Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1999 v45 No 4 WinterActions


News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees

Sundberg Named New Editor of Plant Science Bulletin

In March of this year, a blue ribbon committee began an exhaustive search for a new Editor. Endorsing the unanimous recommendation of the search committee, the Executive Committee named Marshall Sundberg to be Editor of Plant Science Bulletin beginning with volume 46.

Dr. Sundberg is Professor and Chair of the Division of Biological Sciences at Emporia State University, Emporia Kansas 66801. He is a member of over a dozen professional organizations, and he has held numerous offices. He has written and contributed to a number of books, and his lengthy publication list includes significant contributions both in botanical research and in teaching and education research.

Dr. Sundberg has a long record of service to the Botanical Society. He has Chaired the Society's Teaching Section, Education Committee, and Membership and Appraisal Committee. He was principal author of the current "Careers in Botany" booklet and the Teaching Section/Education Committee Report for "Botany for the Next Millennium."

The Officers and Members of the Botanical Society are tremendously pleased that Marsh has accepted this position.

Call for Nominations 2000 Young Botanists

The Botanical Society of America requests nominations for the Young Botanist recognition awards for 1999-2000. The purpose of these awards is to offer individual recognition to outstanding graduating seniors in the plant sciences and to encourage their participation in the Botanical Society of America. All nominees with strong records of achievement (at least a B average and other activities) will receive a Certificate of Recognition and have their names published in Plant Science Bulletin. The top 25 nominees, whose selection will be based primarily on the accomplishments described in recommendation letters, will receive a Certificate of Special Achievement from the Society.

Nominations should document the student's qualifications for the award (academic performance, research projects, and individual attributes) and be accompanied by two or more letters of recommendation from faculty who know the students well. The selections will be made by a committee chaired by the Past-President, Carol Baskin. Nominations should be sent to: Dr. Carol Baskin, School of Biological Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington KY 40506-0225 no later than 1 March 2000.

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Call for Proposals: Karling Graduate Student Research Award

Purpose and Eligibility: The purpose of this award is to support and promote graduate student research in the botanical sciences. To be eligible, one must be a member of the Botanical Society of America (BSA), a registered full-time graduate student, have a faculty advisor who is also a member of the BSA, and not have won the award previously.

Proposal Guidelines: The proposal shall consist of 1) a title page (must include: title of proposal, name of student, student's institutional and departmental affiliation, year of student's study, and student's sectional affiliation within BSA); 2) an Abstract; 3) a Narrative (must include: a description of the research, including appropriate conceptual background, purpose or objective, brief outline of methodology, and potential contribution or significance to an area of the botanical sciences); 4) a Budget detailing how the funds will be used (the Abstract, Narrative, Budget and any tables or figures should not exceed five single-spaced pages); 5) a Bibliography (up to two pages); and 6) a Biographical Sketch (up to two pages). Proposals should include one inch margins all around and use a font size of not smaller than 12 point.

In addition, proposals should be accompanied by a letter of support from the student's advisor.

Award Level and Announcement: Each award provides $500. Award winners will be announced at the BSA Banquet held in Portland, Oregon in August 2000. Funds for the awards come from interest on the Karling and the BSA Endowment Funds, and from the sale of BSA logo items. The award process can be quite competetive; the funding level for the 1998 competition was about 22 percent.

Submissions: Proposals and supporting letters should be postmarked no later than March 15, 2000. Students should submit six (6) hardcopies of the complete proposal and arrange to have the letter of support sent to the Chair of the Karling Graduate Student Research Award Committee at the following address: George Yatskievych, BSA Karling Award Committee, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166,

Call for Nominations

Nominations are being sought for the 2000 Jeanette Siron Pelton Award in Plant Morphogenesis. The award includes a $1,000 honorarium, and a stipend for travel expenses to the B.S.A meeting where it is anticipated that the winner will present a special seminar. This award honors a junior investigator who shows exceptional promise, or to a senior investigator for sustained excellence in the field of plant morphogenesis. The nominee's research may embrace specializations in molecular, cell, developmental and/or organismal biology. Previous winners are: R.H. Wetmore (1969), C.W. Wardlaw (1970), P.B. Green (1972), P.K. Hepler (1975), B.E.S. Gunning (1978), L.J. Feldman (1980), T.J. Cooke (1983), T. Sachs (1985), S.D. Russell (1988), E.M. Lord (1989), R.S. Poethig (1993), E.M. Meyerowitz (1994), S. Hake (1996), and D. R. Kaplan (1998). The award is not restricted as to sex, nationality, or society affiliation of the recipient. A nominating letter should describe the nature of the nominee's contributions to the field of plant morphogenesis and include the full citations of key papers or books that motivate the nomination. Please send the nomination before 15 April 2000 to the Chair of the Pelton Award Committee: Fred. D. Sack, Department of Plant Biology, 1735 Neil Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1293. E-mail:

New Corresponding Members Elected

Corresponding Members are distinguished senior scientists who have made outstanding contributions to plant science and who live and work outside of the United States of America. Corresponding members are nominated by the Council, which receives recommendations and credentials submitted by members, and are elected by the Society in open meeting. They have all the privileges of active membership.

This year three new Corresponding Members were elected. They are:

  • Prof. Friedrich Ehrendorfer of the Institute of Botany, University of Vienna,
  • Prof. Wolfgang Hagemann of the Institute of Systematic Botany and Plant Geography, University of Heidelberg, and
  • Prof. Jerzy Rzedowski of the Instituto de Ecologia, Patzcuaro, Mexico

Botany 2000! The BSA Annual Meeting

The Annual Meeting of the Botanical Society for the year 2000 will be held at the Oregon Convention Center in Portland, Oregon, August 6 - 10, 2000. For latest details, visit the Botany 2000! website at

Reports from the Sections

Bryological and Lichenological Section

The Bryological and Lichenological Section participated in a joint American Bryological and Lichenological Society (ABLS), International Association of Bryologists (IAB), and Moss 99 Meeting at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, July 30-August 1, 1999. The three-day meeting included an A. J. Sharp Award session with 15 student presentations, two field trips, and a Moss 99 conference. The conference "Bryophytes as Model Systems" included six major presentations and a panel discussion. The winner of the A. J. Sharp award was John R. Clark (University of Cincinnati) for his presentation co-authored with Jerry Snider, "Observations in development of the cleistocarpous moss, Eccremidium floridanum Crum (Ditrichaceae). In addition, the section was active at the International Botanical Congress, August 1-7. Members of the sections presented in eight symposia and celebrated the 100th anniversary of ABLS with a special banquet.

Paula DePriest, Chair

Genetics Section

The Genetics Section published one newsletter during the 1998-99 academic year and sponsored the symposium entitled "Genome Evolution in Hybrid Plant Species" at the International Botanical Congress. Election of a secretary/treasurer will be held in the near future via email.

Jeri Higginbotham, Chair

Tropical Biology Section

The Tropical Biology Section, in collaboration with the Association for Tropical Biology (ATB), co-sponsored two symposia during the IBC, one on "Coastal sand dunes: their ecology and restoration," organized by Marisa Martínez and Roy Lubke, the other on "Phenological studies on tropical plant communities," organized by Patricia Morellato and Lucinda McDade. The Section allocated all its funds for FYs 98-99 and 99-00 of $1400 to support the attendance of symposium speakers from tropical countries at IBC.

The Section's treasurer, Andrew Douglas, has accepted a position in the Biology Department at the University of Mississippi (

The Section currently has 305 members, and it would be appropriate for it to (co)sponsor a contributed paper session, or one of the symposia, planned for the BSA's Portland meeting next year. If you have information about symposia that have to do with the tropics or know of coming contributed papers that might usefully be grouped and then in some way supported by the Section, please contact Susanne Renner (

Susanne Renner, Chair

Editorial Committee for Volume 45
Nickolas M. Waser (1999)
Department of Biology
University of California
Riverside, CA 92521
P. Mick Richardson (2000)
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166
Vicki A. Funk (2001)
Department of Botany
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C. 20560
Ann E. Antlfinger (2002)
Biology Department
University of Nebraska - Omaha
Omaha NE 68182
Norman C. Ellstrand (2003)
Department of Botany and Plant Science
University of California
Riverside, CA 92521-0124

Awards and Prizes at BSA Annual Meeting

Botanical Society of America Merit Awards

These awards are made to persons judged to have made outstanding contributions to botanical science. The first awards were made in 1956 at the 50th anniversary of the Botanical Society, and one or more have been presented each year since that time. This year Merit Awards went to three botanists. Their citations follow.

Tod F. Stuessy has been a productive and influential botanist with particular impact in plant systematics. His contributions include monographic studies in the Asteraceae, very early promotion of the burgeoning field of cladistics, strong advocacy for collections, and insights into the origin and evolution of island plants. He is a consummate internationalist, with huge influence in South America, Asia, and now Europe. His mastery of Spanish, and clear understanding and sensitivity for Latin American cultures, close ties with scientists, and various agencies has led to a multitude of collaborations and prodigious productivity - with over 200 publications including seven edited or single authored books. The highlight of the latter was his 1990 book, Plant Taxonomy: The Systematic Evaluation of Comparative Data, winner of the prestigious Henry Allan Gleason Award. He has trained 18 graduate students. His service to professional societies is exemplary. His presidency of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists was marked by perhaps the greatest number of initiatives in the past three decades. He has also served the NSF as a program director, held multiple offices in the Association of Systematics Collections and the BSA, and worked tirelessly to promote botany at the local level though the Ohio Academy of Science. He has been honored by selection as a fellow of the Linnean Society of London, and by the AAAS. During his 30 year career, he made extraordinary contributions to botany: the BSA is honored to present Tod Stuessy a Merit Award.

Barbara Schaal has a long and distinguished record of excellence in research, service, and teaching. Dr. Schaal has made many outstanding contributions in over 80 publications to a variety of botanical disciplines, including population genetics, systematics, ecology, conservation biology, and economic botany. She is perhaps best known for her ability to apply new molecular methods to interesting and important questions. Her studies of ecological genetics and genetic divergence in domesticated plants are especially noteworthy. Furthermore, she has trained 12 Ph.D. students, and hosted many postdoctoral and visiting scientists in her laboratory. Her service to professional societies is truly exceptional, including the presidency of BSA. As BSA President, she was a leader in the best sense of the word; she inspired others to contribute, and earned respect because she had a clear vision of her goals, and articulated them lucidly. She has also served as Executive Vice President of the Society for the Study of Evolution, on the Editorial Boards of three journals (Molecular Ecology, Functional Ecology, and Molecular Biology and Evolution), and on several NSF panels, while also serving as Chair of the Biology Department at Washington University, and most recently was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. Dr. Schaal is widely viewed as one of the most eminent of the Botanical Society of America, and has been the role model for many in the classroom and in her profession. It is with great pleasure that the Botanical Society of America recognizes Barbara Schaalwith a Merit Award in 1999.

