Plant Science Bulletin archive
Issue: 1991 v37 No 3 Fall
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
VOLUME 37, NUMBER 3, FALL 1991
Table of Contents
News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN is printed on recycled paper
Volume 37, Number 3: Autumn 1991
Editor: Meredith A. Lane McGregor Herbarium, University of Kansas 2045 Constant Ave., Lawrence KS 66047 913/864-4493 FAX: 913/864-5298 bitnet: MLANE@UKANVAX internet: email@example.com
Plant Science Bulletin
W. Hardy Eshbaugh
News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees
BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Needs YOU!
As you may know, your Society depends on volunteers for its operation. This last year there were 13 committees with over 50 people working to make the BSA run smoothly and to promote research, teaching and national and international cooperation in plant science. The BSA is only as good as, and can only be, what you make it. A sample of the committees working for the Society are: Archives and History, Conservation, Education, Ethics, Financial Management, and Member-ship. If you would be willing to serve the Society on these or other committees, or in some other way, please send your name, address, telephone number [FAX too, please!] to: Gregory J. Anderson (President-Elect and Chair of the Committee on Committees), Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology U-43, 75 N. Eagleville Rd., Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06268-3043, USA.
[This is true of appointed offices in the Society as well as committees—Ed.]
The BSA can use your help!
Another way that you can help is to send your ideas about research trends and priorities in botany (what they are, what they should be for the future, etc.) to the Chair(s) of your Section(s). The Society is preparing a position paper on important avenues of research, and priorities in botanical research for the future, at the request of the NSF. Your letter should reach your Section officer(s) very soon, because they will be submitting a compendium of information to the Executive Committee by 1 November 1991.
From the 1991 Annual Meeting in San Antonio: BSA Resolution on Developing a Population Policy
WHEREAS the Botanical Society of America (BSA) is a venerable society representing numerous professional groups and over 2,000 scientists in diverse biological fields:
And whereas the BSA is profoundly concerned that the growth of the human population is having major direct and indirect effects upon the world's physical and biological resources;
And whereas the record of human induced environmental degradation and species extinctions is well documented and alarming, viz:
ACCORDINGLY, WE URGE:
BSA Resolution in support of the National Institutes for the Environment
WHEREAS, environmental health must be regarded as seriously as human health;
WHEREAS, a solid scientific basis is essential for effective programs to protect the environment;
WHEREAS, there is a need in the United States for a coordinated national program to support fundamental and applied environmental research encompassing a wide variety of disciplines aimed at understanding, preventing, and solving environmental problems;
WHEREAS, such research is presently uncoordinated and largely underfunded;
WHEREAS, a consensus is emerging in the scientific community that a government agency that supports mission—oriented competitively-awarded research, analogous to the way that the National Institutes of Health (NIH) supports biomedical research, may be the most appropriate vehicle to encourage, promote and support environmental research;
THEREFORE, the Botanical Society of America supports the concept of creating a National Institutes for the Environment and requests to participate in the planning and development of such Institutes.
Logo Officially Adopted
One panel changed to portray an American plant —After two or three years of "trial run" of a six-panel logo, the BSA Council voted to adopt it officially, with one minor change. The lower right panel was a daffodil in the original conception, but it was pointed out that the daffodil is not a native American plant, and so a depiction of a columbine was substituted [as above].
A Change of Face for AJB
As a result of action by the Council in San Antonio, appearance of the journal of the BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA will change significantly at the beginning of the new volume year in January, 1992. The Ad Hoc Commit-tee on Journal Format recommended that anew size (8.5" X 11") and a new cover be adopted. The Committee presented three options for the new cover (designed by a graphic artist) to the Council, who chose one of these, which prominently features the word "botany" and will have a color photograph on each issue. A third recommendation that papers be listed by topic in the table of contents was also adopted, and the contents of each issue will now be listed on the first inside page instead of on the cover. Thanks are due to Darlene deMason (chair), James Hancock, Greg Anderson and Robert Wyatt, members of the Ad Hoc Committee. [9
1 _ Ell
BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA
From the Treasurer:
1992 MEMBERSHIP RENEWAL INFORMATION
The membership renewal notice that will arrive with the September issue of AJB, along with a return envelope, has 8 new items on it that require attention. Though these may seem like minute details, still each is important to the financial well-being of the Society. Here's a brief explanation of these new items:
Call for Nominations for Corresponding Members (5 vacancies)
Corresponding members are distinguished senior scientists who have made outstanding contributions to plant science and who live and work outside the USA. Nominations should include a curriculum vitae, letters of recommendation and other supporting materials, and may be submitted by individual members or by BSA Sections. Nominations should be sent to the 1991-92 Corresponding Members Chair, Dr. Beryl Simpson, Department of Botany, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78713, after 1 Sep 1991, and before 15 Mar 1992.
From the Program Director:
At the San Antonio meeting, the Society sponsored or co-sponsored 9 symposia, 10 poster sessions, 44 contributed paper sessions, and 4 special lectures. All Sections of the Society except Economic Botany, Microbiological, and Phycological participated in the 1991 BSA program, which included 630 abstracts (compared to 475 in 1990, 785 in 1989 and 609 in 1988).
In looking ahead to the 1992 meeting in Hawaii, I need to know the titles of symposia by mid-October, 1991.
FUTURE MEETING SITES that have been approved by BSA are: 1992, Honolulu, Hawaii; 1993, Iowa State University, Ames; and 1994, convention center/University of Tennessee, Knoxville. We need to be thinking about a meeting sites for subsequent years. BSA traditionally meets with AIBS on university campuses through-out the country. However, times have changed and campuses are no longer inexpensive or convenient places to hold meetings. In fact, many universities view AIBS (and similar) meetings as opportunities to make money. Thus, they are not shy about charging for the use of rooms and audio-visual equipment and for cleaning, air–conditioning and security services. In addition, there usually is a "head" charge.
