive species have been with us from the
beginning. Pauly reviews the wide variety of
approaches that have been taken to the culture of
plants through introduction, breeding and control.
His goal was to show how difficult it is to understand
contemporary environments without knowledge of
the past. He makes many important connections
through time and space that would never have
occurred to me and I feel that he has succeeded in
achieving his goal in this extremely readable book.

In the early days of the United States, little value was
placed on native plants for food or aesthetics. As
European settlers began to colonize, every effort
was made to maintain the familiar diet, gardens and
culture of their native lands and there began their
often unsuccessful attempts to contend with the
perceived imperfections of climate and growing
conditions they found.

One of the most interesting threads woven
throughout the whole book is that apparently
unrelated events can cause unexpected and lasting
changes in the landscape.  For example, George
Washington fought and kept the British contained in
a small area north of Delaware for several years
therefore the British and Hessian soldiers had no
access to the food needed to keep their horses and
cattle alive.  Large quantities of grass were shipped
from all over Europe and the first invasive species
called the Hessian fly arrived from the Mediterranean
where it was so uncommon as to be unnoticed.
Once introduced in New York it proved to have a
devastating affect on the growth of wheat, a most
basic food of life.  Responding to such a crisis in a
new country where horticulture was mainly the
passion of amateurs and naturalists greatly
increased the importance of the plant scientist
throughout the many of investigation of this pest that
followed.  Ultimately an unexpectedly large part of
the federal and state government has therefore
come to be dedicated to the culture and control of
food and forage crops.

Fruit establishment in America proved to be
unexpectedly challenging.  Early horticulturists,
mostly in Massachusetts, felt sure that just as
humans had adapted to the change in continent, the
fruits they had become so accustomed to in Europe
should do so as well.  They failed to account for the

very long time frame that had ultimately led to the
success of fruit culture in Europe.  For example,
strawberries presented a challenge to early North
American breeders but by the 1850s an apparently
mediocre, but marketable product was available.
Early attempts at grape (and therefore wine) culture
continually failed as fungi and climate played their

In addition to providing historical perspective on
botanical and horticultural issues, Pauly provides
many interesting details about the individuals who
have been passionately involved with plants.  He
demonstrates the importance of beliefs, attitudes
and even the social standing in plant culture.  He
traces the beginnings of federal programs to Patent
Office involvement with the spreading of new
introductions.  He captures the frustration of forest
pathologists in the early 1900s who found
themselves completely unable to stop chestnut
blight and the subsequent challenges of the federal
Plant Quarantine program.  The value and methods
of restricting entry of new organisms into the country
became the controversial subject it remains today.

Pauly traces the shift of the split of the horticultural
field into two groups.  Those who continued to focus
on breeding and growing conditions worked mostly
in the academic world and in federal and state
agricultural offices where their decision profoundly
impact the fields of agriculture, forestry and
ornamental plant development.  Those interested
in gardens shifted toward the field now called
landscape architecture where aesthetics became
the central concern, a trend that he feels ultimately
marginalized many of the botanical gardens which
had originally had a central role in international
plant commerce.

Toward the end the book does address the subject
of the plains with a fascinating discussion of the
efforts to “restore” prairie in the west.  It proves to be
a tale involving people and organizations from the
citizens living near Chicago parks targeted for
restoration, to ecologists from various midwestern
Universities, the National Park Service and the
Nature Conservancy.  Ultimately through federal
funding the Konza Prairie Long-term Ecological
Research site was established and currently
investigates competing views of what a natural
prairie actually is.

In this review I’ve only presented a sample of the
many interrelated topics covered in this well-written
book. The material is well-researched and 56 pages
of notes document references from a variety of
sources.  There is an index, which can be very
helpful in finding specifics within chapters with
such intriguing titles as “Fixing the accidents of
American natural history”. Anyone who is interested

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

in plants will find an engaging historical perspective
on their culture and management in this book.

-Joanne Sharpe, Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens,
Boothbay Maine

Middle East Garden Traditions: Unity and Diversity.
Conan, Michel (ed.) ISBN 978-0-88402-329-6 (Paper
US$40.00) 363 pp. Dumbarton Oaks Research
Library and Collection, distributed by Harvard
University Press, 79.Garden Street, Cambridge,
Massachusetts 02138.

It is difficult to write about Middle East Garden
 without gushing superlatives.  I have
been waiting for a scholarly compilation on this
subject for decades.  Editor Michael Conan, former
Director of Garden and Landscape Studies,
Dumbarton Oaks admirably assembled colleagues
to execute this undertaking, which links gardens
and people of different cultures and creeds. These
chapters originated as conference proceedings
from the Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History
of Landscape Architecture, XXXI, held at the Freer
and Sackler Galleries April 2007.  The resulting
commentary represents decades of research by
experts who have diligently compiled centuries of
study by others: area specialists who brought into
English a vast literature about garden history that
was previously unavailable. It presents a critical
selection, not intentionally comprehensive, of
sources on studies of gardens issued from Middle
East garden traditions. It displays erudition at the
highest order.