Daniel J. Crawford is a role model in botany, combining service to plant science and a productive research program. Prof. Crawford's service to the profession has covered an impressive span of over 30 years, with some 23 years as an officer, committee member, and most recently, president in 1996. He received the Alston Award for the best paper in the Phytochemical section in 1983. He has been very active with the NSF, with the International Organization of Plant Biosystematists, has provided frequent service as a member of editorial and review bodies, and as a cornerstone of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists. He served the ASPT as President in 1988, and received their most prestigious award, the Asa Gray Award, in 1997. His research record is prodigious, with over 150 research articles. His passionate dedication to botanical research marks him as one of the leading systematic botanists/evolutionists of our time. He made great contributions to understanding macroevolutionary trends in plants and played a major role in the development of molecular systematics, in particular with the publication of the book, Plant Molecular Systematics. Through it all he has kept his focus on the key scientific questions, not on techniques. He has trained 19 graduate students. He exemplifies impeccable scientific ethics while maintaining a genuinely warm and considerate personality. He embodies the award criteria " have made outstanding contributions to botanical science," and the BSA is proud to present Dan Crawford a Merit Award.

The Charles Edwin Bessey Award

This award, given annually by the Teaching Section of the BSA, recognizes outstanding contributions made to botanical instruction. The award this year went to William Jensen of Ohio State University.

The Michael A. Cichan Award

This award, established by the Botanical Society of America, is named in honor of Michael A. Cichan. It was instituted to encourage work by young researchers at the interface of structural and evolutionary botany. The award is given to a scholar for a published paper in these areas. The Michael A. Cichan award this year was presented to Karen A Renzaglia of Southern Illinois University for her published paper "Developmental ultrastructure of the male gamete of Selaginalla." Co-authors are Douglas L. Bernhard and David J. Garbary.

The A. J. Sharp Award

This award is given for the best student paper presented in the Bryological and Lichenological sessions. This year's award went to John R. Clark of The University of Cincinatti for his paper entitled "Observations in the development of the cleistocarpous moss, Eccremidium floridanum Crum (Ditrichaceae)." His research advisor is Jerry Snider.

The Remy and Remy Award

In 1996 at the Santa Barbara meeting of the International Organization of Paleobotanists, the Paleobotanical Section of the Botanical Society of America instituted an award to to honor the life and work of Winfried and Renata Remy. Winfried Remy was an honorary member of the Paleobotanical Section and a Corresponding Member of the Botanical Society of America, and together with his wife Renata published a long list of internationally acclaimed scholarly contributions, including their reports on the Rhynie chert organisms. Since the designation of this award, paleobotanists from around the world have contributed to fund this prize. The first Remy and Remy Award of the Paleobotanical Section was given to Klaus-Peter Kelber of the Institute of Minerology and Johanna van Konijnenberg-van Cittert of the Laboratory of Paleobotany and Palynology for their paper entitled "Equisetites arenaceus from the Upper Triassic of Germany, with evidence for reproductive strategies."

The Ecological Section Award

Each year the Ecological Section of the Botanical Society offers an award for the best student presentation at the annual meetings. A judging committee evaluates each student presentation and selects a winner based on the quality of the work and the presentation. The recipient of the award receives a certificate, a cash award, and is a guest of the Ecological Section at the BSA banquet. This year the recipient for the best student paper was Jochen Schenk. Honorable mention went to Beverly Brown. The recipient of the best student poster was Bruce Robart.

The Edgar T. Wherry Award

This award was given this year for the best poster on pteridophytes presented at the IBC. This award is in honor of Dr. Wherry's many contributions to the floristics and patterns of evolution of ferns. This year's award went to Petra Korall from Stockholm University for her poster entitled "Phylogeny of Selaginellaceae based on rbcl gene sequences" (co-author Paul Kenrick), and to Catherine Cardelus from University of Connecticut for her poster entitled "Habitat selection of epiphytic and terrestrial ferns" (co-author James Watkins).

The Henry Allan Gleason Award

This award is given annually by the New York Botanical Garden in recognition of an outstanding recent publication in the fields of plant taxonomy, plant ecology, or plant geography. The award committee is provided by the New York Botanical Garden. The award consists of a cash grant from a fund established by the late Dr. Gleason and an award certificate. The Gleason Award for 1999 was presented to Dr. Carol C. Baskin and Dr. Jerry M. Baskin for their book, Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, published by Academic Press. This excellent book represents the work of two lifetimes of outstanding and innovative study of seed biology through an interactive approach of fieldwork combined with laboratory experiments.

From the Editor - Thank You

As some readers and contributors may be aware, this is my last issue as Editor of Plant Science Bulletin. I have greatly enjoyed the opportunity to serve the members of the Botanical Society for these past five years. I must admit, however, I am looking forward to seeing a new Editor take the reins.

I would like to extend my sincere thanks for the tremendous support of the many members and officers of the Botanical Society who have made my job so rewarding. I must single out for special thanks our Business Manager, Kim Hiser. No one could enjoy being Editor of PSB without Kim's hard work. I also appreciate the patience of members and readers when PSB encountered bumps in the road.

Finally, one last thank you, to my wife Barbara and our kids Leah and Joseph: no more deadline weekends... too bad!


In Memoriam

Oswald Tippo

Oswald Tippo was born in Milo, Maine on November 27, 1911. In 1922, his family moved to Boston where in 1928 he was graduated from Jamaica Plain High School. Tippo attended Massachusetts Agricultural College (now the University of Massachusetts) in Amherst where he majored in botany, receiving his bachelor's degree in 1932. While at Massachusetts he came under the influence of Professor Ray Ethan Torrey, one of the great teachers of botany. He pursued graduate study at Harvard University, receiving a master's degree in 1933 and a Ph.D. in 1937. At Harvard, Tippo came under the tutelage of Irving W. Bailey and Ralph H. Wetmore, who acted as his advisors.

Tippo joined the faculty of the University of Illinois in 1937 where he established his career in botany and in educational administration, as Chairman of the department, Chairman of the Biological Sciences Division, and then Dean of the Graduate School. In 1955, Tippo was named Eaton Professor of Botany and Chairman of the department at Yale University. From 1960 to 1963, he served as Provost at the University of Colorado and for one year as Executive Dean of Arts and Sciences at New York University.

In 1964, he joined the University of Massachusetts as Provost during a period of enormous growth and expansion of the campus, coupled with considerable campus unrest which he met with unparalleled equanimity. He is credited with establishing the University as a major national research institution by recruiting top-ranked faculty; he interviewed all new faculty hires personally. He pressed for construction of a new library with substantial additions to collections. The library now stands tall as a campus landmark.

Tippo was named the first Chancellor of the Amherst campus in 1970 following a reorganization of the University by the Board of Trustees. The following year, he returned to the classroom as Commonwealth Professor of Botany, and he retired from teaching in 1982. His course in economic botany was highly popular and classes always filled to capacity.

He was a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the Botanical Society of America (serving as president in 1955), American Institute of Biological Sciences, Sigma Xi, International Association of Wood Anatomists, Society for Economic Botany, and American Association for the Advancement of Science. Tippo was Editor-in-Chief of the American Journal of Botany and Editor of Economic Botany. He was author with Harry J. Fuller of the widely used text, College Botany, published in 1949 and 1954 and with William Louis Stern of Humanistic Botanypublished in 1977. He wrote articles on wood anatomy and phylogeny, wood decay and preservation, and for Chronica Botanica, "A modern classification of the plant kingdom." During World War II, Tippo served in a research capacity in the Philadelphia Navy Yard testing wood and wood finishes. Tippo was a strong advocate of the maintenance of separate departments of botany and zoology.

A resident of Amherst, while retired Tippo still remained a familiar figure on campus who could frequently be spotted "holding court" at his regular table at the Faculty Club. In May, 1999 Tippo was honored by the Friends of the Library as the recipient of the Siegfried Feller Award for Outstanding Volunteer Leadership. At that ceremony, the announcement was made of the naming of the Library's landscaped courtyard: The Oswald Tippo Library Courtyard Sculpture Garden.

Tippo will be remembered as a wise and prudent administrator, a teacher of exceptional ability, a respected counselor, a widely read scholar of broad interests, and for his wittiness. He was a loyal and faithful friend. He died June 10, 1999.

<font "arial,helvetica"="">William Louis Stern, University of Florida


Nancy Morin Joins Flagstaff Arboretum

Nancy R. Morin joined the staff of The Arboretum at Flagstaff, in Flagstaff, Arizona, on August 16, 1999, as Executive Director. Morin previously was Executive Director of the American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. She also as a faculty appointment in the Biology Department at Northern Arizona University. She can be reached at: The Arboretum at Flagstaff, 4001 South Woody Mountain Road, Flagstaff, Arizona 86001, tel. 520/774-1442, fax. 520/774-1441; email In addition to her new duties at the Arboretum, Morin continues her work on Campanulaceae and as Convening Editor for Flora of North America. The Arboretum at Flagstaff is located at 7150' elevation on the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau. It covers 200 acres, including 10 acres of gardens focused on native plants and a 1.2 mile nature trail through Ponderosa Pine forest and meadows. The Arboretum is a member of the Center for Plant Conservation and has responsibility for 30 rare plant species.

P. B. Tomlinson Honored by the Linnaean Scoiety of London

At the recent meeting of the Linnaean Society of London on September 9, 1999, Professor P. B. Tomlinson, E. C. Jeffrey Professor of Biology in the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology (Harvard Forest), was awarded the Gold Medal for Botany of the Linnean Society in recognition for his contributions to the development of our understanding of plants in a broad range of sub-disciplines.

Harvard faculty who have been previous recipients of this medal include (for Botany) Richard Evans Schultes (1992), who was also the first E. C. Jeffrey Professor of Biology, and (for Zoology) Ernest Mayr (1977) and Stephen Jay Gould (1992).

Educational Opportunities, Call for Applications & Nominations, Positions Available

Calls for Applications

Scholarships and Research Grants-in-Aid Highlands Biological Station

The Highlands Biological Station, an interinstitutional center of the University of North Carolina, is pleased to announce the availability of scholarships and grants-in-aid of research for the year 2000 field season. The Station is located in the Southern Appalachian Mountains in southwestern North Carolina at an elevation of 4,000 feet. The region receives 80-100 inches of rain per year and supports a remarkable diversity of life. A recent article in BioScience identified the region as a hotspot for diversity of, among others, salamanders, land snails, trees, and fungi. There is a long and distinguished history of biodiversity studies at the Station.

Facilities include research labs with refrigerators, freezers, ultracold freezers, microscopes, and field sampling equipment; a research library with a reprint collection and subscriptions to many ecological, systematic, and evolutionary journals; an aquatics lab with two artificial streams and several large aquariums; two large, walk-in environmental chambers; and dormitories and kitchens for use by researchers. The Station operates the Highlands Nature Center and the Highlands Botanical Garden, which includes a 5-acre lake. There are numerous tracts of Forest Service land in the area, and the Station cooperates with the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, a Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site, which is located 18 miles away.