An alternative to holding meetings on campuses is to have them in large hotels and/or convention centers, like the 1990 meeting in Richmond and the 1991 meeting in San Antonio. Two advantages of these convention centers are 1) paper sessions and other program events are located close together, and 2) professional meeting planners are available to help with details. Depending on the location, the cost to ALBS for putting on a meeting in a convention center may be about the same as doing it on some campuses. Thus, from a planner's point of view, a convention center has a lot to offer. Many of us, however, truly enjoy the opportunity to visit a new academic setting each year.
Perhaps the ideal meeting site is a combination of ivy–covered towers and modern meeting facilities. We will have the best of both worlds in 1993 and 1994 when we meet in Ames, IA and Knoxville, TN, respectively. Iowa State University has a new meeting facility on campus, and the University of Tennessee is across the street from Knoxville's convention center. It would be great to find other meeting sites like these. What about your institution?
I would like to know your thoughts about future meeting sites: Do you prefer to meet on a university campus or in a convention center? Do you know a school (not necessarily a large university) with good meeting facilities, or one that is within walking distance of a convention center? What about meeting in a place like the Snowbird resort in Utah? Other thoughts? All ideas will be greatly appreciated, so take a minute to write me a note. —Carol C. Baskin, Program Director, School of Biological Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0225, USA.
From the Manager of Publications:
During 1990, Volume 77 of the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY was published in 12 regular issues, plus the Program Abstracts supplement. Volume 36 of the PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN was published in four issues.
During the fiscal year 1990-91, 14 copies of the DIRECTORY AND HANDBOOK, 23 copies of the GUIDE TO GRADUATE STUDIES, and 630 copies of the CAREERS booklet were sold; 996 copies of the latter were distributed free.
Total circulation for Volume 77 of AJB was 4416, which was down 277 subscriptions from Volume 76. There were 211 fewer member subscribers and 66 fewer institutional subscribers.
The Executive Committee has established volume 79 (1992) rates as follows: USA $145; Canada and Mexico $155; and elsewhere (overseas) $170.
During fiscal year 1990-91, the Office of Publications realized $463,698 in receipts, and disbursed $368,528.—Robert H. Essman, Dept. of Botany, Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
BSA looking for a home ...
The BSA Council has voted to establish a permanent Business Office for the Society that will incorporate the functions now carried out in several locations into one Office that will be the Society's permanent address. This move will provide more cost- and time-effective operations for the Society. The Executive Committee is seeking offers (to be submitted to President W. L. Culberson by 1 March 1992) of space to house this office. Criteria to be considered (but not mandatory) for submitting an offer are:
A full-time business manager and part-time staff member will be hired, managed, and salaried by the Executive Committee of the Society, which will also bear the costs of equipment, furniture, phone, mail, etc. for the office. All questions related to preparation or submission of an offer should be directed to: Dr. William L. Culberson, President, Botanical Society of America, Dept. of Botany, Duke Univ., Durham NC 27706 (919/684-2048).
BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA
Reports from the Sections
The Bryological & Lichenological Section
sponsored a reduced one–day program of contributed papers at the Richmond meeting in August 1990 because the American Bryological and Lichenological Society met separately in Florida that year. However, in 1991, the ABLS met with AIBS and BSA in San Antonio and co-sponsored two symposia: "Western U.S. Soil Crust Communities" and "Mosses and Lichens as Teaching Tools." The Section is also sponsored a special paper, "Genetic Variability in Natural Populations of Sphagnum palustre L." by Dr. Maria Krzakowa, Adam Mickiewic University, Poznan, Poland.—Clifford W. Smith, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822.
The Developmental and Structural Section
currently has 582 members. At the San Antonio meetings the Section sponsored 5 contributed paper sessions with 52 talks and a poster session of 10 posters. It co-sponsored a symposium with the Systematics Section entitled, "Development and Evolution in Plants" organized by Tracy McClellan, and the annual Special Lecture with the Physiological Section which will be presented by Professor Brian Larkins, University of Arizona ("The quest for high lysine corn").
The Ecological Section
sponsored a symposium on "The Ecology of Terrestrial Orchids" at the 1990 meeting in Richmond, VA. The symposium was supported by funds from BSA, the section and the American Orchid Society. There were 13 speakers featured, and some of the papers are being published in LINDLEYANA. The Best Student Paper Award of 1990 went to Paul Bradley of the University of South Carolina. In order to increase the funds for this award, Jerry and Carol Baskin issued a challenge to our section [see PSB 37(2): 5 —Ed.].—Christopher Dunn, Bldg. 301 (ED), Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Ave., Argonne IL 60439.
The Economic Botany Section
elected new officers [see the list of Society Officers, p. 9–Ed.]during the past year. The membership totals ca. 289.—David Seigler, Dept. of Plant Biology, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana IL 61801.
The Genetics Section
with 500 members, is very active, and is celebrating its tenth anniversary in 1991. Four sessions comprised 39 papers, and a symposium was sponsored at the meeting; four students were awarded travel grants to attend.
The Historical Section
sponsored a contributed-papers session with 3 presentations, chaired by Laurence J. Dorr, and a special lecture by Tamara Miner Haygood on "Henry Ravenel, southerner and botanist" at the 1990 meeting in Richmond, VA. The Section's annual business meeting was held following the special lecture.—Lawrence J. Dorr, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx NY 10458.
The Microbiological Section
presented no report.
