Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1995 v41 No 4 WinterActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

The Botanical Society of America: The Society for ALL Plant Biologists

Table of Contents

News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees
BSA Officers 1995-1996    70
BSA Sectional Officers    71
Ecological Section News    76
Botanical Field Meeting    78
Economic Botany Section Report    78
Other News
El Salvador    78
The International Canopy Network    79
The Latin American Plants Sciences Network    79
Thirty Years of Guide to Graduate Study in Botany    80
More WWW Sites of Interest to Botanists    81
Calls for Nominations    81
Personalia    82
In Memorium    83
Educational Opportunities    84
Funding Opportunities    84
Positions Available    87
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings    89
Book Reviews    91
Books Received    101
Call for Nominations: Young Botanists Awards for 1996    104
BSA Logo Items Available from the Business Office    104

Volume 41, Number 4: Winter 1995 ISSN 0032-0919

Editor: Joe Leverich
Department of Biology,
Saint Louis University
3507 Laclede Ave.,
Saint Louis MO 63103-2010
Telephone: (314) 977-3903
Fax: (314) 977-3658



News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees

* = Members of the Council (retirement date)


Barbara Schaal (1995)

Department of Biology, Box 1137 Washington University

St. Louis, MO 63130-4899

(314)935-6822 FAX 935-4432 E-Mail:


Daniel J. Crawford (1996)

Department of Plant Biology

Ohio State University

1735 Neil Ave.

Columbus, OH 43210-1293

(614)292-2725 FAX 292-6345


Darleen A. DeMason (1997) Botany and Plant Sciences

University of California

Riverside, CA 92521

(909)787-3580 FAX 787-4437 E-Mail: demason@ucracl


Judy Jernstedt (1998)

Depart. of Agronomy and Range Science University of California, Davis

Davis, CA 95616 - 8515

(916) 752-7166 FAX 752-4361

E-Mail: `PROGRAM DIRECTOR Carol C. Baskin (1996) School of Biological Sciences

University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506-0225

606 257-8770 FAX 257-1717



Charles Daghlian (1996) Dartmouth College Rippel EM Facility Hanover, NH 03756

(603) 650-1337 FAX 650-1637

214 Plant Science Bldg. Cornell University
Ithaca, NY 14853-5908
(607) 255-8727 FAX (607) 255-5407


W. Joseph Leverich (1999) Department of Biology St. Louis University

3507 Laclede Ave.

St. Louis, MO 63103-2010 (314)977-3903 FAX 977-3658 E-Mail:


ISSN 0032-0919
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210
The yearly subscription rate of $15 is included in the membership dues of the Botanical Society
of America, inc. Second class postage paid at Columbus, OH and additional mailing office.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to

Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293

Phone/Fax: 614/292-3519   email: KHISER@MAGNUS.ACS.OHIO-STATE.EDU



Kim Hiser

Botanical Society of America 1735 Neil Avenue

Columbus, OH 43210-1293

(614) 292-3519 (Phone and FAX)

*PAST PRESIDENT, 1995 Harry T. Horner

Department of Botany Iowa State University Ames, IA 5001 1-1020

(515) 294-8635 FAX 294-1337 E-Mail:

Grady L. Webster

Section of Plant Biology University of California Davis, CA 95616

(916) 752-2139 (1091) FAX 752-5410 E-Mail:


Gregory J. Anderson

Ecology and Evolutionary Biol. U-43 University of Connecticut

Storrs. CT 06269-3043

(203)486-4322 FAX 486-6364


(* = Section Representative to the Council)


Paula DePriest

Department of Botany. NHB - 166

National Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution

Washington, DC 20560

(202) 357-2545, 786-2563

FAX (202)786-2563



Nancy Dengler

Department of Botany

University of Toronto

Toronto, ON Canada M5S 3132 (416)978-3536 FAX978-5878

E-Mail: (Develpmental and Structural Section, con't.)

Program Director (1997) James L. Seago, Jr. Department of Biology SUNY. College at Oswego

Oswego, NY 13126 (315)341-2777 FAX 341-2916


Treasurer (1996)

Pamela Diggle

EPO Biology/ Box 334 University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0334 (303) 492-4860 FAX 492-8699



Editorial Committee for Volume 41

Donald S. Galitz (1995)   Robert E. Wyatt (1996)   James D. Mauseth (1997)

Dept. of Botany   Institute of Ecology   Dept. of Botany

North Dakota State University   University of Georgia   University of Texas

Fargo NC 58103   Athens GA 30602   Austin TX 78713

Allison A. Snow (1998)   Nickolas M. Waser (1999)

Dept. of Plant Biology   Dept. of Biology

Ohio State University   University of California

Columbus OH 43210   Riverside CA 92521



*Chair (1998)

Brenda Casper

Department of Biology - Leidy Labs University of Pennsylvania Phiadelpha, PA 19104-6018 (215)898-8569 FAX 898-8780 E-Mail:

Vice-Chairperson (1998)

Allison Snow

Plant Biology Department Ohio State University

1735 Neil Ave.

Columbus, OH 43210-1293 snow.1

Secretary (1995)

Rebecca Dolan

Biology Department

Butler University

4600 Sunset Ave.

hidianapolis, IN 46208 (317)283-9413 FAX 283-9519 E-Mail:


Chairperson (1996)

Thomas Mione

Biological Sciences-Copernicus Hall Central Connecticut State Univ. New Britain, CT 06050-4010 (203)827-7082 FAX 832-2946 E-Mail:

*Secretary-Treasurer (1997) James S. Miller

Missouri Botanical Garden P.O. Box 299

St. Louis, MO 63166-0299 (314)577-9503 FAX 577-9596 E-Mail:


GENETICS SECTION *Chairperson (1997)

Donald Hauber

Department of Biological Science

Box 27, Loyola University

New Orleans, LA 70118

(504) 865-2769 FAX 865-2149

E-Mail: dtbodph@music.loyno.cdu

Vice Chairperson (1997) Kenneth G. Wilson Department of Botany Miami University Oxford, OH 45056 (513)529-6601 FAX 529-4243

E-Mail: wilsonkg@muohio.cdu

Secretary-Treasurer (1997)

Jeri Higginbotham

Biology Department

Jacksonville State University Jacksonville, AL 36265


Editor, Newsletter (1999)

Vance Baird

Horticultural Department

Plant and Animal Science Building Clemson University

Clemson, SC 29634-0375

(803) 656-4953 FAX 656-4960


Chairperson (1996)

Margaret R. Bolick

W-530 Nebraska Hall

University of Nebraska State Museum Lincoln, NE 68588-0514

(402) 472-2613 FAX 472-8949


Vice-Chairperson (1996)
Peter F. Stevens

Harvard University Herbaria

22 Divinity Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138

(617) 495-2348 FAX 495-9484


*Secretary-Treasurer (1996) Laurence J. Dorr

Department of Botany, NHB-166

National Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution Washington, DC 20560

(202) 633-9106 or 357-2534 FAX 786-2563 E-Mail:




*Council Representative

Kenneth J. Curry

Dept. of Biological Sciences Univ. of Southern Mississippi Box 5018

Hattiesburg, MS 39406-5018 (601)266-4930 FAX 266-5797 E-Mail:

Chairperson (1997)

Diane Greene

125 Columbia Ave. ADAIR

Corvallis, OR 97330 (503)745-7706


Program Chair (1997)

David S. Hibbett

Harvard University Herbarium 22 Divinity Avenue

Cambridge, MA 02138

(617)496-3374 FAX 495-9484 E-Mail:

Secretary/Treasurer (1997)

Kris Shanks

Department of Botany

Duke University

Durham, NC 27708-0339

(919)286-0586 FAX



Chairperson (1996)

Charles P. Daghlian Dartmouth College Rippe] EM Facility Hanover, NH 03756

(603) 650-1337 FAX 650-1637

*Secretary-Treasurer (1998)

Jeffrey M. Osborn

Division of Science

Northeastern Missouri State University Kirksville, MO 63501

(816)785-4017 FAX 785-4045


sc56%nemomus @academic. (Paleobotanical Section, cont,)

'Editor, Bibliography of American Paleobotany (1996) Steven R. Manchester

Florida Museum of Natural History

University of Florida

Museum Road, P.O. Box 117800

Gainesville, FL 32611-7800.

(904) 392-6564 or 1721 FAX 392-0287



*Chairperson (1998)

Daniel E. Wujek

Department of Biology

Central Michigan University

Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859

phone (517) 774-3626 FAX 774-3462

Secretary (1996)

John LaClaire, II

Department of Botany

BIO 308

University of Texas

Austin, TX 78713

(512) 471-3577 FAX 471-3878



Amrita G. DeSoyza

USDA/ARS Jornada Exp. Station New Mexico State University Box 3003, Dept. 3JER

Las Cruces, NM 88003-0003 (505) 646-6401 FAX 646-5889 E-Mail:

Program Director/Newsletter Editor (1996) Peter F. Straub

Natur. Sci. and Math. Div.

Richard Stockton College

Pomona, N.J. 08240

(609) 652-4556 FAX 748-5515


*Council Representative (1996) Henri Maurice

Barat College Box 618 700 E. Westleigh Rd. Lake Forest, IL 60045

(708) 234-3000 X 693 FAX 615-5000




*Chairperson (1997) Susan S. Martin

USDA Crops Research Lab

1701 Center Avenue

Fort Collins CO 80526

(303) 498-4212 FAX 482-2909 E-Mail:SMARTIN @LAMAR.COLOSTATE.EDU

Secretary and Program Organizer (1997) Emanuel Johnson

Building 001, Room 308 BARC-W 10300 Baltimore Ave.

Tropical Plants Research Lab Beltsville, MD 20705

(301) 504-5323 FAX 504-6491

Treasurer-Editor (1996)

W. Dennis Clark

Department of Botany

Arizona State University

Tempe, AZ 85287

(602) 965-4482 FAX 965-6899



John T. Mickel

New York Botanical Garden Bronx, NY 1 0458-5 1 26

(718) 817-8636 FAX 220-6504

*Secretary-Treasurer (1996)

David S. Conant

Department of Natural Science Lyndon State College

Lyndonville, VT 05851

(802) 626-6485 FAX 626-9770 E-mail:


*Chairperson (1997)

Kathleen A. Kron

Department of Biology

Wake Forest University

Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (910)759-5321 FAX 759-6008

Secretary-Treasurer (1996) Wayne J. Eliscns

Department of Botany & Microbiology

770 Van Vlcet Oval University of Oklahoma Norman, OK 73019

(405) 325-5923 FAX 325-7619


*Chairperson (1996)

Eileen D. Bunderson

Depart. of Instructional Sciences 201-J MCKB

Brigham Young University Provo, UT 84602

(801) 378-4823 FAX 537-7154

Vice-Chairperson & Program

Rob J. Reinsvold

Department of Biological Sciences University of Northern Colorado

Greeley, CO 80639

(303)351-2716 FAX 351-1269


*Secretary-Treasurer (1996)

Donald S. Galitz

Department of Botany/Biology Stevens Hall, P.O. Box 5517 North Dakota State University Fargo, ND 58103

(701) 237-7226 FAX 237-7149 E-mail:

Developmental Task Force Chair (1996) Jeanette S. Mullins

John Franklin Lewis Herbarium P.O. Box 576

California, PA 15419-0576

(412) 938-2717


Joseph E. Armstrong 4120 Biological Sciences Illinois State University Normal, IL 61790-4120 (309)438-2601 FAX 438-3722


*Program Chair (1996)

Suzanne Koptur

Biology Department

Florida International University Miami, FL 33199

(305) 348-3103 FAX 348-1986


Secretary/Treasurer (1998)

David Lee

Biological Sciences

Florida International University Miami, FL 33199

(305)348-2201 FAX 348-1986 E-Mail: Iced


MIDCONTINENT SECTION *Chairperson (1996)

H. James Price

Soil and Crop Sciences Department Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843 (409)845-8294 FAX 845-0456 E-Mail:

Vice Chairperson (1996) Wayne J. Elisens

Department of Botany and Microbiology University of Oklahoma Norman, OK 73091 (405) 325-5923 FAX 325-7619


Secretary/Treasurer (1998) Ralph Bertrand

Biology Department 14 Cache La Poudre Colorado College

Colorado Springs, CO 80903 (719)389-6402 FAX 389-6940

Vice Secretary/Treasurer Kenneth J. Freiley Biology Department University of Central Arkansas

Conway. AR 72035 (501)450-5926 FAX 450-5914

E-Mail: kennethf@ccl .vca.cdu


*Chairperson (1996) Edward H. Miller 430 Miller Rd. Rexford, NY 12148




Chairperson (1996)

Fred Rickson

Department of Botany

Oregon State University

Corvallis. OR 97331-2902 (503)737-5272 FAX 737-3573 E-Mail:

"Secretary-Treasurer (1996)

David E. Bilderback

College of Arts and Sciences LAl Ol University of Montana

Missoula, MT 59812-1214

(406) 243-2632 FAX 243-4076

SOUTHEASTERN SECTION *Chairperson (1997)

Joe E. Winstead

Department of Biology

Western Kentucky University Bowling Green, KY 42101 (502) 745-6004 FAX 745-6471

Program Chair (1996) Charles R. Werth

Department of Biological Science

Texas Tech University

Lubbock, TX 79409

(806) 742-3222 FAX 742-2963


Secretary-Treasurer (1995) David R. Hill

Biology Department Belmont University 1900 Belmont Blvd Nashville, TN 372012-3757 (615)385-6431 FAX 386-4458


Treasurer (1996)

Karl Anderson Rancocas Nature Center 794 Rancocas Road Mount Holly, NJ 08060 (609) 261-2495



Ecological Section News

Symposium Report:

Conservation Biology: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Practice

The symposium entitled "Conservation Biology: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Practice," organized by Kayri Havens (Missouri Botanical Garden, PO Box 299, St. Louis, MO, 63166), Chris Topik (USDA Forest Service), Ken Berg (Bureau of Land Management), and Nancy Morin (Missouri Botanical Garden), at the 1995 BSA meeting in San Diego was sponsored by the Ecological Section of BSA and cosponsored by the Conservation Committee of the BSA. The symposium was designed to promote dialogue between researchers and practitioners in a wide range of academic and applied disciplines related to conservation biology. Topics covered included reproductive biology, population genetics, soil seed banks, rare communities, hybridization, and ecophysiology, as well as species, community, and ecosystem-level approaches to resource management on public lands.

In the morning session, Jerry and Carol Baskin (U of Kentucky) described the flora of the unusual "cedar glade" community found only in the southeastern United States. These glades are home to a nymber of narrowly-endemic species. Diane Elam (UC Riverside) discussed the relationship between population genetic structure and maternal reproductive success in the endangered. self-incompatible Eriodictyon capitation. As predicted, uniclonal populations did not have appreciable seed production, but the relationship between population structure and seed set in multiclonal populations was only margin-ally significant. Kent Holsinger and Pati Vitt (U Conn-Storrs) discussed the use of genetic analyses in conservation programs. They maintained that "because loss of genetic diversity is more likely to be a symptom of endangerment than a cause of it, genetic analyses of natural populations are more useful as a guide to recognizing taxa or populations worthy of concern than as a management tool." Joshua Kohn and Kristia Hufford (UC San Diego and La Jolla) reviewed the surprisingly meager literature on the fitness consequences of genetic erosion. They also suggested several avenues for future research since few empirical studies have addresses whether or not the loss of genetic variability affects population fitness. Susan Kalisz (U of Pittsburg) presented data on several populations of Collinsia veiria (which has a short-lived seed hank of 3-4 years), including one population which is recolonizing from the seed bank after a year with no adult survival. She discussed the effectiveness of a soil seed bank in buffering populations against extinction, restoring allele frequencies, and altering outcrossing estimates. Loren Rieseberg and Norman Ellstrand talked about the biological and legal implications of hybridization between rare and common species. They concluded that in many instances hybridization can pose a serious threat to endangered plant species and then discussed specifically the rare Catalina Mahogany, threatened with genetic assimilation by the more common Mountain Mahogany. The morning session finished up with a talk by Carol Baskauf (Austin Peay U) on whether or not restrictive ecophysiology is a cause of plant rarity. In her study on two species from the genus Echinacea, one widespread and the other rare and narrowly distributed. she found no differences in photosynthetic performances that could explain the different distributions.