Grants-in-aid and scholarships are available to predoctoral graduate students and postdoctoral investigators for the support of research on the habitats and organisms of the Southern Appalachians. Preference in making awards is given to projects that involve residence at the Station for four weeks or longer. Support is rarely awarded for more than 12 weeks in a given year. Applications for grants are reviewed by the Board of Scientific Advisors, representing the 33 institutional members of the Highlands Biological Foundation, Inc. Application forms can be obtained from Dr. Robert Wyatt, Executive Director, Highlands Biological Station, P.O. Box 580, Highlands, NC 28741. Alternatively, forms can be downloaded at They should be returned before 1 March 2000. Applicants will receive notification of the decision of the Board by 1 April 2000. Awards are based on the period of residency at the Station in accordance with the following schedule: predoctoral, $250/week; postdoctoral, $400/week. Recipients of scholarships and grants-in-aid are provided research space without charge.

Call for Nominations

2000 Lawrence Memorial Award

The Award Committee of the Lawrence Memorial Fund invites nominations for the 2000 Lawrence Memorial Award. Honoring the memory of Dr. George H. M. Lawrence, founding Director of the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, the Award ($1,000) is given yearly to support travel for doctoral dissertation research in systematic botany or horticulture, or the history of the plant sciences, including literature and exploration.

Major professors are urged to nominate outstanding doctoral students who have achieved official candidacy for their degrees and will be conducting pertinent dissertation research that would benefit significantly from travel enabled by the Award. The Committee will not entertain direct applications. A student who wishes to be considered should arrange for nomination by his/her major professor; this may take the form of a letter which covers supporting materials prepared by the nominee.

Supporting materials should describe briefly but clearly the candidate's program of research and how it would be significantly enhanced by travel that the Award would support. Letters of nomination and supporting materials, including seconding letters, should be received by the Committee no later than 1 May 2000 and should be directed to: Dr. R. W. Kiger, Hunt Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 USA. Tel. (1412) 268-2434

Educational Opportunities

Highlands Biological Station

The Highlands Biological Station, located in the Southern Appalachian Mountains in southwestern North Carolina, is pleased to announce its summer course offerings for 2000. These courses are taught at the advanced undergraduate-graduate level, and credit for all courses is available through either Western Carolina University or UNC-Chapel Hill.

  • Biology of Plethodontid Salamanders. 22 May - 3 June Three semester hours. Steven G. Tilley (Smith College).
  • Conservation Biology of Amphibians. 5-17 June Three semester hours. Raymond D. Semlitsch (University of Missouri).
  • Fleshy Fungi of the Highlands Plateau. 10-22 July Three semester hours. Andrew S. Methven (Eastern Illinois University).
  • Biology of Spiders. 31 July - 12 August Three semester hours. Fredrick A. Coyle (Western Carolina University) and William A. Shear (Hampden-Sydney College).

Costs include a course fee of $362 per 2-week course, charged to all students. Students who wish to register for credit can enroll either through Western Carolina University, $35 application fee and $54 registration fee, or UNC-Chapel Hill, $80 registration fee. Courses may be taken without credit. Housing costs are $37/week.

The Highlands Biological Foundation, Inc., offers limited financial aid to qualified students. Further information on specific courses, financial aid, and application forms can be obtained by writing to Dr. Robert Wyatt, Executive Director, Highlands Biological Station, P.O. Box 580, Highlands, North Carolina 28741. Alternatively, application forms can be downloaded at

Positions Available

Systematic Botany
Duke University

Duke University is seeking a broadly trained systematic biologist with research interests in vascular plants, algae, or lichenized fungi for a tenure track position as Assistant Professor. The systematic botany group has a long tradition of research and training in flowering plants, mosses, algae, fungi, and lichens, with strong links to the larger evolutionary biology program at Duke. We are especially interested in candidates who use a combination of collections-based, experimental, and molecular approaches, and whose interests promote interactive links with evolutionary biologists, molecular biologists, and ecologists. The successful candidate will be expected to develop an externally-funded research program, and to participate in teaching at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. More information on our Programs can be found at,, and Applicants should provide 1) a CV, 2) a letter detailing accomplishments, future research plans, and teaching goals, 3) reprints of recent papers, and 4) arrange for three letters of reference to be sent directly to: Dr. A. Jonathan Shaw, Plant Systematics Search Committee, Department of Botany, 139 Biological Sciences Building, Box 90338, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0338. Tel. 919-660-7372. Review of applications will begin on 15 November, 1999.

Chairperson, Department of Botany
and Plant Pathology
Michigan State University

The College of Natural Science and the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources at Michigan State University invite applications and nominations for the position of chairperson of the Department of Botany and Plant Pathology. For full ad, see "Chair Search" at Candidates must possess an established record of distinguished scholarship, administrative experience, proven leadership and interpersonal skills, excellent communications abilities, and a broad vision of innovative programs in plant biology research, education and extension. Applicants should submit a complete curriculum vitae, and names, addresses and telephone numbers of five references. Every effort will be made to maintain confidentiality until the final slate of candidates is selected. Review of applications will begin February 15, 2000. Please send application materials to: Search Committee, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1312. Anticipated starting date will be January 2001. Women and under-represented minorities are strongly encouraged to apply. MSU is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer.

Herbarium Curator/Plant Taxonomist
Department of Botany
North Carolina State University

The Department of Botany at North Carolina State University is seeking a herbarium curator/plant taxonomist. Major duties are to manage and improve the NC State University herbarium, identify plant specimens submitted by county extension agents and other clientele, take responsibility for outreach activities of the herbarium, and provide support for documenting research collections and for teaching activities requiring the herbarium. Applicants should have an M. S. degree in Botany or related field with an emphasis in plant systematics, and previous experience in plant identification and herbarium management. Applicants must have strong oral and written communication skills, computer skills, and a commitment to extension outreach. Send a curriculum vitae, statement of career goals, and the names of three references to: Dr. Margaret Daub, Interim Head, Department of Botany, Box 7612, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695-7612. Phone: (919) 515-2727, FAX: (919) 515-3436, E-mail: Application Deadline: December 30, 1999, or until a suitable candidate is located. North Carolina State University is an Equal Opportunity Employer and operates under Affirmative Action Policy. Individuals with disabilities desiring accommodations in the application process should contact Margaret E. Daub at the above address, email, fax or phone numbers.

Frank Smathers, Jr., Chair in
Tropical Tree Biology
University of Miami

The Department of Biology invites applications from and nominations of distinguished scientists to fill a newly endowed chair at the rank of full professor. We seek an internationally recognized botanist whose research concerns the biology of tropical trees. The candidate must have a Ph.D. or equivalent degree, a strong record of obtaining external funds, and demonstrated ability to attract and supervise outstanding graduate and postdoctoral students. We seek a colleague who will direct a vigorous research program, and who will teach at graduate and undergraduate levels. Departmental strengths lie in Tropical Biology, Evolution, Ecology, and Behavior. The Department has a cooperative relationship with Fairchild Tropical Garden, and is a founding member of the Organization for Tropical Studies.

Applications will be reviewed beginning 15 January 2000. Applicants should send a statement of research interests and plans, curriculum vitae, three representative publications, and the names and addresses of three referees to: Dr. David P. Janos, Tropical Tree Biology Search Department of Biology University of Miami P.O. Box 249118 Coral Gables, FL 33124

The University of Miami is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer. Women and minorities are especially encouraged to apply.

Research Associate
Agricultural Products

Duties: Work under supervision to research new environmentally safe agricultural products chelated and complexed from organic and amino acids found naturally in plants and soils. Study the effect of these products on growth and productivity. Study plant, soil and nutrient relationships using hydroponics and field trials. Determine toxicity in plants and soil including virus infection. Study phytohormones and their effect on yield. Study transport and uptake of bacterial virus in plant tissues.

Requirements: Ph.D. in Agrochemical (Biology) Must be familiar with soil chemistry, microbiology, plant ecology, and physiology. Knowledge of hydroponics, viral experimental techniques, agronomic field research techniques, application of plant biochemistry, statistical data analysis, environmental chemistry and toxicology.

Salary: $36,000.00/yr. Send resumes to Department of Workforce Services, Attn.: Pat Redington, Job Order #3060868, 140 East 300 South, 1st Floor, Salt Lake City, UT 84111

Plant Systematics
Univ. of California, Riverside

The Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, invites applications for a tenure-track position at the rank of Assistant Professor with a title in the Agricultural Experiment Station. The position will be available July 1, 2000. The appointee will be expected to develop a vigorous, innovative, independent research program that employs contemporary methods and analytical tools to address fundamental questions in plant systematics and evolution. Applicants must possess a Ph.D. degree and preferably have 2 years of postdoctoral training in systematics or a closely related field. The successful candidate will teach at the undergraduate and graduate level, and supervise graduate students. We are particularly interested in a scientist who is willing to learn and subsequently teach a course about California flora. UCR is a dynamic, growing institution with an abundance of opportunities for interdisciplinary research and student training facilitated by interdepartmental graduate programs and research centers.

Review of applications will begin December 1st, 1999 and continue until the position is filled. Applicants should send: (1) a curriculum vitae, (2) a statement of research interests, (3) the names and addresses of at least three references to: Dr. Elizabeth M. Lord, Chair, Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0124, E-mail:, Fax: (909) 787-4437

Additional information about the department and the position is available at:

University of California, Riverside is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer

Updated Positions Available:
Listings At BSA Website

Current position announcements are maintained on the Botanical Society's website Announcement page at URL Please check that location for announcement which have appeared since this issue of Plant Science Bulletin went to press. To post an announcement, contact the webmaster: <>.

Symposia, Conferences and Meetings

AIBS Meeting
22-24 March 2000

From 22 to 24 March next year, some of the country's most preeminent scientists will gather in Washington to review the major advances in organismal and integrative biology made during the last century, and look ahead to future goals and challenges. The meeting is being cosponsored by the American Institute of Biological Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution. "Biology: Challenges for the New Millennium," which is also the 51st annual meeting of AIBS, will be held at the Smithsonian in Washington, DC.

This unique millennial event includes speakers Stephen J. Gould, Daniel H. Janzen, Gene E. Likens, Lynn Margulis, Gordon Orians, Ghillean Prance, Marvalee Wake, and Edward O. Wilson, and also offers attendees the chance to meet these notable scientists. Interactive breakout sessions will follow each plenary to discuss recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Behavior, Biodiversity & Conservation, Development & Morphology, Ecosystems, Energetics, Environment, Evolution, Integration, Regulation, and Science & Society.