The Paleobotanical Section
is an active one, with 256 current members. Its members gave 56 papers at the San Antonio meeting and sponsored a special lecture on the "Structure and organization of land plant gametophytes from the Rhynie chert." This lecture is to be given by Prof. W. Remy of the Westfalische Wilhelms-Universitat in Munster, Germany. A new member-ship category, Emeritus, was initiated this year for those who have been members of the Section for at least 10 years and axe officially retire. (there are now 22 Emeritus members). The BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AMERICAN PALEOBOTANY FOR 1990, including South American entries, was published in July, 1991.—Edith L. Taylor, Dept. of Botany, Ohio State Univ., Columbus OH 43210.
The Phycological Section
presented no report.
The Physiological Section
presented no report.
The Phytochemical Section
sponsored 14 contributed papers in a joint session with the Physiological Section at the 1990 AIBS meetings in Richmond. The competition for the Alston Award was not held because of the low number of papers from the section that qualified for the award. There were 12 contributed papers and 3 posters scheduled for the meeting in San Antonio. The section also co-sponsored the symposium, "Botany, Plant Diversity and Sustainable Development in the Southwestern U.S. and Mexico," taking advantage of the presence of scientists from the SOCIEDAD BOTANICA DE MEXICO, which met jointly with BSA. The PHYTOCHEMICAL BULLETIN remains an
active journal with a wide readership, and continues to be an outlet for papers describing new methodology for phytochemical investigations.—Edward Schilling, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville TN 37996-1100.
The Pteridological Section
organized a contributed paper session of 13 papers and a symposium, "The Pteridophytes of Mexico," for the 1991 meeting. In the latter, 12 papers were presented, 7 of them by Mexican botanists. The Section and the American Fern Society sponsored a one-day field trip to Enchanted Rock Natural Area and West Cave Preserve. The Section co-sponsors (with the International Association of Pteriodologists) the ANNUAL REVIEW OF PTERIDOLOGICAL RESEARCH. This review cites all research published on ferns during the previous calendar year and lists researchers' interests and addresses, phone and FAX numbers. The Edgar T. Wherry award is the Section's prize for the best contributed paper. At the 1990 meeting, Judith E. Skog, from George Mason University, was awarded the prize for her paper entitled 'The relationship of the fossil fern Schizaeopsis to Schizaea and Actinostachys."
The Systematics Section
is vigorous (with 867 members, it is the largest section of the BSA) and active. At this year's meeting, the Section co-sponsored three symposia and contributed paper sessions to accommodate 150 contributed papers. An "off-year" election was held at the Section business meeting to replace Edward Schilling as Chair of the Section, who stepped down because of an overabundance of duties.—Edward Schilling, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1100.
The Teaching Section
was responsible for the following activities/functions during the 1990 meeting in Richmond, VA: Coordinating the BSA booth in the AIBS exhibit area, supervising the previewing of the BSA slide collection, and sponsoring six workshops, a contributed paper session, and a symposium, and conducting a business meeting at which the section membership present voted unanimously to name the BSA slide collection in honor of Marshall D. Sundberg. The 1990 Charles E. Bessey Award for outstanding contribution to botanical instruction was presented during the BSA banquet to Roy Saigo and Barbara Saigo. John Novak, Dept. of Biology, Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti MI 48197.
The Tropical Biology Section
is a new section of the Society that has as its objectives the following: 1) to stimulate interest in and encourage research and education in tropical biology in all fields, including ecology, systematics, and physiology; 2) to stress the importance of understanding tropical biodiversity, the uniqueness of tropical ecosystems, and the importance of tropical conservation; 3) to cooperate with other Sections of the Society, and other societies and organizations, especially those from tropical countries, to achieve these ends; 4) to assist in the dissemination of knowledge on tropical biology: and 5) to arrange suitable programs on tropical biology for inclusion in the meetings of the Botanical Society of America. Any member of the BSA wishing to join the Section does so simply by notifying the Treasurer of the BSA (at the time of dues payment is simplest). Symposia and contributed paper sessions arc being organized for the 1992 meeting with AIBS in Hawaii. If you have ideas for and/or would like to organize a symposium, please contact me before 1 Nov 1991.—Suzanne Koptur, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (305/348-3103; bitnet KOPTURS@SERVAX).
The Northeastern Section
presented no report.
The Pacific Section
presented no report.
The Southeastern Section
continues to hold its annual business meeting and many scientific functions with the Association of southeastern Biologists (ASB). In 1991, the meeting was held at Appalachian State University in Boone, North Carolina on April 10-13. Section activities held at this meeting included co-sponsorship of the ASB plenary speaker and sponsorship of a botany workshop. The Section also assisted the Southern Appalachian Botanical Club (SABC) in the judging for the North Carolina Botanical Garden Award for the best paper given at the ASB meeting by a student or faculty member in the area of plant systematics, species biology, evolution, or conservation of vascular plants native or naturalized in the South-eastern United States. This year, the award was given to Susan K. Wiser of the University of North Carolina for a presentation entitled, "Relict alpine communities of the Southern Appalachians: Implications for conservation."--Stephen R. Hill, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Clemson Univ., Clemson SC 29634-1903U
Report from the Conservation Committee:
At the 1991 meeting, the Committee recommended Council approval of two resolutions that were submitted to the council from the spring meeting of the Executive Committee [see p. 3, this issue—Ed.]. One of the resolutions is in support of the development of the National Institutes for the Environment; the other pertains to the effects of human population growth on the world's physical and biological resources. Both resolutions reaffirm previous stands and recommendations of the Conservation Committee and the membership of BSA. It is anticipated that the Conservation Committee will study the feasibility of developing, perhaps in conjunction with other organizations, a special "Conservation Pamphlet" for endorsement and support from the BSA Council. A Legislative Update report that relates to conservation issues was published in the Spring, 1991, issue of the PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN. Compilation of literature lists of specific state rare and endangered species guidelines that differ from the Federal Register's approved listing is still underway and will be submitted to the PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN for publication when it is ready. [The Conservation Committee deserves special thanks and encouragement for its diligent activity—ED.]