The afternoon session focused on resource management from a practical standpoint. Deborah Hillyard (CA Dept. of Fish and Game) talked about the ecological assessment and resulting management plan for Monterey pine which is restricted to five native populations, three on the Monterey peninsula and two off the coast of Mexico. Stephen Shelly (USDA-FS) discussed the conservation strategy for an unusual aquatic plant, Howe/Ha aquatilis which produces chasmogamous, but obligately selling, aerial flowers and cleistogamous flowers under-water. It is restricted to shallow, vernal wetlands in the Pacific Northwest. Ken 13crg (BLM) graciously filled in for an absent speaker (on rather short notice) and provided the group with an update on the status of federal environmental legislation and appropriations proposals in the 104th Congress. Nancy Fredricks (USDA-FS) discussed management plans for old-growth Douglas fir forest ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest based on population viability analyses of several hundred species including vascular plants, bryophytes, fungi, and lichens. James Shevock (USDA-FS) talked about a recent scientific assessment of the distribution of rare and/or endemic plant species in the Sierra Nevada range. A large number of the over 200 rare taxa in the range are concentrated in the Kern and Feather River watersheds, and overall the southern part of the range is the richest floristically. Jim also encouraged plant folks to explore some of the beautiful but under-botanized areas of the range. Wayne Owen and Lisa Croft (USDA-FS) finished up the day with a discussion about managing for rare plants in the Columbia River Basin. In this area, a Science Integration Team has been formed to evaluate the occurrence and viability of numerous species of vascular and non-vascular plants. as well as fungi and lichens, and to estimate the effects of changing environmental conditions and land management regimes on these species.

After the symposium, many of the speakers and participants got together for an informal discussion over


dinner. We talked about ways to continue "Bridging the Gap" such as:

•facilitating research on public lands, or research with rare species, that will answer questions mutually beneficial to both the research community and the resource managers (managers could list and prioritize research needs on pubic lands)

•overcoming barriers to researchers on public lands, such as streamlining permitting procedures •develop means forsharing "gray literature" on plant conservation

•facilitate data access and exchange between academic and agency scientists

•develop regional plant conservation working groups where researchers and managers could regularly interact

The symposium gave many academic and agency scientists a chance to interact, share ideas, and hopefully will spawn integrative projects that could lead to more effective conservation of our endangered species, communities, and ecosystems.


Symposium Report: Population Biology of Grasses

The symposium entitled "Population of Biology of Grasses," organized by Gregory P. Cheplick (Department of Biology, The College of Staten Island-CUNY, Staten Island, NY 10314) at the 1995 BSA meeting in San Diego, was sponsored by the Ecological Section of BSA and cosponsored by the Torrey Botanical Club. The objective of the symposium was to summarize and synthesize much current information relevant to understanding population dynamics. variation, reproduction, and life histories o idle grasses. Despite considerable research devoted to the evolution, systematics, and reproductive biology of this economically important plant family, and much available information of grassland ecosystems. research on the population biology of the grasses had not been recently synthesized. The talks covered germination. seed dispersal. seedling establishment, demography. life history, reproductive ecology, population genetic variation, and the interaction of grasses with herbivores and fungi.

The morning session of this all-day symposium opened with a presentation by Carol C. Baskin (U of Kentucky) on the ecophysiology of seed dormancy and germination. She complied an extensive group of summary tables that delimited the variety of environmental factors affecting germination patterns in grasses and recognized non-deep physiological dormancy as the primary dormancy type found in the family. Gregory P. Cheplick (CUNY) followed with a discussion of the process of seed dispersal and seedling establishment. He noted that most grass seeds do not disperse more than a few meters within natural populations and showed examples of some species that show antitelechoric adaptations that hinder rather than promote dispersal. David D. Briskc (Texas A & M) described possible mechanisms by which ti llcrdemography is regulated in caespitose grasses and showed that neither apical dominance norphysiological integration could adequately explain the process. The next talk replaced a prior cancellation and was presented by Akifumi Akita (Tokyo. Japan) who spoke about the comparative population biology of two dwarf bamboos in Japan. A short talk that replaced a second cancellation followed, presented by David M. Orr (Tropical Beef Center, Australia) on the seed dynamics on a tropical Australian grass.

The afternoon session began with a presentation by Jerrold I. Davis (Cornell) who analyzed intraspecific genetic diversity and summarized the systematic factors that influence species delimitation in the grass family. using his research with Puccioelliu to illustrate. James Am Quinn (Rutgers) followed, with a summary of the ecological aspects of sex expression and an exploration of the tremendous diversity of breeding systems in the grasses. After a brief recess, Keith Clay (Indiana) talked about the dramatic influence of fungal endophytes on the population ecology of grasses and noted that many species probably contain these easily-overlooked symbionts. The final presentation was by James K. Detling (Colorado State) who considered the physiological and morphological adaptations that enable grasses to either tolerate or escape grazing. Such adaptations may deter-mine the extent to which a grazed plant will maintain its competitive position within a community.

This stimulating symposium was followed by a well-attended mixer sponsored by the Torrey Botanical Club. During the BSA meetings, it was learned that the symposium papers, along with additional papers solicited from other members of the international ecological community, will be published by Cambridge University Press in a volume entitled "The Population Ecology of Grasses" (edited by G.P. Cheplick). It is hoped that the eventual appearance of this volume will bring together ideas from researchers with both basic and applied perspectives who have used a diversity of approaches in their attempts to understand the ecology and evolution of grass populations. Indeed, this was one of the strong aspects of the symposium — it brought together scientists from both basic and applied backgrounds and gave them, along with the audience. a chance to exchange ideas with individuals they might not meet at more narrowly focused meetings. It would appear that, although the bridge between basic and applied plant population biology may be rather narrow, it is one bridge that grass researchers should certainly be able to cross!


Botanical Field Meeting 23-26 June 1996

The 1996 Botanical field meeting, jointly sponsored by the Botanical Society of America and the Torrey and Philadelphia Botanical Clubs will take place Sunday afternoon to Thursday morning June 23-26, 1996 at the New York State University in Albany, New York. Field trips will examine plants in the nearby pitch pine barrens, in the unique environment of the Hudson River ice meadows and in a botanically rich limestone area south of Albany. Evening programs will deal with the complex geology of the region and floral aspects of the various field sites.

Transportation during the meeting will be by chartered buses. Only the trip to the ice meadows will be longer than an hour's drive. Housing and meals will be in SUNY dormitory facilities.

We expect the all inclusive cost to be in the range of $200-$225 double occupancy. More information, including facility descriptions, and registration in-formation will be available by December 1, 1995.

If you have any questions, contact Chairperson Edward Miller, 430 Miller Road, Rexford, NY 12148. (518) 371-8834. There is no e-mail address at this time.

Economic Botany Section Report

At the 1994 Business meeting of the Economic Botany Section of the Botanical Society of America, with Dr. Brian Boom (New York Botanical Garden) presiding, Dr. Thomas Mione (Central Connecticut State University) was elected to a two-year term as Chair of the section and Dr. James Miller (Missouri Botanical Garden) was elected to a three-year term as Secretary Treasurer. It was decided that the Economic Botany Section would sponsor a symposium on the importance of medicinal plants at the 1995 AIBS meeting in San Diego, in an effort to document to the general BSA membership the importance of plants as sources of past, present, and future medicines. Dr. David Lentz (New York Botanical Garden) and Dr. James S. Miller (Missouri Botanical Garden) agreed to coordinate the symposium. Ms. Alondra Oubre (Shaman Pharmaceuticals), Dr. Gordon Cragg (United States National Cancer Institute), Dr. Edward Croom (University of Mississippi), Dr. David Lentz (New York Botanical Garden), Dr. Gregory Anderson (University of Connecticut), Dr. Hans Beck (New York Botanical Garden), Dr. Daniel Harder (Missouri Botanical Garden), Mr. Alan Hickman (California Botanical Garden of Toxic and Medicinal Plants), and Dr. James S. Miller gave an excellent series of presentations to a standing room only audience at the San Diego AIBS meeting.

At the 1995 Economic Botany Section business meeting, it was decided that the section would again sponsor a symposium for the 1996 meeting to be held in Seattle. The subject would be "The role of Economic Botany in sustainable development and conservation." The possibility of a pre-symposium field trip to one of the growers of economically important herbs in the Pacific Northwest was also discussed. Edward Croom (University of Mississippi) agreed to look into the possibility of coordinating such a trip. The possibility of an Economic Botany Section lunch, with a feature speaker, followed by the Economic Botany Section business meeting was also discussed. It was decided that James Miller, David Lentz, Ed Croom, and Tom Mione would work to coordinate symposium, field trip, and business meeting for the Seattle meeting in 1996. Once initial plans were completed, a mailing would be sent to all members of the Economic Botany Section and an advertisement would be placed in the Society for Economic Botany Section and an advertisement would be placed in the Society for Economic Botany newsletter. — James S. Miller, Missouri Botanical Garden


El Salvador

After more than a decade of near inactivity, the Herbarium of the University of El Salvador (known as Herbario del InstitutodelnvestigaciōnCientiflea, I.T.I.C.) announces a new beginning. As many of you know, El Salvador is currently recuperation from a period of an internal armed conflict, form which the herbarium did not escape. A bomb was placed inside its installations, many specimens and cabinets were damaged or completely destroyed. Under the direction of the new curator, Nohemy E. Ventura, M.Sc., the herbarium is back and ready to contribute to the study of plants. There are approximately 28,000 specimens and collecting is taking place through-out the country by staff members ad university students. The entire collection includes all plant groups, lichens, and fungi.

Loans will be made, provided the borrower is willing to pay for the shipping costs. We are trying to update our Herbarium Library and the plant collection itself; therefore, we will accept donations of books, re-prints, and specimens. Particularly those related to the Neotropics. We encourage anyone passing through the region to stop by and visit us. We will try our best to assist with housing and other logistic needs.

For further information contact either Lie. Nohemy E. Ventura, Curator, Herbario Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de el Salvador, Ciudad Universitaria SanSalvador, El Salvador C.A., Tel. (503)226-2072, Fax (503)225-4208 or Carlos R. Ramirez, Plant Sciences Ph.D. Subprogram, Department of Biological Sciences, Lehman College CUNY, Bronx NY 10468 USA, Tel. (718)960-8658, Fax (718)960-8236, E-Mail crrlc@cunyvm

Other News


The International Canopy Network

The International Canopy Network (ICAN) organization exists to facilitate communication among individuals and institutions concerned with research, education, and conservation of organisms and interactions in tree crowns and forest canopies.

ICAN brings together activities formerly carried out by the NSF-funded Canopy Research Network (CRN), which facilitated communication among canopy researchers, and The Canopy Institute (TCI), a not-forprofit organization to facilitate conservation throug h interpretation of canopy research to non-scientists. Uniting these two organizations combines the structure of a tax-exempt corporation with 501(c)3 status and the net-working capacity of the CRN. By including researchers, educators, conservationists, and arborists under one "crown", links among these groups will be facilitated.

Some of the current core activities of the ICAN include maintenance of an electronic mail bulletin board (canopy @, circulation of the quarterly newsletter (titled "What's Up?"), maintenance and expansion of a citations bibliographic database on aspects of canopy science, and a canopy researcher directory. Future activities include the initiation of an images library (slides and video), serving as a repository for information on safe canopy access, and creation of instructional materials about forest canopies for school children. Individuals may take on projects of interest to them, and share results and products with the rest of ICAN.

Currently, the Board of Directors consists of six members who represent the constituent fields of research, education, conservation, and arboriculture. The Directors serve two-year terms and meet semi-annually, or as needed. The Advisory Council, which consists of up to twenty members, will take part in decisions on an ad hoc basis.

ICAN is a self-supporting organization, funded by subscriber dues, donations, and grants. A regular annual subscribership to ICAN costs $30. This provides the following services: 1) access to the e-mail bulletin board; 2) four newsletters per year; 3) an annually updated directory of ICAN members (over 1000 listed in 1995); and 4) access to the bibliographic database at ICAN headquarters. Subscriberships also support other ICAN activities that involve education and conservation. Students subscribers may pay $20. Sustaining memberships arc awarded for those contributing $70 or more, and will be accompanied by a handsome certificate with our logo.

For more information on the ICAN, contact Nalini Nadkarni ( orJoel Clement (cicmentj To subscribe to the network, type "subscribe me" to canopy@elwha.evergrccn.cdu. To communicate to the network, type to


The Latin American Plant Sciences Network
The Latin American Plant Sciences Network
(Red Latinoamcricana de Botanica -RLB) is a non-profit
organization created in 1988, whose main objectives are
to promote the training of young plant scientists in the
region, and to stimulate basic and applied research of the
native flora through regional cooperation. Most of the
training activities of the Network take place in training
centers selected for their academic excellence in Mexi-
co, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina and Chile.

The Network is governed by a Coordinator (Dr. Luis Corcuera, Chile), an Associate Coordinator (Dr. Sonia Dietrich, Brazil), two Vice-Coordinators (Dr. Daniel Pinero, Mexico, and Dr. Juan Silva, Venezuela), the Past Coordinator (Dr. Mary Arroyo, Chile), and the Scientific Committee with representatives from the six countries with Network graduate training centers (Drs. Carlos Vasquez-Yanes, Mexico; Gabriel Macaya, Costa Rica; Aura Azocar, Venezuela; Nanuza de Menezes, Brazil; Jorge Crisci, Argentina, and Miren Alderdi, Chile). An Administrative Director (Susana Maldonado, M.Sc.) is in charge of the central office in Santiago (Chile).

The Network maintains the following current programs:

  1. Fellowships for graduate studies and short-term training.

  2. Regional and National Graduate Courses.
  3. Support for Regional Meetings.
  4. Support for research activities of their fellows.
  5. Publications of books and manuals resulting from scientific events or graduate courses. A biannual news-letter is also published.

For further information, please contact: Susana Maldonado, M.Sc. Administrative Director Red Latinoamericana de Botanica, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile Phone 56(2) 271 5464 Fax 56(2) 271 7580/5464 e-mail: redlatbo @ abel lo.dic.uchi

[The Administative Director informs me that current activities are directed toward Latin American botanists only. -Ed.]



Thirty Years of Guide to Graduate Study in Botany

William Louis Stern

Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville 35611-8526

In December, 1964, Dr. B.L. Turner, who was then Secretary of the Botanical Society, received a letter from an official of the American Council on Education calling attention to their plan to publish a third revised edition of A Guide to Graduate Study: Programs Leading to the Ph.D. Degree. Although this book, published in 1965, is a volume of some 600 pages and lists the names of the universities offering the doctorate in the various disciplines, it necessarily provides no details concerning the faculties and programs of the departments in each of these fields. The need for appropriately detailed directories in each of the academic disciplines was stressed, and Dr. Turner was asked whether the Botanical Society has published a directory of this sort. Dr. Turner wrote to me, as then Chairman of the Education Committee, suggesting that we consider the feasibility of preparing a document somewhat like the American Chemical Society's Directory of Graduate Research. Although the Botanical Society has not previously considered the preparation of this type of publication, Dr. Turner wrote that he had cone to realize the need for one, having received 50 to 100 letters requesting information of the kind.'

The first edition of the Botanical Society's Guide to Graduate Study in Botany in the United States and Canada debuted in 1966. Adolph Hecht, then of Washington State University and Chairman of the Society's Education Committee, acted as editor of that issue commencing a tradition now in its eighth reincarnation. Over a period of 30 years, the Botanical Society of America has supported the publication of a brochure outlining opportunities for professional study in botany through a series of editors (in order) including Richard C. Starr, Barbara F. Palser, Willard W. Payne, Janice C. Coffey, Randy Moore, and Christopher Haufler. The current Guide was edited by Bijan Dchgan of the Department of Environmental Horticulture, University of Florida and the writer of this article. Other members of the Botanical Society have been involved in one way or another in the formulation of each edition of the Guide, many unnamed and unrecognized. Most of all, though, credit goes to those responsible individuals who have troubled them-selves to provide the information that has appeared in each issue of the Guide.