Other meeting features include a lecture by special guest Ernst Mayr, a workshop on the teaching of evolution (co-sponsored with the National Association of Biology Teachers), and a showing of the Smithsonian's new 3-D IMAX film on the Galapagos Islands. A limited number of poster submissions are also being accepted. Register online now and/or submit a poster abstract at For more information contact AIBS Meetings Manager Marilynn Maury at 703/834-0812, ext. 203, or

XVI International Congress on
Sexual Plant Reproduction
1-5 April 2000

The XVI International Congress on Sexual Plant Reproduction will be held at the resort town of Banff in Alberta, Canada, from April 1-5,2000. The conference is co-sponsored by the Universities of Saskatchewan and Alberta and is held under the auspices of International Association of Sexual Plant Reproduction Research. The scientific program will include all topics on sexual plant reproduction, from flowering to seed development. Sessions will be held in the mornings and evenings with the afternoons available for skiing, field trips, nature walks and discussions with colleagues. For further details, please check the web site: Co-organizers are: Drs. D.D. Cass, University of Alberta and V.K. Sawhney, University of Saskatchewan. E-mail addresses:, or

British Ecological Society Special Symposium 2000
29 - 31 August 2000

Plants stand still, but their genes don't: Integrating ecological and evolutionary processes in a spatial context, Aug 29 - 31, 2000, Royal Holloway College, University of London, UK* Organisers: Jonathan Silvertown, Janis Antonovics, Anthony J. Davy, and Godfrey Hewitt

Speakers Population scale J. Antonovics (Charlottesville) Why ecologists should care about population genetic structure. R. Law (York) Local interactions, the origins of spatial structure and their reciprocal effects upon one another. R. Ennos (Edinburgh) Genetic and ecological inferences from variation in DNA sequences and other molecular markers. D & B. Charlesworth (Edinburgh) Mating systems and population genetic structure G. Bell (Montreal) Local adaptation and its spatial limits.

Metapopulation scale I. Hanski (Helsinki) Spatially explicit models of metapopulation dynamics and the role of genetic erosion in local extinction. D. McCauley (Nashville) Effects of population extinction and colonisation on genetic structure O.Eriksson (Stockholm) Landscape fragmentation and the viability of populations S.C.H. Barrett (Toronto) Mating system evolution in metapopulations S. Frank (Irvine) Host-parasite evolution in metapopulations I. Olivieri (Montpellier) Evolution of seed banks and dispersal in metapopulations

Geographical scale G. Hewitt (Norwich) Inference about historical migrations and glacial refugia from molecular phylogenies. R.J. Petit (Ardon) Hybridization and the phylogeography of European oaks D.E. Soltis (Pullman) Phylogeography of recent invasions in the flora of N.W. N. America. S.P. Hubbell (Princeton) The role of migration in coupling community structure across spatial scales. N. Barton (Edinburgh) The evolution of geographical range limits in relation to environmental heterogeneity, rates of migration and gene flow.

*For further information visit the meeting's web site at or send an e-mail with "BES 2000" in the subject heading to

Third Ecuadorian Botanical Congress
25 - 27 October 2000

FUNBOTANICA (Ecuadorian Foundation for Research and Development in Botany) and Herbario Nacional del Ecuador QCNE will host the Third Ecuadorian Botanical Congress in October 25 to 27, 2000 in Quito.

For more information or to submit titles of presentations, go to the FUNBOTANICA web site <> and select "Congresos" from the menu or e-mail inquiries to <>

Book Reviews

In this Issue:

Book Reviews: Structural and Developmental

Anatomy of the Dicotyledons Second Edition, Volume 4: Saxifragales. David F. Cutler, and Mary Gregory (eds.) 1998. ISBN 0 19 8547927 (Hardcover US $175) x + 324 pp., 141 plates (drawings and photomicrographs) Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom.—In 1950, the Jodrell Laboratory at Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, gained a much elevated profile in the world of structural botany when the 1500 page work, Anatomy of the Dicotyledons, appeared. This work by C. R. Metcalfe, Keeper of the laboratory, and L. Chalk, of Oxford University, was the first comprehensive work on systematic vegetative anatomy written in English and it became a great stimulus for advancing structural studies. It remains valuable to consult for the profile of anatomical features for the spectrum of dicot families as well as being the key to 2535 references to earlier literature that had accumulated since the translation of Solereder's (1908) Systematic Anatomy of the Dicotyledons.

In the 1950s, Metcalfe , working with a commitment from Oxford University Press, embarked on a companion project, the multi-volume Anatomy of the Monocotyledons. The first volume, by Metcalfe, on Gramineae, appeared in 1960. Subsequent volumes on families or orders have been appearing at irregular intervals since then, the most recent being volume 8. Iridaceae by Paula Rudall in 1995.

After Metcalfe's retirement, David Cutler, successor head of the anatomy section of the laboratory, continued this program and was assisted by Mary Gregory who maintained the anatomical literature database. Noting the accelerating accumulation of literature on dicot systematic anatomy, at least in part due to the heuristic value of the first edition, Cutler and his staff began an ambitious, multi-volume Anatomy of the Dicotyledons, second edition featuring ordinal groupings of families and organized to run in parallel with the monocot program. Two dicot introductory volumes appeared in 1979 and 1983 with chapters describing the use of character states for a variety of vegetative organs and tissues. Volume 3, appearing in 1987 (Magnoliales, Illiciales & Laurales), and the last volume to be written by the late Russell Metcalfe, demonstrated the expanded scope of the family treatments. The current volume featuring Saxifragales continues in that format. The Saxifragales were an excellent choice due to the accumulation of work on those families and because of their evolutionary position among early angiosperms. Most families of the order are diverse, or isolated, and often traditionally placed in polyphyletic groupings.

The volume defines Saxifragales according to Takhtajan's scheme of dicot families (published in the 1983 volume of the Anatomy of the Dicotyledons, second edition) and includes 25 families, ranging from Brunelliaceae to Gunneraceae. Mary Gregory was compiler of 15 family treatments, meaning that existing literature was considered more than adequate to provide the basis for extraction of descriptions and illustrations. Hazel Wilkinson was author of 6 families, R. J. Gornall was author or co-author of 6, and K. I. A. Al-Shammary was author or co-author of 5 families. Mary Gregory was co-author of one treatment. As the longtime compiler of the Jodrell laboratory's anatomical literature database, Gregory's background is in technical editing. However, her decades of dedication to comprehensive review of anatomical literature has blurred the distinction between compiler and anatomist. Her capacity for overview is encyclopedic and her capacity for selection of appropriate detail is entirely reliable.

Cutler and Gregory note that the scope of the Saxifragales has been subject to varying interpretations and segregations of families, so they provide a table in the introduction featuring family placements according to 7 major schemes that address their scope and relationships.

Each of the parallel family treatments covers (when observations are available) leaf morphology and surface features, epidermis, histology of venation, nodes and petioles, young stems, mature xylem, and roots. Then follow notes on economic uses, chemotaxonomy, and taxonomy. Literature consulted is listed at the end of each treatment. As data were extracted from original literature sources, citations are provided within the anatomical descriptions. Under taxonomic notes, current opinions based on cladistic analyses and contemporary data sets are integrated into the discussion on placement of each family. Because of the parallel treatments, comparisons or meta-analyses can be pursued efficiently.

Abundant and well-produced illustrations include drawings of trichomes, petiole and midrib anatomy, stem histology and nodal anatomy, photomicrographs of wood and other histology, and SEM micrographs of hair morphology, and stomata (leaf surfaces).

Lists of diagnostic characters are given near the end of the volume. Approximately 750 references are combined in a common bibliography and are current to the year of publication.

This volume represents a good balance of primary and summarized anatomical data and systematic synthesis. A reading of the extensive taxonomic notes shows them to be informative and thoroughly considered. Scholarship is of the highest order. Students of dicot evolution should find in this work a rich source of data and Cutler and Gregory should be commended for producing it.

I hope the anatomy section of the laboratory, under the leadership of Paula Rudall (following David Cutler's retirement) will find a way to continue this series. The staff and the resources at the laboratory are well organized for accomplishing this task. — Richard C. Keating, Missouri Botanical Garden, P. O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63110

The Plant Vacuole. Roger A. Leigh and Dale Sanders, eds., 1997. Advances in Botanical Research, vol. 25, ISBN 0-12-441870-8 (paper $59.95) 465 pp. Academic Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, California 92101-4495.—In contrast with its treatment in many beginning biology courses, the plant vacuole is a remarkably dynamic organelle. In addition to being one of the most conspicuous plant organelles, the vacuole also controls many aspects of physiology, from turgor control to solute storage and signal transduction. The vacuole is reviewed in this book through 15 articles written by an impressive array of contributors. Despite the 1997 date of publication (not my fault, I received it this summer), the material has remained largely up-to-date and interesting.

Within the last decade, considerable information has become available on the functional role of vacuoles. The first two chapters describe the biogenesis of vacuoles from an ultrastructural and molecular perspective. Following chapters discuss the cost-benefit analysis of vacuoles as organelles, discuss the role of the vacuole in cell senescence, the formation of storage organelles (e.g., protein bodies in the aleurone), the compartmentalization of secondary metabolites and xenobiotics in plant vacuoles. The next three articles discuss the composition of solutes in the vacuole, the role of vacuoles in carbohydrate metabolism and vacuolar ion channels in higher plants. The next three articles concern the physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology of ATPases, the molecular and biochemical basis of pyrophosphate-energized proton transport at the vacuolar membrane, and the bioenergetics of vacuolar H+ pumps. This is followed by chapters on the transport of organic molecules and secondary inorganic ion transport across the tonoplast. The final chapter discusses the role of aquaporins in water transport across the tonoplast, which facilitates the diffusion of water into the vacuoles.

Although many of the themes in this book are traditional, there is renewed interest in the role of the vacuole in programmed cell death (similar to apoptosis in animal cells) and the role of the vacuole in sequestering Ca2+ ions that form an important part of the signal transduction cascade. Clearly, molecular and cell biological progress has been remarkable in the last decade in this area. The most significant prior book on vacuoles in my opinion is The Lytic Compartment of Plant Cells by Phillipe Matile (1975) in which evidence from electron microscopy and the physiology of vacuoles was summarized, conferring on the vacuole a lysosomal character. The current volume does not have such a single focus. The current interest in programmed cell death in plants gives vacuoles added importance, controlling cell lysis and the mobilization of nutrients. Vacuoles also accumulate vital ions including critical controlling coenzymes, such as stores of Mg2+ and Ca2+.

The plant vacuole is a critical and uniquely plant organelle. Given the usual treatment this organelle receives in general cell biology texts, this book is recommended to round out the plant cell biology holdings in your office or library. Since this volume is part of the Advances in Botanical Research series, your library may already have acquired it. —Scott D. Russell, Samuel Roberts Noble Electron Microscopy Laboratory, University of Oklahoma

Book Reviews: Ecological

Principles and Practices in Plant Ecology: Allelochemical Interactions. Inderjit, K.M.M. Dakshini and Chester L. Foy, eds., 1999. ISBN 0-8493-2116-6 (cloth US$ 129.95) 589 pp. CRC Press LLC, 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431—Researchers have spent much time determining how plants react to manufactured chemicals like pesticides and herbicides, but relatively less time examining how plants react to chemicals released by neighboring plants. This response to naturally produced chemicals is termed allelopathy. More strictly defined, allelopathy is an interaction between plant or microbial species involving chemical control — either beneficial or detrimental — of one organism by another (Rice 1974). In a few instances this chemical control is hard to miss. For example, black walnut's release of juglone clearly suppresses other plants growing under the tree. However, allelopathic effects are often not as strong, or can differ between locations and/or times. These different reactions usually occur because of variable environmental conditions, such as soil type or a stressful plant environment.