This account sorts out cultural connections,
variations and distinctions between gardens in the
Middle East since Roman times, and in the broader
Islamic world. Scholars supply new sources for
studies of gardens in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan,
Iran, the Ottoman world, Judea, Morocco and Moorish
Spain. They explore the interaction of conflicting
influences, the cultural reception of gardens in
religious and mystical societies, and the political
uses of gardens, presenting an astonishing range
of garden forms among diverse social groups. It
includes 56 black and white photographs, 173 color
photographs, site maps and digital reconstructions
of vanished gardens.  It has an extensive, 27 page
Index covering garden terminology and botanical,
geographical and person names.

In addition, there is associated with this work, a
feature both highly unusual, in my experience, and
rich: a searchable website of expanded contents:

  Authors of this

study have participated in it, and it currently consists
of five features: a catalog of gardens of interest for
future research referencing major scholarship or
more often, the absence of scholarly discussion of
their traces; a multicultural glossary giving a short
definition of many garden terms used in Arabic,
Hebrew, Farsi, Ottoman and Urdu; a historical
garden dictionary for Ottoman prepared by one of
the authors in the Istanbul study group for the
History of Ottoman Gardens, which brings together
all the original entries about garden and horticultural
terms found in more than 200 historical dictionaries
and technical treatises written in Ottoman or
translated from Ottoman to English; a joint
bibliography of sources and scholarly research on
gardens in the different languages used by the
authors; and an exemplary study of the historical
flora of al-Andalus with a methodological
commentary by E.García Sánchez and J.E.
Hernández Bermejo in their study of agricultural
treatises of al-Andalus. They suggest that other
scholars could engage in similar endeavors but
they will have to devise a method adapted to the
sources they are using, and it is not certain that
such rich historical sources as were found in al
Andalus will be readily available for other parts of
the world.

Having searched a series of my favorite subjects:
geographical (Armenia, Diyarbakir, Van) botanical
(jasmine, rose, eaglewood, sandalwood,) and
thematic (agriculture, irrigation, poetry), it seems
undeniably comprehensive, and pointless to identify
any single principal audience for this book. Fully
interdisciplinary, it contains broad and thorough
treatments that will enlighten many specialists in
Middle East and related regional studies, and in a
number of subject areas, including architecture,
art, geography, history, as well as botany and

The arrangement offers five main sections: first, the
Editor’s Introduction showing how new
developments and new questions in garden
archaeology transform our understanding of ancient
evidence and broaden the field of garden history,




 c.  New Perspectives for Garden Archaeology

contains the following articles: The Rose and the
Balsam: The Garden as a Source of Perfume and
Medicine; Soil Improvement and Agricultural
Pesticides in Antiquity; An Approach to the Visual
Analysis of the Gardens of Al-Andalus; and
Ornamental Plants in Agricultural and Botanical
Treatises from Al-Andalus.

The Political Uses of Gardens has five contributions:
Garden Strategy of the Almohad Sultans and Their
Successors (1157-1900); Princely Safavid
Gardens: Stage for Rituals of Imperial Display and
Political Legitimacy; Royal Gardens of Farahâbâd

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Musa Cliffortiana: Clifford’s Banana plant.
Linnaeus, Carl  (Reprint and translation of the
original edition [Leiden 1736]).  Translated into
English by Stephen Freer. With an introduction by
Staffan Müller-Wille. 2007. ISBN 978-3-906166-63-
6 (Cloth US$ 124.00) 264 pp. A. R. G. Gantner Verlag
K. G. Distributed by Koeltz Scientific Books, P.O. Box
1360, D-61453 Koenigstein, Germany.

Musa Cliffortiana is a very nice book which provides
much more than the title may suggest. The main
body is a facsimile of Linnaeus’s detailed
description of a banana plant (“Musa Cliffortiana”)
which flowered in 1736 in the garden of Georg
Clifford (1685–1760). Clifford was Linnaeus’s patron
for whom the 28 year old Swede officially worked as
a private physician. However, one of the main duties
of Linnaeus was to curate Clifford’s vast plant
collection at the Hartenkamp. The facsimile is
accompanied by Stephen Freer’s translation into
English. The binding is in such a way that the Latin
text of each page is on the left and its translation on
the right side of the book. This particular binding
makes the reading of both the original Latin version
and Freer’s translation rather interesting and good
fun. Two illustrations on large folded sheets – one
showing the whole plant and the other the
inflorescence with young fruits and flowers – are
reproduced to a smaller scale at the end of the text.

Facsimile and translation are preceded by a
comprehensive and thoughtful introduction by
Staffan Müller-Wille. He carefully analyzed Musa
Cliffortiana and puts it into the broader context of
Linnaeus’s work and achievements. The
introduction is accompanied by 10 figures of which
four are in color and six in b/w.

Next, a “Musa-centric” chronology gives an overview
of Linnaeus’s work on the banana plant. The
chronology starts with Linnaeus’s arrival in Holland
(13 June 1735) and it ends in 1762 with the thesis
“Fundamentum fructificationis” in which Linnaeus
speculates that Musa paradisiaca (this is the name
that Linnaeus recognized in 1753 for the plant in his
Species plantarum) is a hybrid.