The 8th edition of the Guide to Graduate Study in Botany for the United States and Canada (October, 1995) contains information submitted by 256 units and 2,853 researchers. It aims to help potential graduate students in their quest to seek institutions, areas of study,

' The introductory paragraph of Adolph Hecht in the first edition, 1966, of the Guide to Graduate Study in Botany.

and investigators in programs compatible with their individual interests. The results below are based on data submitted by botany, plant biology, and non-agricultural plant science departments in the United States and Canada. These data are approximate owning to interpretations that had to be made by the editors.

There are represented 21 Canadian and 162 United States institutions of higher learning awarding graduate degrees in botany that responded to our questionnaire. Of the 21 Canadian institutions. 33% maintain departments of botany, plant biology, or non-agricultural departments of plant science. Of the 162 United States institutions 26% maintain departments of botany, plant biology, or non-agricultural departments of plant science. Graduate programs in botany and plant biology were considered as departments in the summaries that follow.

One measure of the importance of the plant sciences in biology imputed by institutions of higher learning might be the emphasis on plants as measured by the numbers of faculty who are botanists and who hold positions in departments of biology/biological sciences. Our survey shows in the responding biology departments, in the United States 28% of the faculty considered themselves botanists, while 72% were non-botanists. In Canada 23% considered themselves botanists and 77% were non-botanists. It is of some interest to note in biology departments that the relative proportions of botanists to non-botanists ranged from 5% in one department where there were only two botanists and 40 non-botanists to another where botanists constituted 66% in a department of 6 faculty.

Although this brief summary only considers botanists in botany/biology and similar departments, there is a significant number of investigators who consider them-selves as botanists but who hold posts in other kinds of departments, e.g., agricultural plant science, agronomy, forestry, horticulture, soils, entomology, and plant pathology. Thus, potential graduate students interested in advanced studies in botany should not confine their searches to botany and biology departments for likely specialties and advisors. Also to be considered are botanists associated with botanical gardens and museums who may have formal academic appointments with colleges and universities. The indices to investigators and specialties in the Guide lead to the conclusion that there is ample opportunity for students who wish to continue advanced study in the plant sciences in Canada and the United States.

continued, p. 81




More WWW Sites of Interest to Botanists Editor:

Since the appearance of my short note in PSB 41(1 ):7-8, I've been receiving additions and corrections for the list of WWW sites of interest to botanists. I regularly update the list thanks to Shunguo Liu (University of Regina) and Jean Thioulousc (University of Lyon) who maintain the botany page at their sites. The sites where these pages may be browsed are listed below.

— Anthony R. Brach Missouri Botanical Garden Harvard University Herbaria

WWW Sites of Interest to Botanists and Ecologists at: http://biomserv.univ-lyonl .fr/Ecology-WWW.html Brach_list.html

Flora of China: fch_intr.html

Thirty Years, continued from p. 80

The usefulness of the Guide is predicated on its availability to undergraduate students wishing to for-ward their plant science careers through professional studies at the graduate level. During an informal survey of undergraduate majors and graduate students at the University of Florida, we found that most undergraduates were unfamiliar with the existence of the Guide and only a few of our graduate students had known about the Guide when looking for opportunities for graduate re-search. This situation may be widespread across our institutions. We have to make a greater effort to bring the Guide to the attention of undergraduates looking for places to conduct graduate study in botany. and this burden falls on faculty, particularly those faculty serving as undergraduate advisors. Else the utility of the Guide is greatly diminished.

The Guide is sent to all members of the Botanical Society of America and to those units that cooperated by sending information about plant study in their institutions. Additionally, copies are for sale ($12.00) through the Business Manager of the Botanical Society of America, currently Kim Hiser, 1735 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1293, telephone and fax 614-292-3519, e-mail

Call for Nominations Lawrence Memorial Award

The Award Committee of the Lawrence Memorial Fund invites nominations for the 1996 Lawrence Memorial Award. Honoring the memory of Dr. George H.M. Lawrence, founding Director of the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, the Award ($1,000) is given biennially to support travel for doctoral dissertation research in systematic botany or horticulture, or the history of plant sciences, including literature and exploration.

Major professors are urged to nominate out-standing doctoral students who have achieved official candidacy for their degrees and will be conducting pertinent dissertation research that would benefit significantly from travel enabled by the Award. The Committee will not entertain direct applications. A student who wishes to be considered should arrange for nomination by his/her major professor; this may take the form of a letter which covers supporting materials prepared by the nominee.

Supporting materials should describe briefly but clearly the candidate's program of research and how it would be significantly enhanced by travel that the Award would support. Letters of nomination and supporting materials, including seconding letters, should be received by the Committee no later than I May 1996 and should be directed to: Dr. R. W. Kiger, Hunt Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 USA. Tel. (412) 268-2434

Jeanette Siron Pelton Award

The Pelton award is given to individuals under the age of forty in the recognition of outstanding contributions to the study of plant morphogenesis. The award carries a stipend of $1000. The Pelton Award Committee is actively seeking nominations for the 1996 award. each submission should include a letter of endorsement de-scribing the nature for the nominee's contributions to the field of study as will as the curriculum vitae of the candidate including the full citations for the critical papers or books that have resulted in the nomination. Nominations should be sent to Nancy G. Dengler (Chair, 1996 Pelton Award Committee), Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA M5S 1AI by April 15, 1996.

Past Pelton Awardees:

1969   R.H. Wetmore   1983   T.J. Cooke

1970   C.W. Wardlaw   1985   T. Sachs

1972   P.B. Green   1988   S.D. Russell

1975   P.K. Heplcr   1989   E.M. Lord

1978   B.E.S. Gunning   1993   R.S. Poethig

1980   L.J. Feldman   1994   E.Meyerowitz



Karl Esser Awarded Distinguished Mycologist Award

Karl Esser, Dr. phil., Dr. h.c. Mult. Professor emeritus of General Botany and retired Director of the Botanical Garden, Ruhr-Universitat Bochum (Germany), Chevalier des Palmes Academiques (France) and bearer of other distinctions has been selected to receive in honor of his lifetime contributions to Mycology the Distinguished Mycologist Award from the Mycological Society of America. He was invited to receive this ward on the next annual meeting of the society. For many years professor Esser has been a member of the Botanical Society of America.


Lee Kass Awarded Fulbright

Dr. Lec B. Kass of the Natural Sciences Division, Elmira College, Elmira, NY has been awarded a Fulbright grant to Lecture and Conduct Research at the College of the Bahamas in Nassau, New Providence, The Bahamas, the J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board and the United States Information Agency (USIA) announced recently.

Dr. Kass received her Ph.D. in Botany from Cornell University in 1975. After graduating, she was awarded a Cambridge University Research Fellowship to study at the Agricultural Research Council in Cambridge, England. She continued her research at Vanderbilt University with the support of a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Research Fellowship. Since 1982 she has been a faculty member in the Division of Natural Sciences at Elmira College, where she teaches both undergraduate and graduate students. Her research centers on local and Bahamian flora and the history of science. In 1984, Dr. Kass established the Elmira College Herbarium and she and her husband, Dr. Robert E. Hunt, plan to help initiate a National Herbarium for the Bahamas. She has been a Visiting Professor at Cornell University and Michigan State University. Recently she was appointed Adjunct Professor at the L. H. Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Dr. Kass has indicated interest in hearing from botanists who have worked in the Bahamas and the Caribbean who may have suggestions on initiating a herbarium. As part of her work in the Bahamas. Kass will be requesting donations of plant specimens collected there, as well as books and journals.

Garden Director Inducted into Water Lily Hall of Fame

Edward L Schneider, Ph.D., Executive Director of the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, was inducted into the International Water Lily Society's Hall of fame during the organization's 11th Annual Symposium, held August 2, 1995, in Atlanta Georgia.

In announcing the society's most prestigious award, Awards Chairman and Vice President James A. Lawrie noted Schneider's distinguished record of accomplishments, including 85 published scientific papers on the evolution, systematics and natural history of aquatic plants; collaboration on eight textbooks; numerous completed and ongoing research projects; and six years as the society's secretary. Lawrie also noted two of Schneider's most recent accomplishments: the publication of his college-level textbook, The Botanical World, coauthored with Dr. David Northington, and recent research to assess the declining status of the Swedish red water lily, Nymphaea alba var. rubra.

The International Water Lily Society's Hall of Fame recognizes individuals who have made extraordinary contributions to promote the understanding and enjoyment of water gardening around the world. Schneider joins a group of botanical luminaries that include Bory Latour-Marliac, who, in 1885, was the first scientist to conduct breeding experiments on water lilies, and Henry Conrad, who in 1905, was the first to publish a monograph of the showy water lily genus Nymphaea.

Stuckey Recognized for Distinguished Service at Lake Erie Laboratory

Ronald L. Stuckey, Professor Emeritus of Botany at The Ohio State University, was a recent recipient of a Distinguished Service Award given by Director Jeffrey M. Reutter of the University's Franz Theodore Stone Laboratory on Gibraltar Island in Lake Erie. The occasion was one of several events held at the Laboratory this summer marking its centennial year of operation.

Professor Stuckey received the Award at the Annual Meeting of the Friends of the Stone Laboratory held on Gibraltar Island, 26 August 1995. He was presented a plaque with the inscription, "In Recognition of His Superior Teaching, Research, and Administrative Service at the Stone Laboratory Covering Four Decades, 1966-1991."

Dr. Stuckey's service to the Laboratory as a faculty member of 25 years began in the summer of 1966, when he taught a course in Field Botany. The following summer he presented a course in Flowering Aquatic Plants. During succeeding years he taught the Aquatic Plants course 18 summers and Field Botany 8 summers. His field research at the Laboratory primarily focused on the changes in abundance and distribution of aquatic wetland plants in western Lake Erie.


Dr. Stuckey served as Associate Director for the Education Program from 1977 to 1985, and was in charge of student advising and admissions, and hosted many of the guest lectures. Stuckey's first experience at the Laboratory was as a student in the summer of 1959, while an undergraduate in the biological sciences at Heidelberg College.

Professor Stuckey was one of the guests at the Friends Meeting who spoke on the early history of the Laboratory. One of his current projects is writing a definitive history of the Laboratory's 100 years' history. The Laboratory is the longest operating fresh-water biological station in the country. Founded in September 1 895 on the second floor of the State Fish Hatchery in Sandusky, the following summer, four undergraduate research students first attended the new facility. In 1903, the Laboratory's operation moved to a new University building on Cedar Point. In 1918, the Laboratory relocated to he State Fish Hatchery at Put-in Bay, and in 1926 moved to Gibraltar Island. Stuckey expects to have his hook on the Laboratory's history completed by next summer. when the centennial celebration events will be concluded.

Born in Bucyrus. Stuckey lived his early life in Lykens Township. graduating form Lykens High School in 1956. he has a B.S. cum laude form Heidelberg College (1960), and the M.A. and Ph.D. in Botany from The University of Michigan (1962, 1965). He is the son of the lateGuy and Leora (Shuey) Stuckey. who livedon Albaugh Road, rural Bloomville.

In Memorium

JOHN S. KARLING 1897 - 1994

Professor Emeritus John S. Karling passed away on June 3, 1994, at age 97. Professor Karling was an eminent mycologist and one of the last surviving charter members of the Mycological Society of America. He was also active in the Botanical Society of America. serving as secretary from 1945-1949 and as vice president in 1950.

Professor Karling was born on August 2, 1897, near Austin. Texas. He attended the University of Texas where he received his BS and MA degrees in botany. He was admitted to Columbia University as a doctoral candidate in 1921. where he studied fungal cytology with R. A. Harper. After earning his Ph.D. he remained at Columbia University as an assistant professor from 1926-1935 and an associate professor from 1935-1948. During that time he was active as a physiologist for the Tropical Research Foundation (1925-1927), Director of the Chicle Research Experimental Station in British Honduras (1927-1932), Director of Exploration for the US government Rubber Development Corporation in Brazil (1942-1943), Bermuda Biological Research Fellow (1942), and secretary for the Union of American Biological Societies (1946-1948). His most notable publications during this period were The Plasmodiophorales and The Simple Biflagellate Holocarpic Phycomycetes, both in 1942.

Professor Karling moved to Purdue University in 1948, where he reorganized the curriculum in biological sciences. He served at Purdue as professor and chair of Biological Sciences until, in 1959, he became Purdue's first John Wright Distinguished Professor. He retired in 1964, but maintained a research laboratory at Purdue until 1989. He was a Research Fellow with the International Indian Ocean Expedition (UNESCO) in 1963, studying fungal diseases of fish. This led to his appointment as Visiting Sir C. V. Raman Lecturer at the University of Madras in 1965. During the same year he was also appointed a Fulbright Research Fellow in New Zealand, Australia, and the South Pacific Islands. He

published one of his major works, Synchytrium, in 1963, and Iconographia Chyridiomycetearum in 1977. Professor Karling was honored in 1987. with the Distinguished Mycologist. Award from the Mycological Society of America.

Professor Karling's interests extended beyond mycology and botany. He worked at Mayan archeological sites while associated with the Chicle Research Experiment Station in British Honduras. This work earned his election as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts in Great Britain. He enjoyed fishing and sports and was a member of the Evangeline League baseball team in Thibadcaux, Louisiana. Professor Karling was active in local affairs in Lafayette, Indiana. He was a member of the Tippecanoe County Historical Association. Town and Gown, and the Parlor Club. He served on the West Lafayette Board of Education. His wife, Page Johnston, whom he married in 1940, is his only immediate survivor. To show his commitment to botany, Professor Karling has provided the Botanical Society of America with a gift of $10,000. The Society gratefully acknowledges this generous gift and will determine how it will be used to promote botany. — Submitted by Kenneth J. Curry, University of Southern Mississippi. Harry T. Horner, Iowa State University, also contributed to this article.


The Botanical Society has been notified that the following members have passed away:

Gail Rubin of Cornell University in Ithaca. New York. Rubin joined the BSA in 1960.

Andre M. Lwoff of Paris, France. Lwoff had been a member since 1977.


Educational Opportunities

Workshop in Plant-Animal Interactions: Flowers and Pollinators

The National Science Foundation has funded, through its Undergraduate Faculty Enhancement Pro-gram, a workshop designed for faculty in the United States who teach undergraduate students and who are interested in learning research techniques that they can then incorporate in classes and laboratory exercises at their home institutions. This workshop will use flowers and pollinators to investigate a variety of perspectives on plant- animal interactions. The workshop will be taught 9 - 23 August at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory in Gothic, Colorado, by Drs. David Inouye, Carol Kearns, James Thomson, and Nick Waser, with assistance from other researchers in pollination biology who work at the Laboratory. All workshop expenses except travel will he paid for participants by the NSF grant. For more information, please contact Dr. David Inouye, Department of Zoology, University of Maryland. College Park, MD 20742. 301-405- 6946, e-mail: Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities that are not incompatible with field research are encouraged to apply.

Summer Course: Biodiversity of Tropical Plants

Harvard University Summer School, in collaboration with Fairchild Tropical Garden, will offer a course entitled Biodii'ersiiy of Tropical Plants at Fairchild Tropical Garden from June 10th through July 5th 1996. The instructor will be P. Barry Tomlinson, E.C. Jeffrey Professor of Biology, Harvard University.

Instruction is carried out within the educational facilities of Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami, Florida, whose living collections, the largest collection of tropical plants in the continental United States, provides the main focus of teaching activity. Field instruction will further involve the diversity of natural ecosystems in South Florida. Emphasis will be on reproductive biology, morphology, and anatomy within a strong systematic frame-work. Groups (both systematic and biological) of special interest include cycads, palms, tropical monocotyledons. epiphytes, lianes, mangroves, and sea grasses, as well s breeding mechanisms and architecture of tropical trees. The objective of the course is to provide advanced students of botany with a guided introduction to the diversity of plant form and function in the lowland tropics.


