Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1993 v39 No 1 SpringActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

The Botanical Society of America: The Society for ALL Plant Biologists

ISSN 0032-0919

Editor: Meredith A. Lane - McGregor Herbarium, University of Kansas 2045 Constant Ave., Lawrence KS 66047 913/864-4493 FAX: 913/864-5298 bitnet: MLANE@UKANVAX



Plant Science Bulletin

News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees

BSA Logo Items Available 2

Botany for the Next Millennium 3

Guide to Graduate Study in Botany 3

International Botanical Congress Travel Award Committee 3

Southeastern Section Teaching Workshop 3


Great Old Botany Teaching Stuff 4

In Memoriam

John G. Torrey 5

Nature's Corner 5


Positions Available 6

Personalia 8

Funding Opportunities 9

Educational Opportunities 9

Conferences, Symposia and Meetings 10

Calls for Nominations for Awards 11

Collecting Assistance, please! 11


Apologia 12

Reviews 12

Announcements of Publication 21

Received 22

PLANT ScIENCE BULLETIN is primed on recycled paper


Summer's coming! How about a nice, cool, 100% cotton BSA logo T-shirt for field work this season?

are still available to contributors to the BSA Endowment Fund

T-shirts, adult sizes (S,M,L,XL; 100% cotton)
Jade w/white logo; short sleeves-$11.00
White w/kelly green logo; long sleeves-$15.00
T-shirts, childrens' sizes (2-4,6-8,10-12; 100% cotton)
Jade w/white logo; short sleeves-$9.00
Tote bags, cotton canvas (7 "x l 3 "x 15")-$11.00
Cloisonné pin (two-color)-$6.00

All prices include $2.00 for postage and handling. Specify item, style and size, and make checks payable to BSA Endowment Fund. Mail to:

Judy Jernstedt
Dept. of Agronomy and Range Science
University of California
Davis CA 95616-8515



PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN (ISSN 0032-0919) is published quarterly by the Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210. Second class postage pending at Columbus, OH and additional mailing office. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Kim Hiser, Business Manager, Botanical Society of America, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210.

Editorial Board for Volume 39:
W. Hardy Eshbaugh (1993), Dept. of Botany, Miami University, Oxford OH 45056
Clifford W. Smith (1994), Dept. of Botany, University of Hawaii, Honolulu HI 96822
Donald S. Galitz (1995), Dept. of Botany, North Dakota State University, Fargo NC 58103
Robert E. Wyatt (1996) Dept. of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens GA 30602
James D. Mauseth (1997), Dept. of Botany, University of Texas, Austin TX 78713



News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees

Botany for the Next Millennium

The Steering Committee for Botany for the Next Millennium wishes to express its thanks to those who have returned their questionnaires, which are designed to provide information for both the Steering Committee and the various Sectional Committees charged with identifying research and educational goals, priorities, and opportunities in the botanical sciences for the 21st century. The information and comments being provided q by the participants is invaluable.

Thus far, 1152 questionnaires have been returned, or roughly 45% of the BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA total distributed. If you have not yet returned your questionnaires, please take the time now to fill them out and return them in the self-addressed, stamped envelope provided. By returning the questionnaire, you will be contributing directly to the welfare of our profession and the Society.

Guide to Graduate Study in Botany

The compilation of the eighth edition of the Guide to Graduate Study in Botany will be carried out under the supervision of William L. Stem (Department of Botany, University of Florida) and Bijan Dehgan (Department of Horticulture, University of Florida). Any suggestions you may have for improvement in the current document or ideas you may have for making the existence of the document known to a wider audience would be welcomed. Drs. Stem and Dehgan will soon be asking for information from the BSA membership and graduate schools around the country. Please be on the lookout for this request, and complete the questionnaires expeditiously when they arrive!

BSA-Southeastern Section Teaching Update Workshop

BSA-SE Activities Committee will sponsor their annual Teaching Update Workshop at the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists at Virginia Beach, VA, 14–17 April 1993. Dr. Howard S. Neufeld of Appalachian State University will present a hands-on workshop entitled, "Instrumentation for Teaching Plant Ecophysiology" on Friday, 16 April, 9-10:30 a.m. ASB registrants may attend free of charge. For more information, contact Claudia L. Jolls, Biology-Howell Science Complex, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, 27858-4353, (919/757-6295) or e-mail BIJOLLS@ECUVM1.bitnet.

BSA Committee for Travel to IBC

The ad-hoc committee to evaluate travel subsidy proposals for the International Botanical Congress in Japan 1993 includes: Daniel Crawford (chair), Ohio State University; James Hamrick, University of Georgia; Elizabeth Lord, University of California-Riverside; and Frank Salisbury, Utah State University.


Manypeeplia Upsidownia


Great Old Botany Teaching Stuff

David R. Hershey
Department of horticulture
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742-5611

Botany textbooks seldom seem to provide an awareness of the history of botany education and of old, but still useful publications on botany teaching. This is encouraged by computerized bibliographic services, like BIOSIS and ERIC, which only contain relatively recent literature.

Coulter and Caldwell (1911) give a nice history of botany teaching and its place in schools of their era. The early 1900s was probably the most intensive period for American botanical teaching because most high schools offered a botany course. Botany was also important in the widespread nature-study and school gardening movements (Bigelow, 1911). Beal (1907) noted that "It is a pretty dull week when some one does not put out a new botanical text-book intended for high-schools, colleges and universities, ..."

Some of the botanical teaching 'gems' I've come across are how-to-teach botany manuals by Ganong (1910) and Lloyd (1907), which deal with teaching philosophy and so are still useful; Osterhout's (1908) collection of simple, hands-on plant experiments for high schools which puts many contemporary books on the subject to shame; Duggar's (1914) college text that emphasizes the practical use of plant physiology concepts; Bigelow's (1904) idea of growing plants hydroponically as pets; several fine high school botany texts (Atkinson, 1912; Bailey, 1900) and numerous botany education articles in Smoot SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS and, surprisingly, SCIENCE (Bessey, 1911; Copeland, 1913; Livingston, 1919). Also intriguing are Hubbard's (1901) contraption for measuring the strength of a squash; famous plant explorer David Fairchild's (1906) tale of a greenhouse cat that ate a rare plant instead of protecting it from rodents; and claims for the record of a phenomenal shoot (Wells, 1921; Prouty, 1921). Raber (1928) relates the seldom-heard story of how University of Illinois teacher Cyrus Hopkins used his own name to create the famous mnemonic to remember the essential elements for plants, "C. Hopkin's cafe mighty good." Ironically, the mnemonic is still in use, but Cyrus Hopkins has been forgotten. Gager (1907) protests the "impossible botany" of articles in HARPER'S MONTHLY MAGAZINE. Unfortunately, "impossible botany" is revived quite frequently, most notably by the 1973 best seller, The Secret Life of Plants.

It would be great if all these classic publications could be collected and preserved in some modem computerized format, such as a laserdisk, so current and future botany teachers would have easy access to them. It would also be marvelous if graduate students in the plant sciences were taught something about the history of botany teaching.

Ironically, it seems that the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the Botanical Society of America (BSA) did much more for botany education in the early 1900s than they do now, despite the current science-literacy crisis. Several AAAS presidents, such as Bailey, Bessey, and Coulter, and many BSA presidents were leaders in botanical education in that period. A potential solution to our current crisis in science education might be for plant scientists to recapture the kind of balance between teaching and research scholarship demonstrated by many of the leading botanists of that era.

Literature Cited

Atkinson, G.F. 1912. Botany for high schools. Henry Holt, New York.
Bailey, L.1-1. 1900. Botany: An elementary text for schools. Macmillan, New York.
Beal, W.J. 1907. Botanical text-books. Science 26:876-877. Bessey, C.E. 1911. Botanical teaching I. On the preparation of botanical teachers. SCIENCE 33:633-639.
Bigelow, E.F. 1904. Plants as pets. SCHOOL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS 4:87-90.
Bigelow, M.A. 1911. Gardens, school; Gardens for children. pp. 10-12, volume 3, and Nature study. pp. 389-391, volume 4
P. Monroe (ed.) A cyclopedia of education. Macmillan, New York.
Copeland, E.B. 1913. High school botany. SCIENCE 37:756-758.
Coulter, J.M. and O.W. Caldwell. 1911. Botany. pp. 425-433, volume 1 in P. Monroe (ed.) A cyclopedia of education. Macmillan, New York.
Duggar, B.M. 1914. Plant physiology with special reference to plant production. Macmillan, New York.
Fairchild, D. 1906. Cats as plant investigators. SCIENCE 24:498-499.
Gager, C.S. 1907. Science and poetry - a protest. SCIENCE 25:908-909.
Ganong, W.F. 1910. The teaching botanist, 2nd ed. MacMillan, New York.
Hubbard, W.H. 1901. The lifting power of a growing squash. Journal of Education 54:137.
Livingston, B.E. 1919. Some responsibilities of botanical science. SCIENCE 49:363-367.
Lloyd, F.E. 1907. The teaching of botany and of nature study. pp. 1-236 in: F.E. Lloyd and M.A. Bigelow. The teaching of biology in the secondary school. Longmans Green, New York.
Osterhout, W.J.V. 1908. Experiments with plants. MacMillan, New York.
Prouty, W.F. 1921. A more phenomenal shoot. SCIENCE. 54:170.
Rabcr, 0. 1928. Principles of plant physiology. MacMillan, New York.
Wells, B.W. 1921. A phenomenal shoot. SCIENCE 54:13-14.


In Memoriam

John G. Torrey

John G. Torrey, 71, died in his home on January 7, 1993. He graduated from Williams College in 1942 with a B.A. degree, from Harvard University in 1947 with an M.A. degree, and in 1950 with a Ph.D. He was a Travelling Fellow at Cambridge University from 1948-1949. He held the following positions: Instructor, Assistant Professor and Associate Professor of Botany at the University of California (Berkeley); Professor of Botany at Harvard University; Director of the Maria Moors Cabot Foundation for Botanical Research at Harvard University; Charles Bullard Professor of Forestry, and Charles Bullard Professor Emeritus, also at Harvard. He was also Director of the Harvard Forest in Petersham. His memberships included the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Botanical Society of America, the Society of Developmental biology (president in 1963). He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1981. In addition, he served on many boards and panels, including the editorial boards of PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY, the Macmillan Company, Cambridge University Press, PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY (TOKYO) and AGROFORESTRY SYST EMS. His publications and books included Plants in Action, Development in Flowering Plants, The Development and Function of Roots, Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Actinomycetenodulated Plants, The Biology of Frankia, and Application of Continuous and Steady-State Methods to Root Biology. He began his journal publications in 1949 and continued to the present with approximately 200 separate publications. Memorial contributions may be made to the Friends of the Harvard Forest, P.O. Box 68, Petersham, MA 01366.

Nature's Corner

"Nature's Corner" is reserved for descriptions of natural areas that may be just a few acres in size — just corners of nature that are being preserved by private individuals or organizations. Nature Conservancy (they have their own newsletter) and governmental (either federal or state) areas are not eligible. Please send information on "Nature's Corners" in your part of the world to the Editor, Plant Science Bulletin.



