Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1998 v44 No 4 WinterActions


News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees

Call for Nominations: Corresponding Members

The Corresponding Members Committee is soliciting nominations for Corresponding Members of the BSA. According to the BSA Bylaws, "Corresponding Members are distinguished senior scientists who have made outstanding contributions to plant science and who live and work outside the United States of America." The number of such persons is limited to 50; we currently have two vacancies. Corresponding Members are granted life membership in the BSA and enjoy all the privileges of regular Active Members. The current members and past honorees are listed in the BSA Membership Directory and Handbook [and on the web].

The nomination should consist of a curriculum vitae of the proposed candidate, a detailed explanation of the qualifications and achievements of the candidate, and at least three (eight to ten are usual) letters of support. It is preferable for nominations to be made without knowledge of the nominee. Nominations should be completed by 1 March 1999 to be considered for award of corresponding membership in August of 1999. Please send completed nominations to the Past-President, Nancy G. Dengler, Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1A1.

Call For Nominations: 1999 Young Botanist Awards

The Botanical Society of America requests nominations for the Young Botanist Awards for 1998-1999. The purpose of these awards is to recognize outstanding graduating seniors in the plant sciences, and to encourage their participation in the Botanical Society of America. Nominations should document the student's qualifications for the award and should discuss the student's academic performance, research projects, and individual attributes. Nominations should be accompanied by one or more letters of support from faculty who know the students well. Award winners will receive a Certificate of Recognition signed by the President of the Botanical Society, which is forwarded to the nominating faculty member for presentation. Nominations should be sent to the Past-President, Nancy G. Dengler, Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1A1. Deadline: March 1, 1999.

The recipients of this year's Young Botanist Awards were listed on p. 67 of the previous issue of PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN.

ISSN 0032-0919
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210
The yearly subscription rate of $15 is included in the membership dues of the Botanical Society of America, Inc. Periodical postage paid at Columbus, OH and additional mailing office.

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to:

Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293

Phone/Fax: 614/292-3519      email:

Call for Applications: Karling Graduate Student Research Awards

Purpose and Eligibility

The purpose of this award is to support and promote graduate student research in the botanical sciences. To be eligible, one must be a member of the Botanical Society of America (BSA), a registered full-time graduate student, have a faculty advisor who is also a member of the BSA, and not have won the award previously.

Proposal Guidelines

The application shall consist of 1) a title page (must include: title of proposal, name of student, student's institutional and departmental affiliation, year of student's study, and student's sectional affiliation within BSA); 2) an Abstract; 3) a Narrative (must include: a description of the research, including appropriate conceptual background, purpose or objective, brief outline of methodology, and potential contribution or significance to an area of the botanical sciences); 4) a Budget detailing how the funds will be used (the Abstract, Narrative, Budget and any tables or figures should not exceed five single-spaced pages); 5) a Bibliography (up to two pages); 6) a Biographical Sketch (up to two pages); and 7) two letters of support (one must be from the student's advisor).

Applications should include one inch margins all around and use a font size of not smaller than 12 point.

Award Level and Announcements

Each award provides $500. Award winners will be announced at the BSA banquet held in conjunction with the International Botanical Congress in St. Louis, Missouri in August 1999. Funds for the awards come from interest on the Karling and the BSA Endowment Funds, and from the sale of BSA logo items.


Applications should be postmarked no later than March 15, 1999 and should be submitted to the Chair of the Karling Graduate Student Research Award Committee at the following address: Jeffrey M. Osborn, BSA Karling Award Committee, Division of Science, Truman State University, 100 E. Normal Street, Kirksville, MO 63501-4221.

The recipients of this year's Karling Awards were announced at the 1998 Annual Meeting in Baltimore. A complete list of 1998 recipients is on p. 112 of this issue of PSB.

Editorial Committee for Volume 44
Allison A. Snow (1998)
Department of Plant Biology
Ohio State University
Columbus, OH 43210
Nickolas M. Waser (1999)
Department of Biology
University of California
Riverside, CA 92521
P. Mick Richardson (2000)
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166
Vicki A. Funk (2001)
Department of Botany
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C. 20560
Ann E. Antlfinger (2002)
Biology Department
University of Nebraska - Omaha
Omaha NE 68182

1999 BSA Annual Meeting

The 1999 Annual Meeting of the Botanical Society of American will be held in conjunction with the XVI International Botanical Congress in St. Louis, Missouri from I to 7 August. Information about XVI IBC can be obtained at their website:

1999 Scientific Program:

The scientific program of the XVI IBC will consist of invited oral presentations and contributed poster presentations. Except for those who have been invited to give an oral presentation, the only format for a contributed scientific communication is a poster.

BSA Council Meeting and Business Meetings:

The BSA Council Meeting will be held prior to the opening of XVI IBC on Sunday, 1 August. The BSA Business Meeting will be held on Tuesday morning, 3 August prior to the start of the general sessions. BSA Section business meetings should be scheduled so as not to conflict with IBC events and sessions.

BSA Social Events:

The BSA will be sponsoring a social and reception at the Missouri Botanical Garden on Thursday evening 5 August. All members of the BSA as well as those of the Canadian Botanical Association (CBA/ABC) and the Sociedad Bótanica de México are invited to participate.

BSA Section social events can be scheduled or associated with other functions, but social events must be coordinated with Wayne Elisens, BSA Program Director, and Peter Hoch, the XVI IBC Secretary General.

1998 Recipients of the Karling Graduate Student Research Awards

Developmental and Structural Section

Sandra K. Floyd
University of Colorado at Boulder
Supervisor: William Friedman
"Reproductive character evolution in basal angiosperms: endosperm development and embryogeny"

Ecological Section

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Supervisor: Carol K. Augspurger
Microhabitat factors affecting variation in success of invading cheatgrass"

Jeff P. Castelli
University of Pennsylvania
Supervisor: Brenda B. Casper
"Examining the functional significance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal diversity along a successional sequence on serpentine soils"

Theresa M. Culley
Ohio State University
Supervisor: Allison Snow
"Genetic variability using isozyme and ISSR markers in Viola pubescens, a herbaceous species with both chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers"

Paleobotanical Section

Susana Majallon-Puebla
The Field Museum
Supervisor: Peter R. Crane
"Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of floral pattern among basal eudicots"

Systematics Section

Janet C. Barber
University of Texas at Austin
Supervisor: Robert K. Jansen
"Origin and evolution of endemic Sideritis L. in Macaronesia"

Leslie Goertzen
University of Texas at Austin
Supervisor: Robert K. Jansen
"The role of hybridization in the evolution of Argyranthemum in Macaronesia"

Douglas Goldman
University of Texas at Austin
Supervisor: Robert K. Jansen
"Systematics of the orchid genus Calopogon"

Randall Small
Iowa State University
Supervisor: Jonathan F. Wendel
"Nuclear-encoded genes for phylogeny reconstruction in plants: alcohol dehydrogenase genes in Gossypium L. (Malvaceae)"

Anna Woodfill
Michigan State University
Supervisor: Alan Prather
"Adaptation and the correlates of intra-specific variation in floral morphology among populations of Pedicularis densiflora"

News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees, part 2

Reports from the Sections:

Economic Botany Section

At the 1997 AIBS/BSA Meeting in Montreal, a symposium entitled, "Models of Working with Indigenous Communities: New paradigms for Botany", was organized by David Lentz and James Miller. Seven speakers presented papers at the symposium including: Rowena Richter, James Miller, David Lentz, Timothy Johns, Hans Beck, Janis Alcorn and Miguel Alexiades. Following the symposium, the section sponsored a luncheon which was well-attended. Hardy Eshbaugh gave the after lunch talk on Capsicum taxonomy.

Following the luncheon, a business meeting was held. Dan Harder was elected secretary-treasurer to replace Jim Miller who served his term of office. Dr. Harder will serve from 1997 until 2000. Also at the business meeting we discussed plans for future symposia.

At the 1998 AIBS/BSA meeting in Baltimore a symposium entitled, "Economic Botany and Ethnobotany: Subjects that Generate Interest in Plants," was organized by David Lentz. This symposium was initiated as a joint session with the BSA Teaching Section. Robert Reinsvold, Chair of the Teaching Section, will preside at that session. Six speakers have been invited to speak: Mark Schlessman, Neal Barnett, Beryl Simpson, Charlotte Gyllenhaal, David Bates, and David Lentz. Following the symposium there will be an Economic Botany Section luncheon. Dr. Thomas Elias, Director of the National Arboretum, will be the after lunch speaker. A business meeting will follow immediately after the talk. In the afternoon, a contributed papers session, organized by Carlos Ramirez-Sosa, will take place. There are 11 speakers scheduled including: Susan Lamont, Eve Emschwiller, Cynthia Durgan, Carlos Ramirez-Sosa, Cynthia Riccardi, Kathleen Hahn, Camille Tipton, Alfredo Gomez-Beloz, John Stepp, Suzanne Downey and Joshua Rosenthal. A cash prize will be awarded to the best student presenter.

At the 1999 BSA Meeting at the XVI International Botanical Congress, a symposium jointly sponsored by the BSA Economic Botany section and the Society for Economic Botany was proposed by organizers David Lentz, C. Edelmira Linares, and Robert Bye. The symposium, entitled, "Anthropogenic Plant Migrations: Habitat Transformations by Overt and Inadvertent Introductions," has been accepted and scheduled for Friday, August 6, 1999. Speakers at the symposium will include: Daniel Harder, Lawrence Kaplan, Richard Mack.

Deborah Pearsall, Daniel Austin, Robert Bye, and David Lentz.

David Lentz, Chair

Genetics Section

During the meetings in Montreal the Margaret Menzel award was given to Jerome Laroche. Steven J. Novak was elected Secretary-treasurer, Jeri Higgenbotham was elected vice Chair, and Kenneth G. Wilson was elected Chair of the Section. This coming week the Genetics section has scheduled Dr. Pamela S Soltis as the Margaret Menzel guest lecture for this year. Monday Evening.

Contributed papers: Population and Conservation Genetics, Molecular Evolution and Genetics, and Cytogenetics - 12 presentations. Posters - 5 presentations. We are joint sponsors of a Symposium: Population Genetics and Gene Flow in Tropical with the Tropical Biology Section and the Association of Tropical Biology- 12 presentations. This gives a total of 31 presentations for the meeting.

We are in the process of developing an electronic poster session. This was approved for this year but the details have not been developed. We are trying to reach out to the many plant geneticists who are not members of this society.

This Section remains in the black and is able to give awards each year. Our hope is to give an award to the best electronic poster.

Kenneth G. Wilson, Chair

Mid-Continent Section

1998 General Meeting: The BSA Mid-Continent Section met with the Southwestern Association of Naturalists (SWAN) at their annual meeting at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque from 9-11 April 1998. Tim Lowrey of UNM served as the local site representative. Fifteen papers and posters were presented in addition to a half-day symposium. No student awards were presented tt this year's meeting.

Business Meeting: The business meeting was held on Friday, 10 April 1998. It was decided that the Mid-Continent section continue to meet with SWAN in 1999 at their meeting venue in Monterrey, Mexico. It was proposed and accepted Ray Jackson be awarded a Special Service Award for his efforts to promote a botanical forum in the rnid-continent region and to rename the award for outstanding presentation by a student at the annual meeting the "Ray Jackson Award".

Nominations and Elections: Nominations and elections were held for two offices in the section, Secretary-Treasurer and Vice Secretary-Treasurer. Allan Nelson (Tarleton State University, Texas) was elected as Vice Secretary-Treasurer and Ken Freily (University of Central Arkansas) was elected as Secretary-Treasurer.

Sponsored symposium: One half-day symposium was sponsored at the 1998 General Meeting entitled "Plant invasions of southwestern ecosystems", which was organized by Diane Marshall and Anna Sher. Funds were used to sponsor four speakers.

Wayne J. Elisens, Chair

Southeastern Section

The annual business meeting of SE-BSA was conducted during the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association of Southeastern  Biologists, hosted by Northeast Louisiana University in Monroe, from 15-18 April, 1998. This meeting preceded the business meeting of the Southem Appalachian Botanical Society, which co-hosted the traditional Friday breakfast gathering.

SE-BSA was one of eight professional biological organizations represented at the annual meeting, with 220 papers and posters listed in the program, and close to 50% being botanical in scope or closely allied.

There was no teaching update workshop sponsored this year.

During the business meeting of the section, members were informed that David Hill had resigned as Secretary-Treasurer, effective by the close of 1997, due to additional obligation at his home institution. The section was currently seeking nominations for this position, which was up for re-election in spring 1998.

Kathy Hornberger, Chair

Systematics Section

The Systematics Section of BSA sponsor 202 contributed papers and 21 posters at the annual AIBS meetings in Baltimore, in conjunction with American Society of Plant Taxonomists (ASPT).

In addition, the Systematics Section co-sponsored a Colloquium entitled "Systematics of the North American Senecioneae. The half-day colloquium was co-sponsored with ASPT. This symposium was organized by Theodore M. Barkley and included 13 invited papers. The Systematics Section also sponsored a Symposium -Me Relation of Phylogeny and Species Distribution to Spatial Environmental Parameters. The halfday symposium was organized by Gerald F. Guala and included five invited papers.

Sixteen proposals for the Karling Award were received by the Section. Five of the applicants received funding: J.C. Barber, University of Texas at Austin; L. Goertzen, University of Texas at Austin; D. Goldman, University of Texas at Austin; R. Small, Iowa State University; and A. Woodfill, Michigan State University.

The Section Chair reviewed and made suggestions for updates to the taxonomy for a German-English volume on phytotherapeutic plants: Die naturliche Verwandtschaft der Heilmittel (The Natural Relationship .of Remedies) by Angelika Bolte and Jorg Wichmann.

Kathleen A Kron, Chair

From the Annual Meeting in Baltimore: Speakers at the Past-President's Symposium "G. Ledyard Stebbins and Evolutionary Biology... " August 5, 1998. From left to right: Pamela S. Soltis, Douglas E. Soltis, Mark W. Chase, Daniel J. Crawford, Michael L. Arnold, Betty Smocovitis, Donald A. Levin. Photo by Ronald L. Stuckey.