Funding Opportunities

Graduate Research Assistantships University of Hawaii

Graduate Research Assistantships (Ph.D. or M.S.). The University of Hawaii seeks outstanding candidates for its NSF Graduate Research Training assistantships in ecology, evolution and conservation biology. For application information and materials, contact Kenneth Kaneshiro (Chair) or Rosemary Gillespie (Associate Chair), CCRT, University of Hawaii, 3050 Mailc Way, Gilmore 409, Honolulu, HI 96822. (808) 956 8884, e-mail: 1, 1996. Assistantships commence August 1996.

Graduate Assistantships in Bryology

Under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation PEET program,graduate assistantships (Ph.D. or M.S.) are available at Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, for students interested in the biology and systematics of liverworts. Each graduate assistant will be mentored by Dr. Raymond Stotler and Dr. Barbara Crandall-Stotler as a participant in a world-wide mono-graphic study of the phylogenetically pivotal, cosmopolitan simple thalloid liverwort subclass Fossombroniincac. Each participant in the project will gain field experience and learn standard taxonomic methods as well as statistical methods for analyzing variation patterns, culture techniques, SEM, computerized image capturing and analysis, starch gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing protocols, and data networking via World Wide Web. The Plant Biology Department offers a selection of more than 40 graduate courses, including three in bryology, taught by 18 full time faculty. In addition, doctoral student participants in the project will have the opportunity to spend one semester of their studies at the University of California at Berkeley. where they will participate in a course in phylogenetics, under the supervision of Dr. Brent Mishler.

Each assistantship provides a monthly stipend, complete tuition and partial payment of fees for the duration of graduate study. To obtain further information regarding application procedures, please contact: Dr. Raymond Stotler, Department of Plant Biology, Mail Code 6509, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, tcl (618)-536-2331 fax (618)-453-3441, e-mail

Michaux Fund Grants

The American Philosophical Society announces the 1996 competition for research grants in forest botany (specifically, dendrology), silviculture, and the history thereof. Grants range from $1,500 to ca. $5,000. Eligible expenses include travel, $65 per diem toward the cost of room and meals, and consumable supplies not available at the applicant's institution. Applicants are normally expected to have the doctorate, but proposals


may be considered from graduate students who have completed all degree requirements but the dissertation. Deadline: February 1, for decision by May. When writing for application forms, briefly (100 words or less) describe the proposed research and budget. Foreign nationals must state why their research can only be carried out in the United States. No telephone requests, please. Contact: Michaux Fund Grants, American Philosophical Society, 104 S. 5th Street, Philadelphia. PA 19106-3387

Bullard Fellowships in Forest Research

Each year Harvard University awards a limited number of Bullard Fellowships to individuals in biological, social, physical and political sciences to promote advanced study, research or integration of subjects pertaining to forested ecosystems. The fellow-ships. which include stipends up to $30,000, are intended to provide individuals in mid-career with an opportunity to utilize the resources and to interact with personnel in any department within Harvard University in order to develop theirown scientific and professional growth. In recent years Bullard Fellows have been associated with the Harvard Forest, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Kennedy School of Government and have worked in areas of ecology, forest management, policy and conservation. Fellowships are avail-able for periods ranging from four months to one year and can begin at any time in the year. Applications from international scientists, women and minorities are encouraged. Fellowships are not intended for graduate students or recent post-doctoral candidates. Further information may be obtained from: Committee on the Charles Bullard Fund for Forest Research. Harvard University. Harvard Forest. Petersham. MA 01366 USA. Annual deadline for applications is February 1.

Smithsonian Research Fellowships in History, Art, and Science

The Smithsonian Institution announces its re-search fellowships for 1996 in the fields of History of Science and Technology. Social and Cultural History. History of Art. Anthropology, Biological Sciences. Earth Sciences, and Materials Analysis.

Smithsonian fellowships are awarded to sup-
port independent research in residence at the Smithsonian
in association with the research staff using the Institution's
resources. Under this program, senior, predoctoral and
postdoctoral fellowships of three to twelve months, and
graduate student fellowships of ten weeks are awarded.
Postdoctoral Fellowships are offered to schol-
ars who have held the degree or equivalent for less than
seven years. Senior fellowships are offered to scholars
who have held the degree or equivalent for seven years or
more. The term is 3 to 12 months. Both fellowships offer
a stipend of $25,000 per year plus allowances. Predoctoral
Fellowships are offered to doctoral candidates who have

completed preliminary course work and examinations. The term is 3 to 12 months. The stipend is $14,000 per year plus allowances. Predoctoral, postdoctoral, and senior stipends are prorated for periods of less than twelve months.

Graduate Student Fellowships are offered to students formally enrolled in a graduate program of study. who have completed at least one semester, and not yet have been advanced to candidacy it' in a Ph.D. program. The term is 10 weeks; the stipend is $3,000.

Awards are based on merit. Smithsonian fellowships are open to all qualified individuals without reference to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or condition of handicap. For more information and application forms, please write: Smithsonian Institution. Office of Fellowships and Grants, 955 L'Enfant Plaza, Suite 7000. Washington DC 20560, or e-mail: siofg@sivm.siedu . Please indicate the particular area in which you propose to conduct research and give the dates of degrees received or expected. Deadline: January 15,1996

Smithsonian Minority Internship Program

Internships, offered through the Office of Fellowships and Grants. are available for students to participate in research and museum-related activities for periods of ten weeks during the summer, fall, and spring. US minority undergraduate and beginning graduate students are invited to apply. The appointment carries a stipend of $250 per week for undergraduate and $300 per week for graduate students, and may provide a travel allowance.

For Summer (to begin after June 1. 1996), Fall (to begin after October 1,1996). or Spring (to begin after January 1. 1997). For applications and/or information, please write: Smithsonian Institution, Office of Fellow-ships and Grants, 955 L'Enfant Plaza, Suite 7000, Washington DC 20560, or e-mail . Dead-line is February 15.

AOS Graduate Student fellowship

The American Orchid Society solicits applications from graduate students working on orchid related thesis projects for the American Orchid Society fellow-ship ($9,000 per annum for up to three years). Interested candidates should submit an outline of their project, their college transcript, a letter of recommendation from their chairperson and a brief one page statement as to why their project is worthy of consideration and what impact it will have on the future of orchidology. The deadline for submitting applications is March 1, 1996. Successful candidate(s) will be notified by May 15, 1996. Send application to the American Orchid Society, Att. Ms Jenifcr Latourneau, 6000 South Olive Ave., West Palm beach. FL 33405.


Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowships for Minorities

The National Research Council plans to award approximately 20 Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow-ships for Minorities in a program designed to provide a year of continued study and research for Native American Indians, Alaskan Natives (Eskimo or Aleut), Black/African Americans, Mexican Americans/Chicanos, Native Pacific Islanders (Micronesians or Polynesians), and Puerto Ricans. In a national competition, Fellows will be selected from among recent doctoral recipients who show greatest promise of future achievement in academic re-search and scholarship in higher education.

This fellowship program, sponsored by the Ford Foundation, is open to citizens of the United States who are members of the designated minority groups, who are engaged in a teaching and research career or planning such a career, and who have held the Ph.D. or Sc.D degree for not more than seven years.

Awards in the Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowships for Minorities Program will be made in the behavioral and social sciences, humanities, engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, and life sciences, or for interdisciplinary programs composed of two or more eligible disciplines. Awards will not be made in professions such as medicine, law, public health, nursing, social work, library science, and in areas related to business, administration, management, fine arts, performing arts, health sciences, home economics, speech pathology, audiology, personnel, guidance, and education.

Each Fellow selects and appropriate not-forprofit institution of higher education or research to serve as host for the year of postdoctoral research. Appropriate institutions include universities, museums, libraries, government or national laboratories, privately sponsored not-for-profit institutes, government chartered not-for-profit research organizations, and centers for advanced study.

The deadline for submission of applications is January 5, 1996. Address all inquiries concerning application materials and program administration to the Fellowship Office, TJ 2039, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington DC 20418.

Fellowships in Evolutionary Ecology

The University of Kentucky has funds from the NSF Graduate Research Training program forpostdoctoral and graduate fellowships to support training and research in ecology, evolution or behavior. The program offers extensive opportunities for training in both empirical and theoretical methods. Faculty participants include: E.D. Brodie III., P.H., Crowly, S.K. Gleeson, K.F. Haynes, A.J. Moore, D.N. McLetchie, R.C. Sargent, A. Sih, D.F. Wcstneat and D. Wise. Graduate fellowships provide a $14,000 stipend for one year, renewable for a second year based on satisfactory progress towards a Ph.D.. Additional funds are available to support research expenses.

Postdoctoral fellowships provide a $25,000 stipend for one year. Applicants must be US citizens or permanent residents. Applications will be evaluated starting January 15, 1996. Further information can be obtained from our WWW site: To apply, postdoctoral applicants, send a curriculum vitae and a letter summarizing your background, research interests and the name of the faculty you are most interested in working with to Craig Sargent, c/o Center for Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, 101 Morgan Building, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0225. Graduate applicants send the above information directly to the faculty member. Women and minorities are particularly encouraged to apply. An Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.

Graduate Fellowships in Plant Biotechnology

Applications are invited for graduate fellow-ships in the Plant Biotechnology Training at Indiana University. This program is funded by the USDA National Needs Fellowship (NNF) Program, and provides a generous stipend of $17,000 per year, plus a full tuition waiver.

NNF fellows will be able to choose among eight plant biotechnology laboratories that are affiliated with the Biology Department and the Indiana Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology (Carl Bauer, Mark Estelle, Roger Hangarter, Roger Innes, Cheng Kao, Jeffrey Palmer, RoberTogasaki, and Miriam Zolan). These eight laboratories encompass a broad range of areas in plant biotechnology, including plant disease resistance genes, plant-virus and plant-bacteria interactions, plant genome evolution, plant hormones and development. plant responses to light and gravity, carbon assimilation, DNA repair and meiosis, and chlorophyll biosynthesis. Accordingly, our training program provides both breadth and depth. We emphasize a solid foundation in molecular genetics as it is applied to all organisms, not just plants. This enables our students to approach questions in plant biology from a broad perspective, and to take advantage of the wealth of knowledge that has been garnered from animal and yeast systems and apply it to plants. Broad training also allows our students to move into new areas as they progress through their research careers. For more details on our graduate training program, please visit our WWW site: "". For application materials or additional information, please write, call, or e-mail: MS. Gretchen Clearwater, Administrative Assistant, National Needs Fellowship Program, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington IN 47405; phone (812) 855-1861; fax (812)855-6705;e-mail Although NNF fellows must be US citizens or nationals, the Department of Biology also awards research assistantships on acompetitive basis regardless of nationality.


Positions Available

Pasture Management/Ecology University of Minnesota WCES

12-month, tenure-track, faculty position in the Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Genetics and strategically located in the University of Minnesota, West Central Experiment Station (WCES) Morris, MN. Research (70%): 1) provide leadership in pasture management/ecology research within COAFES, and to 2) participate fully on the multidisciplinary COAFES grazing team. Cooperative support, including participation in project development, is required in successful forage production and pasture animal research. Outreach/teaching/Service (30%): planning, development, and implementation of pasture and forage educational programs. Minimum qualifications: Ph.D. degree by date of appointment I forage agronomy, range management, grassland ecology, or a closely related field; field research experience in the applicant's major discipline; ability to relate to and communicate effectively with the farming and rural communities as well as fellow scientists. Desired: diverse academic experiences in related fields, e.g., animal science, ecology, economics, entomology, plant pathology, or soil-water-climate science; evidence of interdisciplinary research experience; demonstrated ability to acquire grants. Available July 1, 1996. Applications should include a CV, official undergraduate and graduate transcripts, one-page summary of career goals in the context of the position: 3 letters of reference postmarked by January 10, 1996 to De. Deon Stuthman, 41 I Borlaug hall, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108. (612) 625-2709; (612) 625-1268 (Fax); stuthO0I

The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer.


University of California, Riverside

The Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, announces a position available July 1, 1996. The position is an 11-month, tenure-track appointment in the College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences and in the Agricultural Experiment Station. The successful candidate will be expected to develop a vigorous, innovative, independent research program in plant developmental genetics using genetics, molecular, cellular, and other techniques to elucidate fundamental mechanisms underlying plant development. Opportunities are available for interacting with researchers in plant cell, molecular, and developmental biology, plant physiology, and other disciplines. The successful candidate will be expected to become involved in under-graduate and graduate teaching as well as serve as major professor of graduate students in the Department ofBotany and Plant Sciences and in the interdepartmental Genetics Program. A Ph.D. in genetics or related field is required. The candidate must possess a strong commitment to teaching excellence and a high research potential. Send letter of application, curriculum vitae, statement of re-search interest, and arrange to have at least three confidential letters of reference sent to: Dr. W. W. Thomson, Search Committee Chair, Botany and Plant Sciences Department. University of California, Riverside CA 92521-0124. Phone: (909) 787-4619, fax: (909) 787-4437, e-mail WWW: http://–bps/homepage.html The application dead-line is January 26, 1996. The University of California is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.

Cell Physiologist

The University of Akron

The Department of Biology of The University of Akron invites applications for a tenure-track position at the assistant professor level beginning August 26, 1996. Candidates must hold a Ph.D. and post-doctoral experience is required. We are especially interested in, but not restricted to, candidates with research interest in cellular and molecular processes. The successful candidate will be expected to teach Cell Physiology, one other under-graduate course, and a graduate course in a specialty area; direct Master's students; and establish an externally fundable research program. The University of Akron is an urban university and is the third largest state university in Ohio with over 26,000 students. Review of applications will begin January 15, 1996 and will continue until the position is filled. Applicants should send a curriculum vitae, a statement of teaching/research interests, and three references to: Dr. Jerry Stinner, Chair, Search Commit-tee, The University of Akron, Department of Biology, Akron OH 44325-3908. E-mail: Fax: (216) 972-8845.

Evolutionary Biologist University of Miami

The Department of Biology, University of Miami, invites applications and nominations for a tenure-track position at the level of assistant professor. We seek an evolutionary biologist with strong quantitative skills. Preference is fora botanist using physiological. genetical, or ecological approaches who will contribute to existing departmental strengths in evolution, behavior, ecology, and tropical biology. Ph.D. degree required. The successful candidate will be expected to develop an innovative, externally funded research program, and to participate in teaching at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Applicants should send curriculum vitae, representative re-prints, and summary of research interests, and arrange to have three letters of reference sent to: William A. Searcy, Chair, Search Committee, Department of Biology, PO Box 249118, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0421, by 7 December, 1995. The University of Miami is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer, and a smoke/drug free workplace.


Higher Plant Development Colorado State University

The Department of Biology, Colorado State University is seeking applicants for an Assistant Professor position in higher plant development. This tenure-track position involves undergraduate and graduate teaching and supervised research, research, and service. This position involves a strong teaching commitment, including a course in introductory Biology/Botany and advanced courses, both undergraduate and graduate, in the candidate's area of expertise. The successful candidate will be expected to develop an independent, externally funded research program in contemporary plant develop-mental biology. A Ph.D. in plant science or a related area is required. Postdoctoral experience is strongly preferred. Candidates should have a solid background in plant biology, evidence for independent and innovative re-search, and a willingness to cooperate with a broad spectrum of plant scientists on campus. The position is available Fall semester, 1996, pending funding. To apply, send a letter of application with a statement of your teaching and research interests, a curriculum vitae, copy of university transcripts and no more than three publications; also arrange to have three letters of reference sent to: Plant Developmental Biologist Search Committee, Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO 80523. Telephone (970) 491-7011, fax (970) 491-0649, e-mail All materials are due by December 15, 1995. The search may be extended if suitable candidates are not found. Colorado State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer and complies with all Federal and Colorado State laws, regulations, and executive orders regarding affirmative action requirements.