Positions Available

Botanical Research/Director of Research Santa Barbara Botanic Garden

The Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, an educational and scientific institution devoted to the study, display and conservation of California flora invites applications for the position of Botanical Researcher. Responsibilities: Provide leadership in the implementation of short and long range plans for the Department of research; ad-ministration of the department's budget and, in cooperation with staff, create and sustain an environment supportive of excellence in scholarship and instruction; maintain an active, externally funded, research program and assume an active role in seeking support for the department. Qualifications: Earned doctorate in the botanical sciences and a scholarly record appropriate for an adjunct faculty appointment at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Preference will be given to applicants in the areas of plant ecology, taxonomy/ systematics, or conservation biology. The position is a twelve-month appointment with a competitive salary and an excellent benefit package. Review of applications begins April 1, 1993. Anticipated start date is September 1, 1993. Submit cover letter and resume to: Dr. Sherwin Carlquist, Chair, Search Committee, Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, 1212 Mission Canyon Road, Santa Barbara CA 93105. SBBG is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

Palm Biologist Fairchild Botanical Garden

Duties: Establish and maintain an active research pro-gram in the biology of palms using the living collection at FTG and field studies; consult with the Curator of Palms and the Herbarium Curator to strengthen and improve the living and preserved collections; participate in the Garden's education and outreach programs; and seek funding for program development. Qualifications: Ph.D. degree; experience with palms; strong publication record. Institution: Fairchild Tropical Garden, a non-profit research institution and display botanical garden of 83 acres featuring palms, cycads and a di-verse collection of other tropical families. It has a comprehensive tropical botany library and herbarium of 65,000 specimens featuring the plants of Florida, the Caribbean, and tropical horticulture. Nearby Florida International University and the University of Miami offer adjunct faculty status. Starting Date: Mid-1993. Contact: Send cover letter and resume with names and phone numbers of three references before April 15, 1993 to: Dr. Jack Fisher, Chair of Botanical Garden, 11935 Old Cutler Road, Miami FL 33156. Telephone 305/665-2844; FAX: 305/665-8032.

New York Botanical Garden Manager of Graduate Studies

Prestigious botanical science, horticultural and educational institution seeks Manager of Graduate Studies to administer the Graduate Studies Program in conjunction with participating universities. Duties include teaching and advising students, preparation of budgets, fundraising, development of an active scholarly re-search and publication program and participation in division-wide initiatives. Must have excellent teaching record at the graduate level and solid experience ad-ministering academic programs in a graduate university setting. Ph.D. in botany or biology with specialization in systematic and/or economic botany. Salary commensurate with experience, excellent benefits including 4 weeks vacation. Send resume to: Personnel Administrator - MGS, The New York Botanical Garden, 200th Street and Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York, 10458-5126. AA/EOE/M/F/D/V

International Science Institute Director The Nature Conservancy

The Nature Conservancy seeks director for institute being created to encourage the use of science and information technologies to inform biodiversity conservation and development decisions. The director will have responsibility for all aspects of the institute, including its strategic planning and growth. Candidates must have a background in biodiversity conservation, the biological sciences and information systems. Requirements: demonstrated leadership skills; experience in managing organizations involved in science and education; capability to generate partnerships with govern-mental, scientific and academic institutions; international experience; fund raising experience; commitment to conservation. Preference will be given to candidate with a Ph.D. or equivalent advanced degree in biology, ecology or systematics. All inquiries and responses will be held in confidence. To apply, send your CV and letter of application to The Nature Conservancy, International Headquarters, Human Resources Department, 1815 North Lynn Street, Arlington VA 22209. EOE.

Puffia Leatherbellowsa



Postdoctoral Missouri Botanical Garden

Applications for a full-time postdoctoral position in systematic botany are invited. The position is available immediately for an initial two years, with possible ex-tension depending upon the availability of additional funds. Responsibilities include basic research on the systematics and evolution of Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae). This will involve herbarium, laboratory, and greenhouse studies, and possibly field work in eastern Europe and central Asia. Position qualifications include Ph.D. in systematic botany and familiarity with modern methodology in systematics, computers, and word processing. To apply, send a letter of application describing research experience, resume, list of publications, and three letters of recommendation to: Missouri Botanical Garden, Human Resource Management, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299, USA. An equal opportunity employer M/F/D/V.

Herbarium Curator Fairchild Tropical Garden

Duties: Maintain the herbarium; consult with the Horticulture and Public Garden Departments concerning taxonomic problems and interpretive displays; identify native and cultivated tropical plants for the public; expand the herbarium by vouchering the living collections and documenting the Florida and Caribbean floras; and teach short courses. The successful candidate will be encouraged to participate in the Flora of Florida and/or Flora of the Greater Antilles projects. Qualifications: Master's degree in Botany or B.S. with equivalent training; experience in a major herbarium; knowledge of or the ability to quickly learn the Floridian and West Indian floras and the cultivated members of tropical families; and ability to interact well with horticulturists, researchers, volunteers, and the public. Institution: Fairchild Tropical Garden is a non-profit research institution and display botanical garden of 83 acres featuring palms, cycads and a diverse collection of other tropical families. It has a comprehensive tropical botany library and herbarium of 65,000 specimens featuring the plants of Florida, the Caribbean, and tropical horticulture. Starting Date: Mid-1993. Contact: Send cover letter and resume with names and phone numbers of three references before April 15, 1993 to: Dr. Jack Fisher, Chair of Botanical Sciences, Fairchild Tropical Garden, 11935 Old Cutler Road, Miami FL 33156. Phone: 305/665-2844; FAX: 305/665-8032.

Editor Missouri Botanical Garden

The Flora of China Organizational Center located at Missouri Botanical Garden has renewed its search for an Editorial Assistant, who will be based at Harvard University Herbaria in Cambridge, MA. Position qualifications include a master's degree in journalism, English, communications or the sciences, supplemented with five or more years relevant experience including word processing, with willingness to develop some Chinese language reading skill. Familiarity with bOtanical literature and nomenclature is highly desirable. Position duties include initial editing of treatments for the English language Flora of China for style, format, and grammar; verifying bibliographical citations and spellings of scientific names; standardizing names of authors, publications, and places; disposition toward developing ability to test keys and descriptions against actual specimens; interacting with original authors of treatments and with non-Chinese collaborators; and assisting visitors associated with the project. The candidate hired will enjoy a competitive rate of pay and an excellent benefits package. Individuals who meet the qualifications outlined above are asked to submit a let-ter describing experience and relevant publications, curriculum vitae, three letters of reference and salary expectations. Apply to: Missouri Botanical Garden, Human Resource Management, #15-B15, P. O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166, Equal Opportunity Employer M/F/D/V.

Curatorial Assistant New York Botanical Garden

The New York Botanical Garden (NY) is seeking a motivated, qualified individual for the position of Curatorial Assistant. Under the supervision of the Assistant Director of the Herbarium, the successful candidate will work together with other technical curatorial staff in conducting day-to-day operations of one of the most active herbaria in the United States. Excellent opportunities exist for interaction with professional botanists and graduate students. Basic responsibilities will include: a) processing collections made by NY scientists: i.e., entering information into a computerized database and printing labels; sorting specimens by family and extracting duplicates for specialists' identifications; sorting and retrieving specimens for exchange; b) extracting specimens for loan and filing specimens; c) orienting visiting scientists and graduate students in the use of the herbarium and giving tours to public groups. Occasional special projects are assigned based on the individual's botanical capabilities and demonstrated interests. General qualifications include: preferably an M.S. in botany, with emphasis on plant taxonomy or equivalent experience; on-the-job experience with computer data-entry or ability to learn to use a computer; previous herbarium work experience a plus; ability to work efficiently, neatly, and accurately. The ability to both work independently with minimal supervision and cooperatively as a member of a close-knit team is essential. Salary commensurate with experience. Interested individuals are encouraged to submit an application to Personnel Department, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126. For further information contact Jackie Kallunki (718-220-8638) or Pat Holmgren (212-220-8626).


Manager of Botanical Information Systems New York Botanical Garden

The manager of botanical information systems will manage the selection and implementation of the diverse computer applications in the Botanical Science Division and especially to lead the search for a comprehensive collections management system. To provide primary support for these systems and other UNIX applications throughout the Garden. To manage professional Computer Services staff and participate in all Garden wide automation as a leader of the Computer Services Department. The person in this position will manage the process of selecting and implementing all major botanical information systems at the Garden. Most important will be the collaborative development of a complex large scale specimen database capable of supporting research access to 5.5 million records including textual, geographic, image, and numeric elements. Interim systems must also be developed and supported until a large database application can be implemented. Support must also be provided for a wide range of Internet functions and IBM/PC based applications. The Internet and large database systems will both run under UNIX. This position will manage Computer Services Staff working in all other areas of the Garden. In addition to supervisory and management responsibilities this position will, with the Director of Computer Services, manage the selection and implementation of application software in a variety of areas. The position requires accurate cost and schedule estimating as well as the ability to understand diverse application areas so that alternative solutions can be evaluated and rapidly implemented. The qualified candidate must demonstrate strong experience with System 5 UNIX. Five years of work experience which must include management of a large database application from design through implementation. The candidate must also be familiar with a variety of networks and personal computer applications and must have a strong application system design and installation background. Excellent oral and written communications skills are essential and experience managing professional staff - is a plus. A college degree with a major in Compute Science is required as is at least three years of work experience in a UNIX environment. SALARY: high 40'splus excellent benefits including 4 weeks vacation. Please send resumes to: Personnel-MBIS, The New York Botanical Garden, 200th St. & Southern Blv., Bronx, NY 10458-5126. Or, e-mail to: Personnel-MBIS, c/o Wayt Thomas at AA/EOE/M/F/D/V


Culbersons Receive Acharius Medals

The 13 first Acharius Medals for outstanding contributions to lichenology were awarded by the International Association for Lichenology (IAL) in Sweden during the meeting of 30 Au-gust to 4 September 1992. The recipients were D.D. Awasthi, India; Chicita F. Culberson, U.S.A.; William Louis Culberson, U.S.A.; Gunnar Degelius, Sweden; Aino Hennsen, Germany; Peter W. James, England; Hildur Krog, Norway; Otto Lange, Germany; Josef Poelt, Austria; Rolf Santesson, Sweden; John W. Thomson, U.S.A.; Hans Trass, Estonia; and Antonin Vezda, Czechoslovakia. The original Acharius Medal was struck in 1846 by the Royal Swedish Mint for the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, but how it was actually used then is unclear. When the IAL decided to issue medals, it was discovered that the Royal Swedish Mint still had the actual die for the Acharius Medal from almost 150 years ago. New silver medals were struck from that original die. The obverse is a profile likeness of Erik Acharius (1757-1819), the Father of Lichenology; the reverse is a dedication including the name of the recipient. After the meetings on 5 September, some 25 lichenologists representing the IAL assembled in the small medieval Swedish town of Vadstena where they dedicated to Acharius a fine bronze memorial by the sculptor Liss Eriksson. A plaque and a profile likeness were unveiled, both attached to an exterior wall of the now restored historical house that Acharius occupied from 1810 to 1819, the last years of his life. The building is still a private residence.


Funding Opportunities

Research Associateships National Research Council

The National Research Council announces the 1993 Resident, Cooperative, and Postdoctoral Research Associateship Programs to be conducted on behalf of 30 federal agencies or research institutions whose 115 participating research laboratories are located throughout the United States. The programs provide opportunities for Ph.D. scientists and engineers of unusual promise and ability to perform research on problems largely of their own choosing yet compatible with the research interests of the sponsoring laboratory. Initiated in 1954, the Associateship Programs have contributed to the career development of over 7000 scientists ranging from recent Ph.D. recipients to distinguished senior scientists. Approximately 350 new full-time Associateships will be awarded on a competitive basis in 1993 for research in: chemistry; earth and atmospheric sciences; engineering and applied sciences; biological, health and behavioral sciences and biotechnology; mathematics; space and planetary sciences; and physics. Most of the pro-grams are open to both U.S. and non-U.S. nationals, and to both recent Ph.D. degree recipients and senior investigators. Awards are made for one or two years, renew-able to a maximum of three years; senior applicants who have held the doctorate at least five years may request a shorter period. Annual stipends for recent Ph.D.'s for the 1992 program year range from S27,750 to S44,000 depending upon the sponsoring laboratory, and will be appropriately higher for senior Associates. Financial support is provided for allowable relocation expenses and for limited professional travel during du-ration of the award. The host laboratory provides the Associate with programmatic assistance including facilities, support services, necessary equipment, and travel necessary for the conduct of the approved re-search program. Applications to the National Research Council must be postmarked no later than January 15, April 15 and August 15 for reviews in February, June and October respectively. Initial awards will be announced in March and April — July and November for the two later competitions — followed by awards to alternate candidates later. Information on specific re-search opportunities and participating federal laboratories, as well as application materials, may be obtained from: The Associateship Programs (GR430/D3), National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington DC 20418. FAX 202/334-2759.