The chronology is followed by a brief preface of the
translator, Stephen Freer. He discusses the history
of Linnaeus’s two private copies of Musa Cliffortiana
(one of which is the basis of Freer’s translation)
which were bought by James Edward Smith in
1784. Smith was a founding member of the Linnaean
Society of London which now holds the two copies
of the book. However, for “technical and financial”
reasons the present facsimile is produced from a
copy held by the University of Vienna Library (but this
does not reduce the value of the actual book). Freer
also highlights that Linnaeus’s publications are
largely derived from lecture-notes, and that this

and the Fall of Shah Sultan Husayn Revisited; My
Garden is Hindustan: The Mughal Padshah’s
Realization of a Political Metaphor; Questions about
the Political Significance of Mughal Garden

The next sections each hold two essays. Cultural
Receptions of Gardens includes Matrakçý Nasuh
and Evliya Çelebi: Perspectives on Ottoman
Gardens (1534-1682); and Unity and Diversity of
Mughal Garden Experiences.  Critical Discussion
of Cultural Influences presents: Gardens at the
Kaðithane Commons during the Tulip Period (1718-
1730); and Rajput Gardens and Landscapes.
Exploring the Limits of Garden Traditions extends
From the Andalusí Garden to the Andalusian Garden:
Remnants and Re-Creation; to Gardens of

Testing the capability of the Advanced Search
Multilingual Vocabulary and Glossary, searching
Sesamum indicum L. under the widespread Turkish
name ‘susam’ I obtained various citations under 19
synonyms.  There were no entries under other
languages. It is sensible, considering the vast
amount of material remaining to be examined
along these lines that these authorities decided to
open the web site to the public, and to encourage
other scholars to participate in its development.

One can now only wish that the regions that Editor
Conan admits were skipped involuntarily in this
volume: Mesopotamia, Egypt, ancient Persia, Iraq
and Syria will find their place in another tome of this
elegant series.  Considering the value of its contents
and the giant efforts to assemble these scarce
materials, the published work, stitched solid to
strengthen the binding to support its hefty weight,
is worth every penny of its price, and belongs in
libraries of botanical gardens, horticulture institutes,
museums, universities and public libraries

-Dorothea Bedigian, Research Associate, Missouri
Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

affects his style which is sometimes highly
rhetorical. As a result Freer notes that “... I almost felt
that I could see Linnaeus pointing to each part ... and
hear him discoursing about the details...” It is
noteworthy that this excitement and liveliness of
Linnaeus description is successfully transformed
into modern English by Freer.

The core text is not a mere translation, but Freer also
provides more than 120 notes with highly informative
background information referring to both the text,
wording, and translation and to many other aspects
such as biographical notes, other studies on Musa
and he even reports on a Musa  basjoo which
produced fruit out-of-doors at Clare College,
Cambridge (UK) during a heat-wave in 2006 (this is
a note in response to Linnaeus’ note that Musa has
never grown out-of-doors in Europe).

After all of this, the reader will still find additional and
valuable bonuses: First, Linnaeus’s handwritten
notes (52 in total) are reproduced from one of his
personal copies of Musa Cliffortiana. The position
of the notes is marked in the facsimile by encircled
numbers and the handwriting is translated by Freer.
The reproduction of Linnaeus’s handwriting is not
always to scale and sometimes it is not easy to
read. Nevertheless, it is rather interesting and
fascinating to actually see how he worked. Some of
the notes are written on blank pages which were
bound opposite each printed page in Linnaeus’s
private copies. This gives an interesting glimpse on
how Linnaeus continued his work on Musa. It seems
possible that he even planned a second edition of
the book, which never appeared. However, parts of
these notes were published as corrigenda in the
Hortus Cliffortianus (1737).

This is still not the end of the book. What follows is
a bibliography of Linnaeus’s sources compiled by
Müller-Wille which again adds up to the value of the
book. And finally we find two appendices at the end
of the book. Appendix I is a reprint and translation of
Linnaeus’s Methodus which was published
separately in 1736 and which is inserted as a folded
letterpress in Linnaeus’s own copies of Musa
Cliffortiana. The Methodus perfectly accomplishes
Musa Cliffortiana, because it contains detailed
instructions on how to describe species, which
Linnaeus followed meticulously in writing Musa
Cliffortiana. Finally Appendix II – the definitive end of
the book – is the reproduction of a laudatory poem
by Johann Heinrich Jungius which is enclosed on
a loose sheet in Linnaeus’s annotated copy of
Musa Cliffortiana. The poem which consists of
eighteen elegiac couplets is handwritten
(interestingly it is Linnaeus’s own handwriting) and
translated again by Freer.

Summing up, the translation of Musa Cliffortiana is
an excellent and highly welcome attempt to
rediscover this early piece of Carl Linnaeus’s work.
Because of the successful introduction by Müller-
Wille and the fact that the translation goes far
beyond a mere English version of the Latin text, and
because of the other extras such as the reprint of
Linnaeus’s handwritten annotations, Musa
Cliffortiana is highly recommendable to a broader
audience. Everyone who is interested in Carl
Linnaeus, the history of botany and/or in the fruit,
which “is so excellently sweat that hardly any other
can be compared with it” (Musa Cliffortiana, p. 177)
will be pleased with this book. According to Müller-
Wille (p. 24) “Musa Cliffortiana was not in the first
instance produced for sale. Its purpose was rather
to serve as a present for botanical amateurs and
botanists with whom Clifford either had established
or wanted to establish exchange relations.” Here
again we can find a link to the present, because this
edition of Musa Cliffortiana certainly makes a nice
(but not cheap) present for esteemed friends and

– Gerhard Prenner, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew,
Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3DS, UK.