Postdoctoral Research Associate Chicago Botanic Garden

The Chicago Botanic Garden seeks applications for a three year postdoctoral research position commencing March 1, 1996, to conduct tissue culture propagation and isozyme analysis on rare, threatened, and endangered plants of the Chicago area. The research will be part of a collaborative effort by the Chicago Botanic garden and other regional institutions to preserve, propagate, and restore the indigenous flora of the greater Chicago region. Tissue culture research projects include the in vitro seed germination of indigenous orchids utilizing both asymbiotic and symbiotic cultivation techniques, and the clonal propagation of other rare plants for use in breeding and restoration projects. Isozyme analysis using starch gel electrophoresis of rare plants from breeding programs at the Garden, will also be part of the duties. The successful candidate is expected to conduct the research, interpret and publish the results, oversee the daily operations of the laboratory, and supervise student and volunteer assistants. Some field and greenhouse work may be involved. The ability to work both independently and as a part of an interdisciplinary team, including researchers from other institutions, is essential. A Ph.D. in botany, horticulture, or related discipline is required, with experience in tissue culture propagation and starch gel characterization of mycorrhizal fungi or other microbial organ-isms a plus. Competitive salary plus benefits, and funds to attend a professional meeting annually. To apply, submit a letter of application, current resume, and three letters of reference by January 15, 1996 to : Dr. James R. Ault, Director of Research, Chicago 13otanic Garden, 1000 Lake Cook road, PO Box 400, Glencoe, IL 60022. (phone (708) 835-8244) The Chicago Botanic garden is an affirmative action/ equal opportunity employer.

Genetics/Plant Cell Biology Brigham Young University

Brigham Young University anticipates filling a tenure track position at the assistant/associate professor level. Position is available September 1, 1996. Position qualifications include Ph.D. in Plant Genetics (either crop or ecological) and the applicant should have research experience in plant molecular biology, genetics of native plant populations or evolutionary genetics. Responsibilities include teaching undergraduate courses in genetics and plant cell biology and graduate courses and development of an active research program. Send curriculum vitae, statements of research interests and teaching experience to Dr. W. M. Hess. Chair, Department of Botany & Range Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602. BYU is an equal employment/affirmative action employer. Preference is given to members of the sponsoring church.

Ecologist/Natural Resource Management Brigham Young University

We anticipate filling a tenure track Assistant or Associate Professor position. Candidates should have a strong background in plant ecology, natural resource management, and data analysis. Applicants should hold a Ph.D. in some aspect of plant ecology with experience in areas such as conservation biology, natural resource management, wildlife biology, or GIS technology. The successful applicant must he committed to quality teaching and be able to attract external funding and to guide outstanding graduate students. The person hired will be responsible for undergraduate classes in general ecology and conservation biology, as well as graduate classes in quantitative and terrestrial ecology. Position becomes available September 1, 1996. Salary is commensurate with experience. Send curriculum vitae, statements of research interests and teaching experience, and arrange for three letters of reference by January 1, 1996 to be sent to: Dr. W.M. Hess, Chair, Department of Botany and Range Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602. Phone 801-378-2451, FAX: 801-378-7499, e-mail: BYU is an equal employment/affirmative action employer. Preference is given to members of the sponsoring church.


Symposia, Conferences, Meetings

International Alpine Garden Conference 5-10 Janaury 1996

The New Zealand Alpine Garden Society will host an international alpine gardening conference in Christchurch from 5-10 January, 1996. The conference will include special field trips to Mount Hutt and Arthurs Pass as well as presentations by sought after speakers. New Zealand's leading botanists and gardeners will be joined by international experts in a forum which is without precedent. The conference, "Southern Alpines '96" will focus on the alpine plants of the Southern Hemisphere - South Africa, South America, and of course Australia and New Zealand. For further information contact the Conference Secretary, Jane McArthur, 1/37 Augusta Street, Christchurch 8, New Zealand. Phone/Fax (03) 384 2170.

Evolution and Conservation on Islands 4 May 1996

The Santa Barbara Botanic Garden will hold a symposium entitled "Plant Evolution and Conservation on Islands - A Global Perspective" on May 4, 1996. Topics include phylogenetic patterns, floristic diversity, biology of rare plants, and conservation strategies. Speakers include Ian Atkinson, Bruce Baldwin, Sherwin Carlquist, Sarah Chaney, Vicki Funk, J. R. Haller, and William Halverson. The keynote address will be given by Peter Raven. Post-symposium events include excursions to selected California Channel Islands. For details please contact Dieter Wilken, Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, 1212 Mission Canyon Rd., Santa Barbara, CA 93105. (telephone: 805.682.4726 cxt 124; email: wi lken @ li

8th International Lupin Conference 11-16 May 1996

Scientists from throughout the world will be gathering May 11-16, 1996 for the 8th International Lupin Conference in the scenic Asilomar Conference Center near Monterey. The scientists convening at Asilomar in 1996 will report on a number of topics that will be of interest to scientists and growers alike—new crop development, human and animal food uses, nitrogen fixation, ecological importance, as well as the agronomic aspects of lupin.

A full agenda is planned for the conference, with three days of symposia scheduled in the mornings. Afternoons will be devoted to concurrent contributed papers and poster sessions in one of the following categories: agronomy, genetics, alkaloid chemistry, ecology. and utilization of lupin. A field trip is scheduled for Tuesday. May 14, and will include visits to field plots that demonstrate the diversity of lupin and other crops grown in California.

"California is an important gene center for native species of lupin," said Barbara Bentley, professor of Ecology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Bentley is also president of the international Lupin Association. "Of the 190 species of lupin world-wide, 120 occur in California. This conference is an exciting opportunity to foster cross-disciplinary discussion on the prospects for lupin as a crop, as well as its role in natural systems."

The registration fee is $250 if received by April 10, 1996. Housing at Asilomar starts at $48 per day, depending on the level of luxury and number of occupants per room. The housing fee includes all standard meals at Asilomar. This conference is being organized by the International Lupin Association and is co-sponsored by the Department of Agronomy and Range Science at the University of California, Davis and the North American Lupin Association. This is the first time the conference has been held in the United States. For further information or registration materials, write to Conference & Event Services (lupin), University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8766, USA or contact by phone at (916) 757-3331, FAX at (916-757-7943 or by e-mail at Please provide full name and address with appropriate postal codes, phone numbers, country and city codes and e-mail addresses.

Association of Systematics Collections Annual Meeting

19-22 May 1996

"Global Genetic Resources: Access, Owner-ship and Intellectual Property Rights" will be the topic of the 1996 Annual meeting of the Association of Systematics Collections, held in conjunction with the Beltsville Symposium at the Beltsville, Md., Agricultural Re-search Center, May 19-22, 1996. Scientists worldwide will explore issues related to ownership of and access to genetic resources and biological specimens around the world. Among the subjects discussed will be access to collecting and collections; the international distribution of germplasm; the exchange of scientific information on biodiversity; and current policies and trends related to ownership and exchange of genetic and biological re-sources. International experts will address subjects related to biological resources for comparative taxonomic study, including food and fiber crops, insects that are natural enemies of crop pests and microorganisms like fungi, yeasts and parasites.

The Association of Systematics Collections will also sponsor a 1 1/2-day, presymposium-workshop on public affairs advocacy (May 18-19). For more information about the presymposium-workshop call Elaine Hoagland (202) 347-2850; fax (202) 347-0072; e-mail For more information about the symposium contact Amy Y. Rossman (301) 504-5364; fax (301) 504-5810; e-mail


Ecological Competitiveness in Migrations 9-12 June 1996

That is the subject of a proposed symposium at the 6th North American Paleontological Convention, June 9-12, 1996, in Washington, D.C. Some aspects of the topic might be: Which plant and animal taxa have undergone long-distance migration and under what conditions? What properties did they possess that allowed them to migrate? How well did they do after they arrived at their destination; in that connection, what has been the durability of the migrants in their new region compared with their post-migration durability in their original region? Do new immigrant taxa become established by competitive replacement or by filling empty niches? Is there any correlation between the success of immigrant taxa and their inherent abilities to evolve?

The First Circular of NACP-96 has been distributed; if you didn't get one, write, call, or fax me and I will send you one. The Second Circular will be mailed this Fall, so I will be glad to put you on the mailing list or you can reply directly to the NACP-96 converners using the form in the First Circular. However, I would be pleased to hear from you if you are interested in giving a paper at the symposium described here. I hope to get a good mixture of plant and animal papers, based on material of various ages. It seems that enough is known about long-distance migrations of taxa in the distant past, and the profound effect some of them have had on evolution and changes in flora or fauna after their arrival, so that next year at NACP would be a good place and time to explore these questions. Contact: Norm Frederiksen-U.S. Geological Survey, mail stop 970, Reston, VA 22096; phone 703-648-5277; fax 703-648-5420.

NAFBW - XlVth Meeting 16-20 June 1996

The XIVth Meeting of the North American Forest Biology Workshop will be held from 16-20 June, 1996, at Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The theme will be "Forest Management Impacts on Ecosystem Processes." Contact: Ms. Dominique Houde, Agora Communication. 2600 boul. Laurier (#2680), Sainte-Foy (Qc) G1 V 4M6. Tel. (418) 658-6755. FAX. (418) 658-8850. Voluntary workshops, contact: Pierre Bernier, CFS. Tel. (418) 648-4524. More information at WWW site:

In Vitro Biology 22-26 June 1996

The 1996 World Congress on In Vitro Biology carries the title "Biotechnology: From Fundamental Concepts to Reality." It is scheduled to meet at the San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, June 22-26, 1996. The abstract deadline is January 12, 1996. For further information, contact meeting coordinator Tiffany McMillan, tel. 410-992-0946, fax 410-992-0949.


30 June - 5 July 1996

The Fifth International Organization of Paleobotany Conference (IOPC-V) will take place on the campus of the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB), Santa Barbara, California, USA, from 30 June through 5 July 1996. The theme of the conference is floristic evolution and biogeographic interchange through geologic time. The program will include eight morning symposia and four afternoons of contributed papers and posters, followed by two optional 7-day field trips. The first circular, containing a detailed description and registration information, is available from Bruce H. Tiffney, Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Fax: 805-893-2314, e-mail:

Extant and Fossil Charophytes 7-13 July 1996

The 2nd International Symposium on extant and fossil Charophytes (Charales) at Madison, Wisconsin, will cover a wide scope of topics dealing with extant and fossil forms and fossil/extantrelationships; a session will be devoted to the evolutionary position and taxonomic status of the Charophyta. For more information, please contact Dr. Linda Graham (Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1381, fax 608-262-7509, e-mail or Dr. Monique Feist (Colloque Charophytes, Laboratoire de Palcohotanique, UM2, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France, fax, e-mail

Natural Science Collections Symposium 20-24 August 1996

The Geological Conservation Unit and the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Cambridge are organizing the Second International Symposium and World Congress on the Preservation of Natural History Collections to occur August 20-24, 1996 at St. Johns College, Cambridge, U.K. The theme will be "Natural Science Collections - A Resource for the Future"

The second Congress will continue the work of the first Congress by bringing leading figures in industry, research, education and natural science museums together to discuss future developments and a joint cooperative approach towards the challenges presented by the preservation of natural science collections, and to look at the practical aspects of putting the strategies in place. The Congress is co-sponsored by several collections support organizations, including the Association of Systematics Collections and the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections.

For more information, please contact: Chris Collins, Natural Sciences Congress '96, Geological conservation Unit, Department of Earth Sciences, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB 2 3EQ, United Kingdom, tel: (0223) 62522, fax: (0223) 60779.


Book Reviews

In this Issue:


p. 91 A Naturalist's Guide to the Arctic E.C. Pielou (1994) — Jerry M. Baskin

p. 93 Tropical Alpine Environments. Plant Form and Function P.W. Runde], A.P. Smith, and F.C. Meinzcr,eds. (1994) — Michael E. Loik

p. 93 Plant Conservation: Readings from Conservation Biology D. Ehrenfield, ed. (1995) — Richard A. Niesenbaum

Economic Botany:

p. 94 Biological Control of Weeds and Plant Diseases. Advances in Applied Allelopathy Elroy L. Rice (1995) — Samuel Hammer


p. 95 Genetic Control of Self-Incompatiblity and Reproductive Development in Flowering Plants E.G. Williams, A.E. Clarke, and R.B. Knox, eds. (1994) — Deborah Charlesworth

p. 96 Genes Populations, and Species David Eherenfeld, ed. (1995) — Brian Drayton


p. 97 History of the Australian Vegetation: Cretaceaous to Recent Robert S. Hill, ed. (1994) — Herbert L. Hergert


p. 98 Amino Acids and Their Derivatives R.M. Wallsgrove, ed. (1995) — John H. McClendon


p. 98 Inducible Gene Expression, Vol. 1 and 2 P.A. Bauerle, ed. (1995) — Peter Schroder

p. 99 The Vascular Cambium: Development and Structure Philip R. Larson (1994) — William P. Jacobs


p. 100 Plants of the Western Boreal Forest and Aspen Parkland Derek Johnson, Linda Kershaw, Andy MacKinnon and Jim Pojar, eds. (1995) — Daniel W. Gilmore

A Naturalist's Guide to the Arctic. E.C. Pielou. 1994. xv + 327pp. ISBN 0-226-66813-4 (cloth, US$57.00); ISBN 0-226-66814-2 (paper, US$19.95). The University of Chicago Press, Chicago I L 60637 —This is the third semi-popular book on the natural history of northern North America recently authored by the distinguished Canadian mathematical ecologist E.C. Pielou. The other two are: The World of Northern Evergreens Cornell University Press, 1989; and After the Ice Age - The Return of Life to Glaciated North America. The University of Chicago Press, 1991. Both of these have received high praise from each of several reviewers.

The book under review was written not only as a guide to the identification of plants and animals that naturalists are likely to encounter in the Arctic, but also of distinctive physical features and phenomena associated with the Arctic land, sea, and sky. Further, Pielou describes/ explains how the various arctic landforms develop, the physics of interesting phenomena associated with the inanimate world of the Arctic, and the ecology and adaptations of arctic plants, birds, mammals, fish, and insects. In short, this book is much more wide-ranging and scholarly than the typical popular field guides. In the Preface, Pielou writes that, "Natural History is more than ecology. It deals with the nonliving as well as the living, and naturalists who ignore inanimate things - land, sea , and sky - are missing much that the world has to offer."

A Naturalist's Guide to the Arctic contains nine chapters. Chapters 1-4 (pp. 1-75) cover the physical ("inanimate") environment - sky, climate, atmosphere, terrain, and seas. Plants, birds, mammals, fish, and insects are discussed in chapters 5-9 (pp. 76-319). The book has a combined subject matter/species index (pp. 321-327), but no bibliography. However, at appropriate places in the text Pielou includes references to technical and/or popular books or to popular articles; the majority are on plants, birds, and mammals. A very positive feature of this book is the more than 400 maps and line-drawings by the author. Further, as in Pielou' s other two books on natural history, mentioned above, illustrations of plants


and animals arc drawn to scale.

Various landscapes and phenomena unique to the physical environment of the Arctic arc described and explained in chapters 1-4. Under a section entitled "The Land of the Midnight Sun" (chapter 1), Pielou gives an excellent illustrated explanation on how and why day-length changes through the year. If only introductory ecology texts were this clear on how daily photoperiod changes with the seasons! Other natural physical events discussed in this chapter include the "Midday Moon" (At latitudes of> 72°N, there is a period each month in which the moon remains above the horizon for > 24 hours. Likewise, there is a period each month when the moon does not rise above the horizon.), why a compass is unreliable at high latitudes, and the Aurora Borealis ("Northern Lights").

Arctic climate, microclimatc ("The Climate Near the Ground"), mirages (including the Novaya Zemlya effect, whereby an observer can see the sun over the horizon), and visible air ("arctic haze") are covered in chapter 2. Ice caps, glaciers, permafrost, eskers, raised beaches, patterned ground of various sorts (such as tundra hammocks, tundra polygons, and pingos), rivers, and other features of the Arctic landscape are discussed in chapter 3. Icebergs (Ten-thousand are adrift at any one time in eastern Arctic waters.), sea ice, ice islands, polynyas (open-water bodies in the ice kept open by warm, upwelling sea currents; important as water and food supply for warm-blooded animals in winter), and the effects of sea ice on beaches are covered in chapter 4.