Educational Opportunities

Desert Plant Research Expedition Uzbekistan

In late may and June of 1993 an expedition is planned to study desert plants in Uzbekistan. The work will be in regions with sandy, clay, rocky, small mountain, and salt marsh-type deserts. A variety of desert-growing plants are available, including numerous C4 plants, especially in Chenopodiaceae. Facilities will be avail-able for 14CO2 and light microscopy studies. Each participant should bring the special equipment needed for their work. The expedition will start in Bukhara. Participants are expected to pay their travel costs including intourist-type hotel facilities, if desired, in Bukhara. The research expedition will cost $300/week; that will cover housing, meals and transportation to and in the desert. The expedition will be led by Dr. V. Pyankov of the Urals State University, Russia. Potential participants are invited to contact Pyankov or Dr. C.C. Black, University of Georgia, Biochemistry Department, Athens, GA 30602; FAX: 706/542-1786; E-Mail:, by March 15, 1993.

Iowa Lakeside Laboratory Summer Fellowships

Summer fellowships in field biology are offered for predoctoral students or recent Ph.D. graduates with stipends of up to $2,000. Fellows pay modest fees for room/board. A candidate's work should have a component for which a summer at the lab would be especially profitable. The 55 ha lab is located on glacial terrain on the western shore of deep West Okoboji Lake. Many small lakes, wetlands, prairies, streams and woodlands are nearby. Potential applicants should contact the director and/or send an application which will include a cover letter, vitae, and a one- to three-page synopsis of the proposed project. Specific reasons why the station is particularly suitable are critical to the application. Two letters are requested, including one from the re-search advisor. Applications will be accepted up to April 1, 1993. Robert W. Cruden, Acting Director, Department of Biological Sciences, 506 CB, The University of Iowa, Iowa City IA 52242 (319/335-1317).


Tropical Diversity (August 2-26, 1993) Organization for Tropical Studies 93-10 Objectives: To study the diversity of plants, animals and biotic interactions found in three types of tropical forests: rainforest, seasonally dry forest and cloud forest. Participants will learn about these tropical environments and their conservation via orientation walks, faculty-led field research projects, discussions and lectures. Tropical Diversity will be conducted in Costa Rica at the OTS operated field stations in lowland rainforest (La Selva) and seasonally dry forest (Palo Verde), and at a mid-elevation site, Volcán Cacao, in Guanacaste National Park. After one day of orientation and introductory lectures in San Jos& the class will operate entirely in the field, spending one week at each of these sites. The schedule at each site will include: a detailed introduction on the day of arrival, orientation walks, three days of field problems, two days of writing and self-orientation, and lectures/discussions in the evenings. Participants will present oral reports on field projects, write reports, and edit each other's reports. Grades will be based on participation in course activities and the quality of oral and written reports. Coordinators are Dr. Maureen Donnelly, University of Miami and Ms. Monica Marquez, University of Florida and OTS. Enrollment is limited to 22. Applicants are selected on the basis of background and goals related to the objectives of the course. Priority is given to superior applicants who are enrolled in, or accepted for, graduate programs at OTS member institutions. Some slots (about 25% in recent years) may be available for students from institutions that are not members of OTS, as well as for recent Ph.D.s who seek professional training in the tropics. Application Deadline is April 15, 1993 with announcement of selections being given May 15, 1993.

Conferences, Symposia and Meetings

Association of Systematics Collections Annual Meeting

will hold its 1993 Annual Meeting on May 7-9, 1993, in Pittsburgh, PA at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. The theme is "Public Relations for Systematic Collections and Research." The featured event will be a workshop on building local community support for collections and collections-based research, including suggestions for working with trustees and friends' groups. There will he discussion of the draft documents of "Systematics Agenda 2000," including implementation strategics. Business meeting and discussion of NSF programs will be held May 7; annual banquet and award ceremony May 8. There will be opportunities to visit the Carnegie collections and the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation. For information, contact: ASC, 730 11th St. NW, 2nd Fl., Washington DC 20001 (202/347-2850).

NT-25, 25–27 June 1993

The 25th International Numerical Taxonomy Conference will be held at the University of Pittsburgh and will interface with the 25th meeting of the Classification Society of North America (June 24-26). There will be a co-sponsored symposium, then INTC will continue with a second symposium and contributed papers. These may focus on methodology, applications, or practical or philosophical issues. Abstracts should be no more than 200 words and must include title, author(s) (identify the presenter), institutional affiliation. Submit abstracts (e-mail submission is encouraged) by 1 April 1993 to Richard J. Jensen, Department of Biology, Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 46556, tel: 219-284-4674, fax: 219-284-4716,

Resources of the Chihuahuan Desert Region 30 September-2 October 1993

The fourth symposium on Resources of the Chihuahuan Desert Region: U.S. and Mexico will be held on the campus of the University of Texas at El Paso on September 30-October 2, 1993. The symposium is sponsored by the Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute, University of Texas at El Paso, Sul Ross State University and the Big Bend Natural History Association. The theme of the Fourth Symposium will be "Conservation and Sustainable Development of Chihuahuan Desert Resources". The objectives are: 1) to promote international cooperation between scientists, institutions, agencies, and organizations; 2) to build on previous data by seeking to determine how resources are being used, managed, threatened, and depleted; 3) to provide new information on sustainable approaches to ecological concerns and the preservation of Chihuahuan resources; 4) to expose participants to the scope of current research activities in the region, and 5) to allow for a clear understanding of future re-search and management priorities. For more information contact CDRI, P.O. Box 1334, Alpine TX 79831; Telephone 915/837-8370.

Genetics and Molecular Biology of Plant Nutrition

Fifth International Symposium will be held at University of California, Davis Campus, on July 17-24, 1994. Please refer inquiries to D.W. Rains, Dept. Agronomy and Range Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Phone 916/752-1711; FAX 916/752-4361.


Conservation in Working Landscapes

20th Annual Natural Areas Conference will be held June 22-25, 1993 at the University of Maine, Orono, Maine. The Natural Areas Conference provides an opportunity for naturalists, ecologists, biologists, natural resource managers and volunteers to gather and exchange ideas on protecting, preserving and managing rare species and significant habitats. Participants will have a chance to interact through presented papers, posters, field workshops and workshops. The 20th Natural Areas Conference is being hosted by the Maine State Planning Office and the Natural Areas Association. The Conference is being sponsored by 50 agencies, organizations and corporations. Five under-writers of the Conference include the National Park Service, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, White Mountain National Forest and New England Experiment Station, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. Anyone wishing to become a Conference sponsor should contact: Hank Tyler, Maine State Planning Office, Station 38, Augusta Maine 04333. Telephone 207/624-6041.

Molecular Genetics of Plant-Microbe Interactions April 21-24, 1993

Organizer: Program for Applied Genetics and AgBiotech Center, Rutgers University. Current Major Sponsors: Sloan Foundation, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Rutgers' Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Roche Institute. Continuing advances in our knowledge and understanding of Plant-Microbe Inter-actions through novel applications of molecular and cellular biology, offer ever deeper insights into the genetics and co-evolution of complex biological systems. The active, multi-disciplinary research in molecular plant biology conducted by Rutgers' Program for applied Genetics and Evolution and the Center for Agri-cultural Molecular Biology (AgBiotech) was the impetus for this symposium. The Molecular Genetics of Plant-Microbe Interactions is designed for a diverse international audience of scientists from academia, industry and government. For information on registration for this international conference, please call 908/932-9271 or FAX 908/932-8726.

Calls for Nominations 1993 Pelton Award

The Pelton award is given to individuals under the age of forty in recognition of outstanding contributions to the study of plant morphogenesis. The Pelton Award Committee is actively seeking nominations. Each submission should include a letter of endorsement describing the nature of the nominee's contribution to the field of study as well as the curriculum vitae of the candidate including the full citations for the critical papers or books that have resulted in the nomination. Nominations can be submitted at any time and will be kept on file by the current committee chair. In order to be considered for an award in the year of nomination, however, materials should be received by the committee chair no later than April 15th. Send nominations to Karl J. Niklas (chairman for 1993), Section of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (USA) 14853.

1993 Darbaker Prize

The Prize Committee is accepting nominations for the 1993 Darbaker Prize in Phycology. The award is for meritorious work in the study of microscopic algae, is limited to residents of North America, and is based only on papers published in the English language by the nominees during the last two full calendar years (1991-1992). Nominations for the 1993 award must include a statement describing the nominee's research and a current curriculum vitae . Reprints and/or copies of any publications that should be considered by the committee, additional supporting letters corroborating the meritorious work of the nominee, and other evidence of the significance of the nominee's work may be included. All materials must he submitted as a single package by 1 June 1993 to: Dr. Russell L. Chapman, Chair, Darbaker Prize Committee, Department of Botany, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-1705. Phone 504/388-8483; Fax: 504/388-8459; Internet: BTRUSS@LSUVM.SNCC.LSU.EDU

Call for Collecting Assistance: South American Grasses

I would be grateful if anyone can assist in the collection of leaf material and voucher specimens of the following grass genera from Central and South America: Gynerium, Cortaderia and Danthonia. The leaf material should be young and disease free, and must be rapidly dried by means of silica gel or similar hygroscopic compound, as it is to be used in a DNA based study. Material should be sent to the following address: Nigel Barker, Bolus Herbarium, University of Cape Town, P. Bag, Rondebosch, 7700, South Africa. Additional details can be obtained via e-mail:


Book Reviews

PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN regrets that there were several errors of fact and a misquotation in the review (PSB 38[4]:39) of The Evolutionary Process: A Critical Study of Evolutionary Theory (2nd edition) by Verne Grant. Each reader is advised to form his/her own evaluation of the book. —ED.

The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. Thomas N. Taylor and Edith L. Taylor. 1993. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ 07632. xxii+982 pp. ISBN 0-13-651589-4 (US $95.00 cloth).—The last ten years has been a period of outstanding progress in plant paleontology in which paleobotanists have relentlessly expanded knowledge of past plant diversity. Just as importantly, they have also broadened their intellectual focus to make stronger connections with other areas of active research that range from molecular phylogenctics and plant development to paleoclimatology and biogeochemistry. Paleobotany in North America is now as vigorous and healthy as it has ever been. In twenty-three chapters and more than a thousand pages, The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants summarizes the vast mass data that are now available. This book is quite simply the best single source of up-to-date paleobotanical information that is currently available. It expands substantially on the already extensive coverage of Paleobotany: An Introduction to Fossil Plant Biology (T.N. Taylor, 1981, McGraw-Hill), and will be indispensable to fossil collectors, students, and educators as well as specialists.

While the book was designed primarily as a textbook for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, it also fills a clear need for more encyclopedic coverage that has existed for over seventy years since the publication of A.C. Seward's four volumes on Fossil Plants between 1898 and 1919. The bibliography of more that 2,200 titles is enormous and the text is supplemented by more than 1,600 photographs and line drawings, a comprehensive glossary, and an index with almost 5,000 entries. This book is unequivocally not a simple update of Taylor's previous text More attention has been given to providing each chapter with an introduction, systematic overview and concluding summary, making it more "user friendly." The quality of the illustrations, printing, and binding has been improved. More substantively however, there is greater emphasis on major events in botanical evolution (e.g., origin of cukaryotes, origin of land plants, early history of angiosperms), a comprehensive review of the fossil record of plant-animal interactions, and a major chapter on the rapidly developing field of angiosperm paleobotany. Specific areas that are covered in which substantial progress has been made in the last decade include: the discovery of megascopic gametophytes in the Rhynie Chert, clarification of the nature of conducing tissue in early land plants, new data on early seed plants, spectacular discoveries of early angiosperm flowers and the remarkable insights into the fossil history of specific angiosperm Lineages that have come from associating and reconstructing the vegetative and reproductive parts of early Tertiary fossil plants. The angiosperm section in itself presents a review that is unavailable elsewhere and summarizes much of the information that is currently available on the fossil history of 43 angiosperm families.