Report on the 1991 meeting of the Council of Scientific Society Presidents
Founded in 1973, the CSSP is an organization consisting of Presidents, Past-Presidents or Presidents-Elect (or their designees) of some 57 science societies (most larger than the BSA) representing more than 12 million scientists. The CSSP has a small staff that is housed in the American Chemical Society building on 16th Street in Washington, DC. CSSP goals and objectives include: fostering communication and cooperation among scientific societies, to adapt and promote public policy decisions on science research and education, and to develop ways to disseminate scientific information more widely to the general public. To accomplish some of these goals, the CSSP holds three-day meetings twice a year. In addition, this society of societies confers an "Award for Support of Science" each year. Past awardees include such dignitaries as Peter Raven (BSA), C. Everett Koop (Surgeon General), Frank Press (President, NAS) and Eric Block (Director of the NSF).
This meeting was typical of CSSP format in highlighting a subject —"Perspectives on Energy Technology and Science" — by inviting a number of distinguished speakers and devoting about one third of a day to meetings with members of Congress and their staff, and two-thirds of a day to debating and developing resolutions. Speakers included former representative Mike McCormack (WA) who spoke eloquently about "the nuclear power option," Leon Lederman, President-Elect of the AAAS and Nobel Laureate who talked about the concerns over declining science funding, a pro-natural gas business representative, a nuclear power lobbyist and an energy conservation advocate (Alliance to Save Energy Executive Director James L. Wolf). We also heard talks from Dr. John Gibbons, Director of the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, and David Nelson, Director of the Office of Energy Research at DOE.
Several resolutions relevant to the BSA sensu lato were passed including: 1) urging world governments not to experiment with the marine biome by fertilizing with iron to raise productivity in the effort to incorporate atmospheric carbon to reduce CO2 levels, 2) advocating a dramatically strengthened conservation program as part of the National Energy Strategy of the Bush administration, 3) a strong indictment of the NASA manned space station program (estimated costs from S30-1800 billion) as not supportable as a scientific endeavor, 4) advocating the establishment of codes of ethics for all societies, and 5) a statement urging governmental concern over the impact of human population on the world's environments and supporting an expanded role for family planning.
A breakfast with 13 members of the House and Senate allowed the group to hear (briefly) about their views on science funding. The group also had the chance to advocate issues like greater research funding for science, support for small grants as well as mega-grants, and concern over the declining numbers of scientists trained, and the need to improve science education at all educational levels.
I was skeptical of the value of our participation in these meetings in advance of my attendance (and while I listened to the few one-sided industry or political advocacy talks). My skepticism was not supported. The CSSP is an important organization that is accomplishing its stated goals. A notable weakness that the BSA can and should help remedy is lack of participation by life scientists. It is in our best interest to promote active participation in CSSP by the BSA and other societies to which biologists belong. The CSSP is listened to; we have to be sure they carry the messages we biologists feel are important in addition to those of other sorts of scientists.--G. J. Anderson, President-Elect, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06268-3043, USA.
Current Officers of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
President - William Culberson
Bryological & Lichenological Section
Developmental & Structural Section
Economic Botany Section
Tropical Biology Section
[Any corrections or additions to this list should be brought to the attention of the Secretary, Christopher Haufler, Dept. of Botany, University of Kansas, Lawrence KS 66045 (913/864-3255) and the Editor, PSB—ED.]
The "Eminence Index": A New Barometer of Scientific Stature
Dept. of Plant Biology (formerly Botany), Pre-eminent State University, Anywhere, Anystate 01234, USA
THE SPECTRE OF HEADLESSNESS
In the mid 1980s our department faced a crisis. After nine years of leadership by Professor M, we had to hire a new chair. Many candidates offered for the post and we narrowed the list to five, of whom three or four should be interviewed. In our faculty discussion, several professors argued that Candidate B lacked the "scientific eminence" to merit inclusion on our list. The sole basis for this opinion was that these persons had "never heard of Candidate B" and therefore "B could not be very good" even though these professors worked in a field (plant biochemistry) quite remote from that of Candidate B. Because I work in a field close to that of Candidate B, his name was well known to me and his record certainly seemed to merit his inclusion on our list. In fact, it was Candidates A, D, and E, whose "eminence" I was led to question, as I had never heard of them! This led me to a deeper consideration of the issue: what is "scientific eminence" and how can it be measured?
A MODEST PROPOSAL
It occurred to me that we might consult SCIENCE CITATION INDEX , a publication of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) that provides a periodic listing of the numbers of paper citations accruing to individual scientists. Using cumulative totals for 1984, I constructed Table 1, which lists for each candidate and each professor in our department a "raw eminence score." Realizing that such totals are highly dependent on how long an individual has been active in the field, I also calculated an "eminence index" obtained by dividing the raw eminence score by the number of years since the PhD was awarded. Because the numbers of citations could vary dramatically between years, I also tabulated raw eminence scores for 1983.
SOME UNEXPECTED RESULTS
With respect to the candidates, it was immediately clear that Candidate B's eminence index of 2.08 placed him in the middle of the pack. In fact, his scientific stature exceeded more than three-fold that of Candidate E and those of Professors C and M, who had most recently served as department chair! Eventually, the faculty voted to interview all of Candidates A-D, and the job was offered to Candidate C, the scientist who had achieved the second highest eminence index!