BSA Committees for 1998 - 1999

Revised 4/27/99

| Standing Committees | Ad Hoc Committees | Representatives to Various Organizations |

Standing Committees:


  • Wayne Elisens (1999) (Chair)
  • The Secretary of each Section

ARCHIVES AND HISTORY COMMITTEE (2 members; 5 year terms)

  • Alan Whittemore (1999) (Chair)
  • Darleen DeMason (2000), Immediate Past Secretary, ex officio
  • Ronald Stuckey (2005)

COMMITTEE ON COMMITTEES (6 appointed members; 3 year terms)

  • Douglas Soltis (1999), President Elect, Chair, ex officio
  • Susan Kephart (1999)
  • Andrea Wolfe (1999)
  • Cynthia Jones (2000)
  • Bijan Dehgan (2000)
  • Gar Rothwell (2001)
  • Richard McCourt (2001)
  • Pamela Soltis (2000), Secretary, ex officio

CONSERVATION COMMITTEE (6 members; 3 year terms)

  • Kayri Havens (1999) (Chair)
  • Kathleen Shea (1999)
  • Larry Zettler (2000)
  • Kaius Helenurm (2000)
  • Diane Elam (2001)
  • William Hahn (2001)


  • Nancy Dengler (2001), ex officio
  • Daniel Crawford (2000), ex officio
  • Barbara Schaal (1999), ex officio

DARBAKER PRIZE COMMITTEE (3 members; 3 year terms)

  • Daniel Wujek (1999) (Chair)
  • Annette Coleman (2000)
  • David Garbary (2001)

EDUCATION COMMITTEE (6 members; 3 year terms)

  • David W. Kramer (2001) (Chair)
  • Carol Baskin (1999), President, ex officio
  • Donald S. Galitz, (1999), Secretary of the Teaching Section, ex officio
  • Pamela Soltis (2000), Secretary, ex officio
  • Daniel Gilmore (1999)
  • Page Owen (1999)
  • Joe Leverich (2000), Editor of the Plant Science Bulletin, ex officio
  • Chester Wilson (2000)
  • J.S. Shipman (2000)
  • Steve Rice (2001)

ELECTION COMMITTEE (3 members; 3 year terms)

  • Nancy Dengler (1999), Past President, ex officio (Chair)
  • Christopher Haufler (1999)
  • Pamela Soltis (2000), Secretary, ex officio
  • Darlene Southworth (2000)
  • John LaClaire (2000)

ESAU AWARD COMMITTEE (3 members; 3 year terms)

  • Thomas L. Rost (1999) (Chair)
  • Jean Gerrath (2000)
  • Phil Gibson (2001)


  • Carol Baskin (2000), President
  • Nancy Dengler (1999), Past President
  • Douglas Soltis (2001), President Elect
  • Wayne Elisens (1999), Program Director
  • Scott Russell (1999), Council Representative
  • Pamela Soltis (2000), Secretary
  • Edward L. Schneider (2001), Treasurer

FINANCIAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE (3 members; 3 year terms)

  • Harry T. Horner (2001), (Chair) Representing Carol Baskin, President, ex officio
  • Joseph Armstrong (2000)
  • Pamela Soltis (2000), Secretary, ex officio
  • Judy Jernstedt (2001)
  • Charles Daghlian (2001)
  • Edward Schneider (2001), Treasurer, ex officio
  • John LaDuke (1999)

KARLING AWARD COMMITTEE (6 members; 3 year terms)

  • Jeffrey Osborn (2000) (Chair)
  • Cynthia Jones (2000)
  • Kathleen Kron (2001)
  • Diane Greene (2001)
  • Carolyn Howes Keiffer (2001)
  • George Yatskievych (2000)


  • Leo Bruederle (2000) (Chair)
  • David Giannasi (2001)
  • Kathleen Shea (2002)
  • Diane Marshall (2002)
  • Donald Hauber (2003)
  • Wayne Elisens (1999), Program Director, ex officio

MERIT AWARDS COMMITTEE (3 members; 3 year terms)

  • Gregory Anderson (1999) (Chair)
  • Carol Baskin (1999), President, ex officio
  • John Doebley (2000)
  • Linda Graham (2001)

MOSELEY AWARD COMMITTEE (3 members; 3 year terms)

  • Jeffrey Osborn (1999) (Chair)
  • Larry Hufford (2000)
  • Michael Frohlich (2001)

PELTON AWARD COMMITTEE (3 members; 3 year terms)

  • Fred Sack (2000), Chair
  • Lewis Feldman (1999)
  • Michael Christianson (2001) Scott Russell (2002)-->
  • Edward Schneider (2001), Treasurer, ex officio
  • Kim Hiser, Business Office Manager, ex officio

WEBPAGE COMMITTEE (5 members; 3 year terms)

  • Scott Russell, Webmaster & Chair
  • Pamela Soltis (2000), Secretary, ex officio
  • David W. Kramer (2001), Education Committee Chair, ex officio
  • Joe Leverich, Editor, PSB ex officio
  • Karl Niklas, Editor, AJB ex officio
  • Kimberly Hiser, Office Manager, ex officio

Ad Hoc Committees:


  • Wayne Elisens, Chair
  • Brent Mishler
  • Carol Baskin
  • Judy Verbeke
  • Barbara Schaal


  • J. S. Shipman, Chair
  • Stanley Rice


Representatives to Various Organizations:


  • Vacant


  • Judith Verbeke (2001)


  • Laurence E. Skog (2003)


  • Kent E. Holsinger (1998)


  • Nancy Dengler (1999)


  • Pam Soltis (2000), Secretary, ex officio


  • Barbara Schaal (1999)



Jacobs Receives Barnes Award

William P. Jacobs, Professor emeritus of Biology at Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, and a member of the Botanical Society of America since the early 1940's, received the Barnes Award from the American Society of Plant Physiologists at their annual meeting. He was cited for contributions to society and for life-time achievement in plant physiological research and teaching.

Pires Receives Lawrence Memorial Award

J. Chris Pires at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is the recipient of the 1998 Lawrence Memorial Award. A student of Professor Kenneth J. Sytsma, Mr. Pires has undertaken a study of biosystematics and phylogenetics of the Themidaceae. He will use the proceeds of the Award for travel in Mexico and Pacific Northwest for field research. Commemorating Dr. George H. M. Lawrence, founding Director of the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation at Carnegie Mellon University, the biennial Award of $1,000 is made to an outstanding doctoral candidate for travel in support of dissertation research in systematic botany or horticulture, or the history of the plant sciences, including literature and exploration.

Sohmer Named Fellow of the Linnean Society

S. H. Sohmer, Ph.D., president and director of the Botanica Research Institute of Texas (BRIT), Fort Worth, Texas, has been elected to be a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London, the oldest extant scientific society in the world devoted to the study of natural history -- its evolution, ecology, and systematics.


As a result of miscommunication, PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN received an incorrect notification that BSA member Elizabeth M. Lord had passed away. PSB reported this incorrect information in the Autumn issue. PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN regrets this mistake. - Ed.

Call for Applications, Educational Opportunities, Positions Available

Calls for Applications

"Deep Green" Student Travel Awards to IBC '99

The Green Plant Phylogeny Research Coordination Group (GPPRCG) was formed to facilitate interactions among research groups that have independent foci yet entail some aspect(s) of deep level phylogeny across the diversity of the "green" kingdom. An improved understanding of the phylogeny of green plants not only allows the intellectual satisfaction of discovering the "roots" of this major component of the world's biotic diversity, but has important practical benefits as well. Through the auspices of a tri-agency grant (USDA/NSF/ DOE) the GPPRCG has, since 1994, sponsored or cosponsored two to three symposia or workshops per year in the area of empirical and theoretical phylogenetics.

To summarize the current state of knowledge of deep level green plant phylogeny, and to make this information available to the botanical community, GPPRCG will sponsor a series of eight interlocking symposia at the XVI International Botanical Congress to be held in St. Louis, Missouri, 1-7 August, 1999. In order to increase participation by young investigators, the GPPRCG will award at least ten travel grants of up to $500 each. Undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students (within 5 years of their Ph.D.) whose primary research focus is the study of DEEP LEVEL GREEN PLANT PHYLOGENETlCS are eligible for these awards. To apply, applicants should send a short curriculum vitae (2-page limit), a one-page statement describing their research interests and experience in green plant phylogenetics, and a letter of recommendation from their primary advisor, in duplicate, to Dr. Elizabeth Zimmer, LMS, MSC, MRC534, Smithsonian Institution, Suitland, MD 20746 (Email: ""; FAX: 301-238-3059). Application deadline is FEBRUARY 1, 1999. . For more information on the GPPRCG (including minutes of the past meetings, as well as Data Availability Matrices for the major lineages of green plants), the IBC, and the green plant phylogeny symposia, refer to the following web sites:

GPPRCG Web Page:
IBC Web Site:
Symposia information:

Katherine Esau Postdoctoral Fellowships

Applications and nominations are invited for Katherine Esau Postdoctoral Fellowships which will be awarded to outstanding young scientists interested in developing careers in structural aspects of plant biology, including studies in which plant structure is integrated with function. (Preference will be given to candidates who have completed their Ph.D. within the past 5 years). Esau Fellowship will be awarded for a period of two years to enable successful candidates to work under the mentorship of a University of California, Davis faculty member. The Esau Fellowship stipend is commensurate with the NSF plant postdoctoral fellowship program.

Applications should include the identification of an appropriate faculty mentor (s), a complete curriculum vitae, reprints of published works, and a proposal (limited to 5 pages) of the research that would be carried out under this program. Applicants are required to provide three letters of reference and a letter of commitment of laboratory space from the proposed UC Davis faculty mentor.

Please send your completed application to: Chair, Faculty Advisory Committee, Esau Fellowships Program, Dean's Office, Division of Biological Sciences, 206 Life Sciences Addition, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8536. FAX: (530) 752-2604

Fellowships will be awarded on an annual basis. The next deadline for this program will be November 1, 1999.

Educational Opportunities

Collegiate Resources for High School Biology Teachers

The four-year college/university section of NABT wishes to explore ways to encourage constructive interaction between its membership and that of high school teachers, via a panel discussion format at the 1998 convention in Reno. This activity is being organized by College/High School liaison members Janice Haldeman, Margarit Gray, and Jane Ellis. We are seeking your assistance by encouraging you as a 4-year college member to serve as a resource scientist to high school teacher members in your region.

We wish to develop a member resource guide for NABT high school teachers. College NABT members who are willing to be listed as resource scientists to assist high school teacher members by providing talks, workshops, laboratory equipment, supplies, procedures, and/or general advice. This assistance can be as little as a letter or an e-mail or as much as a presentation. We would like to have the resource list available for distribution at the panel presentation in Reno, and hope you are willing to become part of this project. If so, please contact: Dr. Jane P. Ellis, Department of Biology, Presbyterian College, 503 South Broad Street, Clinton, SC 29325, Phone: (864) 833-8416, Fax: (864) 833-8993, E-mail:

Biodiversity of Tropical Plants at Fairchild Tropical Garden June 14 - July 9, 1999

(4 units) Limited enrollment.

Instructor: Professor P. Barry Tomlinson, E. C. Jeffrey Professor of Biology, Harvard University.

Instruction is carried out within the educational facilities of Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami, Florida, whose living collections, the largest collection of tropical plants in the continental United States, provide the main focus of teaching activity. Field instruction will further involve the diversity of natural ecosystems in South Florida. Emphasis will be on reproductive biology, morphology, and anatomy within a strong systematic framework. Groups (both systematic and biological) of special interest include cycads, palms, tropical monocotyledons, epiphytes, lianas, mangroves, and sea grasses, as well as breeding mechanisms and architecture of tropical trees. The objective of the course is to provide advanced students of botany with a guided introduction to the diversity of plant form and function in the lowland tropics.

Prerequisites: reasonably extensive training in the botanical sciences and familiarity with the major plant groups. The course is taught at an advanced level and is most suited to students enrolled or about to be enrolled in a graduate program.

Admission is based on the Summer School application and a supplementary statement that includes the following information: course work in biology and related fields, relevant experience, travel experience in the tropics, and reasons for wanting to take the course. All application materials must be received at the Harvard Summer School by March 31, 1999. Preference will be given to graduate students.

Partial tuition and partial travel support are available for qualified students. Students will be housed collectively in comfortable and reasonably inexpensive accommodations close to Fairchild Tropical Garden.

Estimated expenses: Tuition: $1,650; Application fee: $50.00; Food and Accommodation: $35 per day.

For further information and supplementary application forms: Professor P. B. Tomlinson, Harvard Forest, Harvard University, P.O. Box 68, Petersham, MA 01 366 or Christine Santos, Division of Continuing Education, Harvard University 51 Brattle Street, Cambridge, MA 02138.

Graduate Assistantships - Plant Molecular Systematics and Evolution
University of Alaska - Fairbanks

Funding is anticipated for two graduate assistantships in the field of plant molecular systematics and evolution at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks (UAF). Assistantships will begin in the Fall semester 1999. Research interests currently focus, but are not limited to, phylogenetic reconstruction and character evolution in angiosperms, including Primula and Saxifraga, and biogeographic speciation in circumboreal taxa. Given the unique location of UAF, extensive opportunities for field research in remote parts of Alaska and other circumboreal countries are readily available. Facilities at UAF include an in-house automated sequencer run by an expert technician, one of the best and most active herbaria for research on circumboreal taxa, and state-of-the-art molecular labs and greenhouse.

Students with demonstrated interest in the field of plant evolution and systematics, experience in field work and molecular techniques, and satisfactory GPA and GRE scores are encouraged to apply. Details about the Department of Biology and Wildlife can be found on the web at, and More information about the Department of Biology and my research in plant evolution and systematics can be found at and

Interested students are invited to send a letter of interest, a cv, and the names of references to: Elena Conti, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Biology and Herbarium Curator University of Alaska-Fairbanks Museum 907 Yukon Drive P.O. Box 756960, Fairbanks, AK 997756960. Office: 907-474 5848 Lab: 907-474 1948 Fax: 907474 5469 Email: E-Mail Submissions and Queries are Encouraged!