Physiology and Behaviour of Plants.  Scott, Peter.
2008.  ISBN 0-470-85024-4 (Cloth US$170.00)  305
pp.  John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., The Atrium, Southern
Gate, Chichester, West Sussex,  PO19 8SQ,

The concept of plant behavior may not be readily
apparent to most observers.  While a few plants
exhibit dramatic movements such as the famous
Venus fly trap, most other plant behaviors or
movements occur at a much slower scale.  One of
the overarching concepts in this book is that plants
exhibit a range of fascinating behaviors which are
based on an intriguing underlying physiology.

Author Peter Scott’s approach is to present basic
concepts of plant physiology and development in an
enthusiastic and engaging manner.  While Scott
considers biochemistry, he does not use molecular
biology throughout the book in an attempt to make
it more accessible to a broad audience.

The author also believes that while plant biology is
relevant to solving global problems such as feeding
a large population, interest in the topic appears at
a historic low, and plant biology gets too little
coverage in most undergraduate biology programs.

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Field guide to Wisconsin sedges, An introduction
to the genus Carex
 (Cyperaceae), by Andrew L.
Hipp, illustrations by Rachel D. Davis. 2008. 265 pp.
ISBN 978-029922594. $27.95 (pbk). The University
of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.

Carex provides many unique challenges to the
serious field botanist. The extreme specialization of
their floral structures means that experience with
other taxa is not applicable to this genus; Carex
must be learned (Catling et al. 1990). The primary
resources available up to now have been rather
imposing technical floras. Andrew Hipp’s new field
guide thus fills an important gap: it provides an
introduction to Carex that is both complete enough
to be of lasting value to professional botanists, and
accessible enough to provide an entry point for keen

The book begins with a ten-page overview of Carex
morphology, “What is a sedge?”. This section is
organized around the Flora of North America (FNA,
Ball and Reznicek 2002) description. Hipp quotes
key lines from the FNA, each accompanied by a
paragraph of further explanation. This provides the
reader with a clear outline of the key features of
Carex. Perhaps more importantly, the formal
language used in the FNA is rendered somewhat
less intimidating to budding caricologists. Indeed,
Hipp refers to the FNA repeatedly throughout the
book, and the two volumes complement each other
nicely. The introduction briefly discusses
differentiating Carex from other sedges, as well as
grasses and rushes. Beginners would have
benefited from an illustration of the differences
among these groups, but that is perhaps beyond
the scope of this field guide.

The introduction is concluded by a brief overview of
Carex taxonomy. Not a great deal of depth is provided,
just enough to place the genus in its evolutionary
context, and introduce some of the main concepts
in its Linnaean classification. This is followed by
some general tips for studying sedges in the field.

Hipp proceeds with the taxonomic key and species
descriptions. He emphasizes the utility of the existing
classification, noting the advantages of learning to
recognize the subgenera Vignea and Carex, and
the many sections within each subgenus. In my
experience this aspect of Carex taxonomy is too
often overlooked by field botanists. With 150 species
in the flora, having a logical way to partition the
diversity into manageable chunks is critical in
coming to terms with the genus. However, while
Hipp acknowledges the value of the sectional
classifications, this could be better reflected in the
keys themselves. He begins with a key to the
subgenera, and then provides separate keys for

Hence, he tries to use his passion for his subject to
be an effective teacher, and his enthusiasm is
evident throughout the book.

As an example of his exuberance, I cite chapter 2
entitled: Photosynthesis: the ultimate in autotrophy.
He describes RUBISCO as the “marvel enzyme of
the universe” that supports almost all life on Earth!
The author also discusses the biochemical
elegance of photosystem II with its ability to split
water and extract the oxygen we need to breathe.

Another fascinating chapter discusses carnivorous
plants, a topic which seems to attract a great deal
of interest among introductory students.  The overall
approach is to consider these organisms as highly
adapted plants that have elaborate mechanisms
that have evolved from alterations in leaf structure
that are common to all plants.  In many ways,
including basic mechanisms of nutrient uptake, the
author views the carnivorous plants as similar to
non-carnivorous plants.

Given my personal interests, I particularly enjoyed
chapter 13, Plant senses and perceiving the world.
His description of shade avoidance and the role of
phytochromes in this process is very enlightening.
The subheadings in this chapter are informative
and provide a new perspective for many students on
plant biology: sensing light (sight), sensing time,
sensing touch (feeling), sensing chemicals (taste),
and sensing sounds (hearing).  The last issue
seems to be a perennial topic in science fairs: do
plants respond better to Mozart or Meatloaf?

One of the clear strengths of this book are the high-
quality color diagrams.  The figures are simply
stunning and are a fabulous tool for learning.  They
have an elegant simplicity while covering the basic
points–without being overly “busy.”  For instance,
the diagram on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza in
the chapter on mycorrhizal associations and
saprophytic nutrition provides a good explanation of
the importance of this group of fungi.  Other fine
examples include the diagram on the capture of
light energy by an antenna complex and the figure
illustrating the difference between shade and sun

I enjoyed reading Physiology and Behaviour of
and came away with good ideas for new
approaches to teaching topics in plant biology.  The
book could be useful in a number of courses in
botany and plant biology at the freshman and
sophomore level.