About one-third of the book (chapter 5, pp. 76-190) is on "Plant Life." In the first part of this chapter, Pielou: (I) describes Arctic treeline, tundra, polar desert (<10 cm precipitation/year), and some plant communities of the Arctic: (2) explains why trees cannot grow in the far north and why the position of treeline shifts; (3) tells how to recognize the six northernmost species of trees (black spruce, white spruce, tamarack, balsam poplar, paper birch, trembling aspen); (4) informs readers about the large store of carbon in the tundra.and of the possibility as the climate warms the tundra may become a source of carbon (rather than a sink, as it is now), thereby contributing to the "greenhouse effect" via production of CO2 and CH4,. (5) discusses various adaptations of arctic plants to a physical environment characterized by low temperatures, a short growing season, drought, frost heaving, strong winds ("Snow abrasion is a far greater threat than low temperatures to a plant's well-being in the arctic winter."), and infertile soil; and (6) identifies the geographical sources of plants that colonized the barren land of the Arctic left by recession of the glaciers. Concerning the last item, the plants came from refugia (I) south of the ice sheet, (2) in Beringia, and (3) in unglaciated areas of the arctic islands, where lack of snow prevented ice accumulation.

The great majority of chapter 5, however, is on how to identify plants of the Arctic. Identification charts constructed in the form of dichotomous keys are given for each of four groups of plants. which are separated on the basis of size, color, spacing, and arrangement of flowers, and whether the petals are fused or separate. Then follows a description of one or (usually) more species in each of 32 dicot, 3 monocot (grasses and rushes not included, only Eriophorum in Cyperaceae), and 4 fern and "fern ally" families. Plant families represented in this guide by the largest number of species are Asteraceae (17), Ranunculaceae (19), and Saxifragaceae (14); genera with the most species discussed are Anemone (6), Pedicularis (9), Potentilla (7), Ranunculus (8). and Saxifraga (14). Families with woody representatives include Salicaceae, Betulaceae, Rosaceae, Empetraceae, Eleagnaceae, Ericaceae, and Diapcnsiaceae. The last seven pages of this chapter describe some "notable" species of mosses and lichens of the Arctic.

Chapter 6 (pp. 191-253), on birds, begins with a 10-page general discussion of the ecology and adaptations of resident (only I1 species) and migrant (>ca. 90 species) birds in the Arctic. This is followed by a "Field Guide to Arctic Birds," which includes information on the identification and ecology of species in 12 families and in the order Passcriformes (perching birds). The breeding/nesting habits of Arctic birds receive consider-able attention in this chapter.

Similar kinds of information as that on identification and ecology of birds is provided for 15 families of terrestrial and marine mammals in chapter 7 (pp. 254-298), and, to a much lesser extent, on fishes in chapter 8 (pp. 299-306) and insects in chapter 9 (pp. 307-319).

According to Pielou, "...cold and hunger are the twin perils..." that terrestrial mammals face in the Arctic winter to (-50°C). The only mammals to hibernate, however, are the ground squirrels, grizzly hears, and pregnant polar bears. Large terrestrial mammals are protected form the cold by their winter coats, which make the muskox "...oblivious to the cold." Marine mammals, on the other hand, live in sea water that cannot cool below -2°C. As for winter food supply, carnivores are better off than large herbivores, which put on much less fat in summer than do hibernators and lose weight on the poor quality winter forage.

Fish receive only a very few pages, apparently be-cause "Few naturalists take on the study of fish as a specialty." Most of this short chapter is about the identification and breeding biology of members of the salmon family.

Insects in the Arctic are adapted to low arctic temperatures in various ways: some can survive freezing solid, while others produce chemicals (e.g., ethylene glycol) that prevent ice formation in their body liquids to very low temperatures. Further, parasitic insects (e.g., warble flies and nose hots of caribou) avoid the cold by parasitizing warm-blooded mammals. Bumblebees (only two species in the Arctic), flies, and mosquitoes are important pollinators of flowers, and many insects serve as


food for birds. Unlike most mosquitoes, which have a vertebrate blood meal to lay eggs, arctic species can lay some eggs without such a meal. This allows them to leave at least a few decedents, even if a vertebrate blood-source is not available.

A more accurate title for this book would have been "A Naturalist's Guide to the North American Arctic"; there is no mention of the Scandinavian or Russian Arctic. A chapter comparing the physical environment and biota of the Arctic regions of North America and Eurasia would have broadened even further the scope of this book.

I recommend A Naturalist's Guide ' to those who want a good general guic animate (especially plants, hirds, and r mals) and inanimate worlds of the Iv American Arctic. It is insightful, reader-friendly, well illustrated, and free of typos.— Jerry M. Baskin, School

of Biological Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington.

Tropical Alpine Environments. Plant Form and Function. P.VM Rundel, A.P. Smith, and F.0 Meinzer, eds. 1994. 376 pp. ISBN C 521-42089-X Cambridge Universi Press — This book is a very thorou_ treatment of an extremely interesting group of

plants. Species such as Espletia, Lobelia, Puya, and Senecio are notable for their unique morphologies and for the variety of physiological adaptations they have evolved in response to high-elevation environments near the equator. The book is authored by many who have worked with tropical alpine plants, and contains chapters on a variety of subjects related to these species. The volume opens with an overview of tropical alpine plants (Smith), the macroclimates and microclimates they experience (Rundel; Meinzer, Goldstein and Rada), and includes treatments of their anatomy (Carlquist), and morphology (Pfitsch). Physiological subjects covered include water relations (Meinzer, Goldstein and Rundel), thermal tolerance (Beck), carbon dynamics (Keeley, DeMason, Gonzalez and Markham), the role of pubescence (Miller), and nutrient relations (Beck; Rehder). Other chapters cover reproductive biology (Berry and Calvo), population biology (Young; Smith and Young; Rundel and Witter), herbivory (Young and Smith), form and function of plants from New Guinea (Hnatiuk), and biotic interactions at high elevations (Loope and Medeiros). The final chapter is a synthesis by the editors and considers research priorities in terms of plant growth forms, demography, physiological convergence, ecosystem function and services, and global climate change.

There are several features of the book worth noting. There are many high quality photographs throughout (all in black and white), especially in the opening chapter by the late Alan Smith. Each chapter contains its own reference section, and the chapter by Keely et al. contains an appendix with a large amount of data on titratable acids and malic acid accumulation for a variety of species. There is an extensive and comprehensive index (12 pages) that includes references to species. The tables throughout the book are very informative, but they are often rotated because of the size of the hook (the page size is 15 X 22.5 cm.) The volume's only drawback is that the format has caused some of the line diagrams to be considerably reduced.

As a teaching tool this book is probably best suited

for upper division undergraduate and graduate
seminars; its specialized subject material
preclude its use for lower division courses.
I used parts of it for a graduate course on
Alpine ecology; many interesting
discussions ensued and the students
suggested using the entire book as a
text in the future. As a research
reference, this is a book not only for

those interested in tropical alpine plants, but for anyone interested in physiological ecology and alpine plants. The editors have produced a comprehensive review of tropical alpine plant biology; indeed, the hook goes beyond the title's plant form and function. This book is highly

recommended for anyone interested in the

adaptations of plants to unique environments.—Michael E. Loik, Department of Biology, California State University

Plant Conservation: Readings from Conservation Biology. D. Ehrenfield, ed. 1995. 221 pp. ISBN 0-86542-450-0. (US$24.95, paper). Black-well Science, Inc., 238 Main St., Cambridge MA 02142 — Like the greatest hits compilation albums familiar to most music fans, the Society For Conservation Biology and Blackwell Science have put together a number of volumes of previously published articles in specific areas of conservation biology. This new series in which each volume consists of articles taken directly from the journal, Conservation Biology, is an excellent way to provide exposure to specific subdisciplines or perspectives in conservation research and policy.

In the collection on Plant Conservation, editor David Erhenfeld has selected and organized 34 articles in the area of plant conservation biology. These articles have been extracted from 30 different issues of Conservation Biology and include research papers, editorials, and letters. The diversity of topics include taxonomy, crop diversity, effects of habitat fragmentation, conservation genetics, paleoccology, ecosystem ecology, exotics, rareness, and ecological design. There is something for anyone interested in plant ecology or conservation, and this publication could serve as an excellent introduction



to the research and issues in the area of plant conservation. I would highly recommend this collection for a seminar course on the subject or as a resource for independent study. However, it is probably not the best source for professionals looking for pragmatic approaches to particular conservation problems. Nor is it a necessary buy for those who have been receiving Conservation Biology.

A number of the papers deal with ecosystem level problems and focus on the potential effects of climatic change and enriched carbon dioxide environments on biotic systems. Some of these papers go beyond looking at plant response to changes in environmental condition and pursue the implications for conserving biodiversity. In a note by Eric Fajer, it is argued that even in the absence of climatic change, carbon dioxide enrichment may alter community structure due to the differential response of C3 and C4 plants. Fajer then argues that the changes in the plant community are likely to impact herbivore communities.

Other papers take the community approach to conservation. One of the more novel approaches taken at this level was the paleoecolgical perspective to conservation offered by M. Hunter, C. Jacobson and T. Webb. They provide evidence that shows that plant communities have been relatively ephemeral and that historical climatic changes have drastically altered species assemblages. Because of this, they argue that the selection of nature reserves should be based on the distribution of physical environments rather than on the distribution of modern communities.

I enjoyed the discourse on the removal of exotic plant species offered in an editorial by S. Temple and letters of response from A. Lugo and B. Coblentz. They effectively fleshed out some important issues regarding the management of our changing plant communities. The discussion reminded me of when one of my more astute students accused me of being a "botanical racist" for encouraging the removal of foreign plant species.

Since I have a particular interest in pollination biology, a number of articles that dealt with this were of particular interest to me. Issues of rarity, engineered gene escape via crop-weed mating, and the effects of habitat fragmentation on pollination were included. It was particularly nice to see some of the basic research ideas in this area being applied to problems in conservation.

A number of other articles dealing with agriculture, logging, and disturbance round out the volume very nicely. I plan to use this volume as a basis for directed readings and independent study with advanced under-graduates. It could also serve new graduate students and professionals that are beginning work in conservation. It is an excellent introduction to the kinds of research that have been done and some of the issues raised in this important area of applied research. —Richard A. Niesenbaum, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA


Biological Control of Weeds and Plant Diseases. Advances in Applied Allelopathy. Elroy L. Rice 1995. ISBN 0-8061-2698-1 (cloth). University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma.— My earliest graduate school experience was working with an ecologist who had studied with C. H. Muller, the founder of ecological allelopathy. We raised thousands of seedlings of Bromus diandrus (an introduced grass pest in California), in the leachates of various tree species that were suspected to have allelopathic activity. Never mind that our results failed every statistical test; I grew so fond of Ailanthus altissima, Juglans nigra, and their poisons that I still teach allelopathy whenever I get a chance. My earliest training in the concepts of allelopathy has stuck with me, and I opened this volume eagerly, not least of all in the hope that my first graduate school professor had found his way into the annals of biological weed control, an ideal that California botanists can understand better than anyone.

What I found in the first pages was a strong theoretical statement with an introduction that provided broad concepts and applications for allelopathy. Indeed Rice, who is the doyen of applied allelopathy, goes beyond the traditional understanding of the phenomenon as a plant-plant interaction. To my surprise and delight, there is some coverage of fungal-plant interactions in the book. There are also examples of indigenous and traditional agricultural methods that use allelopathy as a practical approach to weed control. The volume is thus potentially useful beyond the narrow readership suggested by its title. The many experiments that are cited in this book suggest a very broad scope of creativity and scientific risk-taking. A great variety of organisms are under consideration, both as allelopathic agents and as potential control targets. Allelopathy is still provocative, and it seems healthy to me that investigations are being undertaken at a variety of experimental levels.

I caught up with old friends here (the Tree of Heaven was discussed although my former professor was not mentioned), and I learned a thing or two. Did you ever hear of the "spermosphere?" There were a few disappointments, however. Most seriously, I would have liked to see more synthesis. The cited experiments seem to pile up with no real aim or organization. One series of accounts of papers concludes with the author's comment, "...clearly the evidence is massive." The book needs a unifying approach, and there needs to be some discussion. Without discussion, the book is unfortunately little more than a listing, a literature review. The


organization of this volume is loose, although this problem is ameliorated by the annotated index. Some of the graphs are enlargements and they are subsequently blurry. The single illustration, a plate with two SEM photographs is uninterpretablc, and would have been unacceptable as copy in any professional journal. The publisher should have deleted it.

I cannot recommend this book as interesting reading. The prose is acceptable but the text is barely connected from one paragraph to the next. It was hard to perceive any train of thought beyond the simple listing of experiments, and unfortunately, the concepts in this did not build upon one another. Ultimately, it stands as a descriptive list of experiments, but much more could have been forthcoming. From one important perspective the hook is valuable. It is useful as a reference volume to an interesting and controversial branch of plant science. — Samuel Hammer, College of General Studies, Boston University.


Genetic Control of Self-Incompatibility and Reproductive Development in Flowering Plants. Williams, E.G., A.E. Clarke and R.B. Knox 1994. ISBN 0-87563-508-3 (cb US$214.00) 540pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, PO Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands — This collection of articles is an attempt to make available a set of reviews that will enable readers to integrate information about a range of topics in the general area of angiosperm reproductive biology. During the past ten years, there have been major advances in at least three areas, the molecular biology of self-incompatibility loci, the genetics of flower development, and the genetics of gender specialization. There is at present no close relationship between these topics. Despite some attempts to study sex determination as an extension of flower development studies, it seems that our understanding of flower development is as yet too limited, and the number of genes involved in the complex set of processes involved too large, to make use of known loci to study how unisexual sex expression works. It is nevertheless valuable to put the different topics together in one book, especially at a time when these questions are attracting interest from non-botanists, who will not have read in depth about plant reproduction (though it might have been good to have a glossary of technical terms, for students and non-botanical readers). The book attempts quite successfully to bridge the gaps between topics by including several chapters on pollen biology (which is of evident importance in the efforts to understand how self-incompatibility works, and also in studies of flower development), male sterility (for which pollen biology is again relevant, and which relates to the development of unisexual female flowers)

and female gametogenesis and fertilization (which relates to flower development). There is also a valuable chapter on asexual reproduction.

The coverage of topics is thus quite broad. Plant reproduction is rather well covered, and readers can use this book as a review of the field as a whole, at least as it stood a couple of years ago. This is a rapidly changing research area, and new results have been added recently, but several of the chapters of this book are good reviews of their chosen topics, and will continue to be useful, either as reviews of the work up to the present time, or as thoughtful introductions to some of the interesting problems that are still to be solved (such as the useful review of late-acting incompatibility systems). One such chapter is Sims' who does his usual excellent job of reviewing gametophytic self-incompatibility. Although this chapter overlaps considerably with other reviews by the same author, he has added some very interesting historical information, particularly in his account of the work of the Russian botanist Kovaleva's work in the 1970s giving evidence that RNase activity in styles is important in self-incompatibility. His chapter also contains descriptions of new experiments aimed at discovering the still elusive pollen component of the incompatibility locus. The other highlight of the hook for me was the delightful chapter by Longo, reviewing genes controlling sex expression. This chapter is an excellent review, scientifically speaking, and has the added charm of being written in a fresh and highly readable style. His pleasure at the fact that contemporary papers on plant development "no longer feature only dull graphs or electrophorctic patterns but are also blooming with beautiful pictures of flowers" will strike a chord in many of us.

Much of the rest of the book is also useful, though there is perhaps rather too much overlap between the various chapters on pollen cell biology. One benefit to readers of this book, that could not be obtained if one were to read the literature in one or other of the areas alone, is to compare which approaches tend to lead to progress and which are less successful. In the case of plant reproduction, the superiority of genetics and molecular genetics to other approaches is quite evident in the chapters of this book. Although it might seem easy to discover the genes that are important in flower development, for instance, by expression studies at critical stages, this has in fact not been nearly as productive as the study of mutations. Indeed, many recent successes have made use of material that was found and studied genetically decades ago. Only now that the molecular genetics is becoming understood is the cell biology really coming into its own, as a means of pinpointing sites and stages of expression of the genes that are discovered, and of suggesting mechanisms. The same kind of thing can be said for studies of self-incompatibility, where again genetics led the way to molecular genetics, and integration with cell biology is now beginning. It is to be hoped that there will be similar progress on the problem of sex determination, but at present there remains a large gulf between the classical


genetic and cytogenetic work, and molecular genetics. The emphasis on cell biology on this book therefore seems rather too great, given that it has not yet illuminated as much as one might hope.