Among faculty, the eminence index showed little correlation with rank. It did, however, show remarkable, predictive power. All faculty whose index was >1 received a promotion within the next five years. Faculty with scores <1 failed to receive a promotion. Professors K, 0, and P, with scores of 0.35, 0.65, and 0.76, respectively, took early retirement. Interestingly, two of these (Professors K and P) showed dramatically decreasing citation totals between 1983 and 1984. Professors G, L, and S, all of whom had consistent or rapidly increasing scores >2.0 have been honored by promotion to the title of "Research Professor." Associate Professors B, E, and R, all of whom had scores <0.6 have remained in rank with little apparent hope for advancement. Associate Professor H, with an anemic index of 0.07, is a career administrator who undoubtedly will retire at his present rank.
SHORTCOMINGS AND POSSIBLE REFINEMENTS
Failures of the index (or of the promotion process perhaps) are indicated in only three cases: those of Assistant Professor D and Associate Professor V (alas!), whose initial promotion attempts failed, despite scores >5.0; and that of Assistant Professor J, whose promotion was successful, despite a score of 0.6. Part of the reason for these apparent failures of the eminence index may be the relatively junior status of the faculty members involved: all were within eight years of receipt of the PhD It may be that the index is reliable only for scientists who are >10 years postdoctoral.
Possible refinements in the eminence index include subtraction of self-citations, which might otherwise serve to inflate the index. An argument against this correction, however, is that one must have published at least two papers (the present one and the one being cited) in order for self-citation to be possible and this accomplishment in itself should be rewarded with a higher score. In fact, it might be argued that the index should be corrected for cases in which most of the citations are due to a single paper. Rather than using years since PhD to calculate the eminence index, it might be more appropriate to use another starting point (e.g., number of years since appointment to a tenure-track position). This delay could bias comparisons, however, as citations could be accumulating during a lengthy post-doctoral period when the clock isn't even running. Finally, it might prove even more informative to plot changes in the eminence score and index to see the career trajectory of the individual. This would provide especially useful information to guide decisions about hiring at senior levels (e.g., are we hiring a scientist whose career is "taking off" or one who is "over the hill"?). To calculate a "career eminence index," one could divide the average number of publications per year by the number of years since the PhD was awarded.
TIME-SAVING FOR UNIVERSITY ADMINISTRATORS
Given the otherwise impressive performance of the eminence index, it seems appropriate to commend it to administrators as a shortcut method to evaluate faculty for hiring, promotion, and salary increases. Inasmuch as "university administrators can't read; they can only count," they should relish this new approach. They need not even count! Instead, they can hire sight unseen the candidate with the highest eminence index, promote those whose indices exceed 1.0, and multiply the average pay raise by the eminence index to calculate salary increments. Fortunately, it is no longer just scientists for whom administrators will be able to use and abuse the eminence index. In 1987, ISI began publishing an ARTS & HUMANITIES CITATION INDEX and a SOCIAL SCIENCES CITATION INDEX. Thus, our colleagues in humanities and social sciences can also enjoy the benefits of objective evaluation of their eminence.
Table 1 Eminence scores for candidates for department chair and of current faculty 1 of the department. Rank abbreviations: P = Full Professor; T = Tenured Associate Professor; U = Untenured Assistant Professor.
1 Names have been changed to protect the guilty, as well as the innocent
2 As of 1984
Plant Developmental Biologist University of Kansas
Applicants for this tenure-track position must have a PhD in botany or other appropriate field of biology. The successful candidate is expected to have an established research program focusing on aspects of plant development which contributes to an understanding of whole plant structure. applicants must also show a commitment to excellence in teaching and to the training of graduate students. Teaching responsibilities will include a course covering basic and contemporary aspects of plant anatomy and participation in an undergraduate majors course in develop-mental biology. Preference will be given to applicants whose research can interface with the activities of current faculty. submit curriculum vitae, reprints, grant proposals and/or manuscripts, a statement of research interests, a statement of teaching philosophy and experience, and at least three letters of reference to: Dr. Craig Martin, Chair, Search Committee, Dept. of Botany, University of Kansas, Lawrence KS 66045-2106 (913/864-3645). Applications will be reviewed starting November 15, 1991 and thereafter until the position is filled. The University of Kansas is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.