-John Z. Kiss, Department of Botany, Miami
University, Oxford OH 45056

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

different combinations of species within each
subgenus. Sections are indicated within the
species-level keys, but I prefer keys that provide
separate intra-sectional keys, as in FNA, Gleason
and Cronquist (1991) or Voss (1972). This further
reinforces the sectional relationships among
species, at the cost of somewhat longer keys.
Hipp’s decision not to include intra-sectional keys
may have been influenced by the fact that the
species-level classification of Carex is likely to
undergo some substantial rearrangement in the
next decade, however.

Keys notwithstanding, the species descriptions
are arranged in sections. Hipp provides interesting
notes to accompany each key, section, and species,
emphasizing key characters for the group, ecological
relationships, or Wisconsin distribution, as
appropriate. This provides considerable value,
making this more than simply a scaled-back version
of the FNA. I expect even experienced caricologists
will find much of interest here. The notes on section
Ovales, one of Dr. Hipp’s specialities within the
genus, provide a very welcome introduction to this
most challenging group.

The second half of the book is devoted to the field
guide. Here, four-fifths of the Wisconsin Carex flora
is fully illustrated with excellent watercolour
paintings. The artist, Rachel Davis, clearly has
spent some time in the study of sedges herself, as
she has done a wonderful job in capturing the fine
details of perigynia and scales. Each of the species
illustrated is accompanied by a full page description,
including habitat preferences, similar species, and
Wisconsin distribution. The extent of the coverage,
and the quality of the illustrations, will allow for ready
identification, at least to section, of many specimens
simply by thumbing through the book.

The book concludes with two appendices. The first
is a guide to the principal carices of different habitat
types in Wisconsin, compiled by Theodore
Cochrane. The second is a county level atlas for the
Carex flora of Wisconsin. Although these are
obviously of greatest interest to botanists in that
area, the book as a whole is a fantastic resource for
anyone working with Carex  anywhere in the midwest
or northeast. Indeed, I included this book in a recent
Carex workshop here in Nova Scotia, and it was very
popular. The students enjoyed the book well enough
that I can forgive Dr. Hipp for not including the
species in our local salt marshes in his treatment.

At $27.95, this book is a bargain. Any serious
student of Carex will want a copy on their shelf. The
species coverage make it a useful guide for carices
from Minnesota to Nova Scotia, although it will be
comprehensive only for Wisconsin.

-Tyler Smith

Literature Cited:
Ball, P. W. and A. A. Reznicek. 2002. Carex. Pages 254-
273 in Flora of North America Volume 23: Magnoliophyta:
Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Flora of North America
Editorial Committee. Oxford University Press, New York.

Catling, P. M., A. A. Reznicek and W. J. Crins. 1990.
Systematics and ecology of the genus Carex
(Cyperaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 1405-

Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular
plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada.
New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan flora part I: Gymnosperms and
Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Michigan.

Early greenhouse automation

from Greenhouse Gossip 4(4), April, 1945.

Flight Floral Co., New York, NY

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008


Flora of the Northeast: A Manual of the Vascular
Flora of New England and Adjacent New York.
Dennis W. Magee and Harry E. Ahles. 2007. 2


edition. ISBN 10: 1–55849–577–0; ISBN 13: 978–
1–55849–577–7 (Cloth US$95) 1264 pp. University
of Massachusetts Press, Amherst.

New England has been blessed with a bouquet of
good floras. Without even including single-state
volumes or those limited to particular groups like
the ferns, botanists in the region have been able to
reach for Fernald’s excellent Gray’s Manual of
Botany, Gleason and Cronquist’s Manual of Vascular
Plants, Gleason’s New Britton and Brown Illustrated
Flora of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent
Canada or Seymour’s Flora of New England. Still,
Gleason & Cronquist (G&C) is the only one of these
that is less than 25 years old. Given the rapidity with
which plant systematics has been changing in
recent years, a new flora of the region is more than

Flora of the Northeast: A Manual of the Vascular
Flora of New England and Adjacent New York by
Dennis W. Magee and the late Harry E. Ahles has
been issued in a 2


 edition (University of

Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 2007). The keys
and distributional information in this volume are
primarily the work of Ahles, curator of the University
of Massachusetts herbarium who died in 1981, but
they have been assembled and revised by Magee,
vice president of an environmental consulting
company, who added the descriptive text.

For New England botanists, there is much to like
about this volume. For one thing, it focuses more
closely on the six-state region (it actually covers an
area extending west to the Hudson River and south
to Long Island, outside the political bounds of the
New England states) than does G&C, which is the
best of the other floras. In trying to identify a plant in
the Apiaceae, a botanist using Magee and Ahles
(M&A) would have to work through 34 genera instead
of the 49 in G&C, including those like Lomatium and
Polytaenia that don’t occur east of the Great Plains.
Of course, the close geographical focus makes
M&A less useful for botanists in Minnesota, Missouri
or Virginia.