Undoubtedly the greatest strength of The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants is its extraordinary breadth of coverage, which is a wonderful tribute to the energy and organizational skills of the authors. In addition to the plant groups that are covered in all paleobotanical texts this book also deals with more obscure groups of fossil plants, for example the Vojnovskyales. Even specialists will find references that they had missed and will appreciate its value as a source from which to quickly access the modem literature. Not surprisingly, however, for a book of this size The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants is not totally free from problems. Thematically, its predominantly structural and systematic organization does not yet capture fully the breadth of issues to which paleobotanical data are already being applied (e.g., numerical phylogenctics, paleoclimatology) nor does it concern itself with many of the new directions in which the field is moving (e.g., testing numerical climate models, paleoaltimetry and other aspects of global change research). There are also the inevitable sins of commission, omission and interpretation from which no large compilatory treatment can ever be immune. Nevertheless the overall result is impressive and these limitations themselves point the way forward, by highlighting the need in paleobotany (as in other botanical subdisciplines) for increased synthesis, closer collaboration among specialists and the necessity to relate research to extant botanical diversity or present-day issues and problems. Despite the price, The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants is a book that anyone interested in the evolutionary history of plant life will need to have on his or her shelf. — Peter R. Crane, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.

Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time - Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals. A.K. Behrensmeyer, J.D. Damuth, W.A. DiMichele, R. Potts, H: D. Sues & S.L. Wing (eds.). 1992. University of Chicago Press 568pp. ISBN 0-226-04155-7 (paper US 29.95)-It is indeed rare today, 130 years after The Origin of Species, thirty-some years after the ecological classics of May, McArthur and Daubenmire, to read an ecology book that stands alone in its field. Alone, not only for its high quality but also in the sense of being first of a kind. Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time is just such a book because it has no predecessors or competitors, aside from the primary literature of the fields of paleobotany, vertebrate paleontology and taphonomy. The book draws heavily on large-scale ecological theories and principles (ecosystem structure, complexity, species interactions), those which can be approached by the terrestrial fossil record. It is superficially surprising, given the large volume of data present on plants and vertebrate animals in ancient terrestrial ecosystems, that such a synthesis has never been attempted previously. The awareness of the importance of fossils in their ecological roles that has grown over the past 20 years has fairly begged for a synthesis. The first has come in the form


of a volume edited by curators and research associates of the Smithsonian Institution, published by University of Chicago Press, and based on a 1987 conference among 35 scientists concerned with the ecological context in which evolutionary change takes place.

The fundamental question addressed by the volume is "Do particular species associations and interactions persist long enough to produce important long-term evolutionary effects on lineages and ecological structure?" As the editor/ authors state, this is a question that can be pursued only by studying fossil assemblages and, as such, embodies the field of evolutionary paleoecology. Rather than directly answering this question, the book proceeds by giving outlines for methodological approaches (taphonomy and ecological characterizations of plants and animals) and then a period-by-period account of the data relevant to ecosystem research, starting with the Ordovician.

A.K. Behrensmeyer and R.W. Hook, et al. compile a review of taphonomic literature including references up to and including 1992. This review takes an environment-by-environment approach, predicting both abundances and types of organisms found in each. Terminology of sedimentary systems is covered lightly, with attention focused primarily on the potential for preservation in each environment. The specific methodological application of taphonomy to interpretation of biological attributes of fossil organisms is the only aspect of modem taphonomy that appears to be lacking in this review, yet the authors hardly can be faulted, because research data of this type are rare in general. The chapter addresses taphonomic approaches to ecological inference, but stops short of linking taphonomic investigation to ecological questions of evolutionary importance.

S.L. Wing and W.A. DiMichele, with their botanically-inclined collaborators, present the first of two chapters on taxon-free community research in which the aim is to characterize communities based on the ecological roles of species rather than on their phylogenetic affinities. The approach requires (for plants) an analysis first at the organ level, given that plant organs generally are preserved as dispersed entities. Autecology is then reconstructed using an integrative approach with data from organ classes as well as sedimentary environments. Finally, synecological reconstructions are made, data coming from the lower levels of analysis (organ and autecology) as well as with input from taphonomic context and potentially from associated vertebrate/invertebrate remains. It is clear than none of this research is intended to stand completely free of systematic considerations, since recognition of organs and reconstruction of individual species is based on knowledge of modem relatives as well as well-documented reconstruction of fossil relatives of the taxon in question. Taxon-free research is most creatively applied at the community and species-interaction levels. Wing and DiMichele demonstrate that structural attributes of plants can be used to characterize community associations in an ecologically informative way. Because the range of expression of these characteristics is somewhat narrowed in modem ecosystems, dominated vegetationally by the flowering plants and Pinaceae, the structural attributes of ecosystems over time may be a very useful parameter to demonstrate evolutionary paleoecological principles. The short-term attributes of communities targeted by this chapter are those collected by neoecologists in a routine manner: species composition, canopy height and depth, spacing of individuals, reproductive biology, constructional form and expanse. However, the long-term dynamics must be based on ataxonomic attributes such that the coal swamps of the Carboniferous, dominated by lycopods, can be compared to the coal swamps of the Late Cretaceous, dominated by taxodiaceous conifers and ferns. The approach has rarely been put into effect. Because the example provided has only a shallow time dimension, a demonstration of the power of the approach is left to future authors.

The companion chapter on taxon-free characterization of animal communities (rappoteur: J.D. Damuth) has a concise, clear feel to it. This is due, in part, to the precedent in modem community ecology of characterization of mammals on the basis of their food source, size and physiology. Guilds have played an important part in animal community ecology for many years, whereas the idea is not commonly applied to plant communities. The extension of the taxon-free approach to pre-mammalian communities is simply a formalized attempt to put the roles of the vertebrates first and their systematic affinities second. Clear ecomorphic categories (diet, locomotion, size, behavioral ecology) are defined and applied to vertebrates. Missing is a complementary set of traits for insect communities or alternatively, a clear suggestion for how insects might be treated in a taxon-free analysis.

Perhaps one of the most enduring contributions of the book will be the exhaustive references that accompany each chapter. These are particularly relevant for the final three chapters of the book, which cover the ecosystems of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic / Early Cenozoic, and the Late Cenozoic. The references provide the basic data from which many of the generalizations are drawn and thus open the field of terrestrial paleoecology to those with interest but previous frustration with a highly specialized, systematically-oriented literature.

Without a doubt, the greatest amount of information is packed into the Paleozoic chapter, rappoteured by W.A. DiMichele and R.W. Hook. Period-by-period synopses of plants and animals are followed by syntheses that capture the goal of the book: evolutionary paleoecology. Speculation is rampant in these syntheses and the characterizations certainly can be challenged from many angles, but the end product is an immense body of important research questions that have the potential to attract the attention of neoecologists as well as paleoecologists. The only weakness might be in the ecological characterization of the animal communities. These tend to read more like species accounts than community accounts. The two most significant points to be made by this chapter are I) the paucity of evidence for herbivory prior to the Permian, and 2) the correspondence between number of major taxonomic groups and number of morphotype categories recognized among plants and animals. This creates the impression that guilds were filled generally by taxa of few higher taxonomic groups, and that in turn, higher taxonomic groups were found as members of few guilds.

Mesozoic Ecosystems is a balanced account, with proportionally more attention paid to the animal communities. This chapter, rappoteured by S.L. Wing and H.-D. Sues, has the advantage of assessing change across a recognized extinction boundary. In stark contrast to the impression of ecosystems in the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic is portrayed as a world of progressive modernization. Communities are described much more often in terms of analogy with present ecosystems than with the Paleozoic. In spite of the excitement of very large-bodied herbivores and carnivores, the Mesozoic ecosystems seem less exotic


and display more predictable changes in contrast to those of the Paleozoic. I found the plant portions of these sections less useful than were those of the Paleozoic chapter because of the tendency to revert to taxonomic groupings and lists of genera that were meaningless to anyone but the specialist. Insects are again represented only in proportion to their representation in the literature: rare to absent. Interactions among plants and animals are well covered. Data gaps follow those in the fossil record, but are not always acknowledged so that for the uninitiated it may appear that there is more support for the position taken than is actually present. For example, there are few published Early Cretaceous floras yet much is made of the species lists that have been published. In this respect, the speculations exceed the generalities of the data.

The final chapter takes us from the Oligocene to the present. These data, alone among those in the book, have been addressed in an ecological sense in previous paleoecological syntheses. Thus, these authors arc up against some stiff competition. After a brief discussion of physical and biotic trends, the chapter is subdivided into sections covering individual continents. The chapter, alone among the biotically oriented chapters, is not rappoteured by a plant ecologist and so there is a tendency to describe the communities based on the food preferences of the animals. This is unfortunate since some of the highest quality paleobotanical data come from Miocene through Quaternary ecosystems. Insects are treated in no more depth than in previous chapters, an effect that we must attribute partially to the rappotuers since data on Cenozoic insects is certainly more dense than in pre-Cenozoic ecosystems.

There are a couple of important aspects of the interface between ecology and evolutionary biology that are not covered in this comprehensive review of paleoecology. These await attention from the evolutionary biologists who take up the investigation of evolutionary paleoecology. First, what ecological questions or answers can be presented using data from the fossil record that are directly relevant to modem ecological theory and practice? What questions can the fossil record answer that ecologists might want to ask? The book addresses the larger potential questions of long-term ecological associations and trends affecting the evolutionary patterns but leaves out the smaller questions asked by "the troops in the trenches" that become important once extrapolated from the single community scale. A second, related question is, are paleontologists asking the same kinds of ecological questions as are neoecologists? At what relative stages of development are the two fields? Is it possible that they are out of phase, causing an apparent lack of interest by neoecologists in paleoecological questions? Or, are neoecologists and paleoecologists asking such differently scaled questions that one cannot derive answers from the other? That is, are the long-term questions asked by ecologists simply not answerable by paleontologists? These arc important sociological questions about evolutionary paleoecology that are not addressed in Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time , but which clearly were fretted over during informal discussions.

The volume is, without a doubt, destined to be a trend-setting book for terrestrial paleoecology. We should expect to see a deluge of books that recreate ecosystems in far greater detail than attempted by this volume, along the lines of the excellent Plant Life in the Devonian, by Patricia Gensel and Henry Andrews. We will anticipate specific ecological issues (competition, predator-prey relationships, herbivory) to be addressed with a temporal perspective as the major axis. Volumes such as this are intrinsically interdisciplinary, and they must stand on ground well broken by the participants at the first Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems conference. These future books, it is to be hoped, will carefully weave together the threads of data that recreate not just the history of life on land, but the ecological context in which that history developed.—Robyn J. Burnham, University of Michigan Microspores: Evolution and Ontogeny S. Blackmore and R. B. Knox, eds. 1990. Academic Press, San Diego CA 92101. ISBN 0-1 2-1 03458-5 (US$105.00, paper).—In this well-organized volume, 15 chapters compiled by seasoned editors examine microsporogenesis from an evolutionary and cladistic perspective, and review pollen developmental research with direct application to human welfare.

In chapter 1, Blackmore and Knox outline concepts relevant to microsporogenesis, and enlarge the volume's scope to include isospores of homosporous plants, dispersed fossil spores smaller than 100 µm in diameter, and plant groups ranging from green algae to angiosperms. In chapter 2, Crane presents a "preliminary cladistic hypothesis" that synthesizes research-to-date on the historical pattern of green plant evolution. Crane's series of informative diagrams provide progressively greater detail as the review proceeds to "higher" taxonomic levels. The accompanying text lists putative homologies (synapomorphies) and supporting literature for every major monophyletic group. Competing hypotheses are also discussed. Crane concludes by outlining implications and predictions of the preceding cladistic hypothesis for the evolution of microsporogenesis, highlighting heterospory, sacci and apertures.