The 61 contributing authors present a global perspective on allelopathic research. Their main focus is to integrate facets of allelochemical production and action under different environmental conditions. Other themes of the book are discussing the variable environmental roles of allelochemicals, and addressing allelopathic interactions in different communities. For example, several chapters address secondary chemicals (including phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and coumarins) as defenses against herbivores and microbes, in addition to their allelopathic action. One chapter also discusses the role of plant polyphenols on nutrient cycling. This book also covers some specific interactions including allelopathy in plankton, bacteria, and in benthic and littoral regions.

This book would be an important addition to any library, especially for those interested in how secondary chemicals affect the environment. It would also make a great text for a graduate level course. Not only are the chapters clear and easy to follow, but their authors often include recommendations for further study, and areas needing in-depth investigation. Additionally, the beginning section of the book also includes seven chapters on basic project design, making the study relevant to field conditions, common flaws in allelopathic research, and some basic chemical analysis. Besides discussing methodologies, it also includes chapters on a fascinating topic — allelopathic interactions between different species' pollen at the stigmatic surface. If an organism attempts to control the numbers and kinds of other species growing in the same area, why not stop competition before this other species ever has a chance to grow? The book finishes with four chapters on aspects of applied allelopathy, including potential plant and microbial-produced herbicides.

One shortcoming is common in published allelopathic reports — there was very little coverage on how allelochemicals benefit their neighbor's growth. Fertilization effects commonly occur, and are allelopathic by definition, but seem to have been swept under the ecological rug. Laudably, the book does include a chapter that claims that alleged allelochemicals could not be phytotoxic under natural conditions. This lack of toxicity could not only be due to microbial action, but to soil's physical factors, including chemical absorption to the soil surface, and forming complexes with humus. This reinforces the need for field studies to determine possible allelopathic effects in addition to laboratory data.

Reading this book makes it clear — allelopathy may occur in all environments, and should be considered as a part of community interactions. We need to consider that allelochemicals may have less drastic effects than simply killing neighbors, that interactions change with plant stress, and that not all plant species react similarly to the same chemical.—Michelle A. Briggs, Department of Biology, Lycoming College, Williamsport, PA 17701

Literature Cited

Rice, E.L. (1974)
Allelopathy. Academic Press, New York

Ecological Vignettes: Ecological Approaches to Dealing with Human Predicaments. Eugene Odum. 1998. ISBN 90-5702-522-1 (paper US$ 21.95)269 pp. Harwood Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.—Whether you subscribe to 31 December 1999 or 31 December 2000 as the last day of the millennium, or count years by the Chinese calendar, it is clear to see that a new era in human history is fast upon us. Our population has grown rapidly, and our demands upon and insults to the ecosphere have grown even faster. One does not have to be a visionary to see that the next thousand years are unlikely to support another 100-fold increase in the human population. Nor does one have to be a prophet to foretell that we will be faced with increasingly difficult and urgent environmental problems as we approach the earth's carrying capacity. What does require vision and a prophetic voice is conceiving and proclaiming a radical solution to these problems. Eugene Odum attempts such a solution in this slim volume which aims to "improve environmental literacy at all levels - kindergarten through senior citizenry." Education, specifically learning the "Wisdom of Nature" that ecological studies have revealed, provides a starting point for an educated populace to enact "ecological approaches to dealing with human predicaments."

This slim volume is designed to serve as a primer for environmental literacy, as suitable for students as senior citizens. Odum's approach to this task is two-pronged: first, convey basic ecological principles through the use of short vignettes and cartoons; and second, provoke thought and discussion about the application of those principles to our human predicaments through a collection of essays. The first eight chapters present a series of 21 vignettes which clearly and concisely illustrate the lessons we may learn from ecology about growth, energy, organization, change, behavior and diversity, and also those we don't learn from nature, but may learn from close observation of human behavior. The last 80% of the text is a collection of 26 short essays, 22 of which are culled from Eugene Odum's lifetime passion for and production of accessible writing about ecology and the connections between science and society. The remainder were written by Howard T. Odum, William E. Odum, and William R. Catton, Jr.

The greatest strengths of this volume are in the brevity and clarity to which it distills our ecological lessons, and in the challengingly counter-cultural currents that run through the essays. These strengths are inseparable. Odum's ecological approaches deduced from the "Wisdom of Nature" call us from the madness of the masses to the consciousness of our connectedness to creation. In contrast to our cultural enshrinement of growth as the economic panacea ("bigger is better!"), and the twentieth century's dismal history of violent military reactions to human problems, consider the lessons of ecology that growth must be limited, and that cooperation is preferable to conflict.

The brevity of the first section of this book (58 generously illustrated pages to convey the 21 vignettes and their explanations) is also one of its greatest weaknesses. At times the explanation or illustration of the ecological lesson at hand is so brief as to be cryptic. It is rather like being taught in parables. This could be a problem, especially for those to whom these ecological ideas are news. This shortfall is largely overcome, however, by the content of the following 187 pages of essays, which parallels that of the preceding vignettes. Although the essays were written over a 30-year period, very little of the material is outdated or lacking in pertinence.

In conclusion, I have found Ecological Vignettes to be a useful and fruitful stimulus for discussion and learning in the general education science courses that I teach. I heartily recommend it for libraries at all levels, as well as for use in those courses where scientists have the greatest opportunity to exert a positive influence on society by attempting to enlighten every student who comes through the doors of higher education.—Jonathan Frye, McPherson College, McPherson, KS

The Terrestrial Biosphere and Global Change: Implications for Natural and Managed Ecosystems. Synthesis Volume. B. Walker, W. Steffen, J. Canadell, J. Ingram, eds. 1999. ISBN 0-521-62480-0 (paper US$49.95) 439pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211—When the clock will be ticking the first seconds of the year 2000 there will be a little more than 6 billion humans living on earth. Probabilistic projections indicate that there is a 95% probability that the population will lie between 10.0 and 12.0 billion in 2050, and between 15.7 and 17.3 billion in 2100. This is how the editors set forth the challenging nature of global change in the introductory chapter. This book is a synthesis of the current understanding of global change interactions with terrestrial ecosystems. Forty scientists contributed to this highly technical synthetic work on the implications of global change upon the natural and managed ecosystems. In the twelve chapters covering five major thematic areas: ecosystem physiology; ecosystem structure and composition; terrestrial production systems; global biogeochemistry and ecological biodiversity, the international research effort in the Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems Core Project (GCTE) of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program (IGBP) has set an essential milestone.

How do we determine the impact of humans upon ecosystems ? The imprint that humans have on ecosystems is resolved by the so called ÎPLOT1 equation; a function of Population size, lifestyle, Organization and Technology. Climate change is the most publicized component of global change but land use/ cover conversions and atmospheric alterations are equally fundamental to this interdisciplinary environmental issue. The science of ecosystem study started in the 1960's- 1970's with the inception of the International Biologic Program (IBP). The authors caution that ecosystem study is difficult due the large scale processes involved, much larger than the typical experimental plot of a few hectares. Some of the natural processes require decades to centuries for completion rendering replication and monitoring arduous.

The inherent complexity of ecosystems result in a large number of variables which affect complex energy fluxes. Though, some on-going successful manipulative experiments in the fields of elevated CO2, nutrient/ water interactions are presented. Despite some of the inherent limitations of ecosystem research, GCTE has been successfully integrating the large and complex international body of knowledge using networking as a fundamental communication strategy. The use of transects and scales has been another beneficial approach taken by the IGBP as a tool for global change research. The basic transect design is outlined in the fourth chapter, focusing on the North East China Transect (NECT). The important role of remote sensing in transect research is described. Finally, the chapter focuses on the use of transects as tools for synthesis and research integration. The next two chapters center on ecosystem modeling both in terms of data needs and applications. However, in the context of this book a full catalogue of available datasets is not provided.

Global change ecological modeling addresses many basic issues of ecosystem structure and functioning where the critical factor of scale is fundamental to the computations and outputs. A model review aimed at managed ecosystems such as crops, grasslands and forests is provided. Then the authors present biogeochemical models describing fluxes of water, carbon and nutrients between the vegetation and the atmosphere ignoring issues such as changes in community structure and composition dedicated to its own section. This modeling discussion ends with the presentation of model-based attempts to unify structural and functional dynamics of ecosystems. The seventh chapter summarizes the research status on the potential impacts of environmental change upon the physiology of ecosystems taking into consideration long term hydrological and biogeochemical feedbacks. The chapter examines the environmental factors that are predicted to change in the coming decades to a century such as: atmospheric CO2, temperature, water availability, N deposition, UV-B and tropospheric ozone. Major emphasis is placed on atmospheric CO2.

Various models are also presented to show the complex nature of the interactions among multiple global change drivers, which can lead to feedbacks, both positive and negative, on ecosystem responses. Changes in ecosystem composition and structure are then discussed at three levels of organization: vegetation patches, landscapes, and entire regions of the globe itself. This is an excellent synopsis on the topic, highly recommended to botanists. Eight color pages (most of the book is printed in black and white) of modeling outputs are presented on regional, national and global scales. Global change effects upon managed ecosystems is outlined in chapter nine. The central theme of the tenth chapter is the global carbon cycle. The conceptual model applied in this chapter is that the carbon cycle cannot be viewed outside of the context of the other biogeochemical (chemistry of the earth's surface) cycles that are closely coupled to it. A schematic view of the linkages of the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and water cycles is presented. The last two chapters examine how global change affects biodiversity and ecological complexity. The authors "look into the future" to develop probable biodiversity scenarios. These scenarios are based on simulation models of changes in land use, climate, and atmospheric composition. The final chapter synthesizes the findings of the GCTE program in five major global change issues: (i) terrestrial carbon cycle; (ii) interaction of ecosystem structure and functioning; (iii) vegetation dynamics; (iv) impacts on production systems; and (v) effects on ecological complexity. In terms of conclusion eight emerging questions and challenges are discussed.

I wish chapter summaries were consistently presented. I also encourage the use of more case studies. I support the creation of a simpler, condensed version of this book, that might be distributed to school libraries. Educating the next generation early, on the issue of global change is a duty of the scientific community. I surely hope this essential work will be read by world political leaders, so that policies implementing sustainable use of natural resources will be developed. We all depend on our natural environment for the bulk of our food and fiber, for the provision of clean air and water, for some of the processing and storage of our waste material, ultimately for our physical and spiritual well being. Aside from this anthropocentric perspective, terrestrial ecosystems are the home of million other species which hold equal share to the enjoyment of our planet's natural environments. A challenge ahead is bridging the scientific body of knowledge applied to global change with the creation of policies implemented to protect the global biological communities.—Laurent M. Meillier, U.C. Santa Barbara, Department of Geological Sciences, Santa Barbara, CA.