It is also a great pity that there is no chapter on homomorphic sporophytic self-incompatibility by any of the groups that work on the molecular biology of the incompatibility genes (though there is a chapter on heteorstyly by Barrett and Cruzan). This was the first system where the very fruitful molecular approach was successful, and there are plenty of new interesting results from groups such as the Nasrallah and Bernatzky laboratories, among others. Even the one chapter on the genetics of such systems (by Lewis) focuses on the contentious issue of gametophytically expressed modifier loci. The theoretical evolutionary chapter (by Clark and Kao) also focuses almost entirely on gametophytic systems, and does not even mention that the theory they review applies to this subset of incompatibility systems, although there has been some interesting theoretical work on sporophytic systems. Another omission is cytoplasmic male sterility (only one paper, on Petunia, though very interesting data are being published on several wild species with male sterility). Despite these quibbles about content and balance, the book is in general successful, and should be a very useful addition to university libraries.—Deborah Charlesworth, Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago

Genes, Populations, and Species. Eherenfeld, David, ed., Society for Conservation Biology and Blackwell Science, Inc. 1995. — This volume is one of a series of six anthologies on various topics drawnfrom the first thirty issues of Conservation Biology, a publication that hasbeen growing in size and interest since its beginnings. The collection focuses on "species-specific" conservation issues, and although only six ofthe 32 articles deal directly with plants, the rest of the volume is of muchgencrai interest.

The first two articles deal with the nature and value of species as the focus of conservation efforts. The species is the most "natural" of the possible biological levels on which to focus conservation efforts, but what do we mean by a species? Intensive definitions raise all the categorical problems well known in biology, and mask the actual evolutionary diversity existing, many components of which probably should be protected — but this brings us into the whole whirl of discussion about the status of subspecies, local "races" and other kinds of genetic diversity which may have no obvious status in terms of populations. Extensive definitions, focusing on exiting populations and regional variants, are easier to explicate to the policy-makers and public, and make the species a nice pretext for habitat and ecosystem protec-

tion. How to choose? (Rojas, "The species problem and conservation: what are we protecting?") Once you have a definition, though, how to rank species in terms of urgency of threat, to facilitate the allocation of resources? Population viability analysis may provide the basis for such prioritization (Mace and Land, "Assessing extinction threats"). Oliver and Beattie suggest a "Possible method for the rapid assessment of biodiverisity" using trained field technicians, to respond to the urgent lack of taxonomists working in the field, which is one bottle-neck in both conservation theory and the development of specific protection plans. These themes - How shall we decide what to protect? What are the biological consequences of our decisions? Are addressed in several studies of specific populations, including insects, large and small mammals, birds, turtles, and fish. A fascinating debate on the biological and conservaton status of the gray and red wolf occupies eight articles in point and counterpoint. Other celebrated cases are also represented (black rhinoceros and tigers), as well as the little discussed question of the preservation of varieties of domesticated animals.

The plant articles take up the same themes. Megnes ("Seed germination increases with population size in a fragmented prarie species") points out anotherexample of the possible effects of small population size on the viability of plant populations. In his study, populations of the royalcatchfly (Silcne regia) containing more than 150 individuals had dependably high germina-

tion percentages (> 85%), while smaller populations had more variable and generally lower rates. Although the reasons are unclear, the study has important implications for the design of plant species conservation plans, and especially for the criteria of "success" in plant conservation actions, whether protection, enhancement, or creation of populations. Lescia and Allendorf's article ("Are small populations of plants worth preserving?") show that studies of plant population genetics suggest that small plant populations can preserve significant amounts of genetic variation, and should therefore be preserved. Population dynamics of the sort that Menges describes, however, must weigh heavily in the design of reserves for plant populations, which may only be adequate for short-term conservation of species and varieties. The fragmented distribution of once-widepread species will very often lead to significant genetic differentiation. Conservation plans, especially those involving an ex situ component, whenever possible should reflect that, since the genetic differentiation will in some cases at least reflect geographical adaptation, as suggested by Walters et al. "Restoration considerations for Wiregrass (Aristida stricta) alllozymediversity of populations."



A final article, "Radish as a model system for the study of engineered gene escape rates via crop-weed mating" (Klinger et al.) raises the issue of human enhancement of a species' genetic variety. Plant breeding systems and seed dispersal mechanisms provide many ways for genotypes to overcome geographic barriers and distance, so transgenic crops, especially if they are planted near wild relatives or varieties, are likely to be hard to contain under normal agricultural practice.

There is a another whole volume in this series devoted to plants (Plant Conservation), but the present volume will be useful to students and teachers looking to survey current issues and techniques in species-centered conservation biology. —Brian Drayton, TERC, Cam-bridge, MA


History of the Australian Vegetation: Cretaceaous to Recent. Robert S. Hill, ed. Nov. 1994, ISBN 0-521-401976 (Cloth US$125.00) Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211—Most of the classic English language paleobotany texts have devoted very little space to the tertiary flora (66 million years to the present). This is unfortunate since a proper understanding of the existing flora surely requires knowledge of past history to properly understand floral associations, ecology, and potential instability resulting from the onslaughts of fungi, insects, and humans. Furthermore, these same paleobotany texts rarely deal with the fossil history of those continents below the equator.

Both of these problems have now been admirably dealt with, first by the publication of Mary E. White's The Flowering of Gondwana (Princeton University Press, 1990), beautifully illustrated with color photographs of Australian plant fossils and their living counterparts, and now a very comprehensive documentation of the Australian tertiary flora in a book edited by R.S. Hill, a professor in the Department of Plant Science at the University of Tasmania.

This book is a result of collaboration between 23 geologists, paleontologist, botanists and ecologists who have attempted to explain the complexity of the living Australian flora in terms of all aspects of the prehistoric record. To be sure, there are many questions still to be answered, such as absence of authentic fossils of Australia's most important living forest tree prior to the late Miocene. On the other hand, the analyses presented in this book are all the more remarkable given the sorry state of Australian paleobotany until the 1950's when Cookson resurrected plant macrofossil research. Hill quotes E.W. Berry who wrote in 1992, "There have been more worthless articles written about the Cretaceous and tertiary floras of Australia than any other equal area of the earth's surface." Criticism from within and without brought Australian paleobotany research almost to a halt, and this "stigma still endures in the minds of some paleobotanists" (p. 411).

During the last two decades the tide has reversed. Rapid expansion of palynology, frequently associated with oil, mineral, and groundwater exploration, and the elegant explanantion of earth history provided by the theory of plate tectonics have had a major impact in the revival of Australian paleobotany. Research is now progressing at an all-time high. In Hill's introductory chapter it is suggested that this hook may represent the last occasion in which a concise review of such a large period of time can be accomplished for the whole of Australia.

Background for floristic studies is provided in five chapters in which maps of Mesozoic-Cenozoic Gondwana break-up are discussed, 144 million years of Australian palcoclimate and paleogeography are presented, palcobotanical evidence for Tertiary climate is summarized, the nature and evolution of Australian landscapes are discussed, and the history of Australian mammals are used to infer paleohabits. The latter is an example of supposed interaction between palco-fauna and flora and is an example of a particularly interesting new field in which flowering and fruiting phenology, modes of pollination, nature, and degree of herbivory, etc., on floral succession are deduced. There is much promise for the future as ongoing study proceeds.

The remainder of the book deals with floral history based on microfossils (spores and pollen) and macrofossils (roots, wood, leaves, fruits, flowers, and cones.) Although the Australian continent has had a relatively quiescent geological history (compared to North America and Asia) especially since the separation of Australia from Antarctica beginning in the Eocene. With the changes in sea level, migration of the continent to the north, and changes in air circulation patterns, we see a number of habitats, e.g. rain forest, open forest, sclerophylous flora, etc. coexisting at any given period of time. In contrast to the dominance of ecualypts (over 530 species) and acacias (more than 900 species) today, neither of these groups was of any consequence prior to the Miocene. Nothofagus, the Antarctic beech, is the most prominent taxa in the fossil record. Other important families are the Podocarpacea, Araucariacca, Proteaceae, and Casuarinaceae.

Unfortunately, we tend to have two disparate interpretations of the floral past depending upon the types of fossils being examined. Thus we have either microfossil flora or a macrofossil flora. This problem also exists, of course, in North American and European paleobotany. Blackburn and Sluiter (Chap. 14) have dealt with this problem in a new piece of original research on the Oligo-Miocene coal floras of Southeastern Australia. Informa-


tion was combined form both types of systems. This permitted correlation with a high degree of certainty for at least one hundred biological taxa because leaves and pollen were isolated from the same samples. When only leaves were present, it was concluded that fossil taxa were local and probably represented 7 to 50% of all the pollen in the coal samples but was not present at all as a macrofossil. The authors of this chapter concluded that much more work is needed since only 1.3 meters of a 30 M stratum has been studied thus far.

This reviewer whole-heartedly recommends that this book be purchased (in spite of its expense) and placed on the bookshelves of all those individuals involved in the study of plant history, be they geologists, paleobotanists or those botanists who need to expand their geographical horizons. Not only is this book thoroughly researched with many references, some not readily accessible to North Americans, but it represents a model for books that ought to be written summarizing the tertiary floras of North America, Asia and Europe. Since paleobotany seems to also have a new lease on life in North America, it is time to produce a similar volume which combines the multiple disciplines of geology, geography, polynology, and macrofossil paleobotany.—Herbert L. Hergert, Repap Technologies Inc., Valley Forge, PA.


Amino Acids and Their Derivatives in Higher Plants. R.M. Wallsgrove, ed. 1995 ISBN 0-521-45453-0 (cb US$64.95) 280pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211. —This is a volume resulting from a meeting held at Rothamsted Experiment Station in September 1993, one of several held to honor the 150th anniversary of the Station. It is not, as one might guess from the title, a taxonomic survey of free amino acids in the plant kingdom. Only two articles include taxonomic data (betaines and toxic non-protein amino acids). It is otherwise a series of reports on different aspects of amino acid metabolism. As with most symposium volumes, it would be quite useful to those interested in the particular topics covered.

The 16 articles are by contributors from the western Europe, U.S., Canada and Australia. Most are reports of the authors' recent works, but one is a 17 page review (of betaines and stress) with 13 pages of references! Biosynthesis is dealt with in several articles: glutamine, proline and other heterocycles, glutathione, betaines, polyamines, cyanogenic glucosides, glucosinolates. Several articles deal with the regulation of synthetic pathways: aspartate derivatives, branched chain AA's. Some of these deal with physiological problems, such as stress. Ethylene synthesis from methionine is dealt with in one article. The complexities of serine and glycine metabolism are considered in two articles, in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues. Several authors, of course, use mutants in sorting out pathways, but one article is an explicit survey of biochemical geneticcs of glucosinolates. —John H. McClendon, Professor Emeritus, University of Nebraska


Inducible Gene Expression, Vol. 1 and 2 Bauer-le, P.A., ed. 1995. ISBN 0-8176-3728-1 (vol. 1), ISBN 0-8176-3734-6 (vol. 2) Birkhāuser Boston 160 Imlay St. Brooklyn NY 11231. —One of the key features of life is permanent change and adaptation to new situations. These changes may become necessary because of external stresses as well as internal stimuli connected to the phenotypic development of an organ-ism. Both areas receive detailed atttention here: The two volumes of Inducible Gene Expresison are on the mechanisms governing the signalling between the stimulus, i.e. environmental stresses, nutrients, hormones, and the responses of the organism.

On the cellular level the adaptation to these signals is mediated by the adjustment of the enzymatic pools to the new situation. Rapid and enormous changes in the quality of the protein composition as well as in the quantiy of single protein species have been reported in the literature in response to external stresses but also to endogenous stimuli. Research of the last decades has revealed that transcriptional regulation of the protein pattern is pre-dominant over translational, posttranslational and post-transcriptional control. Small activator proteins are required to start mRNA synthesis by binding to promoter regions in the proximity of the genes to be read from. The regulation of these (trans)activators and their interaction with promoters and enhancers is without doubt one of the most exciting fields of research. Understanding the nature and functions of the switches that have to be turned in order to start or inhibit mRNA synthesis gives insight in the fundamental processes of life.

The patchiness of the research information from various organisms, stress situations, internal signals and regulation mechanisms, however, has prevented insight into general phenomena of signalling in eucaryotic cells. Even the regulation of protein pools by hormonal action and other internal signals is not well understood, al-though we make daily and extensive use of hormones and activators. In this point of view, the compilation of reviews on eucaryotic transactivators that allow cells to react on various extraccllular stimuli or to endogenous signals is a necessary attempt to summarize state of the art knowledge and perhaps find a new starting point for future research. The editor succeeded in activating leading scientists in the field of stress and hormone research


to contribute to this compilation.

The first volume covers environmental stresses, the reaction to which, as the editor states in his preface, is an archaic leftover that has gained actuality in our struggle against the modern pollutant climate. In an ever-changing environment, all organisms have to find ways to adapt to stresses but also to exploit the benefits of favorable situations. Some of the stresses that are en-countered by organisms are pathogens, temperature, reactive oxygen species and xenobiotics, to name but a few.

Subdivided into eight chapters, differences between prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic transcription control, heat shock response, phorbol ester and UV light response, pathogen and stress defense proteins, the role of steroid hormones, dioxin binding and heavy metals and iron are reviewed and discussed. It is fascinating to see how organisms are able to react to environ-   men-

tal stresses by rapid and transient

activation of trap, and how they cont.') correct intensity o1 answer by feedb mechanisms.

The second vo ume on hormona signalling is dedi cated to mamma and insect systems only. Eightchapters. cover reviews of cAMP signalling, tf role of the c-fos et ment in canceroge esis, cell cycle cc trol, transcription f tors with SH2 do glucocorticoid an(

hormone receptors, retinoic acid receptors and on the regulation of transactivators involved in early stages of Drosophila development. Although many of the underlying principles of hormone action are well investigated, there is still an enormous lack of information in the field of intracellular signalling. We must accept that we are stuck in the middle of uncovering how complex inducible gene expression is.

Each of the chapters of both volumes maybe regarded as an independent review without closer connection to the other chapters. This may have been intended, be-cause Inducible Gene Expression is not and does not claim to he a textbook. Instead, the reader finds a summary of opinions and a discussion of theories in several of the reviews. Connected to this more selective choice of topics, some areas of research may be found lacking by workers in the field. For example in the context of xenobiotic detoxification the extensive liter-

ature on AP-1 and EpRE as well as on the inducibility of detoxifying enzymes such as glutathione transferases and P450 is only sketched briefly.

Furthermore, although 1 personally agree that much more information is available on signalling, induction and hormones in animals, it is a pity that not one of the chapters is dedicated to plants and their adaptations to environmental stresses or to hormonal gene induction in plants.

According to the editor, a central intention of the
books is to allow comparison of various molecular
mechanisms for intracellular signalling. This object is
achieved by the comprehensive and up-to-date compi-
lation on the topics of environmental stresses and hor-
mones. However reading Inducible Gene Expression
requires at least some scientific training and some
insight into current literature. It may well be used as an
excellent reference source and can be regarded as a
ons. Therefore the two
nterest to both graduate
practicing scientists in
olecular biology, genet-
)chemistry. — Peter
, PhD, Institut fur Bio-
: he Pflanzenpatholo-
iwelt and Gesundheit,
:uherberg, D-85758
berschlei(heim, FRG.

The Vascular Cambium: Development and Structure. Philip R. Larson. 1994. ISBN 3-387-57165-5 (cloth US$290.00), Springer-Verlag, New

YorK dv Y—Larson, who recently re-ti red from the USDA Forest Experiment Station in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, has written this very de-tailed account of how we arrived at our current knowledge of the vascular cambium and its functioning. The book is a major addition to anatomical literature. Larson has emphasized the history of cambial investigations and the thoroughness of his treatment is exemplified by the 66 pages of literature references. His laudable goal of establishing priorities for discoveries is followed throughout. It is particularly valuable to have the literature that was written in German during the past 150 years covered so well, since many young scientists are not being trained to read German and these many early papers would be otherwise unknown to them. French language literature is similarly well covered. The 637 pages of literature review include 340 illustrations, most of which are line drawings and graphs.