Chapters 3-9 follow with reviews of microsporogenesis (sporogenesis for isosporous groups) in major taxa from charophycean algae to angiosperms. Graham introduces meiospore formation in green algae, then zeroes in on zygote development and meiosporogenesis in Coleochaete, emphasizing putative synapomorphies shared with embryophytes (bryophytes plus tracheophytes). Brown and Lemmon compare sporogenesis in mosses, homworts and hepatics using an array of excellent light micrographs, TEM micrographs, immunofluorescent images, and line drawings. Lugardon compares and contrasts tapetum and spore ontogeny in extant pteridophytes (homosporous and heterosporous ferns and Lycopsida, and Equisetopsida), outlining evolutionary implications in a concluding section. Taylor contributes an overview of microsporogenesis in fossil pollen and spores, both dispersed and in situ. Wang brings the volume hack to the present, concisely discussing microspore and tapetal ontogeny in cycads and Ginkgo, highlighting the unique flagellated sperm cells of these taxa. Kurman compares the ontogeny of alveolar and granular conifer exines, complementing her discussion with an excellent series of TEM micrographs. Blackmore and Barnes complete this series of chapters by describing the ontogeny of all components of the angiosperm exine, concluding with philosophic considerations concerning the use of ontogenetic data in systematic investigations.

In chapters 10-15, the volume concentrates on aspects of angiosperm microsporogenesis. Southworth begins with a thorough review of exine biochemistry. Reading her chapter leaves one wondering what it will take to fully understand the unique material called sporopollenin. Pacini


follows with a well-illustrated comparison of tapetal ontogeny from bryophytes to angiosperms, complementing information for specific groups in earlier chapters. Cresti and Tiezzi focus on the sequence of changes in pollen germination and tube formation, summarizing morphological, chemical and cytoskeletal data. Mascarenhas reviews evidence concerning expression of the pollen grain's haploid genome, comparing this to gene expression by the parental diploid genome. Rocckel, Chaboud, Matthys-Rochon, Russell and Dumas narrow the focus to morphological, chemical, and cytoskeletal changes in the two dimorphic (?) sperm cells from pollen germination through double fertilization. Evans, Singh and Knox complete the transition from basic to applied science by reviewing and suggesting applications of angiosperm pollen to biotechnology, including environmental, allergenic and agricultural research.

This volume provides "one-stop shopping" for those interested in any aspect of microsporogenesis. It synthesizes a wealth of information hitherto scattered throughout the professional literature, clearly indicating the frontiers of knowledge on each topic. It would be an excellent source of supplementary readings for a variety of botany classes (systematics, morphology, anatomy, physiology, etc.). As can be expected with a compilation of this type, some systematic treatments employ a more traditional approach; others are rigorously cladistic. This is not a detractor, however, as copious data are presented for those wishing to assess putative apomorphies and plesiomorphies of major taxonomic groups. Illustrations and editing are uniformly outstanding. The volume is well worth its price.—John J. Skvarla, University of Oklahoma.

Methods in Microbiology: Techniques for the study of mycorrhiza. Volumes 23-24 1992. J.R. Norris, D.J. Read and A.K. Varma, eds. Academic Press, San Diego CA 92101. ISBN 0-1 2-521 5 23-1.—Mycorrhizal research has grown by leaps and bounds in the last decade after the first comprehensive book on methodologies (Methods and Principles of Mycorrhizal Research, 1982, N. C. Schenck, American Phytopathological Society, St Paul, Minnesota) was released. Despite the various handbooks generated for mycorrhizal methodology workshops, in recent years there has been an urgent need for a compilation of a comprehensive and up-to-date source book of techniques: an easily available, detailed account of modem, sophisticated methods routinely used in laboratories involved in mycorrhizal research. The present volumes meets this requirement well.

The first volume (23) emphasizes techniques applicable to ectomycorrhizal and cricoid systems and the second one (24) to vesicular-arbuscular systems. Volume 23 comprises 20 chapters and is dedicated to the late J. L. Harley, who authored the first chapter. An exhaustive account of the characterization of ectomycorrhiza is provided by R. Agerer with special emphasis put on anatomical research. This compilation is the best available, and can be supplemented by his book, Colour Atlas of Ectomycorrhizae (1987-1990, Einhom-Verlag, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany). Agerer details field methods, nuclei staining techniques through voucher preparation and deposition. Peterson and Chakravarty put together another large section on techniques in synthesizing ectomycorrhiza under controlled, either sterile and non-sterile conditions. They provide a good and concise review of the major methods, accompanied by illustrations of most apparati, and discuss the practicalities and advantages and disadvantages for particular studies. I found this chapter to be excellent. Peterson in Chapter 4 provides details of both simple and complex methods used in the study of the histochemistry of ectomycorrhiza and the significance of this work in physiological and ecological studies. Martin in Chapter 5 briefly outlines methodology and new data on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

The effects of mycorrhiza on nutrient uptake, stress tolerance or fitness of plants can only be explained if we understand the processes involved in the acquisition and utilization of carbon by the mycobiont. Jakobsen in Chapter 6 provides rather thought-provoking ideas and a framework for some practical approaches to the study of carbon metabolism in mycorrhiza. Although details of several methods are lacking, some details (e.g. 14C-labelling equipment, circuit diagrams, CO2 absorber, hyphal compartmentalization apparatus) and good illustrations are presented. Chapters 7 (Ahmad and Hellebust) and 8 (Botton and Chalot) deal with the enzymology and metabolism of nitrogen. These chapters give evaluations of some of the methods used to investigate the enzymology and main metabolic pathways involved nitrogen metabolism in plants and fungi and are also fairly good reviews on these topics. Chapters 9 by Rygiewicz and Armstrong titled "Ectomycorrhizal DNA: Isolation, RFLPS and Probe Hybridization," and 10 by Lemke, Barrett and Dixon titled "Procedures and Prospects for DNA-mediated Transformation of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi" are clear and concise outlines of the methodologies as stated in the titles. Tinker, Jones and Durall (chapter 11) describe the place of the use of radioisotopes in studies of the mycorrhizal symbiosis; reference is given to most of the studies reporting the details of the techniques to be used. The next five chapters provide valuable information for anyone interested in the detailed studies of hyphac and rhizomorphs. Each provides the reader with the techniques, their workability, their use in mycorrhizal studies and significance. Marx, Ruehle and Cordell (chapter 17) provide a review of up-to-date results of nursery and field research on ectomycorrhizas conducted in the USA, France, Canada, Philippines and Venezuela. This chapter provides excellent coverage of the methods for nursery and field research (soil treatment and inoculation, cultural practices, experimental design, measurements needed, statistical methods). Heinonen-Tanski and Holopainen provide an excellent complementary chapter to the earlier one, although brief: isolation, cultivation and maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Chapter 19 by Egli and Kälin give a very detailed methods for the set up and observation of ectomycorrhiza using a root window technique. In the final chapter, Leake and Read write about cricoid mycorrhizas, their isolation, synthesis and screening. Much of the chapter also comprises discussion and review of their data.

Volume 24, composed of 22 chapters, begins with an introduction and presentation of procedures for the selection of inoculant vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Abbott, Robson and Gazey provide a review of their work and sound suggestions for selection and criteria to be used, also stressing the importance of each situation. Chapter 2 by Tommerup covers methods for the study of the population biology of VAM fungi. Sylvia reviews some methods for the quantification of external VAM hyphae. Schüepp, Bodmer and Miller (chapter 4) provide fairly detailed information on a cuvette system designed for monitoring of the growth and spread of extramatrical


hyphae. Ergosterol analysis as a means of quantifying mycorrhizal biomass is presented in a rather lucid and thought provoking fashion by Nylund and Wallander (chapter 5). Bécard and Piché review and propose methods for the establishment of VAM fungi in root organ culture. In the following chapter (7) Gianinazzi and Gianinazzi-Pearson illustrate well how cytology, histochemistry and immunocytochemistry may be used to study structure and function in mycorrhiza. Perhaps one of most stimulating chapters (8) is put together by Bonfante-Fasolo and Spanu. This chapter illustrates the establishment of a symbiosis between plant and micro-organisms, including VAM fungi, and sheds light on aspects of the symbiosis shared by both mycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi. Rosendahl and Sens' chapter (9) titled "Isozyme analysis of mycorrhizal fungi and their mycorrhiza," McGee and Smiths' chapter (10) titled "Enzymic separation of VAM fungi from roots: methods, applications and problems," William's chapter (II) on "Axenic culture of VAM fungi" and Perotto, Malavasi and Butchers' chapter (12) on the use of monoclonal antibodies for VAM research all provide precise details of protocols, their usage and significance. Hoch, Liebmann, Beyrle and Dressel (chapter 13) propose enzyme immunoassay techniques for use in mycorrhizal work. They provide the reader a sound background before introducing the technique.

Toth in chapter 14 discusses using morphometric cytology for the quantification of arbuscules. He also touches upon the usage of this technique for the quantification of intercellular hyphae, vesicles, total fungal biovolume and fungal surface area. Chapter 15 by Rajapakse and Miller covers very briefly methods used for the quantification of VAM fungal colonization and physical properties of roots. I feel that this chapter lacks some clarity and does not cover all methods used to date. Pacioni's chapter (16) on the extraction of spores of VAM fungi is also deficient in its coverage of methods, although it does illustrate one usable method in great detail. Habte (Chapter 17) provides a rather convincing account of a rapid and precise technique for monitoring the developing of symbiotic effectiveness in mycorrhizas. Chapters 18 and 19, deal with the inoculum production and application of VAM fungi in the tropical nurseries (Feldmann and Idczak) and agricultural (Bagyaraj). Both chapters provide stimulating discussions. The last three chapters [Bethlenfalvay (20), Barea, Azcon, and Azcon-Aguilar (21) and Cervanthes and Rodríguez-Barrueco (22)] focus on discussions nitrogen-fixing systems in legumes and non-legumes. The discussions are of significant value because the authors draw from a great deal of their own experience and work.

I applaud the editors for assembling an impeccable team of researchers, all of whom have contributed to the success of these volumes. These volumes clearly provide more than mere laboratory procedures. Each author has attempted to provide a framework of the current status of his or her individual area, and outlined new and innovative methods along with the usage and significance of these methods. A vast amount of useful data generated from the application of the techniques reported is also shared. I see these volumes as a tremendously valuable collection of methods in mycorrhizal research, seriously presented and synthesized. We finally have all the methods in two volumes! It is my hope that the cost of these two volumes is reasonable, for their accessibility is of utmost importance.—Shivcharn S. Dhillion, Texas Tech University, Lubbock The Origins of Agriculture: An International Perspective. C. Wesley Cowan and Patty Jo Watson, eds. 1992. Smithsonian Institution Press. 470 L'Enfant Plaza Suite 7100, Washington. DC 20560 224 pp. ISBN 0-87474-990-5 (cloth US$49.95), ISBN 0.87474-991-3 (paper US$19.95)—Agriculture is one of the most significant achievements of humans, yet we know little about how this prehistoric invention, or more correctly, inventions came about. This book goes a long ways down the path of establishing what plants, where in the world and in what time context these human activities developed, based on archaeological research and paleoethnobotanical evidence. The original papers formed a 1985 AAAS symposium. To the great credit of the editors these papers were updated and supplemented with two additional papers to make a very complete, up to date, and balanced treatment of the topic. Most chapters possess a similar outline of the history of investigations on plant evidence for gathered/domesticated plants from archaeological sites, the current understanding of the archaeobotanical record, and a limited discussion of the domestication process for the geographical region covered. Although similar in certain elements of format each chapter has a style which is distinctive. Taken as a whole the hook truly reflects the diversity and complexity of the origins of agricultural issues. I am very grateful there is a paperback edition with a price that students can afford because this will be a wonderfully useful book for at least a decade.