Ecology of Sonoran Desert Plants and Plant Communities Robichaux, Robert H., ed., 1999. ISBN 0-8165-1869-6 (cloth US$45) 312 pp. The University of Arizona Press, 1230 N. Park St., Suite 102, Tucson AZ 85719—This is an intriguing book dealing with various aspects of Sonoran desert plants and plant communities. The eight chapters are far ranging in their subjects, and this broadness might be surprising on a first glance. However, the introduction tells the reason: the book was produced on the occasion of the 95th anniversary of the Desert Research Laboratory, located near Tucson, Arizona, and should provide a sample of the research pursued in this region and at this institution. More details on the Desert Laboratory can be found in Bowers (1990).

Each of the chapters is a review or summary of research conducted by the contributors. They are well and readable written, supplemented by excellent illustrations and written in such a way that specialists from other fields can understand them. One name appears throughout the first half of the book: Forrest Shreve, who joined the staff of the Desert Laboratory in 1908, carried out extensive investigations on the Sonoran flora and is the author of "Vegetation of the Sonoran Desert" (Shreve 1951).

The first three chapters deal with patterns of vegetation and plant communities at the landscape level. In the first chapter (S. P. McLaughlin and J. E. Bowers) the affinities and diversity of the flora are explored. It reviews past and current phytogeographic treatments of the Sonoran floristic province, and provides numerical floristic analyses based on a large number of local floras in order to relate species diversity to environmental variation and further define the floristic boundaries between the subdivisions. Unfortunately, alien species are not considered in their analyses, although exotics also have reached the Sonoran desert region. The next chapter (A. Burquez, A. Mart’nez-Yr’zar, R. S. Felger, and D. Yetman) reviews the relationships between the physical environment, habitat diversity, and vegetation structure. Although somewhat redundant to the previous chapter, it gives a nice description of the vegetation types encountered in the Sonoran region, and explores how microhabitat variation translates into changes of species diversity. J. R. McAuliffe (chapter 3) gives an overview on the landscape complexity and ecological diversity of the Sonoran desert. The chapter extensively discusses how important soil types and water availability are in shaping vegetation structure and its specific composition. Very intriguing is the relationship between the age of alluvial deposits and the size and age of long-lived perennials that colonized these. Creosote bush (Larrea tridendata) clones can be several thousands of years old, and younger alluvial deposits bear younger (smaller) clones. This illustrates that the sizes of these plants and their population structure must be linked to geological changes in the landscape.

Chapter four (D. L. Venable and C. E. Pake) brings the scale down to that of annual species. Annuals make about half of the species in local Sonoran floras and are important since their fluctuations from year to year determine the population dynamics and composition of seed predators. The chapter presents results on the population dynamics of 30 annuals over a period of 15 years and explores the relationship between seed germination, fecundity, population size, and dispersal to environmental variation. The authors discuss to what extent desert annuals represent a system in which temporal variation promotes species coexistence.

The next chapter (P. S. Nobel and M. E. Loik) is again highly contrasting to the previous one. Form and function of cacti shows great variability in the Sonoran desert, and the authors investigated how the form of a cactus influences its interaction with the environment by means of ecophysiological measurements in roots and stems. The role of nurse plants as regeneration niches for cacti is discussed. Chapter six (W. J. Etges, W. R. Johnson, G. A. Duncan, G. Huckins, and W. B. Heed) deals with plant-animal interactions. The ecological genetics of two cactophilic pomace flies (Drosphila pacheaand D. mojavensis) were studied with the aim to compare chromosomal variability in relation to the distribution of the host cacti used for feeding and breeding. The main findings are that the karyotypic variation of the flies match the distribution of the host cacti. Thus, the authors conclude that the (climatic) forces that shaped the vegetational subdivisions and the distribution of host plants in the Sonoran desert also influenced the genetic variation in many insect species.

Quite a different topic is covered in the next chapter (L. L. Jackson and P. W. Comus). The reader learns how agricultural development since European colonization (and before) influenced the natural vegetation of the Sonoran desert valley. The authors virtually took every available piece of information to reconstruct the spread of agricultural development in this region since 1885. Two technologies had major effects on the hydrology and vegetation: the big dam and the deep pump. The chapter provides impressive data on the water pumped and on the increase of abandoned farm land as a result of groundwater decline. The authors also studied the natural vegetation remnants in this area and discuss the consequences for ecosystem recovery. Their conclusion is that a recovery will be very limited considering the profound changes that happened. Finally, the last chapter (P. S. Martin) provides insights into the deep history of the Sonoran desert. Martin demonstrates how climatic changes during the last 40 000 years, and ancient cultures had a major influence on the present biota.

Thus, the chapters deal with all scales from landscape to population, and are far beyond pure ecology. This must be accounted for in the title of the book. An important message of the book is that understanding the ecology of plants and plant communities of the Sonoran desert requires studies at all scales in time and space.

Since the articles are strongly linked to the Desert Laboratory, the reader might wish to learn more about it. A possibility would be to include a small chapter on the past and present research activities and the major publications that resulted from this institution. Such informations could also be included in the introduction. Some parts of the first three chapters appear somewhat redundant as similar questions are addressed. As an ecologist working on invasive species, I missed this issue - but as stated in the introduction, there are more themes than can be included in such a book. Since the last two chapters are strongly related to geology and landscape patterns, they probably would be better placed after the third chapter.

Despite these rather small critiques, the volume provides a wealth of information including the citation of many older works. It is the broadness mentioned at the beginning that makes the book highly valuable to anyone studying desert ecosystems and seeking a deeper understanding of the factors and mechanisms that shape the plant communities of the Sonoran Desert.—Ewald Weber, Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Literature Cited

Bowers J.E. 1990.
A debt to the future: scientific achievements of the Desert Laboratory, Tumamoc Hill, Tucson, Arizona. Desert Plants 10: 9-12/35-47.
Shreve F. 1951.
Vegetation of the Sonoran Desert. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication no. 591, Washington, D.C.



      • John Lindley 1799-1865: Gardener, Botanist, and Pioneer Orchidologist Stearn, William T., ed., 1999. - Alec M. Pridgeon
      • The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition, Volume 12. Herbarium of the Lewis and Clark Expedition Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, and Gary E. Moulton, 1999. -Barbara A. Schaal

Book Reviews: Ethnobotanical

Tyler's Herbs of Choice Tyler, Varro E. and Robbers, James E., 1999 Edition. ISBN 0-7890-0159-4 (hard US $39.96) ISBN 0-7890-0160-8 (soft US$19.95) 287 pages with Index. Tyler's Honest Herbal Tyler, Varro E. and Foster, Stephen, 1999 Edition. ISBN 0-780-0705-3 (hard US $49.95) ISBN 0-7890-0875-0 (soft US$24.95) 442 pages with Index. The Haworth Herbal Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 1390-1580.—These books are the best introductions to herbal medicine published in this country. Dr. Tyler's profound knowledge of botanical medicine is present in every sentence. Not a single word is wasted. Any botanist wishing to understand scientific herbal usage will find in these two books a complete mini-course.

The Honest Herbal, subtitled "A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies" is directed toward the ordinary user of herbs. It has more than a hundred short monographs on the most commonly used herbs. Each monograph has accessible References. The herbs are listed under their Common Names of Commerce but complete Botanical Names are given in each monograph and in the Index. Old wives' tales are laid to rest and scientific uses are described.

Herbs of Choice, subtitled "The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals," is directed toward the medical professional who knows little about botanicals. Each chapter discusses herbs commonly used by the general public to treat a specific class of illness. Some uses are dismissed as ineffective. Others are discussed at length. Contraindications and possible side effects are carefully noted. There are numerous Reference Notes.

As a phytotoxicologist I hope that every person interested in herbs will read and reread "Pros and Cons" and "Rules and Regulations" in the Herbal and the first two chapters of Herbs of Choice very carefully. Herbal preparations in this country are completely unregulated and no manufacturing standards are enforced. Many products are merely worthless, but some are dangerous. These two books are excellent guides. There are innumerable herbal concoctions on sale that are not mentioned in these books. No one should ingest them.

My only criticism is the dismissal, in both books, of homeopathic remedies as mere placebos. Many recent scientific studies have shown these preparations can be effective medications. I have seen adverse reactions in which the only possible cause was a homeopathic herbal. The symptoms matched those to be expected from the plant material listed on the bottle. Since there is widespread use of these materials all users should be aware that adverse reactions are possible.—Sarah Delle Hultmark <>

Book Review: Horticultural

Japanese Flowering Cherries Kuitert, Wybe, 1999. ISBN 0-88192-468-7 395 (cloth, US $39.95) 395 pp. Timber Press, Inc., 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527Japanese Flowering Cherries by Wybe Kuitert with Arie Peterse arrives as another excellent work from Timber Press, though not from a particular series such as the Gardener's Guides. Kuitert teaches at the Kyoto University of Art and Design and directs the Kalmthout Arboretum in Belgium while Peterse, a Dutch plant breeder, has studied and written about the flowering cherries which are found in various collections in Europe and the United Kingdom. American botanists and horticulturalists will be familiar with the annual blossoming in Washington, D.C., of the flowering cherries which were given by Japan to the US early in this century. A complete and workmanlike treatise could be expected from such authors as Kuitert and Peterse, but this book delights while it informs. Covering a popular horticultural subject, the authors weave history and horticulture using language which is lucid while holding the interest of the reader. This occurs despite the inclusion of copious detail, which can mar horticultural books by masking larger issues if the volume of information is not well handled. Japanese flowering cherries, like fruiting cherries, come from the genus Prunus (Rosaceae), but their outstanding feature is not their fruit, which is relatively small, but rather their glorious display of flowers in spring. Bred in Japan for this floral display, a number of Chinese and Japanese Prunus spp., such as P. serrulata and P. apetala, may figure in the parentage of the modern Japanese cherries.

The authors consider a wide variety of topics, beginning with both the native habitats of the various species which may be the ancestors of Japanese flowering cherries and the cultural requirements of the early cultivars. The wild species of flowering cherries are found throughout Japanese forests, though included in the text are notes about some species of Chinese cherries which may also be ancestors of the Japanese flowering cherries. The authors then turn to the connections between human history and the history of Japanese flowering cherries, considering the original connections with Japanese horticulture and with Japanese culture. The reader is led through changing fashions as the flowering cherry waxed and waned in popularity. The authors commendably avoid squeamishness—even the use of the cherry as a symbol during World War II receives consideration. The involvement of Europeans and Americans in the taxonomy of Japanese flowering cherries during their later history of Japanese flowering cherries is also considered.

The botany of the flowering cherry comes next, particularly in areas for which botanical detail is important for the classification and identification of flowering cherries. First the details of cultivation are presented with reference to the climatic areas from which the individual cultivars and their ancestors came. Second, the various wild species and selected cultivars are considered in individual entries with special forms receiving particular mention.