Positions Available

Plant Molecular Biologist
Chatham College

Chatham College is seeking qualified applicants for a tenure-track appointment as assistant professor in biology. Teaching responsibilities include cell and molecular biology (introductory and advanced) and courses in the area of plant sciences. Additional expertise in the areas of environmental science and/or histotechniques would be welcome. The successful candidate will be expected to develop a research program that links to one of the ongoing initiatives of the College and provides opportunities for undergraduate participation. An earned doctorate and teaching experience at the college level are required.

The College, a pioneer in curricular progress, is dedicated to enabling its graduates to make an impact on the world around them. Students and staff have easy access to Pittsburgh's dynamic cultural and entertainment offerings and can share in educational and social offerings of nine other area colleges and universities. A new science complex is currently under construction and will be completed in December of 1999.

Please send letter of application, transcripts, curriculum vitae, and the names and phone numbers of three references by November 30, 1998 to: Chatham College Job #293 Human Resources Woodland Road Pittsburgh PA 15232 Chatham College is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

Botanist/Arboretum Director
Hillsdale College

Hillsdale College seeks full-time, tenure track, assistant professor of biology. Position starts fall 1999. Responsibilities include 2/3 teaching commitment and 1/3 directorship of 55 year old college arboretum. Teaching responsibilities include botany courses and possible involvement with general introductory biology course. Arboretum directorship responsibilities include involvement with fundraising activities, interacting with donors, cataloging, collection development, and newsletter writing. This position requires someone with an enthusiastic commitment to teaching in a small liberal arts college environment, as well as an ability to cooperate and interact with a variety of people and college departments.

Applicants encouraged to familiarize themselves with College's Mission Statement on Worldwide Web at Qualified applicants with a Ph.D. in Botany or Horticulture and preferably botanical garden, horticulture, landscaping, or related experience, should send a letter of application, three letters of reference, curriculum vitae, and a list of references to Dr. Donald Toczek, Biology Dept., Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, MI 49242. Deadline February 26, 1999.

Vascular Plant Systematics
Kansas State University

The Division of Biology of Kansas State University invites applications for a 9-month tenure-track position at the assistant, Associate or Full Professor level in vascular plant systematics, beginning during the 1999-2000 academic year. We seek a broadly trained individual with an established and extramurally funded research program that includes modem techniques and analytical tools to address fundamental questions in plant evolution and systematics. It is expected that the successful candidate will serve as Curator/Director of the Kansas State University Herbarium and will participate in the division, graduate and undergraduate curriculum. An interest in the Great Plains flora and research expertise that complements the existing strengths in Grassland Ecology at Kansas State University are preferred. A Ph.D. or equivalent is required. The position includes a competitive salary and start-up package.

The Division of Biology is a large (60 faculty scientists) and diverse unit with a strong record of research productivity and funding. Within the Division, there are a number of faculty with research interests relevant to plant systematics, ecology and evolution; for more information see http://www.ksu.edulbiology. The Konza Prairie Research Natural Area (, a tallgrass prairie reserve that is the site of much of the ecological research within the Division, is 15 km from the University.

Applicants should submit a curriculum vitae, selected reprints, and a brief description of their research interests, and have three letters of reference sent to Alan K. Knapp, Chair; Plant Systematics Faculty Search Committee; Division of Biology; Ackert Hall; Kansas State University; Manhattan, KS 66506-4901. Review of applications will begin November 6, 1998, and continue until the position is filled. KSU is an Equal Opportunity) Affirmative Action Employer, and actively seeks diversity among its employees.

Fungal Biologist
Plant Community Ecologist
University of Kansas

Fungal Biologist: Assistant/Associate Professor. Required qualifications: 1) Ph.D. in appropriate discipline that provides a strong background in the biological sciences, 2) an active research program in one or more areas of whole-organism fungal biology such as biodiversity, ecology (especially inter-organism interactions, e.g., lichens or mycorrhizal relationships), physiology, systematics, or developmental biology, 3) a commitment to excellence in teaching and mentoring at undergraduate and graduate levels, 4) ability to teach a comprehensive, general mycology course and other courses including general biology as well as seminars in areas of expertise. Preference will be given to individuals with post-doctoral experience, demonstrated teaching ability and experience, and ability to attract external funding.

Plant Community Ecologist: Assistant Professor. Required qualifications: 1) Ph.D. in appropriate discipline (to be completed by time of hiring). 2) an active research program in plant community ecology, 3) A commitment to excellence in teaching and mentoring at the undergraduate and graduate level, 4) ability to teach courses in plant ecology, principles of ecology, and areas of expertise. Preference will be given to individuals with post-doctoral experience, demonstrated teaching experience and ability, interest in developing links between plant community ecology and other areas in the biological sciences, demonstrable quantitative skills, empirical research experience focused on terrestrial systems, and ability to attract external funding.

Candidates for both positions will be expected to interact with colleagues in related disciplines and contribute to the overall service of the University. Positions are 9-month appointments beginning August 18, 1999, have salaries commensurate with experience, and are contingent upon budgetary approval.

Review of applications for both positions will begin 18 December 1998 and will continue until they are filled. Application materials include 1) Curriculum vitae. 2) Concise statements of (a) research interests and future directions, and (b) teaching philosophy, experience, and interests, to include description(s) of course(s) the applicant hopes to teach. 3) Copies of selected publications and/or manuscripts. 4) Letters of reference from at least three persons to be submitted to Christopher Haufler, Voice: 785-864-3255; e-mail:, Chair, Fungal Biologist Search Committee, or Helen Alexander, Voice: 785-864-3221; email:, Chair, Plant Community Ecologist Search Committee, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Haworth Hall, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-2106, FAX: 785-864-5321

URL: EO/AA Employer

Collection Manager
KU Natural History Museum

The KU Natural History Museum Division of Botany (R. L. McGregor Herbarium) seeks applications for a non-tenure track, collection manager. The successful applicant will possess a Master's degree in Botany, collection management experience, familiarity with the taxonomy of the Great Plains flora, and research experience in systematic botany and in an electrophoresis laboratory. Application should include letter of interest, curriculum vitae, and names, addresses, and phone numbers of three references. Review of applications begins December 1, 1998. For information, contact Meredith Lane, Curator, KUNHM Division of Botany, 2045 Constant Ave., Lawrence, KS 66047-3729. 785/864-4493; FAX: 785/864-5093; e-mail: The University of Kansas is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer.

Plant Systematist
The University of Akron

The Department of Biology at The University of Akron invites applications for a tenure-track faculty position in plant systematics at the rank of Assistant Professor to begin August 30, 1999. Salary commensurate with qualifications and experience. Startup funds available. Candidates must hold a Ph.D. degree and have post-doctoral experience. The applicant will teach undergraduate and graduate courses, The successful candidate is expected to develop an externally-funded research program in Plant Systematics employing contemporary molecular, morphological, and statistical techniques, and to advise graduate students. The University of Akron is the third largest state university in Ohio, with more than 23,500 students. The university is in a metropolitan setting with diverse cultural and recreational opportunities, including the nearby Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area. Review of applications will begin January 19, 1999. Send a letter of application, curriculum vitae, copies of recent publications, statements of research and teaching interests, and three letters of recommendations to- Dr. Randy Mitchell, Chair, Plant Systematics Search Committee, Department of Biology, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44324-3908. For further information, review the Biology Department's web site at: The University of Akron is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer. Qualified women, minorities, Vietnam -era veterans, disabled veterans, and the disabled are encouraged to apply.

Manager, Conservation Programs
Center for Plant Conservation
Missouri Botanical Garden

The Center for Plant Conservation (CPC) is seeking qualified candidates to fill the position of Manager, Conservation Programs. This position manages the CPC's national rare plant conservation program including the maintenance and growth of the National Collection of Endangered Plants and its associated database, coordination of the CPC's Priority Regions program and action plan preparation, and oversight of research program development at the CPC's national office. Position writes and manages grants, develops work and action plans and supervises department support staff, drafts budgets and monitors expenditures, and participates in conservation program planning at national and regional levels.

The successful candidate for this position will have a Master's degree in botany or conservation biology; a Ph.D. is strongly preferred. Three to five year's experience in botanic garden conservation or in a related field of conservation biology, plant conservation management, and/or research is required. Experience in working with federal and state agencies and NGOs and knowledge of the plant conservation community is highly desirable. Excellent communications, writing, and computer skills required. Familiarity with MS Office applications and, especially, MS Access, is strongly preferred. Must be willing and able to travel.

The CPC is the only national conservation organization dedicated solely to preserving the native plants of the United States. This mission is pursued through programs in conservation, education, research, and restoration, and is supported by a national database of information on America's rarest plants. The CPC national office is located at the Missouri Botanical Garden, one of the leading botanical institutions in the world. The CPC and the Garden are multi-cultural organizations, committed to inclusion in all employee, volunteer, member, and public programs. The work climate is fast-paced and the CPC and Garden staff are recognized as experts in their fields. Qualified individuals should submit a resume and three letters of reference to: Manager, Conservation Programs, Center for Plant Conservation, Human Resource Management, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166

Nursery Crops
Michigan State University

The Department of Horticulture at Michigan State University invite applications for a 12 month tenure track position that is 50% research and 50% extension. The individual will work on the production, management and physiology of nursery crops, particularly woody ornamentals and perennials. Applicants must have a Ph.D. in Plant Science. Individuals with postdoctoral experience in woody plant physiology, or in ecology, ecophysiology, stress physiology, and forestry are especially encouraged to apply. A record of or the potential for research productivity of the highest quality is essential, as are the abilities to collaborate productively with other disciplines, researchers, and extension personnel in program development and to communicate effectively in sharing research findings with industry and other horticultural clientele. Screening of applications will begin March 15, 1999 and will continue until a qualified applicant is identified. Send curriculum vita (transcripts, publication list), a statement of research and extension interests and goals, and have three references send letters of support to Dr. Jim Hancock, Nursery Crops Search Committee Chair, Dept of Horticulture, 288 PSSB, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1325 E-mail:

Collections Assistant for Lichens
Michigan State University Herbarium

The Michigan State University Herbarium seeks a full-time 2 year Collections Assistant for Lichens. The salary ($23,566 minimum, depending on experience) will be funded by a National Science Foundation grant for physical and curatorial improvements to the lichen collection. The MSU Herbarium houses one of the largest lichen collections in the world and has strong representation from the Southern Hemisphere. During the two-year grant period the Collections Assistant will be responsible for processing our backlog of lichen species overseeing a shift of the lichen specimens in the herbarium, assisting visiting scientists, coordinating our lichen exchange and loan programs, and assisting with curation of the lichen collection. The position requires a 4 year college degree in botany or a related field, basic computer literacy, and experience with lichen or plant identification. Strong preference will be given to any applicants with lichenological training, experience in an herbarium setting, and database management skills. We would like to have the position filled by I January 1999, and applications are being accepted now. Priority will be give to applications received by 12 November 1998. Send applications and refer questions to: Alan Prather, Department of Botany and Plant Biology, 168 Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1312; PH (517) 355-4695, Fax (517) 353-1926, or email (

Women and minorities are encouraged to apply. Michigan State University and the Department of Botany & Plant Pathology are Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employers.


Updated Positions Available:
Listings At BSA Website

Current position announcements are maintained on the Botanical Society’s website Announcement page at URL Please check that location for announcement which have appeared since this issue of Plant Science Bulletin went to press. To post an announcement, contact the webmaster: <>.


Symposia, Conferences and Meetings

XVI International Botanical Congress
1-7 August 1999

XVI International Botanical Congress will meet 1-7 August 1999 at America's Center in St. Louis, Missouri. A nomenclature meeting will be held the week before, 26-30 July 1999, at the Missouri Botanical Garden. The International Botanical Congress (IBC) is a convention of scientists from around the world which meets once every six years to discuss new research in all the plant sciences. The early registration fee, not including hotel, will be $300 ($200 for registrants from developing countries) and students pay a reduced fee of $ 100. There are some fellowships for travel to IBC available, with applications particularly encouraged from registrants from developing countries and from graduate students and recent graduates. The conference will also have space for commercial and scientific exhibits. For more information or a registration form, please consult the website at: or contact: Secretary General, XVI IBC c/o Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299 Tel: 314/577-5175, fax: 314/577-9589, e-mail: Receptions, field trips, excursions, and other social events are planned prior to, during, and after IBC.

INQUA XV International Congress
3-11 August 1999

We intend to organize a Workshop for the International Union for Quaternary Research during the INQUA XV International Congress in Durban (3-11 August, 1999) with the following topic: "Migration of Asiatic (Turanian) and ecosystems to East and South Africa during the Miocene-Pliocene and the environmental conditions contributing to evolution of Hominidae (Kovalev's hypothesis)". This problem might include the following issues. 1. The Messinian climatic crisis (6.7-5.3 Myr) and the formation of ecosystems involving C4 plants of the aspartate type in Southern Turan. Migration of riparian ecosystems (with Tamarix, Phragmites, Caroxylon and Populus as dominant elements) from Southern Turan to East and South Africa, where they replaced the climate-affected tropical rain forest. Comparison of such communities with their modem analogs (the South African relic communities and the North American saltcedars of the Asiatic origin). 2. Traces of the faunal migration accompanying the spreading of the Turanian plant assemblages and the possible Asiatic origin of the early hominoids (e.g., migration of Sivapithecus). 3. Developing of such communities in Africa during the Pliocene. The influence of these exotic (adventive) plant assemblages upon the African mammalian fauna, causing its essential pauperization and providing relatively safe conditions for the early hominid inhabiting (in contrast with the intensive predators' pressure in the savannahs). Contacts: Dr. Oleg V.Kovalev, Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia; e-mail:, and Dr. Sergey G.Zhilin, Dept. of Palaeobotany, Komarov Botanical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia; e-mail:; fax: (812)234-4512

VIII International Aroid Conference
9-11 August 1999

The VIII International Aroid Conference, sponsored by the Missouri Botanical Garden and the International Aroid Society, will meet 9-11 August 1999 at Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis, Missouri. This is a three-day conference directly following the XVI International Botanical Congress and will provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of all aspects of aroid biology, ecology, taxonomy and horticulture. Over 50 presentations are scheduled and will include discussions of Araceae in large and small floristic regions, revisionary works of a variety of genera, glimpses of the best public and private Araceae collections, and descriptions of successful horticultural and breeding techniques currently in use. An unlimited number of poster sessions will also be made available to those who prefer to have their presentations on display for the duration of the conference.