The chapters covering East Asia, the Near East, Europe, Eastern North America, the Greater Southwest, Mesoamerica and South America arc written by anthropologists. Only the indigenous African agriculture chapter is written by a botanist, and this was the only author that I felt presented an evolutionary context for plant domestication. In truth, the volume is not about crop plant evolution or even the domestication process, it is a summary about the hard evidence of real sites and plant remains—this it does very well. The only parts of the world not adequately covered are South Asia and Southeast Asia, and quite honestly there isn't the wealth of information for these regions or for the African continent in the known archaeological record. Every chapter mentions what we don't know about the actual origins of the plant cultivation/ domestication process, and authors that lament too much about what we don't know I find boring, but each in their own way balanced what we lack with what we do know and I found myself drawn into the mystery of the origins of agriculture.

Clearly one of the themes that runs through the separate papers is that there is no single origin of agriculture but rather multiple origins that occurred in widely diverse geographic regions, each with a unique set of plants: Mesoamerica, Eastern North America, the Far East, the Near East and probably mid-tropical Africa. The evolution and geographic spread of humans took place in the Pleistocene, but the cultivation and domestication of plants came only in the Holocene, post-Ice Age, and most significantly in the last 10,000 years. Several of the individual papers have excellent maps identifying all the sites of importance and graphics of chronology that support the idea that even within a region there were separate origins for different crops.

Ideas often generate new words and I found "domestilocality" an addition to my vocabulary. This word applies to the actual cultivation of potential crop plants in the same region where they are wild. Obviously this is "pristine" domestication or the first steps in domestication as distinct from the movement of the quasi-cultigen into


new regions outside the natural distribution where "new encounter" domestication takes place when the plant is introduced to an already agricultural society. This second case has been called secondary domestication, but this is a poor choice because this phrase already has a specific meaning in the crop evolution literature. A classic example of secondary domestication is the movement of oats into the fields of northern Europe (colder soils) where they were domesticated as a weed seed in wheat/barley fields. As for domestilocality, I wonder why the already established word domiciliate (i.e. to establish in a domicile or cultivated field) was not used so there could be domiciliation of a cultigen or domicilocality? Rather than the invention of new words, I would have preferred more analysis of the actual artificial selection processes that resulted in the morphological changes in the crops as they shifted form the wild-type genes (dominants) to those favoring the adaptations of cultivation (recessive alleles). None of the chapters really comes to grips with the evolutionary forces involved in the origins of agriculture; they are locked onto the description of actual plant remains and the interpretation of cultural context. Even here when we know the chronology of the earliest cultigens we still do not know why people turned away from foraging as a way of life. The initial "kick" that started the ball of agriculture rolling downhill remains elusive. The individual chapters stick to what is known and don't speculate. For this the line-by-line editor should be commended. Taken as a whole the book is a readable summary often drawing from research papers about the origins of agriculture that are not readily available.

Every library (educational and public) that is used by students should have this book on the shelf. Armed with a good economic botany textbook, a book on crop plant evolution/breeding, and The Origins of Agriculture the student can come to an understanding of the last 10,000 years of the human/food-plant interface that has defined our current condition. What better way to end the review than cite the book dedication: "To all those scholars, past and present, who have advanced our knowledge of the manifold and complex relationships between plants and people."

Garrison Wilkes
University of Massachusetts, Boston

Introduction to Floriculture, 2nd ed. R.A. Larson, ed. 1992. ISBN 0.12.437651-7 (636 pp., cloth. US $49.95) Academic Press, 1250 Sixth Ave., San Diego, CA 92101—Printed on acid-free paper and written by 25 floriculture experts, this is a textbook for an upper-division course in floriculture crop production. The title is a bit misleading because a typical prerequisite for floriculture crop production is a course that provides a general overview of greenhouse crop production practices and uses a textbook such as P.V. Nelson's Greenhouse Operation and Management, 4th ed. (1991, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ).

This volume has 22 chapters in two sections: cut flowers and potted plants, along with a glossary and a subject index. Cut flower chapters deal with chrysanthemums, carnations, roses, snapdragons, orchids, gladiolus and specialty cut flowers. Potted plant chapters examine bulb crops, azaleas, chrysanthemums, poinsettias, Easter lilies, hydrangeas, gesneriads, cyclamen, begonias, kalanchoe, geraniums, bedding plants, foliage plants, hanging baskets and miscellaneous flowering pot crops. There are a wealth of commercial applications of basic botanical discoveries including photoperiod control, rooting hormones, chemical growth regulators, tissue culture propagation, iron chelates, virus indexing, and ethylene inhibitors, so this book would be a useful source of applied information for botany teachers. The crops covered also provide excellent examples of botanical principles in plants familiar to students, from crassulacean acid metabolism in kalanchoe to gravitropism in cut snapdragon flowers. Former BSA President Liberty Hyde Bailey's words seem appropriate when considering the usefulness of this book, "A few days ago I saw a professor of botany in a commercial green-house, asking the florist many questions about the growth and behavior of plants. I asked him why. He replied, 'Those men know more real plant physiology than we do' " (1904, Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 2:53-60).

Illustrations consist of black and white photos, graphs and line drawings. Each chapter begins with an outline and ends with a list of references. The chapters typically examine crop history, taxonomy, economics, propagation, environmental conditions, cultivation practices, post-harvest handling, marketing, pests, diseases and physiological disorders. The depth and range of coverage varies with the crop and author. A missed opportunity is the lack of emphasis on current environmental concerns such as fertilizer and pesticide contamination of the environment. Altogether, it is an excellent textbook and reference for commercial floriculturists and of interest to botany teachers for real-world applications of botanical principles.

David R. Hershey
University of Maryland, College Park.

The Action Plant: Movement and Nervous Behavior in Plants. P. Simons. 1992. ISBN 0-631-13899-4 (323 pp., cloth, US $27.95) Blackwell Publishers, 238 Main St., Suite 501, Cambridge, MA 02142.—Authored by a former BBC television producer turned science writer, this book on nongrowth movements of plants sets itself the difficult task of trying to appeal to both scientific and popular audiences. To appeal to scientists there is a bibliography of over 450 citations. To appeal to a popular audience there is a relaxed writing style, a glossary and imaginative alternatives to scientific terms, e.g. stomata are 'kissing mouths', a cell wall is a 'tough corset of cellulose fibers', and carnivorous plants are 'bloody plants'. Topics covered include solar-tracking, self-burying seeds, flower movements, sleep movements and exploding plants. A recurring theme is that plant movements are similar to animal movements because electrical signals are often involved.

As a popular book, it suffers from the lack of color photography, which has been used so effectively in other popular books such as Plant watching by Malcolm Wilkins, Carnivorous Plants by Adrian Slack and The Sex Life of Flowers by Bastiaan Meeuse and Sean Morris. Surprisingly, Simons cites none of these hooks. This book has only a single color photo on the dustjacket, although it is an interesting multiple-exposure shot of leaf movement in the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica). The black and white photos in the text are of rather mediocre quality but the numerous line drawing are generally good.

There is much to recommend the book including its emphasis on historical background and the people behind botanical discoveries and its chapter on experiments and instructions on growing of 'mobile plants' which are useful for teachers or amateur botanists.

David R. Hershey
University of Maryland at College Park.

Tickia Orologica



Life Strategies of Succulents in Deserts with Special Reference to the Namib Desert . D.J. von Willem, B.M. Eller, M.J.A. Werger, E. Brinckmann, and H.-H. Ihlenfeldt. 1992. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 340 pp., i-xix. ISBN 0-521-24468-4. (part of the series "Cambridge Studies in Ecology")—The authors of this book have assembled impressive amounts of data, numerous anecdotal accounts, and an impressive array of related information into a valuable and delightful treatise on the biology of a fascinating group of plants in southwestern Africa. Many of their findings can be applied to succulents throughout the world, yet few places on earth match the Namib Desert region for its climate, diversity, and astonishing variety of succulents in the flora. As a result, some of the results obtained by Prof. von Willert et al. are most likely unique to the succulent flora of this region.

In the preface, the authors state five goals in assembling the book: 1) to review their past research on the ecophysiology of succulents, 2) to review various aspects of the field of ecophysiology for non-ecophysiologists, 3) to introduce a new definition of "succulence" and to emphasize plant function in the concept of "life strategy" of a succulent, 4) to encourage research on unresolved problems in understanding the ecophysiology of succulents, and 5) to stimulate interest by non-ecophysiologists and non-botanists in these intriguing plants. To accomplish these goals, the book is divided into five sections. In Chapter 1, "The Succulent," the authors present a new definition of succulent (I agree that their proposed term "succophyte" holds little promise for gaining wide acceptance) which, unfortunately, suffers from problems of imprecise, relative terms, and thus may prove to be no more useful than past definitions. Structural features and ecological factors characteristic of succulents are also reviewed in this chapter.

Chapter 2, "Climate and Vegetation of Deserts," presents a very general overview of the global and more local environmental factors that interact to create and characterize a desert. Basic principles of microclimatology are reviewed, as are the types of plants which characterize deserts. Included in the latter are life cycle characteristics, photosynthetic pathways, aspects of population biology, reproductive ecology, and the influence of immigration and biotic and abiotic factors on floristic composition of various deserts.

The authors then focus their attention on "The Namib Desert" (Chapter 3), covering much of the material in Chapter 2, but in much greater detail. Chapter 4, "Physiological Implications," constitutes the heart of the book. Here Prof. von Willert and his colleagues, after a slow start discussing at length basic concepts of microclimatology and energy budgets of plant parts, share with the reader their voluminous sets of data and keen insights on water relations, transpiration, CO2 exchange, photosynthetic pathways, and ecophysiological responses of the Namib succulents to changes in environmental factors, including drought. Heavy emphasis is placed on the importance of climatological events such as "bergwind," warm, dessicating winds descending from coastal mountain ranges to the ocean, and heavy fogs rolling inland from the ocean. In several thought-provoking and undoubtedly contentious discussions, Prof. von Willert and colleagues down-play the ecophysiological significance of CAM and, instead, extol the wondrous virtues of succulence.

The authors close the book with chapter 5, "Life Strategies of Succulents," in a seemingly protracted discussion of the interplay of "utilizable" water and biomass, life history, phenology, and ecophysiology of the diverse array of succulent types in the Namib Desert. This treatise culminates in a taxonomic key of Namibian succulents.

Although Chapters 1 through 3 provide general overviews of succulents, deserts, and ecophysiology useful to newcomers in this field of study, fulfilling goal number 2 of the authors, the strength of the book lies in Chapter 4. There is something here for everybody. It is difficult to read this chapter without occasionally running off to the nearest student or colleague with whom to share a fascinating succulent vignette. The data are impressive. The interpretations are well-founded. Some discussions and ideas are bold and in need of further research. There can be no doubt that the authors have succeeded in fulfilling goals number 1 and 4 in this chapter. Goal number 3 is met in Chapters 1 and 5.

The book is amazingly free of typographical errors; in fact, T could only locate one! The authors, however, display a penchant for using bizarre words, for example, "gulp" (usually "burst" is more accepted), "calcrete," "mesoclimate," "epithem," "habitus," "hapaxanthous," "pavciannuals," and "aestatiphorism." Although the entire book was very well written and assembled, it would have been improved by a glossary, a more detailed index, and, more importantly, more liberal citations. The authors often mentioned ideas, concepts, species, and results from other studies without citing them. In this regard, the authors also occasionally interpreted their findings without adequately supporting their interpretation with arguments and/or previous relevant studies.

The above criticisms are minor. The book was a delight to read. The authors succeeded in all goals, especially number 5. Who wouldn't be fascinated by hydathodes that might act like stomata in absorbing condensed fog water? Or plants that live a year without water by shifting around their internal water? Or subterranean plants with "windows" on their leaf tips which poke through the soil and let sunlight inside their leaves? Or succulents that undergo "reverse transpiration"?

Prof. von Willert and his colleagues have succeeded in producing a landmark treatise on the ecophysiology of succulents in the Namib Desert, and, furthermore, they have succeeded in conveying to the reader an appreciation for and enrichment in knowledge about these captivating and beautiful plants.