The volume also includes county-level dot maps
showing the range of most species (the range of
very infrequent species is described in the text) as
well as line drawings by Abigail Rorer of 995 species
– at least one per genus. G&C lacks both.
Furthermore, M&A provides information on the
etymology of genus and species names, as Fernald
does, and includes accents on Latin names as an
aid to pronunciation.

Family and genus descriptions are adequate. The

only descriptive information for most species is
provided in the keys, but the flora does include
information on species’ wetland indicator value,
food value for people and wildlife, medicinal uses
and poisonous properties, as well as more
traditional information such as habitat and
synonyms. Moreover, the volume includes a 56-
page matrix to help in identifying dicots to genus and
a separate 10-page matrix to help identify woody
plants in winter. A welcome addition to the 2


edition is a CD that makes using the dicot matrix
much easier and adds images of all 624 genera.
Using the text matrix, I was unable to identify a
vegetative specimen of Diervilla lonicera, but I
recognized it immediately from among the
photographs provided on the CD after narrowing my
search to the genera to which my specimen could
belong, based on its having opposite, simple,
dentate leaves.

For field botanists, keys to identify specimens
represent the heart of any flora, and the keys in this
one are many and excellent. Separate artificial keys
are provided for aquatic plants, parasites and
saprophytes, vines, pteridophytes, gymnosperms,
scapose herbs, herbs with opposite or whorled
leaves, herbs with alternate leaves, woody plants
without leaves, woody plants with opposite or
whorled leaves, woody plants with alternative leaves
and woody plants in winter condition. The keys led
to the correct identification of herbarium and freshly
collected material, including a sedge, a composite,
a legume, a fern, a lycopod and a specimen of
Anemone quinquefolia. The only problem occurred
with identifying a vegetative specimen of
Myriophyllum humile; keys led to the correct genus
but could not identify the species without flowers or

County-level distributional maps give M&A a great
advantage over G&C. However, these were not
revised in the 2


 edition; Magee says in a preface

that he “lacked opportunity” to update the maps.
That is unfortunate. Magee acknowledges that
“county level distributional data are changing
constantly,” and maps for many taxa were out of date
even in the first edition. For example, Myriophyllum
 is not listed as a resident species in
Connecticut even though it is the most frequently
found of all milfoil species in southern New England
(it is described as “reported for CT, MA, NH, VT”).
Probably it is unfair to use a non-native species as
a test case, since these can spread so quickly, but
the maps are out of date for native species as well.
The maps can be used only as a general guide to
where species occur: Zannichellia palustris does,
in fact, occur primarily along the coast and in areas
with calcareous rock in the extreme western part of
the region; ignore the fact that the map shows the
species absent from Connecticut’s Fairfield County

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

(although specimens date at least from 1982) and
Middlesex County (specimens from 1980).  Magee
says in the preface that this edition’s range maps
“provide reasonable indication of the distribution of
approximately two-thirds of the flora.” That seems
like settling for too little.

The most serious problem with the region’s other
floras is that they are too old to reflect the current
understanding of the relationships among plants.
This, therefore, is where M&A could make the
greatest contribution. To some degree it succeeds.
When G&C was published, there was a single
genus for lycopods; M&A divides the species among
Huperzia,  Lycopodiella,  Pseudolycopodiella,
Diphasiastrum and Lycopodium, in line with the
arrangement accepted by the Flora of North America.
Thelypteris is placed in its own family, in accord with
FNA, the Integrated Taxonomic Information System
and the Plants database, not in the Aspleniaceae,
as it was in G&C; Onoclea and Matteuccia are in the
Dryopteridaceae, as they are in FNA and ITIS, not in
the Onocleaceae, as they were in G&C. Much
taxonomy is corrected – Wolffiella floridana becomes
W. gladiata.

However, this flora fails to fully embrace modern
systematics. Magee says in a preface that
production of the second edition was motivated
primarily by systematic revisions adopted since
publication of the first edition in 1999. He relies
heavily on John Kartesz of the Flora of North American
project to guide his decisions on taxonomy, and
Magee writes that, in most cases, he accepted
Kartesz’s recommendations. But not in all. Magee
clearly believes older classifications in some cases
are more convenient. Families in the flora are
arranged using the Englerian system instead of
what he acknowledges would be a “more modern”
approach like that taken in G&C because “it seemed
more practical to use the familiar system that is
most generally used by taxonomists and field
botanists,” which seems an odd approach even if
the assumption is correct, which is unlikely. This
flora is for field botanists, Magee stresses, and until
characters recognizable in the field are identified for
groups, it is more convenient to stick with the old
classification, regardless of what molecular
analyses tell us. Perhaps this is why Stuckenia
 is still listed as Potamogeton pectinatus,
although both FNA and ITIS place it in Stuckenia.
Species traditionally assigned to the genus Scirpus
are retained in that genus by Magee “to promote
comprehension and convenience of use”  although
he does list alternative names in the genera
Trichophorum and Schoenoplectus  for some
species; he doesn’t acknowledge Bolboschoenus
even though FNA recognizes it.

The primary goal for Magee was to provide “a
functional manual for the serious field botanist.” He
avoided splitting taxa into groups “lacking
conspicuous distinguishing field characteristics,”
and he declined to combine taxa that can be
distinguished from each other based only on
molecular analyses. That would be
“counterproductive for consistent and accurate plant
identification in the field,”  Magee writes. “For
comprehension and convenience of use, I have
frequently retained concepts and names of
taxonomic entities that have become well
established through usage over the years.”