Congress highlights include a barbecue at Tom Croat's house, a banquet held at the gardens, evening lectures and a welcoming address given by Peter Raven, Director of Missouri Botanical Garden. We would also like to organize an aroid seed and seedling swap to make a variety of aroids available for all attendees.

For more information please consult the web page at: or contact: Secretary General, VIII International Aroid Conference, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 631660299 USA, e-mail: <> or <>.

Cycad 99
7-10 August 1999

An international conference of cycad enthusiasts, growers and scientists will convene at Fairchild Tropical Garden in Miami, Florida, USA, August 7-10, 1999. Sponsors: Fairchild Tropical Garden, Palm Beach Palm and Cycad Society, and the Montgomery Botanical Center. Participants: all persons interested in the horticulture, conservation and science of cycads, which are a group of beautiful, rare and endangered plants that have existed since the age of dinosaurs.

Cycad 99 will have submitted talks and posters on scientific topics, invited presentations on horticultural topics, tours of the extensive collections at Fairchild Tropical Garden and Montgomery Botanical Center, and ample opportunity to meet and socialize with cycad enthusiasts from around the world. Florida is the home of the coontie (Zamia pumila = Z floridana = etc., etc.), the only native cycad in the USA. However, almost all of the world's cycads are cultivated in Miami's subtropical climate. Everglades National Park, Miami Beach (South Beach), the Florida Keys, and nearby Dadeland Shopping Mall, are some local visitor attractions.

Call for Papers: Details on submitting a contributed abstract for a paper or poster will be given in the second circular, therefore send information requested below. Submitted abstracts will be reviewed and selected for either an oral paper or poster presentation by the Research Committee (Drs. Fisher, Stevenson & Walters). Full presentations of talks and posters will be processed after the meeting as manuscripts for peer review and publication by the New York Botanical Garden Press, most likely as a volume of Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard.

Meeting Activities: The tentative schedule for this four-day conference includes: Days 1 & 2 - horticultural topics; Days 2-4 - scientific topics; Days 1 & 4 formal tours of the collections; Day 3 - business meetings of the Cycad Society and IUCN cycad specialist group; also receptions and a banquet.

Housing: A block of rooms will be reserved at a nearby hotel and bus service provided between this hotel and the meeting site. Detailed information will be provided in the registration packet.

Registration Fee: The registration fee is not determined at this time.

Information: For the latest conference information see: To receive registration forms and abstract submission forms, please send: Name(please print); Mailing address; Phone; FAX; E-mail. By one of the following methods: a) Electronic-mail:; b) by FAX (1-305-661-8953) addressed to: "Attention: Cycad 99"; c) or by post: Cycad 99, Fairchild Tropical Garden, 10901 Old Cutler Rd., Miami, FL 33156, USA.

International Conifer Conference 1999
22-25 August 1999

The 4th International conference follows the tradition of the Royal Horticultural Society in organizing conferences addressing the major developments in conifers. The conference will be held 22-25 August 1999, Wye College, Kent, England. This conference is designed to promote maximum interchange of information between all users of conifers. Keynote sessions will address major subject areas of current interest. The conference will have a worldwide geographical coverage from the arctic to the tropics.

Main scientific sponsors: Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, The Royal Horticultural Society, Forestry Commissions and The International Dendrology Society. For more information contact: Miss Lisa von Schlippe, The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE. Tel.: 0181 332 5198, Fax.: 0181 332 5197, E-mail:

Book Reviews

In this Issue:

Book Review: Evolutionary

Angiosperm Origins: Morphological and Ecological Aspects. Krassilov, V. A., 1997. ISBN 954642-016-6 (paper US $38.50). 270 pp., 59 figs., 47 plates. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia-Moscow, Acad. G. Bonchev Street, Bl. 6, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria. - Few issues in the history of evolutionary botany can have attracted as much attention as the origin of angiosperms. There has been substantial progress with some aspects of this cluster of research problems (see Crane et al., 1994, Nature 374: 27-33 for a review), but it is also true that some of the central questions, including the precise homologies of the angiosperm carpei, seconci integument and stamen to the reproductive structures of other seed plants, have continued to elude convincing solution. The apparent lack of progress on these issues is frustrating - but not unusual: similar problems confound clear establishment of homologies among structures that characterize the major lineages of Metazoa. However, the positive side of such an impasse in evolutionary biology is that it is fertile ground for new ideas, which at their best are bold, and stimulate or provoke us to look at old problems in new ways. Valentin Krassilov has never shied away from bold ideas, and this book follows in the same vein as some of his earlier work. The challenge to the reader is to decide whether his perspective promises a way around the roadblocks in our current thinking, or are simply more blind alleys that are unlikely to result in progress.

The book begins with brief introductory remarks and ends with two pages of conclusions. In between, it is divided into five sections: Making of the Type, Prehistory, Early History, Environments and Phylogeny. In Making of the Type, Krassilov deals with philosophical and practical issues governing the recognition of taxa, while in the next two sections he introduces some of the major lineages of seed plants and angiosperms and attempts to identify the links between them. In the section on Environments he develops the notion that "angiosperm origins were an integral part of Mesozoic plant community evolution." Finally, in the section on phylogeny he attempts to explain the origin of characteristic angiosperm features by reference to structures in putative "proangiosperm" precursors. The book is produced in an attractive, easy to use, and excellent format by Pensoft Publishers, who deserve great credit for the quality of the presentation.

For a paleobotanist, Krassilov's world view, like that of the late Norman Hughes, is inspiring because it argues for the significant role of paleobotanical data in helping to resolve some of the intractable questions in studies of angiosperm evolution. However, also like Hughes, Krassilov casually dismisses data from extant plants, and is frustrating in continuing to imply, or directly argue for, angiosperm polyphyly from precursors as diverse as Irania (Dirhopalostachyaceae), Gnetales, Caytonia-and Leptostrobus. His suggested phylogenetic relationships link: Irania to platanoids, rosids and Hamamelidales; Gnetales with Juglandales/Myricales on the one hand and Piperales, Laurales, Nymphaeales on the other; Baisia with the monocots; Leptostrobus with the Magnoliales; and Caytonia with ranunculids, Paeoniales, and dilleniids. Broad, and often manifestly superficial, similarities between extant plants and often poorly known fossils are the basis for these ideas.

Krassilov's presentation of intriguing fossil material, both from his work and from the work of colleagues in the Russian Far East, highlights the wealth of fascinating and potentially relevant Cretaceous plants that remain to be described, and one of the real highlights of this book are the 48 good quality plates that illustrate some of this material. Excellent plate legends further contribute to making this section of the book an important addition to the paleobotanical literature. Unfortunately, on the negative side the sometimes over enthusiastic interpretation of the fossil material detracts from the fact that among the plates are a fascinating suite of extinct plants about which we currently know much too little. If we knew them better they might well help us solve some of the key questions to which Krassilov draws attention. This will require painstaking and careful paleobotanical work, and - most probably - fossil material that is much-better preserved.

Krassilov's classification of extant angiosperms and the assignment of fossils to these groups is also unashamedly idiosyncratic. For example, having been involved in the original descriptions of some of the fossils he discusses, I am just bewildered as to why Archaeanthus is affiliated with the ranunculids, and why Lesqueria is affiliated with the hamamelids. It is also unfortunate that while Krassilov's coverage of the paleobotanical data is reasonably up-to-date there is little attempt to try to integrate the exciting and rapidly accumuiating new information from molecular systematics on large-scale patterns of relationships among major angiosperm groups.

Overall, then, this book joins a particular genre of publications on angiosperm origins. Like the writings of Hughes, Meeuse, Melville and others it is at once both inspiring and frustrating. It presents fascinating and important data (mainly in the form of the plates) but in a theoretical framework that many will find strange, perhaps annoying, but most importantly, unhelpful. Many of the ideas are bold but they raise more questions than theyanswer. Thisisnotthebooktogivetoastudentwho wants a balanced overview of current work in this area. It is, however, a significant addition to the literature for the serious specialist who can filter out the distractions and appreciate its true value. - Peter R. Crane, The Field Museum, Chicago

Book Reviews: Ecological

A Classification of North American Biotic Communities/North American Biotic Community Map. Brown, D. E., F. Reichenbacher, S. E. Franson, 1998. ISBN 0-87480-562-7 (paper US$19.95) ISBN 0-87480-567 (map US$20.00) (Book and map set US$34.95) x + 141 pp. University of Utah Press, 1795 E. South Campus Drive, Suite 101, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-9402. - Biotic Communities presents a slightly modified version of the classification system of Brown, Lowe, and Pase (1979), which is reprinted in Appendix I in Brown (1982) and in Brown (1994). Further, the older version of the classification system has been expanded to cover all of the terrestrial biotic communities of Mexico, as well as those of Central America. On p. 17, the authors state that, "Our purpose in presenting this classification system is neither to promote a new concept nor to replace existing classifications. Instead, we are attempting to present a hierarchial synthesis of existing works on North American biogeography to aid in the development of a universal classification system" (emphasis added).

The book contains a two and one-half page introduction, three chapters, and fairly extensive Literature Cited and Literature Consulted Sections. Chapter one is a good short historical review of "The Biogeographic Approach" to defining and classifying vegetation and biogeographic regions. Brief accounts are given of the contributions of some of the world's most distinguished ecologists and biogeographers - e.g., Linnaeus', von Humboldt (considered the father of biogeography), Agassiz, Sclater, Wallace, Engler, Drude, Clements, Gleason, Braun-Blanquet, Shreve, Shelford, Holdridge, and Whittaker. Interestingly, the substantial contributions of E. Lucy Braun are not discussed.

Chapter 2 describes "The Classification System," which is hierarchial and numerically-coded. Thus, a full classification/description of a stand of vegetation would contain eight digits, the first of which is followed by a comma and the fourth by a decimal, e.g., 1,111.1111. The number preceding the comma distinguishes one of the world's seven biogeographic realms. Only the Nearctic and Neotropical realms are represented in North America (Fig. 2, p. 18), which includes Central America and Greenland (sensu Brown, Reichenbacher, and Franson). The first digit after the comma refers to one of two hydrologic regimes, i.e., upland and wetland. Other tentative hydrologic regimes are not included in the present classification system. Of course, both upland and wetland hydrologic regimes occur in North America. The second digit following the comma refers to formation-type. Six wetland/upland plant formations are shown on the North American map (Fig. 3, p. 22): Tundra, Forest and Woodland, Shrublands and Swamps, Grasslands and Marshes, Deserts, and Non-vegetated.

The third digit following the comma refers to the four world climatic zones: Arctic-Boreal, Cold-Temperate, Warm Temperate, and Tropical-Subtropical; all four occur in North America (Fig. 4, p. 26). Most of Canada is in the Arctic-Boreal climatic zone, and most of the United States is in the Cold Temperate zone. The southeastern Coastal Plain, Lower Mississippi River Valley, and parts of California and the Southwestern United States are in the Warm Temperate Zone. The climate of the Sonoran Desert in southern California/ southwestern Arizona, extreme southern Texas, and the southern tip of Florida are included in the Tropical Subtropical climatic zone and in the Neotropical biogeographic realm.

The fourth digit after the comma (=first digit after decimal) refers to biotic communities or regional formations within a biogeographic province, e.g., Great Basin [=biogeographic province] Interior Marshland [=biotic community]. Thirty-two biotic (or biogeographic) provinces are shown for North America (Fig. 5, p. 28). Some of the biotic communities within each of the 32 biotic provinces are listed. The fifth level after the comma (second digit following decimal) refers to the series (recognized by one or more indicator plants) within biotic communities, e.g., Cottongrass Series within the Alaskan Grassland biotic community.

The sixth digit after the comma (third digit after decimal) refers to an association, i.e. a plant community having a particular floristic composition, uniform habitat conditions, and uniform physiognomy." (p. 35) An example is the Pinus ponderosa Association of the Yellow Pine Series of the Rocky Mountain Conifer Forest. The seventh digit following the comma (fourth digit after decimal) "...accommodates detailed assessment of composition, structure, density, or other quantitative determinations for plant and animal series within a plant association." (p. 36) No examples are provided.

Tables 4 and 5 (pp. 36-48, chapter 2) contain Brown, Reichenbacher, and Franson's classification scheme for the biotic communities of North America, i.e., to the fourth level, following the comma, in the hierarchy; series (fifth level) or series and association (sixth level) is (are) given in some cases. A classification of the Pinus ponderosa association to the sixth level following the comma is as follows: Biogeographic Realm - Nearctic (1,000); Hydrologic Regime - Natural Upland Vegetation (1,100); Formation-Forest and Woodland (1,120); Climatic Zone-Cold Temperate Forest and Woodland (1,122); Biotic Community-Rocky Mountain Montane Conifer Forest (1,122.6); Series-Yellow Pine (1,122.62); and Association-Pinus ponderosa (1,122.621). A seventh digit following the comma would refer to description of the composition and structure of the Pinus ponderosa association, but no vegetation in the classification system is described at this (stand) level.

One-hundred of the 118 plates (glossy black and white photographs) illustrate upland biotic communities (fourth level following comma) - e.g., Polar (High Arctic) Tundra (1,111.1; note digit preceding comma has been dropped from plate captions) and 18 wetland vegetation types to the climatic (third) level, e.g., Arctic Wet Tundra (1,211; note digit preceding comma has been dropped from plate captions). Most of the photographs are acceptable to good (but not excellent) quality. However, some are poor (i.e., Plates 16, 38, 94) or only fair (i.e., Plates 60, 67, 69, 97, 100) quality pictures.

I noted several misspellings of Latin names in the plate captions: Plate 6 - Geum rossii, not G. rossi; Plate 20 - Quercus kelloggii, not Q. kelloggi and Pseudotsuga macrocarpa, not P. macrocapa; Plate 25 - Pseudotsuga menziesii, not P. menziesi; Plate 27 - Pinus palustris, not P. palustrus; Plate 28 - Juglans califomica, not J. california; Plate 46 - Quercus havardi, not Q. harvardi; Plate 50 - Ceanothus gregii, not C. greggi; Plate 59 Pseudotsuga menziesii, not P. menziesi; Plate 65 - Acacia gregii, not A. greggi; Plate 80 - Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum, not Pachyereus p.-a.; Plate 88 - Stenocereus thurberi, not Stenocerus t.; Plate 93 - Hyparrhenia rufa, not Hyparrahenia r.; and Plate 101 - Caltha palustris, not Coetha palustrus.