Craig E. Martin
University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Populationsbiologie der Pflanzen - Grundlagen - Probleme - Perspektiven. K.M. Urbanska. 1992. Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart. Germany. 374 pp. ISBN 3-437-20471-5 (no price given).—Since Harper's book in 1977, no one has attempted to review recent advances in population biology and to provide a textbook suitable to introduce students to this challenging field of botany. The book, written in German, comes in a paperback edition, following the tradition of the publisher to make its publications affordable for the targeted population. The pages are only glued into the binding and this might be the only drawback of this kind of edition as the pages tend to fall off after a continuous use. The format of the book is adapted to a student reader: the definitions are highlighted in boxes, the examples are presented in a smaller font than the main text, and generously illustrated, cross references are regularly used and the chapters are concise and each is concluded by a short summary. The chapters are all similar in size and broken down to short subchapters. The literature referred to


includes numerous citations many of which were published after Harper's book and therefore represents a welcome complement to this earlier work.

The first chapter introduces the reader to the author's concept of an individual, a population, and their characterization in terms of size, area and density. Attention is paid to the distinctiveness of "population biology" from its closely related and partly overlapping disciplines of population genetics and population ecology. The following three chapters develop in the sequence of the early "life experiences" of propagules: their dispersal, their accumulation in banks, and finally their germination and establishment. Dispersal is seen as a "genetical escape" rather than an "escape in space" (mainly from predators) allowing the survival of a variety of genotypes (Chap. 2). In the same chapter, the limits and consequences of dispersal are discussed briefly and to Harper's concept of "seed rain" is added the idea of "fruit hail" standing for the dispersal of an entire infructescence (i.e. synaptospermy). Finally the different kinds (achory,...) and strategies (amphycarpy, ...) of dispersal are reviewed. The focus on diaspore banks involves a careful description of what they should be (i.e. all diaspores of a particular species present in one place), the time and spatial frame in which they evolve and their dynamics. The question about the composition of diaspore communities and their relationship to the actual vegetation is also addressed (Chap. 3). The three different types of dormancy encountered are extensively reviewed, before the main emphasis of chapter four is discussed, namely germination and establishment. The concept of "germination-sites" is developed with regards to its impact on succession and to its distinctiveness from Harper's "safe-sites" concept. The point here is that sites favorable to the germination of seeds would not always ensure the successful establishment of seedlings. Thus Harper's concept of "safe-sites" is restricted to sites that provide adequate conditions for the germination of the seeds (these are called here "germination-site"). The term "safe-sites" should be use for sites whose conditions insure the establishment of the seedling.

In the following three chapters the different aspects of growth (sensu lato) are examined. Growth and development of an individual or a population, arc the focus of chapter five. Growth is defined as "an irreversible gain of substance and spatial range" and five types of individual growth, each characterized by the time of its occurrence and its result, are recognized. Major emphasis is put on the development (qualitative change, i.e. in habit, function,...) of an individual, for which the age-state classification of Rabotnov is accepted and its phenotypic plasticity discussed. The following chapter is devoted to clonal plants and the expansion of these assemblages of ramets, is examined at the individual and populational level. Clonal growth is discussed in terms of the strategies adopted for expansion and the time frame in which they develop, before its costs and usefulness is briefly evaluated. Regeneration, a biological replacement process, is considered part of either an escape- (i.e. in deciduous plants) or a tolerance-(recovery from damage) strategy for an individual. In the latter case, the different degrees of compensation for the loss are discussed. Regeneration of a population may involve growth as well as reproduction and is mainly dependent on the life cycle of the species.

The discussion of the life cycle of a plant is then completed by addressing problems related to their sexual as well as asexual reproduction. The biological implications of propagation versus growth are stressed before the concepts on the evaluation of costs, efficiency and value of a reproductive strategy, are elaborated on (Chap. 8). An interesting review of several biological aspects of the diverse propagation strategics involving the formation of seeds follows. An introduction on sex and sexuality, sex determination and pollen function leads to a discussion on mating, the selection of mates during pollination, the contrasting characteristics of autogamy versus allogamy, the parent-progeny interactions and the selection-processes occurring during seed development (including heterogamy). Expanding on the different types of agamospermy completes chapter nine and provides an appropriate transition into the next chapter which is focused on vegetative reproduction. Specialized propagules can originate from different parts of the "mother" plant and either develop before or after dispersion, and thus be active or dormant at the time of dispersion. An alternative type of vegetative reproduction is the fragmentation of the maternal sporophyte. "Self-donation" (Selbstklonierung) is a natural phenomenon and follows a specific pattern whereas in "forced-clonation" the time of fragmentation is set by casual external factors. Compared to sexual reproduction by means of seeds, vegetative reproduction requires less energy and can be viewed as an appropriate strategy to avoid exposure to risks as experienced during germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. Each species seems to have the option of both kinds of reproduction and develops a particular reproductive behavior in relation to its environment.

In chapter 11, the relationship between population genetics and biology are illustrated by genetic processes. The concept of gene flow and the controversy regarding its importance in speciation is briefly elaborated on before the experimental approaches to quantify it are presented. Furthermore, gene flow is first discussed in terms of pollination - stressing the importance of carryover in estimating neighborhood size - before the impact of different diaspore dispersal strategics is evaluated. The application of different molecular approaches (allozymes, cpDNA, DNA fingerprints,...) in genealogical (pedigree) studies is documented based on the classic works by Soltis and Soltis, Meagher and Ellstrand. Population structure in asexual populations is briefly discussed and finally the strong complementarity of population biology and genetics is stressed referring to Hurka's work on Capsella bursapastoris.

The book is concluded by a chapter focused on population dynamics and demography. Self-thinning following the -3/2 power law is discussed as an example of density regulatory mechanisms in pure stands. Furthermore, methods for sampling and analyzing data are briefly reviewed and major emphasis is put on the population projection matrix technique and flow diagrams applied to populations of four herbaceous plants whose dynamics were followed over a nine year period. Finally, demo-graphic studies arc shown to provide not only interesting information regarding the relationships between density and other parameters such as phenology, but can also be considered as a important basis for nature conservation.

In the foreword, the author makes the cautionary statement that "in a short teaching manual, not all aspects of a research area can be thoroughly examined" and if this is true, one could expect that the addressed problems will be viewed in a broad perspective. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. In chapter two for example, when it comes


to discussing the meaning of dispersal, it is simply presented as an escape for genotypes, as a chance for their survival. Any idea of gene flow through diaspore movement is however badly lacking, and one has to wait to reach chapter eleven to see this concept developed. Discussing the physical limits of dispersal, no mention of the possibility of long distance dispersal and colonization of remote areas (referring to the classic work of Carlquist) is made. Another criticism would be the occasional, but nevertheless distinctive inconsistency among some chapters. The growth and development of a population is illustrated by a figure (Fig. 5-2) which remains explicit until one starts reading the related text. For example, the changes in a population experiencing only expansive growth (increase in biomass and thus cover of the individuals) over a time period t2-t1, are presented as follow: "The biomass of single individuals, of constant number, increases strongly thus expansive growth takes place. As a consequence of the individual growth an increase in the population density occurs whereas the area - of the population - remains unchanged". If one refers back to Chapter 1, as suggested by the author herself, to review the definition of density, area,... one realizes the contradiction between the definition and the application of it made here: on p. 18 population density is defined as the number of individuals per area unit, thus in the example here, as the number of individuals remains constant the density should not be changing, instead the cover of the individuals is varying. Each change in growth is further put in some submathematical terms. For the example above on the impact of expansive growth on a population, one reads the following kind of "equation" : Nt2 = 10, PDt2 = n + +, PAt2 = y2 (where N=10, is the size of the population; PD=n, its density; PA=y2, its range). It does not provide additional information to the text or the figure.

Further more, I found it unfortunate that about two dozen references are missing in the bibliography and that some figures and tables are not referred to in the text or that some parts of a figure are not labeled according to the legend. Finally, I missed a glossary including some general botanical terms. This lack can be partly excused by the presence of an extensive index and maybe it will encourage readers (probably mainly students) to acquire the "Botanisches Wörterbuch" published in the same series (UTB: Uni-Taschenbücher für Wissenschaft).

However, overall the book is well-written and should be viewed as a welcome addition to the library of any botany student as an appropriate introduction to population biology, but also to senior botanists, as a rich compilation of recent significant studies in this interesting field of research. Its use as a textbook in North American Universities may await the publication of an English edition. We should all be looking forward to it. In the meantime, let's practice our German!

Bernard Goffinet
University of Alberta, Edmonton.

Bottlephorkia Spoonifoli a Terpenoids. Methods in Plant Biochemistry, Vol 7. B.V. Charlwood and D.V. Banthorpe, eds. 1991. Academic Press, San Diego CA 92101. ISBN 0-12-461017-0 (US$67.20, cloth)—This is a comprehensive and updated volume on methods of plant biochemical analysis emphasizing those for various classes of terpenoids. This volume is one in the planned series on phenolics, carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids, terpenoids, nitrogen and sulfur compounds, lipids, membranes and light receptors, enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, plant molecular biology and biological techniques in plant biochemistry. These volumes will be produced by the able series editors, Prof. P.M. Dey and Prof. J.B. Harborne. They will be excellent complements to the successful series The Biochemistry of Plants, edited by P.K. Stumpf and E.E. Conn, also published by Academic Press.

Interest in the large and diverse group of terpenoids has led to the rapid development of new and modified techniques for their isolation, separation, identification and structure identification. New methods have also been formulated for the rapid screening of plant species for the presence of specific compounds, and for the elucidation of their biosynthetic pathways.

At the present time, publications related to the techniques of terpenoid chemistry and biochemistry are scattered through the biological, chemical, pharmaceutical, agricultural and medical literature. This volume is therefore extremely valuable in that it provides a single arena for such publications. It comes as a timely expansion and updating of the terpenoid material covered by Prof. Harborne's notable volume on modem techniques for plant analysis Phytochemical Methods in 1976 (second edition, 1984). It is equally valuable in providing reviews that permit the uninitiated to learn the possibilities and limitations of the many new methods now available to them.

The book consists of fourteen chapters, an appendix, a species index and a subject index. All the chapters are of a very high standard and survey, in a selective fashion, the major classes of terpenoids. The book opens with a chapter by Prof. Banthorpe on the classification and occurrence of terpenoids, their extraction and analysis procedures and modem chromatographic methods for their separation and determination. Detection methods described range from UV absorption to infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). The importance of the use of proton and carbon NMR spectroscopy as well as mass spectrometry (MS) in their many forms for elucidating complex structures is well illustrated in references relating to terpenoids in this volume. This chapter also offers references to volumes and compendia of general spectral and other data for natural products in which terpenoids are present.

Chapters follow on: monoterpenoids (Charlwood and Charlwood); iridoids (Inouye); sesquiterpenoids (Fraga); sesquiterpenoid lactones (Fischer); abscisic acid and derivatives (Milborrow and Netting); diterpenoids (Hanson); gibberellins (Beale and Willis); triterpenoids (Connolly and Hill); cardenolides (Connolly and Hill); phytosterols (Goad); saponins (Hostettmann, Hostettmann and Marston); carotenoids (Britton) and rubber and related polyprenols (Tanaka). The appendix (Charlwood and Banthorpe) covers minor classes of terpenoids such as sesterterpenoids, C-35 terpenoids and homocarotenoids, polyprenols as well as those that may be degraded in vivo to yield nor- or apo-products.



Each chapter contains the most recent and relevant references up to the time of publication. Individual chapters include a precise description of the structural diversity, distribution and biogenesis of the specific classes of terpenoids and summaries of their known biological activities and ecological roles. Latest techniques are described for extraction, purification, identification and structure determination. Useful and clear tables and figures are available to the reader.

This is a timely and valuable review volume for anyone working in the exciting field of plant terpenoids. It is skillfully edited, indexed, and a pleasure to read. The book has a great deal of merit and will be of value both to researchers who work on a regular basis with terpenoids and to the more senior graduate students. I strongly recommend that it be acquired by libraries of their institutions.