Botanist Valparaiso University
Valparaiso University invites applications for a tenure track position beginning August 1992. Major responsibility will be team teaching an introductory course with laboratory. Additional responsibilities will be a course in botany, environmental science, and/or a topics course at the upper level. The standard load for the academic year is 24 teaching load credits (approximately equal to contact hours) with no more than two course preparations per semester. Teaching load credits are given for supervising undergraduate research, seminars, and for preparing introductory laboratories. Participation in teaching courses for general education is encouraged. Teaching responsibilities may be adjusted to suit a candidate's special interest or qualification. The appointee is expected to develop a vigorous teaching and research program in botany and to encourage and supervise undergraduate research. Candidates must have earned the PhD in botany or have completed all essential requirements for this degree. Appointment will be at the Assistant Professor rank, but candidates with prior teaching and/or research experience are encouraged to apply. Salary commensurate with qualifications and experience. Women are especially encouraged to apply. Curriculum vitae, transcripts, brief statement of goals and objectives in teaching should be sent to: Dr. James Tan, Chairman, Department of Biology, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383 (219/464-5373; FAX: 219-464-5489)
Research Biologist in Wetlands Ecology Louisiana State University
A two-year (with possible renewal) non-tenure research position in wetlands ecology is available in the Wetland Biogeochemistry Institute, Center for Wetland Resources, Louisiana State University starting in August/September 1991. The selected applicant will manage and conduct a contract-funded research project to investigate causes for wetland dieback in coastal Louisiana. Tasks include field monitoring and experimentation, laboratory analyses of plant and soil variables, data analysis and manuscript preparation. Individuals with a M.S. in Biology, Botany, Agronomy, Marine Science, Forestry and Wildlife or related fields are encouraged to apply. Knowledge of plant ecology and experience in field sampling in wetlands is highly desirable. Experience analyzing data with SAS is preferred. Salary will range between $17,000 - $19,000 depending on experience. Send letter of application, curriculum vitae, description of re-search interests, and list of references to Dr. L A. Mendelssohn, Center for Wetland Resources, LSU, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
Environmental Plant Biologist Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
The Department of Plant Biology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale invites applications for a tenure-track position at the assistant professor level. We are seeking outstanding candidates in the field of Environmental Plant Biology. Area of emphasis to include the use of modem methods and technology to resolve problems of plants in the environment. Ph.D., postdoctoral experience, and evidence of ability to compete successfully for extramural funding. We strongly encourage applications from women and members of minority groups. The successful candidate is expected to establish a vigorous research program and participate in undergraduate and graduate teaching/ training. The department includes 17 faculty and offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees. Please submit curriculum vitae, a statement of research and professional goals, representative reprints and arrange to have at least three letters of reference (by November 15, 1991) to: Dr. Lawrence C. Matten, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois 62901. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.
Plant Molecular Biology Fellowships Research Triangle Universities
A limited number of Graduate and Postdoctoral Fellowships in plant molecular biology are available at Duke University, North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Each fellow must be based in a laboratory of one of the more than forty faculty involved in plant molecular biology research at these participating Research Triangle universities. Candidates must be U.S. citizens or U.S. permanent residents. The graduate stipend includes $12,500 plus tuition and an allowance for supplies and travel; the award is renewable for two additional years. The postdoctoral stipend includes $21,500 plus a $5,000 allowance for supplies and travel; the award is renewable for one additional year. Fellowships are supported by CIBA- GEIGY, Rhône-Poulenc and the North Carolina Biotechnology Center. Deadline for applications is February 3, 1992. For an information packet and application form please contact: North Carolina Biotechnology Center PMB Fellowship Program, ATTN: Dianne Hinson, P.O. Box 13547, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3547 (919/541-9366 )
Field Collector Smithsonian Institution Guianas Program
The Smithsonian Institution Department of Botany has a field collector position available in the Biological Diversity of the Guianas Program (minimum of 18-24 months in the Guianas). Beginning in June of 1992, the individual selected will spend the remainder of 1992 through early 1994 in the Guianas collecting plant specimens, and 1—2 months in Washington, D.C. helping to identify the collections. For technical information contact C. L. Kelloff, Biological Diversity of the Guianas Program, Department of Botany NHB#166, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560; (202)786-2518; FAX# (202)786-2563. For other information contact Program Director V. A. Funk, at (202)357-2560. This position is open to all qualified individuals and will remain so until a suitable person is found. The Smithsonian is an Equal Opportunity Employer.
Plant Ultrastructure Louisiana State University
Postdoctoral Researcher (anticipated). Exciting opportunity in space biology studying failure of seed production in microgravity. Ph.D. in Botany, Plant Biology or Plant Pathology with emphasis on anatomy, light microscopy and transmission electron micros-copy. Experience with embryology would be advantageous. Available October 1,1991. Application deadline September 15, 1991 or until suitable candidate is located. Contact Shirley C. Tucker, Department of Botany, Phone 504/388-8552, or Dr. Mary E. Musgrave, Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Physiology, Phone 504/388-1464. To apply send CV, reprints, statement of career goals and three letters of reference to: Ultrastructure Position, Dept. of Plant Pathlogy & Crop Physiology, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803.
Michaux Grants in Forest Botany - American Philosophical Society
The American Philosophical Society announces the 1992 competition for research grants in forest botany (specifically, dendrology), silviculture, and the history thereof. Grants range from $1,500 to approximately $5,000. Eligible expenses include travel, $40 per diem toward the cost of room and meals, and consumable supplies not available at the applicant's institution. Applicants are normally expected to have the doctorate, but proposals from graduate students who have completed all degree requirements but the dissertation may be considered. Deadline: February 1, for decision by May. For application forms, write a brief description of the proposed research and budget to: Michaux Fund Grants, American Philosophical Society, 104 S. 5th Street, Philadelphia PA 19106-3387.
Flora of the Greater Antilles - New York Botanical Garden
The flora of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica and Puerto Rico) will cover all groups of plants and fungi, based on specimen examination. In conjunction with the flora, the New York Botanical Garden, with the Mellon Foundation, is offering competitive fellowships (available for the next 2 years only) for botanists to work at NY for 1- or 2-month periods. Airfare, lodging, and a living allowance are offered. All botanists, especially those living in the Greater Antilles, are encouraged to apply. Applicants should send a letter of intent indicating the group(s) of plants or fungi to be treated, a projected timetable, and curriculum vitae to: Dr. W.R. Buck, Coordinator, West Indies Program, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx NY 10458-5126, USA (212/220-8624, FAX 212220-6504).