Chapter 3 is a description/justification of the 1:10,000,000 color map; it shows the geographical extent of the biotic communities of North America (fourth level following comma). Upland communities less than 100 km2 and "all but the largest wetlands" are omitted from the map. Table 5 (chapter 3, pp. 51-53) contains areal estimates of the biotic communities. The Neartic Realm contains 21,720 x 103 km2 (98.6% of it upland) and the Neotropical Realm 1,847 x 103 km2 (96.6% upland. The largest biotic communities (all in the Neartic Realm) (in 103 km2 ) are the: Canadian Taiga, 4,631; Northeastern Deciduous Forest, 2,712; Plains Grassland, 2,341; and Canadian (Low Arctic) Tundra, 2,262. The four largest biotic communities in the Neotropical Realm (in 101 km2) are the Sonoran Desertscrub, 306; Tamulipan Thornscrub, 188; Central American Evergreen Rain Forest, 161; and Guerreran Dry Deciduous Forest, 139.

The authors point out (p. 49) that, "Some potential users and reviewers have objected to the large uniform areas of Northeastern Deciduous Forest, Canadian Taiga, and Plains Grassland when compared to the smaller, more numerous biotic communities in Mexico and the American Southwest." They defend these differential delineations by stating figures showing that biotic diversity is higher in the latter than in the former regions - e.g., the Mexican state of Chiapas (74,000 km2) has 8,250 known species of [vascular?] plants compared to 2,750 in Ohio (115,719 km2).

For the Northeastern Deciduous Forest biotic community, Brown, Reichenbacher, and Franson recognize six series (fifth level after comma): Oak-Hickory, Oak-Chestnut, Beech-Maple, Oak-Pine, Maple-Basswood, and Hemlock-White Pine-Northern Hardwood. These are six of E. L. Braun's (1950) nine forest regions of the Eastern Deciduous Forest. Her Southern Mixed Hardwood Forest Region in put in the Southeastern Deciduous and Evergreen Forest biotic community (fourth level after comma). Thus, it appears that Braun's Mixed Mesophytic- and Western Mesophytic forest regions are not included in the present classification. For the Adirondack-Appalachian Subalpine Conifer Forest, the authors included only one series in their classification system: Red Spruce-Balsam Fir. Should not a Red Spruce-Fraser Fir series be distinguished for the Southem Appalachians?

This reviewer thinks that there was a poor choice of map color schemes for distinguishing adjacent biotic communities as well as those near one another. Thus, for example, the dull-blue depicting the Northeastern Deciduous Forest does not contrast well with the grey depicting the Adirondack-Appalachian Subalpine Conifer Forest. Nor is the dark-grey depicting the Southeastern Deciduous and Evergreen Forest easy to distinguish from the dull dark-grey depicting the Southeastern Swamp and Riparian Forest. I thought that perhaps the PSB Editor had received a "bad" copy of the map. Whereupon, I phoned the University of Utah Press, explained the problem to them, and asked for another copy of it. However, the copy I received directly from them was no different from the one set to me by Joe Leverich.

I have another criticism of the map: there are no reference points per se on it, which makes it very difficult to locate a given area with any degree of precision. Thus, another way to increase the usefulness of the map would be to add to it state/provincial boundaries, and perhaps even the locations of one or two of the largest cities in each state/province. In these respects, as well as in color scheme and in number of vegetation types distinguished, Küchler's (1964) map is much more useful and user-friendly. I cannot imagine that the map of Brown, Reichenbacher, and Franson will be useful to anyone interested in any or all types of vegetation (or biotic communities), especially those east of the Rockies.

In all fairness to the authors, however, this is a "progress report" on a large, complex, and ongoing project. Future editions, more than likely, will result not only in a map with better color and with a more detailed delineation of the biotic communities of North America, but also in some fine-tuning of a classification system, which appears to be workable. - Jerry M. Baskin, School of Biological Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0225.

Literature Cited

  • Braun, E. L. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North Am Blakiston, Philadelphia.
  • Brown, D. E., ed. 1982. Biotic communities of Southwest - United States and Mexico. Des 4): 1-341.
  • Brown, D. E., ed. 1994. Biotic communities of United States and northwestern Mexico. Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
  • Brown, D. E., C. H. Lowe, and C. P. Pase. 1979. A digitized classification system for the biotic communities of North America, with community (series) and association examples for the Southwest. Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 14(suppl. 1): 1-16.
  • Köchler, A. W. 1964. Potential natural vegetation of . the conterminous United States. Map and accompanying manual. American Geographical Society Publication Number 36.

Eucalypt Ecology: Individuals to Ecosystems Williams, Jann and Woinarski, John, eds., 1997. ISBN 0-521-49740-X (cloth US$150.00) 430 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20'h Street, New York, NY 10011-4211. - Nobody knows exactly, but this universal Australian genus - Eucalyptus- has about 700 species of trees and some shrubs. Among woody genera, only Acacia, Ficus, and Psychotria have more species but certainly fewer of them are real trees. Over 60 species of eucalypts were in cultivation in the US, mostly in California, at the beginning of this century (McClatchie 1902). My estimate of the current number is 240. In the tropics, eucalypts are most commonly cultivated exotic trees. It is not surprising that many books have been published about eucalypts , severalin just the last few years (Attwill and Adams 1996, Eldridge et al. 1993, Florence 19996). However, most of these volumes are oriented to cultivation and utilization. After a nice but very thin book by Pryor (I 976), this is the first attempt to summarize the wealth of knowledge of eucalypt biology and the ecology of eucalypt ecosystems into one coherent picture. The editors have don' a' impressive job of assembling and summarizing tnis knowledge.

This book is composed of 16 independently authored chapters covering (1) introduction to the biology of eucalypts, (2) phylogeny and classification, (3) reproductive biology, (4) genetics and genecology, (5) biogeography, (6) niche modeling, (7) fire ecology, (8) ecophysiology, (9) nutrient cycling, (10) vascular plant-eucalypt interactions, (I 1) fungal associations wi eucalypts, (12) invertebrates and (13) vertebrates ass ciated with eucalypt formations, (14) herbivory, (15) conservation and management, and (16) overview and outlook.

In general the quality of the individual chapters is commendable, and the coverage of many is excellent. Some of the subject areas, especially the non-eucalypt components of eucalypt ecosystems, are reviewed for the first time. The same topic is often covered in several chapters: seed and seedling ecology (3,4,7,8), mycorrhizae (9,11), fire (3,7,8,9,15). The authors only touch upon many interesting questions. For example, why eucalypts only rarely occur as shrubs or subdominants? This is in striking contrast to the otherwise enormous range of adaptations in this genus.

A real synthesis is still needed. Most of the conclusions about differences between individual species are derived from patterns of their geographic/environmental distributions (a beautiful summary by Austin et al. can be found in chapter 6). Surprisingly, there has not been any broad survey of the physiological or life-history characteristics of the eucalypts. This genus (or, if you wish, collection of closely related genera) provides a unique opportunity to test of many ecological and evolutionary hypotheses developed on other continents. For anybody who will try to do that, this book will be a mine of information and inspiration. Also, I would like to recommend this book to anyone interested in biology of eucalypts either in Australia or in one of the more than 50 countries where eucalypts are cultivated.

Finally, more good news about eucalypts. Given the large number of species and the apparent fine distinction among many, identification of eucalypts can be difficult, especially for beginners. However, if you are in southeastern Australia or the species you are trying to identify is native there (about 75% of species cultivated in the US), an interactive, random access CD key is now available from the CSIRO (Brooker et al. 1997). Identification with this key is an enjoyable experience. - Marcel Rejminek, Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Literature Cited

  • Attwill, P.M. and Adams, M.A. (eds.) 1996. Nutrition of Eucalypts. CSIRO, Collingwood.
  • Brooker, M.I.H., Connors, J.R. and Slee, A.V. 1997. EUCLYD. Eucalypts of southeastern Australia. CSIRO, Collingwood.
  • Eldridge, K., Davidson, J., Harwood, C. and Wyk, G. 1993. Eucalypt Domestication and Breeding. Claredon Press, Oxford.
  • Florence, R.G. 1996. Ecology and Silviculture of Eucalypt Forests. CSIRO, Collingwood.
  • McClatchie, A.J. 1902. Eucalypts cultivated in the United States. USDA, Bureau of Forestry - Bulletin No. 35: 1-106.
  • Pryor, L.D. 1976. The Biology of Eucalypts. Edward Arnold, London.

Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates: California, Chile, South Africa, Australia, and the Mediterranean Basin Dailman, Peter R., 1998. ISBN 0-520-20808-0 (cloth US$50.00) 0520-20809 (paper US$29.95) 257 pp. California Native Plant Society and University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley CA 94720. - Peter R. Dallman is Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics at the University of San Francisco. More important, he is the Chairman of the Docent Council of The Strybing Arboretum in San Francisco, a premierbotanical garden that highlights the natural vegetation of Mediterranean climates in California. Our author is a teacher first and foremost, and this volume is about teaching. In what is almost an embarrassment of riches, we are treated to a first-class naturalist's tour of the five Mediterranean regions of the world.

An abundance of maps, diagrams, and photographs complements a text that is rich in information on the geography, ecology, and biology of these peculiar, isolated plant communities. Considered by itself, the biodiversity of regions with mild, rainy winters and dry, warm summers is spectacular. A well-considered, brightly illustrated discussion of what makes plants tick under these conditions provides a real incentive for learning more. A clear index and rich (if not brimming) bibliography finish the icture. Dallman seems to touch on everything large and small. Pollination biology, fire response, and drought adaptation are illustrated as skillfully as plate tectonics and world climate. He looks at past human settlement and human migration to these regions, both of which have had profound effects. But he doesn't ignore the present. Our prescient author provides a useful chapter on planning a trip to the Cape Region of South Africa or even to Western Australia!

'Me book is a visual delight. Its pages are crowded with the vintage maps of Erwin Raisz (marvelous) and luscious color and black-and-white photographs, most of which are the author's. Is there anything to criticize? I guess as a mycologist I would have liked to see more detail on mycoffhizal associations-particularly as they affect the growth of ericoid species in the chaparral. The geophytic habit of plants was discussed in various contexts, but hypogeous fungi, an important analogous phenomenon, were not mentioned. Finally, the unnamed lichen from South Australia pictured on page 166 is a member of the genus Cladia. With all the names in this book, it would have been easy to get an identification for that one. My criticisms are minor though, and I rush to add my name to the list of botanists who endorse this book.

In summary, this is a luminous volume that provides a clear guide to the why's and wherefore's of plant life in Mediterranean climates. While it may be most useful for non-botanists, particularly travelers to these regions, it has a place in any library as a resource for students and general readers. I received the book only last week, but I hurried to review it in time for the giftgiving season. Even if you do not know someone lucky enough to spend winter break in one of the southern hemisphere regions covered in this book, I recommend it highly. - Samuel Hammer, College of General Studies, Boston University.

Book Reviews: Developmental and Structural

Biology of Root Formation and Development Altman, Arie, and Yoav Waisel, 1997. ISBN 0-30645706-7 (cloth US$125.00) 376 pp. Plenum Publishing Corporation, 233 Spring Street, New York, New York 10013-1578. - These days there are numerotps international meetings of highly specialized topics, and many times, an edited volume of articles results from such gatherings. The problem is that it is difficult to determine the value of the books that result from these meetings because it is uncertain that they were peer-reviewed.

Biology of Root Formation and Development falls into the above category. This book is a collection of papers that were presented at the Second International Symposium on the Biology of Root Formation and Development that was held in Jerusalem in June 1996. There are 78 contributions in the book that are either longer papers (about 6 - 7 pages) or short papers (i.e., abstracts). The topics are broad and include molecular biology, structural biology, plant physiology, and ecology. Mathematical and theoretical modeling also are discussed in some of the presentations.

I found that even the regular papers were far shorter than most good scientific papers so that a detailed presentation of the status of a field could not be adequately presented. The caliber of illustrative material also was not the best. While there were subject and species indices, an author index would have been helpful to the reader. In terms of content, as with most such volumes, the quality of papers was mixed. However, if one were interested in learning about the current trends in root biology, this would be a good text to read. The book is appropriate for acquisition by university libraries and may appeal to graduate students and faculty interested in the field of root biology. - John Z. Kiss, Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford OH 45056


The Shoot Apical Meristem: Its Growth and Development Lyndon, Robert F., 1998. ISBN 0521-40457-6 (cloth US $90.00) 277 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W. 20th St., New York, NY 10011-4211. - The stated aim of the book is to try to answer "what does the shoot apex do and how does it do it." Lyndon does not attempt a comprehensive coverage of the literature, focusing rather on what he considers "key references," referring readers to reviews for most of the pre- 1 970 research and admitting that no book can keep up with the fast moving field of molecular biology/ mutants. Nevertheless, Lyndon includes many references as recent as 1996 in his chapters on the transition to flowering and the effect of various mutants on floral development. The 34 pages of cited literature include more than 75 papers with Lyndon and/or D. Francis as author or co-authors, many from Bemier's group in Liège, and from Nougarède's laboratory in Paris. The biophysical approach of Paul Green is well represented also by 20 cited papers from the last 20 years.

Various aspects of the apical meristem are described. These include patterns within the apex of cell heterogeneity and growth, histochemical and cell-division differences, and changes in orientation of microtubules as new leaves develop. Line drawings, graphs, a few microphotographs, and a particularly impressive series of scanning electron micrographs of Silene and Pisum apices illustrate these changes.

Despite the wealth of descriptive detail presented, the hope seems still unsatisfied that one or more of the lines of investigation will lead to a causal answer to "how does the shoot apex do what it does." An often repeated comment of Lyndon's is that although some hormone or other chemical may possibly be controlling some activity of the meristem, we do not currently have evidence for such control. Even Green's strong advocacy of biophysical, as contrasted to biochemical, controls is based on temporal association of changes in microtubular or microfibril orientation with developmental events. Lyndon points out that the association may not be causal and, in fact, he cites recent evidence from Arabidopsis mutants showing normal development of primordia despite random arrangement of microtubules.