Convenience is a worthy goal, but this is a flora, not
a field guide, and it presents itself as a serious
reference work for serious botanists. Serious botany,
first and foremost, is not about convenience (I would
much prefer to simply stick with G&C, frankly). A
modern flora can best serve regional botanists by
embracing the new systematics, helping botanists
keep up with all the changes, reminding us of the
new names and phylogenetic relationships. This
flora represents an improvement over other
available floras for the region, yet it seems to want
to keep one foot in the past, and that is unfortunate.
In spite of its imperfections, this flora will be a
valuable addition to the shelf of any New England
botanist – for use both in the field and as a reference
work. I can hope only that it will continue to improve
with future editions.

-Robert S. Capers, George Safford Torrey
Herbarium, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary
Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs CT 06269-

Literature cited

Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray’s Manual of Botany 8th ed.
American Book Co., Boston.

Gleason, H. A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated
flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent
Canada. 3 vols. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.

Gleason, H.A., and A.C. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of
Vascular Plants of the Northeastern United States and
Adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York Botanical Garden,
Bronx, New York.

Seymour, F. C. 1982 The flora of New England. 2



Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, N.J.

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Woody Plants of the Southeastern U.S.: A Field
Botany Course on CD
.  Kirchoff, Bruce.  2008.  ISBN
13:978-1-930723-62-7.  (CD US$27.00)  Missouri
Botanical Garden Press, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis,
Missouri 63166-0299

Woody Plants of the Southeastern United States: A
Field Botany Course on CD provides a wonderful
tool for teaching and learning taxonomy in general
as well as the specific flora mentioned in the title.

Formatted for Windows machines, the program is
quite simple. After registering, the user selects one
of four options: building a list from the available
families, genera, or species; studying the items on
the list; taking a quiz; and taking a test. Study can be
with or without prompts and can be either advanced
slide-by-slide by the user or automatically advanced
by the program. The quizzes are shorter than the
tests and have the display of text prompts as an
option, while tests do not.

While the CD is aimed at the Southeastern US, the
families represented include many of broader
distribution which might make this CD-ROM of
interest to a wider audience in the US, Canada, and
possibly elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere.
There are 55 families represented, many with
multiple genera, and each species shown has at
least four high quality photographs available, most
species with more. Some even have over a dozen
photographs of various taxonomically-useful

It would be nice if this CD-ROM also came in Mac
and Linux formats, but given the capacities of the
newer Intel-based Macs and of various Linux tricks,
that may not be an insurmountable impediment to
users of those operating systems. Buy a copy today
for your introductory class to use in practicing
taxonomic features and the quick identification of
common woody plants.

-Douglas Darnowski, Department of Biology, Indiana
University Southeast

Weeds in South Texas and Northern Texas: A
Guide to identification. 
James H. Everitt, Robert I.
Lonard, and Christopher R. Little. 222 pages,
(paperback) ISBN-13: 978-0-89672-614-7, ISBN-
10: 0-89672-614-2

This book is the third guide on the vegetation of the
temperate-tropic of Southern Texas and Northern
Mexico.  The reference provides easy access to
information on common weedy species of plants
found in both rural and urban areas, and is intended
for people working the field of agriculture.  Field
guides for this region of the world are scarce and
while other available publications contain more
taxa, species selected by the authors include those
that dominate in disturbed areas, i.e. because they
are weeds.

Given the predominance of agriculture throughout
this region, there is a need to be able to recognize
invasive species and access information on their
management.  This guide is of obvious value for
those purposes.  The appendices on important
plant pathogens, their host plants, and available
treatment options make this publication an
especially useful resource.  Descriptions or pictures
of the pathogens would have been helpful given that
not all readers may be familiar with plant diseases.

The book begins with a discussion on the definition,
significance, and ecology of weeds.  The main text
is broken into three sections: Polypodiopsida,
Magnoliopsida, Liliiopsida, and contains 261
colored photographs of the 189 included species
arranged by families.  Poaceae has the lion’s share
of entries, and the detailed pictures are particularly
useful for determining species.  Each entry includes
a description as well as notes on the ecology,
pathology, and significance for selected species.
There are also seven appendices, a glossary, and
an index.  Between the color photos and clearly
executed plant descriptions the guide is very easy
to use without needing to employ the glossary.
Unfortunately by leaving out plant measurements in
the descriptions, and not providing scale for the
photos, the reader has a poor idea of the size of the
plants and their critical features.

The book itself is a durable paperback (9” x 6”) able
to withstand the wear and tear that comes with field
work.  While a little too wide for a pants pocket, the
guide fits comfortably into a backpack without adding
too much weight.  Every page has a large blank
space that could have been cut out to make the book
smaller.  Alternately the photographs could have
been made larger.  A key would be useful for
beginning botanists and amateurs who are not
familiar with plant family characteristics.
Nevertheless,  Weeds of South Texas and North
 would be a positive addition to the library of

anyone interested in plants of this region, and
doubly so for those with interests in agricultural and
urban floras.