Appointments and Exhibitions:
Acting Director of CONN - University of Connecticut
The Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of the University of Connecticut is pleased to announce that Kent E. Holsinger has been appointed Acting Director of the G. Safford Torrey Herbarium (CONN). Dr. Holsinger is an evolutionary biologist with substantial background in classical botany, including revisionary work on Clarkia. He has a keen interest in conservation biology and has co-edited the soon to be released GENETICS AND CONSERVATION OF RASE PLANTS. The G. Safford Torrey Herbarium has over 100,000 specimens, mostly of vascular plants, with strong representation from CT and the new US. Curators include Gregory J. Anderson (Solanaceae, ethnobotany), Antoni II. W. Damman (Bryophytes, Boreal flora), Leslie J. Mehrhoff (Vascular plants, North American Flora), Francis Trainor (Phycology), and Terry R. Webster (Selaginella); the collection manager is Robert Dubos. Loans are made to acknowledged institutions and exchange material of e North America is available. We are particularly interested in acquiring material from the Canadian maritime provinces and the se US.
Poisonous Plants Exhibition - Hunt Institute and Carnegie Museum
The Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation at Carnegie Mellow University and the Carnegie Museum of Natural History jointly will present "Pretty Deadly: Poisonous Plants of Forest, Field and Garden" from 9 July to 21 October 1991 in the new Natural History Gallery at the Museum. The exhibition will cover both native and cultivated species, with special attention to flowering plants and fungi that are native to the tri-state area. The part of each plant that is poisonous will be identified, and labeling information will explain its effects, ranging from minor skin irritation to serious illness or death. In addition, the centuries-old connection between botany and pharmacology will be explored. Over sixty 17th- to 20th-century artworks as well as book illustrations and pressed and live specimens will be displayed. A special feature will be a central bouquet of poisonous plants that is changed periodically. The Carnegie is open on Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Saturday from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m., Friday from 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. and Sunday from 1 to 5 p.m. (412/ 622-3328 for additional information).
Presented at the BSA Banquet, 7 August 1991:
Botanical Society of America Certificates of Merit
In recognition of distinguished achievement in and contributions to the advancement of botanical science were presented to:
David L. Dilcher, dedicated researcher who has revolutionized the study of angiosperm fossils and contributed significantly to our understanding of the origin of the angiosperms; inspiring teacher who has given outstanding service to the Botanical Society of America as Program Director, Secretary, and President.
Patricia K. Holmgren, distinguished botanist who has served the Botanical Society of America as President, Vice President and Secretary, this award recognizes her dedication to the profession of botany as the inestimable Director of the Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden, and her exemplary conduct as a role model for aspiring young botanists.
Ian W. Sussex, productive scientist whose morphogenetic research extends from the classical to the molecular; devoted and able teacher, mentor of many excellent and influential graduate students; co-author of an outstanding book on plant development; planner of important symposia and conferences; excellent botanical citizen and colleague.
Charles Edwin Bessey Award
is given annually by the Teaching Section to recognize outstanding contributions made to botanical instruction. This year's award was presented to Gordon Uno.
Henry Allan Gleason Award
of the New York Botanical Garden for 1991 was presented to Paul A. Keddy for his book COMPETITION, published by Chapman and Hall in 1990.
Darbaker Prize in Phycology
has been awarded to David Howard Turpin to recognize his meritorious research in the study of microscopical algae during the past 2 years, specifically for his contribution to a better under-standing of the interactions among photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen metabolism in unicellular green algae.
Phycology Section Distinguished Paper Award
for the best paper in phycology published within the last 3 years (1-year intervals are anticipated in the future) was presented to Joby Chesnick and Elinor Cox for their 1989 paper entitled "Fertilization and zygote development in the binucleate dinoflagellate Peridinium balticum."
Michael A. Cichan Award
to encourage a young researcher working at the interface of structural and evolutionary botany is presented based on a paper published during the last year to Paul Kenrick for his paper with Peter Crane and Winfried Remy entitled 'The structure of water-conducting cells in the enigmatic early land plants Stockmansella langi, Huvenia kleui, and Sciadophyton" published in ARGUMENTA PALEOBOTANICA vol. 8.
A. J. Sharp Award
for the best student paper presented in the sessions of the Bryological & Lichenological Section was given to Paula dePriest for her paper entitled "Multiple insertions in the small subunit ribosomal DNA of the Cladonia chlorophaea complex (lichen-forming Ascomycotina).
Katherine Esau Award
for the best student paper in the Developmental & Structural Section contributed paper sessions was presented to Andrew W. Douglas for his paper co-authored by Shirley Tucker entitled 'The underlying spatial and temporal components in the ontogenies of nectariferous tissues of Proteaceae."
Ecological Section Best Student Paper Award
for 1990 was presented to Paul Bradley for his paper entitled "Effects of salinity on the kinetics of NH4 uptake in Spartina alterniflora."
Margaret Menzel Award
for an outstanding paper presented in the contributed papers sessions of the Genetics Section at the annual meeting was presented to Steven Broyles for his paper co-authored by Robert Wyatt on "Pollen-mediated gene flow into natural populations of Poke Milkweed (Asclepias exaltata L.)"
Isabel Cookson Award
for the best student paper at the annual meeting of the Paleobotanical Section was awarded to two papers: Susanna Magallon-Puebla won the award for her paper entitled "The mixed Permian flora from south-central Mexico," and Ben A. LePage for his paper co-authored with James F. Basinger on "The evolutionary and biogeographic history of Pseudolarix."
DNA Plant Technology, Inc. Prize
for the best student presentation in the annual meeting of the Physiological Section in the area of plant tissue culture was presented to Xianggan Li for the paper "Culture and salt tolerance of protoplasts from the halophyte Sporobolus virginicus."
Edgar T. Wherry Award
for the best contributed paper presented at the annual meeting in the Pteridological Section was presented to David S. Conant for his presentation co-authored by Diana B. Stein and Angela E. Valinski entitled "Phylogenetic implications of chloroplast DNA variation in the Cyatheaceae."