In summary, this is a well produced book, with a good summary of the 1996 state of knowledge of "what the shoot apical meristem does". Despite the intensive research, so well summarized by Lyndon, we will have to wait longer to find out what controls all the growth and differentiation going on in the shoot apical meristem and its most recently formed leaf primordia. - William P. Jacobs, Molecular Biology Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08542


Subcellular Biochemistry. Vol. 29. Plant-Microbe Interactions Biswas, B.B., and H.K. Das, eds., 1998. ISBN 0-306-45678-8 (cloth US$129.50) 440 pp. Plenum Publishing Corporation,233 Spring Street, New York, New York 10013-1578. - The 13 chapters of this volume-the 29th in its series and the work of 31 authors-range from developmental and metabolic adaptations during symbiosis between legume hosts and rhizobia to oligosaccharide elicitors in host-pathogen interactions. The editors have expertly arranged the volume around four themes: the concept of symbiosis; disease and plant resistance to bacteria, viruses, and fungi; tumor induction by agrobacteria; and the role of oligosaccharide elicitors in host pathogen interactions and signal transduction.

'Me first three chapters deal with the relationships between Rhizobium and legume hosts and the development of root nodules. The first chapter deals with the development and metabolic relationships between legume hosts and rhizobia while chapter two elaborates on the production of signal molecules and their role in modulation. The rhizobial lipochitin-oligopolysaccharide (LCO) signal molecules are perceived by plants on the molecular level; while a lot of study remains to be done this chapter pulls together much what is known about the subject. Chapter three discusses the importance of microbial cell surface polysaccharides to the establishment of a Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. The production of exopolysaccharides by Rhizobium has much to do with the establishment, or nonestablishment, of a symbiotic relationship between Rhizobium and root.

Chapter four, still exploring symbiotic relationships resulting in nitrogen fixation, examines the relationship between Sesbania rostrata and Azorhizobium caulinodans in which infection by the latter results in the formation of stem nodules. In the Sesbania-Azorhizobium interactions, genes from both individuals play a role in development of stem nodules.

Symbiotic relationships between Frankia and actinorhizal plants are explored in chapter 5. This is a valuable chapter because it emphasizes that not all nitrogen fixation occurs due to the association of roots with Rhizobium, although I think that most readers of the book would already be well aware of this fact.

Chapters 6 to 10 deal with disease and resistance of plants against viruses, bacteria, and fungi, and also discuss genetic engineering to contain disease. Chapter 6 discusses strategies for engineering plants for resistance to bacterial and fungal disease. Sections in this chapter deal with antifungal proteins, phytoalexins, simulation of hypersensitive cell death, and oxidative bursts with regard to increase in H 2 0 2 concentration. Chapter 7 deals with plant-fungal interactions and plant disease, covering modes of fungal invasion, pathogenicity, virulence, and resistance of plants to disease.

Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant to study pathogenesis by bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, insects, and mycoplasma-type organisms, is discussed in chapter 8. Strategies used for engineering resistance against viral diseases using RDNA technologies are addressed in chapter 9, while chapter 10 explores the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae and the production of toxins.

The third major topic of the book, Agrobacterium tumifaciens-the bacterium responsible for crown gall tumor formation in dicotyledonous plants-is covered in chapters I 1 and 12. The former chapter deals with the transfer of DNA from Agrobacterium to plant cells, while chapter 12 discusses the import of A. tumifaciens virulence proteins and transfer of DNA into the nucleus of the plant cell.

The fourth and final topic addressed, the role of oligosaccharide elicitors in host-pathogen interactions and signal transduction, is covered in chapter 13.

In this book, each chapteris capable of standing alone, so this would be an excellent text for a senior or graduate level seminar class where each chapter can be presented and discussed individually. All chapters have extensive literature cited, making it easy to find out more about the topics discussed. The authors present this text for the use of plant scientists in general and plant pathologists in particular and I think this goal has been met. This book is a must have for anyone who is seriously considering study on the topic of plant-microbe interactions. - Cynthia M. Galloway, Department of Biology, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363

Book Reviews: Horticultural

Camellias:The Complete Guide to Their Cultivation and Use Trehane, Jennifer 1998. ISBN 088192-462-8 (cloth U.S. $34.95) 176 pp., and The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Camellias Macoboy, Stirling, with Roger Mann, 1998. ISBN 0-88192421-0 (cloth US$39.95) 304 pp., both from Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527. - Timber Press has recently issued a pair of complementary volumes on the important genus Camellia, which both charms our eyes with beautiful flowers and opens our eyes when we drink tea (Camellia sinensis). Camellias the Complete Guide to Their Cultivation and Use by Jennifer Trehane orients itself toward cultivation, while The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Camellias by Stirling Macoboy dwells principally on the task of listing and illustrating a large number of cultivars. Macoboy is the Australian author of What Flower is That? and a series of similarly titled general guides to plants. Each of these two new books on camellias provides some of the information focused on by the other book, but their different foci make them complementary.

Camellias the Complete Guide to Their Cultivation and Use comes from the pen of the Vice  President of the International Camellia Society, someone with extensive experience in operating a British camellia nursery. She has traveled the world observing the members of this genus both in the wild and in cultivation. The history of camellias in the garden is considered both for Europe and for other parts of the world, followed by a botanical description and consideration of Camellia, including a discussion of which species are important in cultivation today. Cultivation is extensively covered, down to such details as the names of specific brands of fertilizer available in the United Kingdom which are suitable for use with camellias and suggestions for how those individual brands should be used. Camellias in the garden are then considered, along with the various issues involved in exhibiting camellias.

Trehane then turns to the problems involved in raising camellias before considering the various species and cultivars of camellias which are available today. Camellias the Complete Guide to Their Cultivation and Use finishes with information on nurseries, gardens, and societies devoted to camellias. Surprising is a lack of information on Chinese and Japanese nurseries and gardens, given the origin of most species and cultivars of Camellia in that part of the world, along with the custom of drinking tea. Some of the detail presented is unnecessary, useless outside a limited geographic region where products are available, such as the details about fertilizer use given above. In addition, there is the bizarre comment that a Dumas character, a consumptive prostitute who loved camellia blossoms, was a "wonderfully outrageous advertisement" for them (p. 12). These are a few disappointing features in an otherwise very good book which contains particularly attractive photographs (see p. 23).

The Illustrated Encyclopedia of camellias gives briefer sections on the camellia in history and botany, but its true purpose is the illustration of a large number of species and cultivars, considered according to traditional groupings such as the japonica camellias and the higo camellias. The pictures are lovely, though compared to Camellias The Complete Guide to Their Cultivation and Use, some of the colors are flat. Given the large number of pictures in Macoboy's book, this difference in color quality could be due to a difference in the method of reproduction used to keep the price of The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Camellias within a reasonable range. The author commendably includes traditional Chinese or Japanese names for cultivars which have been renamed in the West along with the names in Chinese or Japanese characters. Information, briefer than is found in Camellias The Complete Guide to Their Cultivation and Use, is also provided in areas such as cultivation and propagation, and inserted in the pictorial encyclopedia are short discussions of topics such as the origins of tea and its consumption.

Both of these books on camellias are highly recommended. Camellias The Complete Guide to Their Cultivation and Use will be valuable to a broader audience since it contains such extensive instructions for cultivation, while The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Camellias belongs in the personal libraries of interested professionals, university libraries, and anywhere a basic reference is wanted for identifying and comparing many types of camellias. Macoboy's book would also be of value for any amateur specializing in camellias or for nurseries carrying a range of camellias.

The relevance of Camellias The Complete Guide to Their Cultivation and Use will be limited to a degree by the cultural information which it provides, since that information concentrates on North America, Britain, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. On the other hand, the inclusion of Japanese names and Japanese characters will give the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Camellias value in countries outside the area covered by Trehane's book. Due to the attractive nature of the subjects and of the pictures used, either book would be an excellent resource for generating interest and enthusiasm in students. - Douglas Darnowski, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana IL 61801

Campanulas: A Gardener's Guide Lewis, Peter, and Lynch, Margaret 1998. ISBN 0-88192-463-6 (cloth U.S. $34.95) 176 pp Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527. - Campanulas a Gardener's Guide by Peter Lewis and Margaret Lynch concerns itself with the genus Campanula (Campanulaceae), an important genus of garden plants. The species which comprise this genus will be familiar to many readers since Campanula includes species found in the wild over a wide geographic range. Perhaps most familiar for BSA members will be Those known as harebells or bluebells. Peter Lewis is one of the United Kingdom's Campanula National Collection holders, making his authorship particularly germane. Given the predominance of blue and purple flowers in this genus, the design of the dust jacket is at once striking and highly appropriate. Throughout, the illustrations are of very high quality with rich colors and sharp details.

After a brief introductory paragraph, the authors turn to the history of the genus Campanula, with a particular emphasis on its place in the garden. Lewis and Lynch then deal with classification of species and with characteristics of these plants as shared within the genus. Other genera from the Campanulaceae are also briefly noted in order to expand the context in which Camellia is considered, and the botany of Campanula is explained, including a detailed line drawing on p. 24. Though this particular drawing is sufficient for the task, it falls short of the line drawings seen in related books from Timber Press, and does not even equal in quality some of the other line drawings in this particular volume.

The history chapter in Campanulas a Gardener's Guide is organized according to the various figures in horticulture and botany who recorded and influenced the place of the campanula in Western gardens, starting with the author of Gerard's Herbal and continuing to Bailey and Ingwersen. The authors then consider the details of the cultivation of campanulas, including pests and diseases, followed by the individual plants themselves. This last task is accomplished with a single chapter containing a mixed alphabetized list of species and hybrids. This list includes short descriptions of each species or hybrid, with important and notable cultivars or forms listed at the end of the entry for a given species. The book concludes with an adequate Appendix listing societies and sources of seed, the great majority of which are in the United Kingdom or United States. This Appendix is not as complete as many found in similar books from this publisher, and the reader finds no list of gardens where campanulas may be seen, which is especially surprising given the popularity of the members of this genus. One superior item, a complete glossary, ends the book.

This book is yet another in a long line of fine gardening books from Timber Press which combine useful cultural information with sufficient taxonomic detail to give the book a wide audience. The information which has a more formal orientation is written in a style which should be accessible to gardeners and botanists alike. While Campanulas a Gardener's Guide does not equal some similar books from Timber Press in its scope or detail, it is nevertheless a useful volume.

This book is recommended for gardeners, especially those with an interest in campanulas and/or in alpine gardening, and for professionals who deal with campanulas, such as those in horticulture and floriculture programs along with those in landscape architecture. The book is appropriate for their professional libraries as well as for university and public libraries, given the appeal which this book will hold for a general audience of gardeners. - Douglas Darnowski, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana IL 61801

Book Review: Paleobotany

Common Fossil Plants of Western North America William D. Tidwell, 1998. ISBN 1-56098783-9 (cloth), 1-56098-758-8 (paper). Second edition, 299 pp. Smithsonian Institution Press, 470 L'Enfant Plaza, Suite 7100, Washington, D.C. 20560. - Bill Tidwell hits the nail on the head on the very first page of his book when explaining one of the driving forces behind paleobotanical fieldwork: "Collecting fossils is like opening Christmas packages. For a collector, the thrill of breaking or splitting a rock and finding fossilized remains of plants that have been extinct for millions of years is very rewarding."

Similarly, getting your hands on the second edition of "Common Fossil Plants of Western North America" is much like receiving an eagerly awaited Christmas gift. It is a handsome, well produced book packed with good information (both practical and scholarly) and filled with tantalizing illustrations and photos of potential fossil plants just waiting to be discovered.

The book begins, as paleobotanical usually books do, with the obligatory historical review of the study of fossil plants, a survey of plant life sensu lato, a geological time table, and a chapter on types of preservation and on methods used in collecting and curating plant fossil specimens.

Particularly useful in this introductory information is the index map to nearly 100 fossil plant localities on pp. 24-25. Each locality is neatly charted on an outline map of the states and provinces of the western U.S. and Canada and is listed along with the name of the fossil assemblage and geological age. This information is not only valuable for collectors and beginning students, but also for paleobotanists at all phases of their professional careers. Imparted with the facts is also the unspoken message that all those interested are welcome to partake in the bounty and beauty of fossil plants. As Tidwell mentions on p. 2, "Many important events in [the history of plant life] have been reconstructed using a specimen or collection donated by an amateur collector for scientific study". Indeed, many amateurs have the drive, energy, and time to devote weekends, years, or even lifetimes to collecting at a single locality or within a specific region which, of course, results in finding some really spectacular specimens.

A fascinating account of the succession of plants and vegetation through geological time follows. The distinctive twist here is brought about by specifically referring to certain fossil plants, paleofloras, or landscapes in western North America. (For example, did you know that Artemesia tridentata-the ubiquitous sagebrush of the west-first appeared in the later Miocene? Or, that Lake Bonneville in western Utah-which formed the great salt flats used to set land speed records these days-was an inland lake during the Pleistocene that was the size of Lake Michigan?) The distribution charts of the plant genera included in this section are also handy and enable the reader to see at a glance which plants she will find in what fossil flora.

The next chapter approaches fossil plants from the botanical point of view, surveying plant life sensu lato by taxa, from kingdom to genus, describing those plants most likely to be encountered by the reader. Each page is peppered with several, absolutely exquisite line drawings illustrating the salient features of the fossil plant remains, and there is a central section of 58 photographic plates, 16 of which are in color.

Permineralized wood is one of the most common plant fossils, and this is reflected in the extensive section on the identification of dicot wood. The various wood genera are illustrated by black-and-white line illustrations which, like the other line drawings, are as beautiful to behold as they are detailed. For example, the transverse section of Javelinoxylon (p. 402) is elegant enough to have come straight out of a portfolio of Art Noveau motifs.

The book concludes with a shape-and-outline picture key to commonly found plant parts (fern pinnae, gymnosperm cones, dicot leaves), as well as with a glossary of botanical terms, a bibliography, and an extensive book index.