The most immediate problem in studying the vascu-


lar cambium is that the cambium is considered to be only one cell, or at most a few cells, thick in the radial direction, and is in the shape of a tapering cylinder. the limitations of trying to study directly this fragile, thin tissue with microtome sections has led most botanists to attempt to infer what the cambium was doing by studying instead the nature of cambial derivatives. The rationale of these many investigators is that if, for instance, there is not much elongation of conifer tracheids after they have been cut off from the cambium, then the preserves series of tracheids after they have been cut off from the cambium, then the preserved series of tracheids in the annual rings of the secondary xylem can be used to estimate the length of the fusiform initials of the cambium at the time each tracheid was formed. Much of the literature on angiosperm cambium, similarly, consists of studies of the xylem rather than the cambium as such, with attempts to infer cambial characteristics from the length of vessel elements or xylem parenchyma strands (on the assumption that their lengths were little different form those of the fusiform initials at the time they were cut off).

Changes in the fusiform and ray initials over both an annual growing season and a span of many decades are the major interest of most cited papers, whether they are based on direct observation of cambium or of the derivatives. The longest chapter (164 pages) is on anticlinal cambial divisions. Periclinal divisions are covered in a 44 page chapter, the effects of cambial wounding in one of 88 pages.

The value of Larson's historical approach and meticulous scholarship is obvious, but it does not make for easy reading. For instance, one statement can be followed by parentheses enclosing 28 different references. Remarkably few misprints or errors were noted (al-though l was surprised to see the unicellular alga Caulerpa referred to as having "vascular tissue"[p.127]).

Several areas that one might expect from the book's title to be discussed are not covered in detail. One mentioned in the Preface is the development of cambium from procambium. Another is anomalous cambia, which Larson (p.361) felt was adequately reviewed in Iqbal's and Carlquist's recent books. The literature on variations among secondary xylem and phloem derivatives was considered to be so extensive that only a brief survey could be included (p.324). Finally, physiological aspects of cambial development are scanted, only a few references to reviews being mentioned (e.g. p.290). However, within these guidelines, Larson has done a splendid job of summarizing the pertinent papers of the last 150 years.—William P. Jacobs, Princeton University


Plants of the Western Boreal Forest and Aspen Parkland. Derek Johnson, Linda Kershaw, Andy MacKinnon and Jim Pojar. 1995. ISBN 1-55105-058-7 (cloth CAN$24.95, US$19.95), 392 pp. Lone Pine Publishing, 206, 10426-81 Ave., Edmonton, AB, T6E 1 X5, CANADA —This is the first field guide written to specifically cover plants of the western boreal region in North America encompassing the regions of western Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, the Yukon and Northwest Territories, British Columbia, and Alaska. The most common and widespread species are described in the greatest detail with rare species, or species with limited ranges, or near the edge of their geographic range omitted. The introduction of this field guide provides an excellent synopsis of the location, climate, physiography, geology, and soils characteristic to the western boreal forest. A brief primer on the ecology of the western boreal forest and a Plants and People section discussing the importance of boreal plants to aboriginal peoples are also provided in the introduction. Individual keys are provided to identify trees, shrubs, wildflowers, aquatic plants, Graminoids, pteridophytes, bryophytes, and lichens. A unique feature of this guide is the inclusion of a four page colored flower key to aid the user in identifying different groups of non-woody plants. High-quality color photographs are provided for each species along with a thorough systematic and phytoecological description. Both the amateur and professional botanist will benefit from the notes section for most species which includes a description on aboriginal uses, present day uses, and local folklore. — Daniel W. Gilmore, Canadian Forest Products, Ltd., Wood-lands Division, Grande Prairie, Alberta

8th Guide to Graduate Study in Botany Published

The 8th edition of the Guide to Graduate Study in Botany for the United States and Canada has been completed by William Louis Stern and Bijan Dehgan, both of the University of Florida. It was published in October 1995 and consists of 222 pages. An article by Stern describing the Guide and some of the history behind it appears on pp. 80-8] of this issue of PSB. Dr. Stern has requested that he be notified of errors and omissions in the current Guide. Readers may send notices of errors and omissions to him at the Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611-8526.


Books Received

If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February, 15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). Send E-MAIL, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list, be-

cause they go quickly!—Ed.

* = book in review or declined for review ** = book reviewed in this issue Conservation Biology

Canada's Biodiversity Mosquin, Ted, Peter G. Whiting, & Don E. McAllister 1995. ISBN 0-660-13073-4 (paper US$45.00) 293pp. Canadian Museum of Nature, P.O. Box 3443, Station D, Ottawa ON Canada KIP 6P4

*Collecting Plant Genetic Diversity Guarino, L., V. Ramanatha Rao, & R. Reid 1995. ISBN 0-85198-964-0 (cloth US$120.00) 748pp. The University of Arizona Press, 330 S. Toole Avenue. Suite 200, Tucson AZ 85701-1814

Fundamentals of Conservation Biology Hunter, Malcolm L. 1995. ISBN 0-86542-37 1-1 (cloth US$42.95) 488pp. Blackwell Science, 238 Main Street, Cambridge MA 02142

Ironwood: An Ecological and Cultural Keystone of the Sonoran Desert Nabhan, Gary Paul, & John L. Carr 1995. ISBN 1-881173-07-0 (paper US$10.95) 92pp. Conservation International, Department of Conservation Biology, 1015 18th Street NW, Suite 1000, Washington DC 20036

Managing Habitats for Conservation Sutherland, William J. & David A. Hill 1995. ISBN 0-521-44776-3 (cloth US$84.95, paper US$29.95) 399pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-421 1


Biogenic Trace Gases: Measuring Emissions from Soil and Water Matson, P. & R. Harris 1995. ISBN 0-632-03641-9 (paper US$49.95) 386pp. Blackwell Science, 238 Main Street, Cambidge MA 02142

Ecology of Infectious diseases in Natural Populations Grcnfell, B.T. & A.P. Dobson 1995. ISBN 0-521-46502-8 (cloth US$59.95) pp.521. Cam-bridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211

Genecology and Ecogeographic Races Kruckcberg, Arthur R., Richard B. Walker & Alan E. Lcviton 1995. ISBN 0-934394-10-5 (cloth US$28.95) 285pp. Pacific Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science, California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco CA 94118

Physiological Plant Ecology, Third Ed. Larchcr, Walter 1995. ISBN 3-540-58 1 1 6-2 (cloth US$44.50) 506pp. Springer-Verlag New York, P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386

Plant Invasions : General Aspects and Special Problems Pysek, Petr, Karel Prach, Marcel Rejmanek & Max Wade 1995. ISBN 90-5103-097-5 (paper US$50.00) 263pp. SPB Academic Publishing, c/o Demos Vermande, Order Dept., 386 Park Ave. S., Suite 201, New York NY 10016

Tropical Forests: Management and Ecology Lugo, Ariel E. & Carol Lowe 1995. ISBN 0-387-94320-X (cloth US$98.00) 461pp. Springer-Vcrlag New York, P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386

Urban Ecology as the Basis of Urban Planning Sukopp, H., M. Numata, & A. Huber 1995. ISBN 90-5103-096-7 (paper US$47.00) 218pp. Kugler Publicaitons. P.O. Box 1498. New York NY 10009-9998

Vegetation, Modeling and Climatic Change Effects Vcroustraete, F., R.J.M. Ceulemans, LI.P. lm-pens, & J.B.H.F.Van Rensbergen 1994. ISBN 90-5103-090-8 (paper US$47.00) 249pp. Kugler Publicaitons, P.O. Box 1498, New York NY 10009-9998

Plants and Animals in the Life of the Kuna Ventocilla, Jorge, Heraclio Herrera & Valerio Ndnez 1995. ISBN (paper) 0-292-78725-1, (cloth) 0-292-78726-X (paper US$12.95, cloth US$25.00) 160pp. University of Texas Press, P.O. Box 7819, Austin TX 78713-7819

Economic Botany

Ethnobotany Schultes, Richard Evans & Siri von Reis 1995. ISBN 0-931146-28-3 (cloth

US$49.95) pp.416. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450. Portland OR 97294-3527



Plant Cytogenetics Singh, Ram J. 1993. ISBN 0-8493-8656-X (cloth US$84.95) 391pp. CRC Press Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton FL 33431


*Botany in India, Vol. 2 Johri, B.M. 1995. ISBN 1-886106-05-3 (cloth US$80.00) 480pp. Science Publishers Inc., 52 LaBombard Road North, Lebanon NH 03766

Catalogue of the Botanical Art Collection at the Hunt Institute White, James J. & Elizabeth R. Smith 1995. ISBN 0-913196-42-8 (paper US$24.00) 1303pp. Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation. Carnegie Mellon Universtiy, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh PA 15213-3890

Evolution Extended Barlow, Connie 1995. ISBN 0-262-52206-3 (paper US$17.95) 333pp. The MIT Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Massachusetts 02142


Control of Crop Diseases Carlile, W.R. 1995. ISBN 0-521-48345-X (paper $US19.95) 145pp. Cam-bridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 1001 1-4211

In Vitro Culture and its Applications in Horticulture Aug6, R. 1995. ISBN 1-886106-07-X (cloth US$69.95) 231 pp. Science Publishers Inc., 10 Water Street, Room 310, Lebanon NH 03766

*Pasture Doctor : A Guide to Diagnosing Problems in Pastures Miller. Jo 1995. ISBN 0-7506-8930-7 (paper US$25.00) 62pp. 13utterworth-Heineman Australia, 18 Salmon St., Port Melbourne 3207,


Molecular Biology

Biotechnology: Proteins to PCR a Course in Strategies and Lab Techniques Burden, David W. & Donald B. Whitney 1995. ISBN 0-8176-3756-7 (cloth US$79.50) 317pp. Birhauser Boston, P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386

DNA Fingerprinting in Plants and Fungi Weising, Kurt, Hilde Nybom, Kirsten Wolff, & Wieland Meyer 1995. ISBN 0-8493-8920-8 (paper)

322pp. CRC Press Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd.. N.W., Boca Raton FL 33431

Gene Transfer to Plants Potrykus, I. & G. Spangcnberg 1995. ISBN 3-540-58406-4 (paper US$79.00) 361pp. Springer-Verlag New York, P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386

In Situ Polymerase Chain Reaction and Related Technology Gu, Jiang 1995 ISBN 0-8176-3870-9 (cloth US$39.50) 143pp. Birhauser Boston, P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386

Recombinant DNA Methodology Wu, Ray 1995. ISBN 0-12-765561-1 (paper) 904pp. Academic Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, SanDiego CA 92101-4495


Fungus Diseases of Tropical Crops Holliday, Paul 1980. ISBN 0-486-68647-7 (paper US$22.95) 607pp. Dover Publications, 31 East 2nd Street, Mineola NY 11501

Mycorrhiza: Structure, Function, Molecular Biology, and Biotechnology Verma, A. & B. Hock 1995. ISBN 3-540-58525-7 (cloth US$249.00) 747pp. Springer-Verlag New York, P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386


Paleohotany : Plants of the past, their evolution, Paleoenvironment and applicaiotn in exploration of fossil fuels Agashe, Shirpad N. 1995. ISBN 1-886106-08-8 (cloth US$55.00) 359pp. Science Publishers, 52 LaBombard Rd. N., Lebanon NH 03766


Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants Marschner, Horst 1995. ISBN 0-12-473543-6 (paper US$29.95) 889pp. Academic Press, 24-28 Oval Road, London NW1 7DX


Modern Methods of Plant Analysis Vol. 15 Alkaloids Linkskens, H.F. & J.F. Jackson 1994. ISBN 0-387-52738-9 (cloth US$196.00) 237pp. Springer-Verlag New York, P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386



Genetic Preservation of Plant Cells in Vitro Grout, B. 1995. ISBN 3-540-57481-6 (paper US$79.00) 168pp. Springer-Verlag New York, P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386

Methods in Cell Biology Parts A & B Galbraith, David W., Hans J. Bohnert, & Don P. Bourque 1995. ISBN 0-12-273871-3, 0-12-273871-3 (pa-per US$99.00) 1 128pp. Academic Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, SanDiego CA 92101-4495

Plant Cell, Tissue, and Organ Culture Gamborg, O.L. & G.C. Phillips 1995. ISBN 3-540-58068-9 (paper US$89.00) 358pp. Springer-Verlag New York. P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386

Terrestrial Orchids From Seed to Mycotrophic Plant Rasmussen, Hanne N. 1995. ISBN 0-521-45165-5 (cloth US$64.95) 444pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211


A Guide to Wildflowers in Winter Levine, Carol 1995. ISBN 0-300-06560-4 (cloth US$40.00/paper US$20.00) 329pp. Yale University Press, P.O. 13ox 209040, New Haven CT 06520-9040

An Excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India Matthew, K.M. 1995. ISBN 90-5410-286-1 (cloth US$ 1 15.00) 682pp. A.A. Balkema Uitgevers B.V., Postbus 1675, NL-3000 BR, Rotterdam Nederland

The European Garden Flora: A Manual for the Identification of Plants Cultivated in Europe both out-of-Doors and Under Glass Cullen, J. 1995. ISBN 0-521-42095-4 (cloth US$150.00) 602pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011-4211

Flora Malesiana Mabberley, D.J., C.M. Pannell, & A.M. Sing 1995. ISBN 90-71236-26-9 (paper

Dn. 100,00) 407pp. Rijkshcrbarium/Hortus Botanicus, Publications Department. P.O. Box 9514, 2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands

Latmoss: A Catalogue of Neotropical Mosses Claudio, Delgadillo M., Bello Benardina & Cardenas S. Angeles 1995. ISBN 0-915279-35-5 (paper US$20.00) 192pp. Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis MO 63166-0299

Mountain Plants of the Pacific Northwest Taylor, Ronald J. & George W. Douglas 1995. ISBN 0-87842-314-1 (paper US$20.00) 437pp. Mountain Press publishing Company, P.O. Box 2399, 1301 S. Third Street W., Missoula MT 59806

The New Key to Wild Flowers Hayward, John 1995. ISBN 0-521-48346-8 (paper US$24.95) 278pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York NY 1001 1-4211

Only in Arkansas : A Study of the Endemic Plants and Animals of the State Robinson, Henry W. & Robert T. Allen 1995. ISBN 1-55728-326-5 (cloth US$38.00) 121pp. The University of Arkansas Press, Mcllroy House, 201 Ozark Ave., Fayetteville AR 72701

Orchids of Jamaica Gloudon, A. & C. Tobisch 1995. ISBN 976-640-002-4 (paper US$25.00) 254pp. The Press - University of the West Indies, I A Aqueduct Flats, Mona, Kingston 7 Jamaica, W.I.

Plants of Saratoga and Eastern New York Howard. H.H. 1995. ISBN 0-912756-01-2 (cloth US$15.95) 326pp. Syracuse Universtiy Press, 1600 Jamesville Ave., Syracuse NY 1 3244-5 1 60


The Botanical World Northington, David K. & Ed-ward L. Schneider 1996. ISBN 0-697-24279-X (paper) 480pp. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 2460 Kerper Boulevard, Dubuque IA 52001


Call for Nominations:1996 Young Botanists Award

The Botanical Society of America requests nominations for the Young Botanist Awards for 1995-1996. The purpose of these awards is to recognize outstanding graduating seniors in the plants sciences, and to encourage their participation in the Botanical Society of America. Award winners will receive a Certificate of Recognition signed by the President of the Botanical Society, which is forwarded to the nominating faculty member for presentation.

Nominations should document the student's qualifications for the award (academic performance, research projects, individual attributes) and be accompanied by one or more letters from faculty who know the students well. Nominations should be sent to the Past-President, Harry T. Horner, Department of Botany, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1020 no later than 1 March 1996.


always available to contributors to the

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All prices (except poster) include $2.00 for postage and handling. Specify item(s), style(s) and size(s). Make checks payable to BSA Endowment Fund. Mail to:

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