Barbara N. Timmermann
University of Arizona

Ecological Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Terpenoids. Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe, volume 31. J.B. Harborne and F.A. Tomas-Barberan, eds. 1991.Clarendon Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-857739-7 (US$115.00, cloth).—This rather impressive book will be welcomed by all interested in the chemistry, biochemistry, biosynthesis, physiology, taxonomy, pharmacology, cell culture and ecological significance of terpenoids. The knowledge and role of this large class of natural products in terrestrial and marine organisms are essential to our understanding of many areas of science including chemotaxonomy, agriculture, ecology, biotechnology and medicine.

This publication documents reviews based on plenary lectures presented during the International Symposium on Ecological Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Terpenoids held in Murcia, Spain, in September of 1989. It mainly summarizes the field of the period from 1983 up until the end of 1989, thus updating the previous comprehensive reviews of 1967, 1971 and 1983.

The book is composed of an introduction, sixteen well written and illustrated review chapters, an index of organisms and a subject index. Each chapter indulge with extensive reviews of the literature written by some of the most established workers in the field of terpenoids and thus constitute useful references to research in the various topics. Many of the chapters are compelling reading. Noteworthy in this volume are the contributions to the knowledge of plant terpenoids by Spanish researchers who presented four fine chapters in this area.

The review chapters cover the recent chemistry of conifer terpenoids (San Feliciano and Lopez); terpenoids of marine plants (De Rosa); chemistry, biogenesis and chemotaxonomy of diterpenoids in Salvia (Luis); environmental control of essential oil production in Mediterranean plants (Ross and Sombrero); terpenoid production in plant cell cultures (Charlwood and Charlwood); biosynthesis and distribution of iridoids in angiosperms (Jensen); terpenoid phytoalexins (Threlfall and Whitehead); phytosterol biosynthesis and plant growth (Goad); pharmacology of diterpenoids (Alcaraz and Rios); chemistry and molluscicidal action of plant saponins (Marston and Hostettmann); chemical ecology of terpenoid and other fragrances of angiosperm flowers (Bergstrom); lower terpenoids as insect control agents (Pickett); sequestration of iridoids by insects (Rimpler); ecdysteroids and their interaction with insects (Camps); terpenoids as allelopathic agents (Fischer) and recent advances in the ecological chemistry of plant terpenoids (Harborne).

Overall, this is a very useful and well edited reference book on terpenoids. It is a welcome source of both, information and new ideas on these ubiquitous, lipophilic plant constituents. This book should be interesting to a variety of readers who should consider acquiring it for their research laboratories and personal libraries. It will also be a useful addition to institutional libraries.

Barbara N. Timmermann
University of Arizona

Announcements of Publication

Interface Between Ecology and Land Development in California

(Proceedings of the Symposium)—A compilation (edited by Jon Keeley) of timely papers by researchers, conservationists, consultants and policy makers. Available from Southern California Academy of Sciences, 900 Exposition Blvd., Los Angeles CA 90007.

Wildlife I: Federal Permit Procedures Association of Systematics Collections

ASC announces the much awaited Second Edition of Controlled Wildlife I: Federal Permit Procedures, 1992. This guide, revised and updated since the 1984 edition, summarizes in common language the statutes that control the use of wildlife. Controlled Wildlife also contains information on general permit procedures, ad-dresses of key federal agencies, and samples of U.S. and foreign permits. By noting this reference, you can purchase the book for the discount price of $35.00 (regular price $40.00), valid through March 31, 1993. The original editions of Volume II: Federally Con-trolled Species, a listing of federally controlled animals and plants and the laws that control their use, and Volume III: State Permit Procedures, state wildlife laws, are still available for S40.00 each. The whole set - Volumes I, II and III - is available for S100.00. Pre-pay to: The Association of Systematics collections, 730 11th Street NW, Second Floor, Washington DC 20001-4521, 202/347-2850.

Tigerlillia Terribilis



Books Received

If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February, 15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). E-mail, call, or snail-mail as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list, because they go very quicklyl—Ed.

* = book in review or declined for review
** = book reviewed in this issue

Carbon Partitioning: Within and Between Organ-isms. C.J. Pollock, J.F. Farrar and A.J. Gordon, eds. (Environmental Plant Biology Series, W.J. Davies, series ed.) 1992. ISBN 1-872748-95-3 (Cloth US$86.00-, GB£43.00) BIOS Scientific Publishers, St. Thomas Hou

*British Plant Communities. Vol. 3 - Grasslands and Montane Communities. J.S. Rodwell, ed. 1992. ISBN 0-521-39166-0 (cloth no price given). Cam-bridge University Press, 40 W. 20th St., New York, NY 10011-4211.

Economic Botany Developmental & Structural

Xerophytes (Handbook of Plant Anatomy). A. Fahn and D.F. Cutler. 1992. ISBN 3-443-14019-X (cloth 124.00 DM). Gebr. Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhand-lung, Johannesstr. 3 A, D-7000 Stuttgart 1, Federal Republic of Germany.

*Anatomy of Flowering Plants: An Introduction to Structure and Development. Second Ed. P. Rudall. 1992 (Orig. 1987). ISBN 0-521-42154-3 (pa-per US$19.95). Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211.


Vegetation Dynamics & Global Change. A.M. Solomon & 11.11. Shugart, eds. 1993. ISBN 0-412-03681-9. (US cloth $65.00; paper $29.95; CAN cloth $81.50; paper $37.50). Routledge, Chapman and Hall, 29 W 35th St., New York, NY 10001.

The Scent of Orchids: Olfactory and Chemical Investigations. R. Kaiser. 1993. ISBN 0-444-89841-7 (cloth US$175.00; Dfl. 280.00). Elsevier Science Publishers, P.O. Box 1991, 1000 BZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Pests and Pathogens: Plant Responses to Foliar At-tack. P.G. Ayres, Ed. (1992 (Environmental Plant Biology Series, W.J. Davies, series ed.) 1992. ISBN 1-872748-01-5 (Cloth US$80.00; GB£40.00). BIOS Scientific Publishers, St. Thomas House, Becket St., Oxfor

Fire and Vegetation Dynamics - Studies from the North American Boreal Forest. E.A. Johnson. 1992. ISBN 0-521-34151-5 (Cloth US$49.95). Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211.

Origin and Geography of Cultivated Plants. N.I. Vavilov (Translated by D. Löve). 1992. ISBN 0-521-40427-4 (cloth USS 120.00). Cambridge University Press, 40 W. 20th St., New York, NY 10011-4211.

Crop Ecology: Productivity and Management in Agricultural Systems. R.S. Loomis, and D.J. Connor 1992. ISBN 0-521-38379-X (Cloth US$100.00; paper US$39.95). Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211.

Biotechnology of Perennial Fruit Crops. F. A. Hammerschlag & R. E. Litz, eds. [Biotechnology in Agriculture vol. 8]. ISBN 0-85198-708-7 (US$142.50, cloth). Univ. of AZ Press, 1230 N Park Ave. #102, Tucson AZ 85719.

Biology of Horticulture - An Introductory Textbook. J.E. Preece and P.E. Read. 1992. ISBNO-471-05989-7 (cloth, no price given). John Wiley & Sons, P.O. Box 6793, Dept. 063, Somerset NJ 08875-9977.


Plant Gene Research: Genes Involved in Plant Defense. T. Boller and F. Meins, Eds. 1992. ISBN 3-211-82312-3 (Cloth, no price given). Springer-Verlag, Wein, New York, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07096-2491.

DNA Methylation: Molecular Biology and Biological Significance. J.P. Jost and H.P. Saluz, Eds. 1993. ISBN 3-7643-2778-2 (cloth US$139.50). Birkhäuser Boston, P.O. 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus NJ 07096-2491.



Frontiers in Industrial Mycology. G.F. Leatham. 1992. ISBN 0-412-03461-1 (Cloth US$75.00; CAN$93.95). Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 29 W. 35th St., New York NY 10001.

Fossil Prokaryotes and Protists. J.H. Lipps, ed. 1992. ISBN 0-86542-073-4. (paper US$49.95). Blackwell Scientific Publications, 238 Main St., Cambridge MA 02142.

Plant Organelles: Compartmentation of Metabolism in Photosynthetic Tissue. A.K. Tobin, ed. 1992. (Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series 50) ISBN 0-521-40171-2 (Cloth US$89.95). Cam-bridge University Press, 40 West 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

Molecular, Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of Plant Respiration. H. Lambers and L.H.W. van der Plas, eds. 1992. ISBN 90-5103-079-7 (cloth US$148.00). SPB Academic Publishing bv, P.O. Box 97747, 2509 GC The Hague, The Netherlands.

Inducible Plant Proteins: Their Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. J.L. Wray (Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series 49). 1992. ISBN 0-521-40170-4 (Cloth US$89.95). Cambridge University Press, 40 W. 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211.

*New Jersey Ferns and Fern Allies. J.D. Montgomery and D.E. Fairbrothers (Illust. K.L. John-Alder). 1993. ISBN 0-8135-1817-2 (cloth US$45.00). Rutgers Univ. Press, 109 Church St., New Brunswick NJ 08901.

*Rare Plants of the World. LS. Belousova and L.V. Denisova. 1992. ISBN 90-6191-4825 (cloth US$85.00). A.A. Balkema Uitgevers B.V., Postbus 1675, NE-3000 BR, Rotterdam, Nederland.

*The Orchid Book: A Guide to the Identification of Cultivated Orchid Species. J. Cullen, ed. 1992. ISBN 0-521-41856-9 (cloth US$49.95). Cam-bridge University Press, 40 W. 20th St., New York, NY 10011-4211.

*'Texas Range Plants. S.L. Hatch & J. Pluhar. 1993. ISBN 0-89096-521-8 (cloth US$ 35.00; paper USS 14.95). Texas A&M University Press, Drawer c, College Station TX 77843-4354.


Smalltoothcombia Domestica

An Introduction to The Grasses (including Banboos and Cereals). G.P. Chapman & W.E. Peat. 1993. ISBN 0-85198-803-2 (paper US$I9.00). University of Arizona Press, 1230 No. Park Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719.

*Systematics of Myoxanthus. Addenda to Platystele, Pleurothallus subgenus Scopula and Scaphosepalum (Orchidaccac). C. A. Luer. (Missouri Botanical Garden Monographs in Systematic Botany Vol. 44). 1992. ISSN 0161-1542 (paper US$17.00)

*Bothnia. P.J.M. Maas, L.Y.T. Westra, et. al. (Flora Neotropica, Monograph 57). 1992. ISSN 0-89327-370-8 (paper). The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126.

*Comparative External Pollen Ultrastructure of the Araceae and Putatively Related Taxa. M.H. Grayum. (Missouri Botanical Garden Monographs in Systematic Botany Vol. 43). 1992. ISBN 0-935868-60-7. (paper US$30.00).

*Calymperaceae. W.D. Reese, and Monograph 59:Leucophanaceae. N.S. Allen. (Flora Neotropica, Mono-graph 58). 1993. ISBN 0-89327-372-4 (paper). The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126.

*Aster and Brachyactis (Asteraceae) in Oklahoma. 1992. ISSN 0833-1475 (paper US$11.00). Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 509 Pecan St., Fort Worth TX 76102.






As you may know, your Society depends on volunteers for its operation. During the past year there were 20 committees with over 80 people working to make the BSA run smoothly and to promote research, teach-

and international plant science. as good as and you, the member students are and are welcome make it. For a the Society's

PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN 38(4): 4-5. If you would be willing to serve the Society on one of these committees, as a representative to another society, or in some other way, please write (send your name, address, telephone number [fax, too, please!]) to: Grady L. Webster (President-Elect and chair of the Committee on Committees), Department of Botany, University of California, Davis CA 95616, USA.

ing and national cooperation in The BSA is only can only be what (remember that members, too, on committees!) complete list of committees, see


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