-Nathan LeClear, Department of Biological
Sciences, University of Texas-Pan American.

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Plant Science Bulletin 54(4) 2008

Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes.
Ranker, Tom A. and Christopher H. Haufler.  2008.
ISBN 978-0-521-69689-0 (Paper US$70.00).  480
pp.  Cambridge University Press, 32 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, NY 10013.

Burdock.  Malcolm, Janet.  2008.  ISBN 978-0-300-
12861-1 (Cloth US$65.00) 28 pp.  Yale University
Press, 302 Temple Street, New Haven, CT, 06529-

Chocolate: Pathway to the Gods. Meredith L. Dreiss
and Sharon Edgar Greenhill.  2008.  ISBN 978-0-
8165-2464-8 (Cloth US$30.00) 208 pp.  University
of Arizona Press, 355 S. Euclid Ave., Suite 103,
Tucson, AZ 85719.

A Flora of the Liverworts and Hornworts of New
Zealand, Volume 1.  Monographs in Systematic
Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 110.
John J.  & David Glenny.  2008.  ISBN 978-1-930723-
67-2  (Cloth US$105.00) 897 pp.  Missouri Botanical
Garden Press, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO  63166-
0299  USA

The Fruit Hunters: A Story of Nature, Adventure,
Commerce and Obsession.
  Gollner, Adam Leith.
2008.  ISBN 978-0-7432-9694-6  (Cloth US$25.00)
279 pp.  Scribner, 1230 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, NY 10020.

How Life Began: Evolution’s Three Geneses.
Meinesz, Alexandre (Translated by Daniel
Simberloff).  2008.  ISBN 978-0-226-51931-9 (Cloth
US$27.50) 296 pp.  The University of Chicago
Press, 1427 East 60


 Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637-


Intracellular Signaling in Plants.  Annual Plant
Reviews, Volume 33.
  Yang, Zhenbiao (ed).  ISBN
1-4054-6002-0 (Cloth US$225.00) 430 pp.  Wiley-
Blackwell, 2121 State Avenue, Ames, Iowa, 50014-

Lichen Biology, 2


 ed. Nash, Thomas H. III (ed).

2008. ISBN 978-0-521-69216-8 (Paper US$70.00)
486 pp.  Cambridge University Press, 32 Avenue of
the Americas, New York, NY 10013.

Moth Orchids: The Complete guide to
  Frowine, Steven A.  2008.  ISBN 798-
0-88192-870-9 (Cloth US$39.95)  308 pp.  Timber
Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland,
OR 97204-3527.

Mushrooms as Functional Foods.  Cheung, Pater
C.K. (ed.)  2008.  ISBN 0-470-05406-2 (Cloth
US$90.00)  259 pp John Wiley & Sons, 111 River
Street, Hoboken, NY 07030.

Natural Environments of Arizona: From Deserts to
, Ffolliott, Peter F. and Owen K. Davis.
2008.  ISBN  978-0-8165-2697-0  (Paper US$19.95)
208 pp.  University of Arizona Press, 355 S. Euclid
Ave., Suite 103, Tucson, AZ 85719.

Plant Biochemistry.  Bowsher, Caroline, Martin
Steer, Alyson Tobin.  2008.  ISBN 0-8153-4121-0
(Paper US$)  446.  Garland Science, Taylor &
Francis Group, 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY

Plant Form: An Illustrated Guide to Flowering Plant
.  Bell, Adrian D. 2008.  ISBN 978-0-
88192-850-1  (Cloth US$49.95)  444 pp.  Timber
Press, Inc.  133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450,
Portland, OR 97204-3527.

The Scientific Life: A Moral History of a Late
Modern Vocation.
  Shapin, Steven.  2008.  ISBN 0-
226-75024-8 (Cloth US$29.00) 468 pp.  The
University of Chicago Press, 1427 East 60



Chicago, Illinois, 60637-2954.

Sonoran Desert Life: Understanding, Insights,
and Enjoyment
, Rosenthal, Gerald A.  2008.  978-
0-615-18671-9 (Paper US$27.95)  306 pp.  University
of Arizona Press, 355 S. Euclid Ave., Suite 103,
Tucson, AZ 85719.

Teaching Plant Anatomy Through Creative
Laboratory Exercises.
  Peterson, R. Larry, Carol A.
Peterson, and Lewis H. Melville.  2008.  ISBN 978-
0-660-19798-2  (Spiral  ) 154 pp + CD.  National
Research Council of Canada Press, Ottawa, ON.
K1A 0R6 Canada.

Tea Roses: Old Roses for Warm Gardens.
Chapman, Lynne, Noelene Drage, Di Durston, Jenny
Jones, Hillary Merrifield, Billy West.  2008  (ISBN
9781877058677 (Cloth US$59.95)  240pp
Rosenberg Publishing Pty Ltd., P.O. Box 6125,
Dural Delivery Centre NSW 2158, Australia.

Books Received

If you would like to review a book or books for PSB,
contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and
the date by which it would be reviewed (15 January,
15 April, 15 July or 15 October).  E-mail

, call, or write as soon as you notice

the book of interest in this list because they go

Note that books in green are already in

review and no longer available.

  Books received are

now posted on the web site as they become available
and may be requested as soon as they are posted.
- Editor

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