The authors fashion all of this description and analysis seamlessly as the text turns from one topic to another. The numerous illustrations are fascinating as well as being attractive and well rendered. These include images of Japanese prints which illustrate several famous cultivars. Japanese Flowering Cherries comes highly recommended for anyone who wants to read a well-told tale of one of the most famous floral displays in horticulture. In particular this book is relevant for University libraries, for interested amateurs, and for professionals who frequently encounter these trees in their work, such as landscape architects and those teaching horticulture. Buy a copy.—Douglas W. Darnowski

Book Review: Phytochemical

Instant Notes in Chemistry for Biologists. (Instant Notes Series, B. D. Hames ed.) Fisher, J. & Arnold, J. R. P. 1999. ISBN 0-387-91563-X. (paper- US$24.95) Bios Scientific Publishers, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 175 Fifth Ave, New York, NY, 10010-7858.—The stated purpose of this book is to provide a concise summary of key concepts in chemistry that will be relevant to biology students. Chemistry is certainly fundamental to biology but, as the authors note, the required chemical knowledge often dissipates soon after the last chemistry exam. This book is divided into 15 sections containing a total of 52 topics. Many sections deal with concepts derived from general and organic chemistry, some relate to inorganic or physical chemistry. Each topic is ~4-5 pages in length; it starts with ÔKey Notes' which serve to highlight the information to be presented, followed by an expanded treatment with examples and illustrations. A smattering of sections/topics will demonstrate the breadth of coverage: the elements, chemical bonding, properties of water, properties of carbon, metals in biology, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, organic compounds by chemical class, acids and bases, the laws of thermodynamics, enzyme kinetics, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy.

Much of the material presented and examples provided appear to be very strongly chemistry-oriented, as in the section on Ôcommon reaction types of carbon based compounds' highlighting oxidations of brominated or fluorinated hydrocarbons catalyzed by metal halides. To be more biologically relevant, examples based on natural substrates oxidized by an iron-containing cytochrome P-450 enzyme would have been more appropriate. The level of chemical knowledge considered fundamental is pretty extensive, subjects like thermodynamics, the distinctions between EI, CI and FAB mass spec, or the nuclear Overhauser effect are encountered (if at all) in the latter stages of a student career (in the US anyway). Other sections appear to be biochemistry oriented, as in the enzyme kinetics topic outlining Michaelis-Menton vs. Lineweaver-Burk plots. There are examples relevant to biology, but if the objective is to relate to (future) biologists there should be a greater emphasis on biology. For example, there is a topic devoted to aromatic compounds (which would appeal to chemists) but alkaloids would be a more appropriate choice of chemical class if the emphasis were truly biological Ð as alkaloids are hugely important as human drugs and in mediating the interactions of biological organisms. All in all, the topics are condensed enough that if I needed information I would still tend to look toward my general texts. This is a very attractive and well-written book but the treatment is so broad that, in a sense, the end product is a rather skeletonized version of chemistry. The authors lecture at the University of Leeds (UK) in the Schools of Chemistry and Biology where biology students are expected to start out with a much stronger background in chemistry than is typical of US students. I think it would be of marginal benefit to US students. I did, however, enjoy the book, it is well written and referenced and may be a useful resource in preparing fundamentals of biology lectures.—Timothy C. Morton, University of Chicago

Book Reviews: Systematics

Páramos: A checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanical literature Luteyn, James L. 1999. ISBN 0-89327-427-5 (cloth, no price given). Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden 84: i-xv and 1-278. Six color plates. New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, New York 10458-5126—In the lowland tropics, biotic diversity is usually overwhelming and the complexity of interactions always exceeds our imagination. But when we climb high mountains (yes, sometimes we may feel rather stupid staying in such a cold environment so close to the equator), biology becomes more simple again. We are in the tropical alpine zone or, as it is called in the Neotropics, páramos. In the publication under review, páramos are defined as high altitude landscapes found above continuous forests line and below the permanent snowline of the northern Andes of South America and adjacent southern Central America. After several partial attempts to describe flora and vegetation of the páramos (Balslev & Luteyn 1992, Monasterio 1980, Rundel et al. 1994), the time was ripe to complete an authoritative and Ôcomplete' plant checklist and botanical bibliography for this biotic zone.

The book includes the family, genus, authority, pertinent synonymy, and geographical and altitudinal ranges for each of the 3399 vascular and 1298 nonvascular páramo plant species. (Páramos have the richest high-mountain flora in the world.) It also gives the country, proper name, maximum altitude, latitude and longitude, political subdivisions, and notes for approximately 2100 páramo localities in Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Peru. Full literature citations are provided for more than 1570 botanical references. An extensive introduction covers páramo climate, soils, plant growth forms, and impacts of burning and grazing. Many of the black-and-white photos illustrating the book were taken by one of the early students of páramos, José Cuatrecasas.

The checklist, gazetteer, and bibliography will be extremely helpful for all botanists and ecologists working in this fascinating life zone. Only a very few species are not on the list (e.g., Bocconia frutescens, Centropogon valerii, and Monnina sylvatica of Costa Rican páramos or Calceolaria stricta and Ciclospermum [Apium] leptophyllum of Venezuelan páramos). Also, only a very few relevant references are missing (Alfaro and Gamboa 1999, Kapelle 1996, Llano 1990, Manara 1996).—Marcel Rejmánek, Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Literature Cited

Alfaro, E. and Gamboa, B. 1999.
Plantas communes del Parque Nacional Chirripá. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Santo Domingo de Heredia. 283 pp.
Balslev, H and Luteyn, J.L. (eds.) 1992.
Páramo: An Andean ecosystem under human influence. Academic Press, London.
Kapelle, M. 1996.
Los Bosques de Roble (Quercus) de la cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica: Biodiversidad, Ecolog’a, Conservación y Desarrollo. Universidad de Amsterdam & Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad. Amsterdam & Santo Domingo de Heredia. 319 pp.
Llano, M. 1990.
Los Páramos de los Andes: exploración ecológica integrade en la alta montaña ecuatorial. Montoya & Araújo, Bogotá. 314 pp.
Manara, B. 1996.
Plantas andinas en el Avila. Fundarte, Caracas. 80 pp.
Monasterio, M. (ed.) 1980.
Estudios ecológicos en los páramos andinos. Universidad de Los Andes, Meerida, Venezuela.
Rundel, P.W., Smith, A.P. and Meinzer, F.C. (eds.) 1994.
Tropical Alpine Environments: Plant form and function. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Trees of the Central Hardwood Forests of North America Leopold, D. J., W. C. McComb and R. N. Muller, 1998. ISBN 0-88192-406-7 (cloth US$49.95). 469 pp. Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.—I always look forward to my first reading of a new tree book with a certain eagerness. What new wrinkles will it bring to a literary (sometimes) tradition going back more than a century and covering every hectare of North America and each native species with numerous, overlapping, descriptive roofs of different sizes and thicknesses? I was especially curious about how well the nontraditional phytosociologically rather than politically defined region covered by this book would work as a framework for tree presentations. The region covered is nearly the same as the sum of six of Braun's (1950) forest regions (cited in the bibliography but not referenced in the text): mixed mesophytic, western mesophytic, oak-hickory, oak-chestnut (here called Appalachian oak in deference to the disappearance of chestnut as a canopy species), beech-maple, and maple basswood. The most significant departure from Braun's regions is the unexplained addition of portions of her hemlock-white pine-northern hardwoods region (also called northern mixed forest or Great Lakes-St. Lawrence forest) in southern Ontario and Quebec. This addition is not justified by either species distributions or community associations. The six forest regions and the physiographic regions that they occupy are given a fairly extensive treatment in twenty pages of the introduction, but they are dropped after that. It would have been an innovative follow-through on the organizing premise of the book to have explicitly addressed the forest associations for each species when describing its habitat and range.

That this book covers a phytosociologically rather than phytogeographically defined region is emphasized by the fact that only about 10% of the approximately 200 native species covered have range limits approximating those of the book and another 10% are embedded in one corner or another of it. Almost 80% of the species have ranges that extend well beyond the chosen boundaries or even fall mostly outside of them. Like many other tree books, then, this one is useful beyond its stated borders, better somewhat northward or westward, perhaps, than southward, due to the numerous additional species of the coastal plain. Oddly, 14 of the native species of the region were missed out and another 4 that occur within 50 km of the region were also omitted, although several others were given brief mention. All of these missed trees have very restricted distributions in the central hardwood forests, but that didn't block the inclusion of many other species with similar restrictions.

All told, some 266 species are given full or brief descriptions, including 53 foreign trees and 8 North American species from outside the region. A full treatment includes ample descriptions of morphological characteristics, ecology, uses, and cultivation, a range map (redrawn from Little's Atlas, 1971, 1976), black and white photos of trunks, twigs, leaves, and fruits, and color photos. Not all species have all of these elements: 18 of the main entry species are without any illustrations, and one (Tsuga caroliniana) lacks a range map. Eight foreign trees are given a full treatment. With the exception of Morus alba and Populus alba, these are the ones that are the sole species of their genera in the area. The other foreign trees, all belonging to genera with native species, are given brief accounts. One omitted foreign tree that should have been included is Salix fragilis (and its hybrids with S. alba), which is very common along streams in urban areas in the region. Brief treatments (of 35 North American trees as well) lack many of the elements of the full entries, but usually muster a short, comparative description, often have a single black and white photograph, and occasionally have a range map.

As is typical for the many books using Little's Atlas, range maps are only provided for native species (including those briefly mentioned). Maps for naturalized species, even if only crude ones, would be welcome additions to tree books someday. One of the few consistent weaknesses of this book is that the verbal descriptions of range often vary from the mapped distribution. On most of these occasions, the verbal description is inaccurate, sometimes leaving out whole countries (Canada, Mexico, Guatemala), but there are a few cases in which occurrences have been left off the maps that still make it to the verbal description. The maps generally do not reflect recent range extensions, like the finding of Fraxinus profunda, Quercus ilicifolia, and Q. shumardii in Ontario. They also perpetuate Little's few howlers, like the fallacious mapping of Quercus prinusthroughout southernmost Ontario when it doesn't occur here at all (probably).

About half of the main entry species have good color photos and half of these are of flowers, with the rest evenly divided between fruits, fall color, and bark. Inclusion of black and white photos of small, medium, and large trunks for many species is a good feature you won't find elsewhere (at least not to this extent). The small black and white photos are generally effective, but a few of the twigs are too murky to be useful. One of these, labelled as Metasequoiafoliage on p. 410, is the photo of a small trunk of Thuja occidentalis from p. 412, turned on its side. There are also a few examples of discrepancies between features in the photographs and their verbal descriptions. The descriptions were also occasionally marred by word processing glitches, like a bit of the leaf description of Populus grandidentata repeated under the twigs. More common is an unfortunate concession to brevity that sometimes leads to omissions, including certain characteristics only under the first species ("as in all magnolias") and then not repeating them. Thus root-suckering grove formation is mentioned for Populus balsamiferaas "like quaking aspen," but not then described for P. tremuloides or other aspens. Many times, especially if the user is working with the keys (or flipping through the pictures), only one description will be read and, even if a comparison is made, it won't necessarily be with the first species in the genus.