The second edition of "Common Fossil Plants" differs from the first edition published by Brigham Young University Press by having a new typeface and format, both of which make the book much easier to read and render the it more aesthetically pleasing. New sections have been added, such "An illustrated key for the generic identification of winged seeds of the Pinaceae that have adfacial or abfacial surfaces exposed (modified from Wolfe and Schom 1990)". (This may sound daunting, but believe me, this level of detail is exactly what you need to identify fossil plants.) Some sections have been expanded (e.g., there are now more than twice as many localities in the index map) or improved (e.g., the reorganization of the distribution charts of plant genera has resulted in a series of tables that are easier to consult). There is also a new, detailed key to fossil angiosperm leaves alongside an illustrated glossary of leaf apex and base nomenclature. The length of the book has been increased by a third, and there are over 800 figures and photos in all.

If I were forced to level a criticism at this book, I would point out that some of the black and white photos lack clarity and contrast. Nevertheless, the rest of book more than makes up for these dark, blurry photos. (Something to improve on in the third edition.)

I know of no single other publication where you can get such valuable, practical, and detailed information on the identification of fossil plants. This book is an absolute must for all paleobotanists and botanical libraries (even if you already have the first edition), for all amateur collectors of fossil plants, as well as for any botanists with a fancy for ancient plants. - Carole T. Gee, Institute of Paleontology, University of Bonn, Germany.

Book Reviews: Systematic

Flora of China, Volume 18: Scrophularlaceae through Gesneriaceae Wu Zhengyi and Peter Raven, eds., 1998. ISBN 0-915279-55-X (cloth US$85.00) 449 pp. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299 - "Taxonomy is the queen of all the sciences, because before you can say anything about an organism, you have to have a name for it." (I stole that from Bill Stott, former President at nearby Ripon College. He's a very clever fellow, but I suspect he stole it, too.)

The land area of China is very nearly that of the USA, about 3.6 million square miles, but containing about 25% of the world's human population. It is estimated that this area contains about an eighth (12.5%) of the world's vascular flora. It has been the subject of intensive study by Chinese botanists for many years; 75 of a projected 125 volumes of Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae have appeared since 1959, but all in Chinese and therefore largely inaccessible to most foreign readers.

The current effort is not merely a translation of what has already appeared, but a complete restudy. This is the fourth of a projected 25 volumes. It covers the Scrophulariaceae, Bignoniaceae, Pedaliaceae, Martyniaceae, Orobanchaceae, and Gesneriaceae, in all 1203 species distributed among 141 genera. The keys are entirely artificial, the legs numbered and indented. Full citations to type descriptions (but not type specimens) are given, with books and journals appropriately abbreviated in now-standard format, but with names of authors fully spelled out. Only widely-used synonyms and basionyms are cited under each species. There are no references to monographs or other revisions, and no specimens are cited. Full ranges both within and outside of China are given. Given that this is a floristic effort, not a political exercise, Taiwan is included.

Local uses of the plants are occasionally mentioned, but very briefly. In the first volume to appear, volume 17, 1994, it is stated that each plant has a Chinese name, given in Chinese characters and followed by a transliteration into Roman alphabet. Since this Chinese name and its transliteration is given for even the rare species, I gather they are not equivalent to common or English names. There are separate indexes to both of these "names,'.' and of course an index to all the Latin names.

Volumes of illustrations are planned; the first, covering volume 17 (Verbenaceae through Solanaceae) has now appeared. Eventually, the publishers expect that 40% of the Chinese flora will be covered. (A price for the illustrations volume to accompany volume 17 has not yet been posted on the website, though a recent catalog of the garden's publications gives it as US$95.)

So what's new here? It is a tried-and-true format, fairly conventional. What's new is, it is loaded with accessible information for the taxonomist, the horticulturalist, and the conservationist, heretofore available to the western world only in dribs and drabs, scattered in tens of thousands of (mostly) obscure publications.

In the Foreword, it is remarked that volume 4 is also scheduled to appear in 1998. At this rate, probably unsustainable, all 25 volumes will have appeared by A.D. 2014. Meanwhile, one can only applaud the vision of both the Chinese and the Westerners in getting this into our hands, if only piecemeal.

There was a time, not that long ago, when one or two botanists at the largest institutions would undertake to produce large floras; those days are long gone. Today, these are cooperative efforts involving dozens or even hundreds of botanists, plus generous support from individuals as well as public and private foundations. Like the other volumes, this one devotes an entire page to acknowledging this support. They and all the contributors do indeed deserve our thanks. - Neil A. Harriman, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, WI 54901;

Flórula de las Reservas Biológicas de Iquitos, Perú Vásquez Martínez, Rodolfo; 1997. ISBN 0915279-48-7 (cloth US$85) 1046 pp., Monographs in Systematic Botany Volume 63, Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299. Many of us have enjoyed exploring the Amazon rainforest near Iquitos, Peru, either as part of research projects, school trips, or workshops. The area is botanically rich and-thanks to both local and international tourist agencies-easily accessible.

To help us understand the plant life of the region, a number of excellent books have recently been  published-a catalog of the plants of Peru (Brako & Zarucchi 1993), a field guide to the woody plants of the region (Gentry 1993), and two treatments of the ethnobotany specific to Iquitos (Castner et al. 1998, Duke & Vásquez 1994). What has been lacking, however, is one source dealing with all the plants of the area. This book attempts to fill that need.

The Flórula is an in-depth study of three well-known reserves in northeastern Peru: La Reserva Allpahuayo Mishana (ALL-M) and its biological station, off the Rfo Nanay SW of Iquitos; La Reserva Explornapo Camp (SUC), including the Amazon Center for Environmental Education and Research, off the Rio Sucusari NE of Iquitos; and La Reserva Explorama Lodge (YAN) opposite Yanamono Island, Rfo Amazonas, NE of Iquitos. The first is the property of the Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana, with the other two owned or managed by Explorama Tours.

The book begins with a 15-page Introduction describing the general characteristics of the reserves. Basic information on geology, climate, soils, and hydrology is followed by a detailed look at the vegetation. Forest types-based on presence/absence of seasonal inundation, amounts of primary/secondary growth, and soil characteristics-are designated and described, and the overall growth habits of species are examined.

The second half of the Introduction is an analysis of floristic composition and patterns of distribution and endemism. In total, 2740 species, 902 genera, and 164 families are represented in the three reserves. ALL-M is richest in total plant species, followed by YAN and SUC-even though YAN contains an area previously documented to have one of the most diverse woody floras known (Gentry 1988). But there's little surprise as far as plant families are concerned: Fabaceae and Rubiaceae are the top two in both number of genera and species.

The rest of the book is devoted to the Flora itself pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicots, and then monocots. (Sorry-no cryptogams!) Dichotomous keys are provided throughout, and families, genera, and species are all arranged alphabetically within each larger group. All taxa are provided short descriptions; in addition, for each species is listed the habitat in which it is most likely found, the reserve(s) in which it is found, its known uses, and common name.

Illustrations-apparently drawn by the author, either for this or previous works (Duke & Vdsquez 1994, Gentry 1993)-occupy 117 plates toward the back of the book. Generally, one illustration is provided for each genus, four to a page. (Quality varies from one to the next, but they're all quite serviceable.) This section is followed by a glossary, a most extensive and quite useful bibliography, and a list of common names.

All this, of course, makes for a massive tome-far too heavy to lug around in the field. But the book accomplishes its goal of pulling together all the information on all the plants of the region. It is so complete, in fact, that even poorly known or undescribed species (like "Lauraceae sp. A") are included in the keys and descriptions-to be dealt with more fully later! The Flórula is truly a remarkable contribution to our knowledge of the plants of the upper Amazon, and I commend (and thank) the author for his efforts. - L. J. Davenport, Department of Biology, Samford University, Birmingham AL 35229

Literature Cited:

  • Brako, L. and J. L. Zarucchi. 1993. Catalogue of the flowering plant@d gymnosperms of Peru. (Monographs in Systematic Botany Vol. 45.) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO. 1286 pp.
  • Castner, J. L., S. L. Timme and J. A. Duke. 1998. A field guide to medicinal and useful plants of the upper Amazon. Feline Press, Gainesville FL. 154 pp.
  • Duke, J. A. and R. Vdsquez. 1994. Amazonian ethnobotanical dictionary. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 215 pp.
  • Gentry, A. H. 1988. Tree species richness of upper Amazonian forests. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85:156-159.
  • Gentry, A. H. 1993. A field guide to the families and genera of woody plants of northwest South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru), with supplementary notes on herbaceous taxa. Conservation International, Washington DC. 895 pp.

Flora of the Venezuelan Guyana, Volume IV: Caesalpiniaceae - Ericaceae Julian A. Steyermark, Paul E. Berry, and Bruce K. Hoist, eds., 1998. ISBN 0-9152979-52-5 (cloth US$67.95) In English with 1329 species treated, 621 line drawings, 799pp. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, PO Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299. - This volume is included within the first encyclopedic accomplishment aimed at documenting the fascinating and complex flora of the Venezuelan Guyana. Volumes I through IV have been published, and the anticipated six remaining volumes will be published at the rate of approximately one or two per year. This work is the fruit of a worldwide collaboration of 180 botanists which has resulted in the recognition of hundred new species, dozens of new genera and several new families, some of them indigenous to this region such as the Euphroniaceae. I would like to give homage to the vast groundwork of collection and botanical identification Dr. Steyermark headed in the early phases of this scientific venture. If you are like me new to this extensive neotropical flora (nearly 9400 species and their subordinate taxa), you might want to know that the Venezuelan Guyana includes three states, nearly half the land area of Venezuela, or about 454,000 km2 with a total population of approximately 1.1 million inhabitants. The Venezuelan Guyana lies in the center of the Guyana Shield  which is a complex mosaic of lithological units some of them comprising granites formed between 3.6-2.7 billion years ago. This shield is dominated today by massive plateaus known as tepuis. The climate of the Venezuelan Guyana varies greatly according to distance from the Atlantic Ocean, topography and altitude.

Volume IV continues the alphabetical sequence of family treatments and treats thirty five families from the Caesalpiniaceae through the Ericaceae. It is important to note that the authors recognized three families within the legumes (Fabaceae) from which the Caesalpiniaceae is treated in this volume. Each family is treated with a dichotomous key of the genera. Volume I provides a key to the families of spermatophytes from Venezuelan Guyana you might want to use before identifying the plant to the species level. Each family contains a worldwide description of their associated genera. Sadly, I was not able to use in the field the taxonomic treatments. I surely hope that a condensed version of this flora will be made available to the beginning tropical botanist. To avoid information loss the editors might want to think about presenting the flora by distinct geographic regions. The resulting literature might be easier to log around in your backpack! Within dichotomous headings, I really like the use of numbers in parenthesis referring you to the dichotomous couplet that led to the one you are currently inspecting. This feature allows more efficient backtracking of your identification steps. Genera are presented in alphabetical order with at least one line drawing per genera. Species entries are also organized alphabetically and are quite extensive with such data as: vernacular plant names, plant habit, diagnostic character not included in the species key, geographical distribution, and in some cases ethnobotanical uses. Known varieties and subspecies are also mentioned. The same types of information are presented as eluded previously in the species treatments. Line drawings are a very welcomed addition to the taxonomic treatments. I wish a metric scale would have been added to each of these drawings. Furthermore, in some rare cases macro illustrations, with a magnification coefficient, of the floral parts would have added to the informative nature of the illustration. I would have welcomed botanical legends with distribution maps on some illustrations. I have found the glossary of sedge morphology quite an helpful addition. The illustrative treatment of their vegetative and inflorescence characteristics were also welcome additions in this complex family. I have been surprised by some floral habit such found in Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. (Cyclanthaceae). The unisexual flowers are arranged in separate cycles (staminate and pistillate cycles regularly alternate sometimes in partial spirals) around the spadix.

I find these types of work essential in our effort to document the biodiversity of worldwide tropical ecosystems. I strongly encourage further endeavors in this vein of expertis@ while pooling resources from a worldwide array of agencies and scientists. I think it could be one of the foundation stones toward our international efforts to protect these rich pristine ecosystems before population and industrial pressures threaten their biotic wonders. - Laurent M. Meillier, U.C. Davis Clear Lake Environmental Research Center, Lakeport, CA.

Two Field Guides Flowers of the Himalaya: A Supplement Stainton, Adam, 1998. ISBN 0-19-564415-8 (paper US$14.95) 86 pp. + 128 pp. color plates. Oxford India Paperbacks, Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016-4314. Desert Wildflowers of North America Taylor, Ronald J., 1998. ISBN 0-87842-376-1 (paper US$24.00) 359 pp. Mountain Press Publishing Co-, Missoula, MT 59806. - This review covers new books on the marvelous plants of two spectacular regions. Both books are mid-sized paperbacks, inexpensive but well made, intended as field guides for the casual botanist or tourist, and loaded with hundreds of color photographs and brief species descriptions arranged within family. Both books have an index. Despite the reference to flowers in their titles, both books cover trees and nonflowering plants as well.

Flowers of the Himalaya: A Supplement, by Adam Stainton, was published originally in 1988 (in hardback, I presume). It consists of species descriptions and phOtographs not included in the 1984 field guide Flowers of the Himalaya, by Oleg Polunin and Adam Stainton. The design of these two books is very similar. As in the 1984 book, the sequence of families follows the antique sYstem of Bentham and Hooker. This system, which is standard in India, will seem peculiar to American readers. Botanists may find it amusing to begin with Ranunculaceae, followed by Dilleniaceae and Magnoliaceae, and to find gymnosperms between Salicaceae and monocots (with Orchidaceae first). Will most readers care or even notice how unnatural this system is? Probably not.

Plates make up two thirds of this book. The blurb on theback flapclaims "over6OO new colourplates," which is misleading; there are about 640 color photographs on 128 plates. As in Flowers of the Himalaya, the photos are arranged in symmetric patterns, and some plates on facing pages have matched patterns. Although these patterns are attractive, they are achieved at rather high cost to the reader. Photos of closely related species frequently appear out of sequence; sometimes they even appear on non-adjacent plates. Fortunately, all photos have captions listing the species and a number keyed to the text. Most of the. photos are excellent: composition, lighting, focus, and depth of field are all good, and the characteristic features of each species are clearly shown. Unfortunately, about half of the photos in Flowers of the Himalaya: A Supplement were printed from misaligned color separations, resulting in double images. Not all photos in a plate have this problem to the same degree, indicating that the error is in the original plates. I hope these plates will be corrected before the next printing.

About half of the photos depict species described in Flowers ofthe Himalaya; the descriptions are not repeated, so this supplement is of limited use without that book. On the other hand, many of the new descriptions are Of lowland, subtropical species at the limits of their natural ranges, or exotics. This is an unusual and potentially very interesting, even important element in a field guide. I would have appreciated more details of the habitats and climates preferred by these species in the Himalaya.

Desert Wildflowers of North America, by Ronald J. Taylor, is a gorgeous field guide. The photos are excellent to spectacular, and the layout consistently makes the most of them. Many photos showing the habitat and habit of the larger plants have an inset photo of the flowers. I suspect that botanists will wish these insets were larger, but ecologists will think they are just right. The photos are printed on about 150 right-hand pages, usually 3 or 4 photos per page, with corresponding descriptions on the facing left-hand pages. More than 500 species are described. The photos and text are unusually well integrated: this is one of those rare field guides where you can read a clear description and see most of the features described right there in the photo.

Although it is clearly designed with the general public in mind, Desert Wildflowers of North America is full of natural history notes and other details that botanists and ecologists will enjoy. 'Me geographic coverage extends from Oregon south into Mexico (but species endemic to Mexico are not included). The descriptions are fairly detailed and precise, yet not overly technical; this is accomplished by omitting discussion of very similar species and groups that are hard to distinguish. Also, although there is no mention of this in the book, it appears that highly endangered species are omitted too. For instance, none of the rare desert poppies are included. These omissions may be sensible (unfortunately). General descriptions are given for all families and some genera, and when similar species are described one is described in detail, followed by the distinguishing features of the others. The families are ordered by common name, an artificial system that seems entirely appropriate for a field guide. (The only awkward thing I noted in this book is the treatment of common family names as singular nouns, as in the introduction to Aizoaceae: "Fig marigold is a large family...") Both common and scientific names appear at the top of each entry, and many names are explained.

The author of Desert Wildflowers of North America is a retired professor of botany and ecology, and it shows. There is a sympathetic note about the taxonomic difficulties presented by "Damned Yellow Composites." The back of the book contains all the tools one could hope for in a popular field guide. There is a helpful series of labeled anatomical drawings based on actual species, clearly and simply demonstrating the typical range of forms present in floral organs and leaves. There is also a substantial glossary and a very nice key to the families. 'Me introduction to the key concludes with a stern reminder that "qualifying words such as mainly, often, usually, or generally, mean what they say and should not be ignored." This professorial advice, although good, is barely necessary because most of the couplets are unqualified.

In summary: buy Flowers of the Himalaya: A Supplement if you own the 1984 book but not the 1988 version of the supplement, and you want to complete your set. For a field trip to the Himalaya, a copy of the 1984 book would be far more useful. If you have any interest in Desert Wildflowers of North America, buy it: it's a winner. - Una R. Smith, Yale University

Book Review: Briefly Noted

Laughter on the Stairs Nichols, Beverley 1998. ISBN 0-88192-460-1 (cloth U.S. $24.95) 260pp Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527. - Beverley Nichols in Laughter on the Stairs, originally published in 1953 and recently reissued by Timber Press, gives an account of the renovation and operation of Nichols' English country estate earlier this century. This book focusses on the house and grounds of Merry Hall, forming the middle volume in a trilogy which satires some the same sorts of people and situations lampooned in the Jeeves series by P. G. Wodehouse and in the Mapp and Lucia books by E. F. Benson. Though much of the material in Laughter on the Stairs concerns the house itself, the author includes ample material about plants and gardening to justify interest from BSA members. The value of this book is for light amusement, of which this reviewer unfortunately found little. If someone in the BSA wants a good laugh from material that deals with academia and its pitfalls, the recent Bear Went Over the Mountain by William Kotzwinkle might be preferable to Laughter on the Stairs. However, given the reviewer's similar reaction to both Laughter on the Stairs and the Mapp and Lucia series by E. F. Benson, those enjoying the latter might give the former a try. - Douglas Darnowski, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana IL 61801

Planning Your Estate? Year End Planning?
Remember the BSA!

Botanical Society of America members and their families are reminded that contributions to the BSA are tax-deductible. Gifts to special funds, such as the Karling Graduate Student Research Fund and the Conant Travel Fund, and to the Endowment help support current and future Society projects, including travel to international botanical congresses, the "Botany for the Next Millennium" project, botanical educational materials for the K-12 classroom, a Washington D.C. presence for the Botanical Society, and coordination with other scientific societies.

Members and friends are also invited to remember the BSA when planning their estates. Memorial Gifts and bequests are gratefully accepted and may be in the form of cash, stocks, bonds, and other real property. If you have questions about how to arrange such gifts, contact the Business Office, 1735 Neil Ave., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210. Telephone/fax 614-292-3519.

Books Received

If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February, 15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). Send e-mail to <>, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list, because they go quickly! - Ed.

* = book in review or declined for review
** = book reviewed in this issue

Adrian Bloom's Year-Round Garden Bloom, Adrian 1998 ISBN 0-88192-457-1(cloth US$39.95) 288 pp Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.

Advances in Botanical Research, vol 21 Callow, J.A. ed. 1995 ISBN 0- 12-005921-5 (cloth US$89.95) 265 pp Academic Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495.

Advances in Botanical Research, vol 22 Callow, J.A. ed. 1996 ISBN O-12-005922-3 (cloth US$89.95) 328 pp Academic Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495.

The Biological Monograph: The Importance of Field Studies and Functional Syndromes for Taxonomy and Evolution of Tropical Plants Hopkins, H.C.F., Huxley, C.R., Pannell, C.M., Prance, G.T., and White, F., 1998. ISBN I900347-52-0 (cloth E21.00) 220 pp Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK.

Botany Moore, Clark, Vodopich., 1998 ISBN 0-69728623-1 (cloth) Bios Scientific Publishers, Springer-Verlag New York, 175 Fifth Ave., New York NY 10010-7858 919pp. WCB McGraw-Hill, 2460 Kerper Boulevard, Dubuque, Iowa 52001.

Brassinosteriods: A New Class of Plant Hormones Khripach, V.A., Zhabinskii, V.N., and de Groot, A.E., 1998. ISBN 0-12-406360-8 (cloth US$85.00) 456 pp Academic Press Inc., 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495

**Camellias: The Complete Guide to Their Cultivation and Use Trehane, Jennifer 1998 ISBN 088192-462-8 (cloth US$34.95) 176 pp Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.

**Campanulas: A Gardner's Guide Lewis, Peter, and Lynch, Margaret 1998 ISBN 0-88192-463-6 (cloth US$34.95) 176 pp Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 972043527.

A Dictionary of Plant Pathology Holliday, Paul., 1998. ISBN 0-521-59453-7 (cloth US$150.00) 536 pp Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.

Evolution and Speciation of Island Plants Stuessy, Tod F., and Mikio Ono, eds. 1998. ISBN 0-52149653-5 (cloth US$80.00) 358 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.

Flavonoids in the Living System. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 439 Manthey, John A. And Buslig, B61a S. 1998 ISBN 0-306-45905-1 (cloth US$95.00) 278 pp Plenum Publishing, 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013-1578

*A Fragile Eden: Portraits of the Endemic Flowering Plants of the Granitic Seychelles Wise, Rosemary, 1998. ISBN 0-691-04817-7 (paper US$75.00) Princeton University Press, 41 William Street, Princeton, NJ 08540

A Garden of Bristlecones: Tales of Change in the Great Basin Cohen, Michael P. Cohen 1998 ISBN 0-87417-296-9 (paper US$34.95) 344 pp Univ@rsity of Nevada Press, Mail Stop 166, Reno, NV 89557-0076.

*The Gardener's Guide to Growing Daylilies Grenfell, Diana, 1998. ISBN 0-88192-461 -X (cloth US$29.95) 160pp Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204-3527.

Herbs in Bloom: A Guide to Growing Herbs as Ornamental Plants Gardner, Jo Ann 1998 ISBN 088192-454-7 (cloth US$34.95) 394pp Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527

Hungary Hollow: The Story of a Natural Place Dewdney, A.K., 1998. ISBN 0-387-98415- 1. (cloth US$26.00) 233pp. Copernicus, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010.

Inherent Variation in Plant Growth Physiological Mechanisms and Ecological Consequences Lambers, Hans, Poorter, Hendrick, and Margaret M.I. Van Vuuren, eds. 1998 ISBN 90.73348.96.x (cloth US$152.00) 592 pp Backhuys Publishers, PO Box 321, 2300 AH Leiden, The Netherlands.

Instant Notes in Ecology Mackenzie, Aulay, Ball, Andy S., and Virdee, Sonia R. 1998. ISBN 0-38791561-3 (cloth US$24.95) 321 pp Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 333 Meadowlands Parkway, Secaucus, NJ 07094

Instant Notes in Genetics Winter, P.C., Hickey, G.I., and Fletcher, H.L. 1998 ISBN 0-387-91562-1 (cloth US$24.95) 342 pp Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 333 Meadowlands Parkway, Seacus, NJ 07094

An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics Campbell, Gaylon, S. and Norman, John M. 1998 ISBN 0-387-94937-2 (cloth US$39.95) 286 pp Springer-Verlag, 333 Meadowlands Parkway, Secaucus, NJ 07094.

**Laughter on the Stairs Nichols, Beverley 1998 ISBN 0-88192-460-1 (cloth US$24.95) 260pp Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.

Medicinal Plants of the World Ross, Ivan A. 1998 ISBN 0-896-03542-5 (cloth US$99.50) 425 pp The Humana Press, 999 Riverview Drive, Suite 208, Totowa, New Jersey 07512.

My Garden in Autumn and Winter E.A. Bowles 1998 ISBN 0-88192-459-8 (cloth US$24.95) 348 pp Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.

Nitrogen Fixation Postgate, John, 1998. ISBN 0-521 64047-4 (cloth US$54.95) 0-521-64853-X (paper US$19.95) 112 pp Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.

Photosynthesis: Molecular Biology of Energy Capture. Methods in Enzymology vol. 297 McIntosh, Lee ed. 1998 ISBN 0-12-182198-6 (cloth US$99.95) 395 pp Academic Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495.

Phytochemical Signals and Plant-Microbe Interactions. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, vol. 32 Romeo, Downum, Verpoorte, eds. 1998 ISBN 0-306-45917-5 (cloth US$95.00) 254pp. Plenum Publishing Corporation, 233 Spring Street, New York, Ny,10013/212.

Plant Physiological Ecology Lambers, Hans, Chapin F. Stuart III, and Pons, Thijs L. 1998 ISBN 0387-98326-0 (cloth US$59.95) 540 pp SpringerVerlag New York, Inc., 333 Meadowlands Parkway, Secaucus, NJ 07094

The Plantfinder's Guide to Ornamental Grasses Grounds, Roger 1998 ISBN 0-88192-451-2 (cloth US$34.95) 192 pp Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.

The Plantfinder's Guide to Tender Perennials Cooke, Ian 1998 ISBN 0-88192-450-4 (cloth US$34.95) 192 pp Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450 Portland, OR 97204-3527.

Plants and Society Levetin, Estelle, and McMahon, Karen, 1998 ISBN 0-697-34552-1 (cloth) 477pp. WCB McGraw-Hill, 2460 Kerper Boulevard, Dubuque, Iowa 52001.

Plants for Food and Medicine Prendergast, H.D.V., Etkin, N.L., Harris, D.R., and Houghton, P.J. eds., 1998. ISBN 1-900347-55-5 (cloth E24.00) 438 pp Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK.

Plants of British Columbia: Scientific and Common Names of Vascular Plants, Bryophytes, and Lichens Qian, Hong, and Klinka, Karel., 1998 ISBN 0-7748-0652-4 (cloth US$135.00) 548 pp UBC Press, University of British Columbia, 6344 Memorial Road, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6TIZ2.

Reflecting Nature: Garden Designs from Wild Landscapes Malitz, Jerome, and Malitz, Seth 1998 ISBN 0-88192-455-5 (cloth US$39.95) 267 pp Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.

Responses of Plant Metabolism to Air Pollution and Global Change De Kok, Luit and Stolen, Ineke eds.@ 1998 ISBN 90-73348-95-1 (cloth US$126.00) 520 pp Backhuys Publishers, PO Box 321, 2300 AH Leiden, The Netherlands.

Silk Tree, Guanacaste, Monkey's Earring: A Generic System for the Synandrous Mimosaceae of the Americas part III Bameby, Rupert C. 1998 ISBN 0-89327-420-8 (cloth US$45.00) 223 pp The New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, NY 10458-5126.

Three-Language List of Botanical Name Components Radcliffe-Smith, A., 1998. ISBN I900347-52-0 (cloth F-9.99) 143 pp Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK.

Time Machines Ward, Peter D. 1998 (cloth US$25.00) 241 pp Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 333 Meadowlands Parkway, Secaucus, NJ 07094

Tropical Fruits Nakasone, H., and Paull, R.E., 1998. ISBN 0-85199-254-4 (cloth US$55.00) 445pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016.

World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers Farjon, Aljos, 1998. ISBN 1-900347-54-7 (cloth f 30) 298 pp Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK.

always available to contributors to the
BSA Endowment Fund

Short sleeved T-shirts (100% cotton) Grey with small green logo on front,

large purple and green logo on back.
        Adult sizes S, M, L, YL, XXL - $14

        Child sizes XS, S, M, L - $12

Long sleeved T-shirts

        Adult sizes S, M, L, XL - $16


        Cotton canvas - $12

Cricket Hats

        Sizes S, M, L, XL - $25

Cloisonné pin

        White with kelly green logo and gold border - $6

Botany for the Next Millennium Posters

        Full-color, 16"x 20" beauty - $5

(please include $3 for shipping posters)

All prices (except poster) include $2.00 for postage and handling.
Specify item(s), style(s) and size(s).
Make checks payable to BSA Endowment Fund. Mail to:

Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293

For more info, her email address is:

Credit card orders (Visa and Mastercard) are also accepted at the BSA Office at 614-292-3519 (voice and fax)

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