The verbal descriptions of height aren't entirely consistent with the stated dimensions, so that the 60 ft of Pinus nigra and Fagus sylvatica is "large" while the 80 ft of Larix laricina is "medium". Size brings up the question of demarcation. Some of the species included, especially among the hollies and willows, are shrubs that sometimes meet Little's (1972) definition of a tree. It would be a rare event, indeed, to find a tree of one of these species and some of them never reach tree size within the central hardwoods region, even if they might do so southward. Is it useful to include some large shrubs but not others? On the side of omission, this book also follows most of its predecessors in skimpy treatment of hawthorns, one of the most prominent genera in the region, with a full description of the genus and brief treatment of four species. This is the only native genus given such short shrift. While difficult, hawthorns aren't a lot more difficult than willows and shouldn't just be ignored. At the minimum, tree books should include the species in one of the most conservative treatments, like Little's (1972), which lists 23 Crataegus species for the states of the central hardwood forest. Of the other tree books covering all or part of this region that I looked at for this review, only Sargent (1922, with "500" species) and Braun (1963, with 64 species) give the hawthorns serious attention. Sargent, of course is one of the three authors who created abhorrence for hawthorns, while Braun's account was written by Ernest Palmer, who spent much of his career trying to stuff this genie back in its bottle. None of the more recent books, including this one, makes a genuine attempt to help its readers understand hawthorn diversity.

The book has the usual range of small errors in Latin names (Crataegus stipulaceae, Malus glabreata), English (plurals that should be singular and my favorite, Fenneman's "Physiology of eastern United States"), and technical description ("seed" for the endocarp of Juglans cinerea, leaves of Populus alba 3-5 lobed when only the neoformed leaves are lobed). Regrettably, perhaps, the text didn't incorporate nomenclatural and taxonomic changes accepted in Flora of North America, volume 3. Finally, the keys are generally effective but contain a few errors, like listing Sorbus and Carya under the even pinnate lead and the omission of Toxicodendron.

Despite what may appear to be a litany of quibbles, this book is a good addition to the field and well worth owning. The authors have carved out a unique niche for it within the genre.—James E. Eckenwalder, Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario

Books Received

If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February, 15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). Send e-mail to <>, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list, because they go quickly! - Ed.

* = book in review or declined for review
** = book reviewed in this issue

Applied Population Ecology: Principles and Computer Exercises, 2nd Ed.Akcakaya, H. Resit, Mark A. Burgman, and Lev R. Ginzburg, 1999. ISBN 0-87893-028-0 (cloth US$39.95) 285 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 407, Sunderland, MA 01375-0407.

Azadirachta Indica A. Juss. Eds. Singh, R.P., and R.C. Saxena, 1999. ISBN 1-57808-041-X (cloth US$89.00) 330 pp. Science Publishers, Inc, P.O. Box 699, Enfield, New Hampshire 03748.

Bibliography on Seed Morphology Jensen, Hans Arne, 1998. 306 pp. A.A. Balkema, P.O. Box 1675, 3000 BR Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Biologically Active Natural Products: Agrochemicals. Cutler, Horace G., and Stephen J. Cutler, eds. 1999. ISBN 0-8493-1885-8 299 pp. CRC Press LLC, 2000 NW Corporate BLVD., Boca Raton, FL 33431.

Biotechnological Approaches in Biocontrol of Plant Pathogens Mukerji, K.G., B.P. Chamola, and R.K. Upadhyay, eds., 1991. ISBN 0-306-46104-8 (cloth US$115.00) 268 pp. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 101 Back Church Lane, London. E1 1LU.

*Cladistics, 2nd Ed. Kitching, Ian, Peter Forey, Christopher Humphries, and David Williams, 1998. ISBN 0-19-850139-0 (cloth US$75.00) 228 pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016.

Conservation Biology Shultz, Dunham, Root, Soucy, Carroll, and Ginzburg, 1999. ISBN 0-87893-768-4 (paper US$27.95) 216 pp. Sinauer Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 407, Sunderland, MA 01375-0407.

Cotton. Smith, C. Wayne, and J. Tom Cothren, eds. 1999. ISBN 0-471-18045-9 (cloth US$185.00) 850 pp. Wiley Publishers, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158.

Daylilies for the Garden Grosvenor, Graeme, 1999. ISBN 0-88192-427-X (cloth US$34.95) 176 pp, Timber Press, Inc., 133 s.w. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.

The Ecological History of European Forests Kirby, Keith J. And Charles Watkins, eds. 1998. ISBN 0-85199-256-0 (cloth US$ 95.00) 373 pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016.

Flora of Russia. The European Part and Boerdering Regions, Vol. II. Orchidaceae, Juncaceae, Cyperaceae, and Commelinaceae Fedorov, An. A., ed. 1999. (In English) Translated from the Russian by A. K. Dhote. ISBN 90-5410-752-9 (cloth US$95.00) 323 pp. A. A. Balkema Uitgevers B.V., Postbus 1675, NL-3000 BR Rotterdam, Nederland.

Flora of the Northeast Magee, Dennis W. And Harry E. Ahles, 1999. ISBN 1-55849-189-9 (cloth US$69.95) 1213 pp. The University of Massachusetts Press, Box 429, Amherst, MA 01004.

Fossil Plants and Spores eds. Jones, TP, and NP Rowe, 1999. ISBN 1-86239-041-X 396 pp. The Geological Society, The Geological Society Publishing House, Unit 7, Brassmill Enterprise Centre, Brassmill Lane, Bath BA1 3JN, UK.

From Ethnomycology to Fungal Biotechnology Singh, Jagjit, and K.R. Aneja, eds. 1999. ISBN 0-306-46059-9 (cloth US$125.00) 305 pp. Kluwer Publishers, Order Dept, PO Box 358, Accord Station, Hingham, MA 02018-0358.

A Garden of Bristlecones: Tales of Change in the Great Basin Cohen, Michael P., 1998. ISBN 0-87417-296-9 308 pp. University of Nevada Press, Reno, Nevada 89557-0076.

Gardener's Guide to Growing Dahlias Rowlands, Gareth, 1999. ISBN 0-88192-434-2 (cloth US$29.95) 160 pp. Timber Press, Inc., 133 s.w. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.

Go Native! Harstad, Carolyn, 1999. ISBN 0-253-33561-2 (cloth US$35.00; paper US$24.95) 304 pp. Indiana University Press, 601 N. Morton Street, Bloomington, IN 47404.

Handbook of Plant Virus Diseases Sutic, Dragoljub D., Richard E. Ford, and Malisa T. Tosic, 1999. ISBN 0-8493-2302-9 (no price given) 553 pp. CRC Press LLC, 2000 NW Corporate BLVD., Boca Raton, FL 33431.

Horticulture Reviews, Volume 23 Janick Jules, ed. 1999. ISBN 0-471-25445-2 (cloth US$145.00) 366 pp. Wiley Publishers, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158.

*Introductory Plant Biology, 8th Ed. Stern, Kingsley R., 2000. ISBN 0-07-012205-9 (no price given) 589 pp. WCB/McGraw-Hill, 2460 Kerper Boulevard, Dubuque, IA 52001.

Journal of New Seeds, Vol. 1, no. 1 Singh Basra, Amarjit, ed. 1999. ISSN: 1522-886X (paper US$28.00) 112 pp. Hawthorne Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.

Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic History of North American Vegitation Graham, Alan, 1999. ISBN 0-19-511342-X (cloth US$95.00) 350 pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016-4314.

Maples for Gardens: A Color Encyclopedia van Gelderen, C.J. and D.M. van Gelderen, 1999. ISBN 0-88192-472-5 (cloth US$49.95) 294 pp. Timber Press, 133 s.w. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.

Natural Enemies Handbook Flint, Mary Louise, and Steve H. Dreistadt, 1998. ISBN 0-520-21801-9 154 pp. University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, 1111 Franklin St., Oakland, CA 94607-5200.

Orchids of Papua New Guinea Millar, AndreÔe, 1999. ISBN 0-88192-438-5 (cloth US$34.95) 128 pp. Timber Press, 133 s.w. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.

Pests of the Garden and Small Farm Flint, Mary Louise, 1998. ISBN 0-520-21810-8 276 pp. University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, 1111 Franklin St., Oakland, CA 94607-5200.

*Phycology, 3rd Ed. Lee, Robert, 1999. ISBN 0-521-63090-8 (cloth US$100.00, paper US$44.95) 614 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY10011-4211.

Plant Physiology, 2nd Ed. Hopkins, William G. 1998. ISBN 0-471-19281-3 (cloth US$97.95) 512 pp. Wiley Publishers, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158.

Pollination Ecology and Evolution in Compositae (Asteraceae) Mani, M.S., and Jim Saravanan, 1997. ISBN 1-886106-83-5 (cloth US$93.00) 160 pp. Science Publishers, Inc, P.O. Box 699, Enfield, New Hampshire 03748.

*Portraits of Indian Trees Vartak, Arundhati 1999. ISBN 0-913196-66-5 (paper US$9.00) 44 pp. Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh PA 15213-3890

Savannas, Barrens, and Rock Outcrop Plant Communities of North America Anderson, Roger C., James S. Fralish, and Jerry M. Baskin, eds. 1999. ISBN 0-521-57322-X (cloth US$110.00) 470 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.

The Silviculture of Mahogany Mayhew, J.E., and A.C. Newton, 1998. ISBN 0-85199-307-9 (cloth US$45.00) 226 pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016.

Urban Soils Craul, Philip, 1999. ISBN 0-471-18903-0 (cloth US$79.95) 366 pp. Wiley Publishers, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158.

Wild Orchids of Texas Liggio, Joe, and Ann Orto Liggio, 1999. ISBN 0-292-74712-8 (cloth US$29.95) 240 pp. University of Texas Press, P.O. Box 7819, Austin, Texas 78713-7819.

Wildflowers of New York Chapman, William, Valerie Chapman, Alan Bessette, Arleen Rainis Bessette, and Douglas Pens, 1998. ISBN 0-8156-2746-7 (cloth US$ 59.95) 168 pp. Syracuse University Press, 1600 Jamesville Avenue, Syracuse, NY 13244-5160.

World of Catasetums Holst, Arthur W., 1999. ISBN 0-88192-430-X (cloth US$34.95) 346 pp. Timber Press, 133 s.w. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.

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        Cotton canvas - $12

Cricket Hats

        Sizes S, M, L, XL - $25

Cloisonné pin

        White with kelly green logo and gold border - $6

Botany for the Next Millennium Posters

        Full-color, 16"x 20" beauty - $5

(please include $3 for shipping posters)

All prices (except poster) include $2.00 for postage and handling.
Specify item(s), style(s) and size(s).
Make checks payable to BSA Endowment Fund. Mail to:

Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293

For more info, her email address is:

Credit card orders (Visa and Mastercard) are also accepted at the BSA Office at 614-292-3519 (voice and fax)

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