George R. Cooley Award
of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists for the best contributed paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society with the Systematics Section of the Botanical Society of America was presented to two papers: Anne Bruneau received the Award for her paper co-authored with Jeffrey Doyle on "Phylogenetic relationships in Erithrina (Leguminosae: Phaseolae)," and Andrew W. Douglas received his Award for his paper co-authored with Shirley Tucker entitled 'The utility of floral ontogenetic analysis in phylogenetic reconstructions".
YOUNG BOTANIST AWARDS 1990-1991
The individuals listed below were selected to receive Young Botanist Awards for academic year 1990-91. Then achievements in the classroom setting and in independent research were outstanding. Each received a letter of congratulations and an award certificate from the BSA. Their nominators (persons and departments) are encouraged to enroll them in the BSA in recognition of their achievements.
GREGORY TODD ADAMS, Dept. of Botany, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont; Professor Richard Klein
AOS/Vaughn-Jordan Orchid Fellowship
Jeanette Nadeau of the Department of Botany at the University of California at Davis is the recipient of the 1991-1994 AOS/Vaughn-Jordan Orchid Fellowship for her project entitled "Temporal and spatial regulation of ethylene-forming enzyme in pollination-induced senescence of orchid flowers." In the last two years, two Fellowships have been awarded to doctoral candidates whose dissertation projects deal with any aspect of orchid biology — physiology, molecular biology, development, structure, systematics, cytology, ecology, and evolution. As future AOS/Vaughn-Jordan Fellow-ships become available, they will be advertised in the PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN.
Oberly Award for Bibliography in Agricultural Sciences
Michael J. Balick and Hans T. Beck are the 1991 recipients of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Oberly Award for their bibliography, "Useful palms of the world, a synoptic bibliography" NY: Columbia University Press, 1990. The award is given for the best bibliography in the field of agriculture or one of the related sciences in the preceding two-year period.
1991 AABGA Award Recipients
The Program Excellence Award was presented to the University of British Columbia Botanical Garden for its Plant Introduction Scheme. Through this program the garden contributes valuable new plants to the Pacific Northwest and successfully demonstrates how gardens and nurseries can work together. The Award of Merit is given to individual members of the Association who have performed with distinction in the field of public gardening. This year's recipient, Ann Lyon Crammond, Director of the Atlanta Botanical Garden, was selected for the Award prior to her tragic death. Lucy Tolmach, Garden Superintendent at Fiolini Center in Woodside, California, was awarded the 1991 Professional Citation. The Haverford College Campus Arboretum Association, the Memphis Botanic Garden Foundation and the Chicago Botanic Garden were the 1991 winners of the Dorothy E. Hansell Publication Award for their submissions in this year's category, annual reports. Honorable Mention went to Arnold Arboretum, Atlanta Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden, New York Botanical Garden and the Strybing Arboretum Society.
Announcements of Availability:
Research Library in Plant Growth and Development
The research library of Professor Arthur W. Galston, gathered over about 45 years, is available for donation to any institution that would put it to good use. The library contains nearly complete runs of PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, THE PLANT CELL, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY, PLANT AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGIA PLANTARUM and PLANT GROWTH REGULATION, plus less complete holdings of PHOTOCHEMISTRY AND PHOTOBIOLOGY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY, ANNUAL REVIEW OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGY and SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. The journals are unbound, but collected by volume in sturdy cardboard boxes suitable for bookcase storage. There is also a consider-able collection of reprints, covering mainly plant growth and development, extending to about 1985. The only cost to the recipient institution would be that of packing and shipping. Please write as soon as possible, giving details of proposed location and use; if possible, a decision will be made by the end of this calendar year. Preference will be given to an institution prepared to accept the entire collection.—Arthur W. Galston, Eaton Professor of Botany Emeritus, Dept. of Biology, P. O. Box 6666, Yale University, New Haven CT 06511-8112 (203/432-3509, FAX 203/432-6161).
PANKEY is a package of 10 different programs for identification and description of animals and plants. There are programs for writing diagnostic keys (either automatically or interactively), creating printed morphological descriptions, finding diagnostic character sets, expert interactive identification with color graphics, identification by comparison, character analysis using the information statistic, and data conversion programs for phenetics and cladistics. All these are based on the DELTA format (Description Language for Taxonomy, by Mike Dallwitz) which is an international standard. The DELTA editor program (DEDIT) is available free for creating and editing DELTA files. PANKEY versions exist for MS-DOS, Macintosh (shareware) and Atari micros. Demonstration discs are available, and there are various datasets for research and teaching, especially for plant families, world grasses and various groups of British plants. Contact Dr. R.J. Pankhurst, Taxonomic Systems, 203, Sheen Lane, London, SW14 8LE, U.K., phone or fax +44-81-876-2525 and e-mail at
Agricultural Research Institute
40th annual meeting will be held October 16 and 17 at the Holiday Inn Crowne Plaza, Rockville, Maryland. The program theme is "Managing for Survival." For additional information, contact: Don Holt, Director, Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, 1301 West Gregory Drive, Urbana IL 61801.
International Workshop on Non-Apis Bees
and their role as crop pollinators will be held in Logan Utah, USA in August, 1992 to facilitate exchange of current information on all aspects of bee biology and to improve prospects for establishing non-Apis bees as crop pollinators. The meeting will be hosted by the Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory (USDA Agricultural Research Service) and by Utah State University, Logan, Utah. To be put on the mailing list for future announcements and for further information, please contact: Dr. John D. Vandenberg, USDA-ARS Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA, 84322-5310.
International Conference on Life Support and Biospherics
February 18-20, 1992, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL. Sponsored by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Institute for Advanced Studies in Life Support, Huntsville-Madison County Botanical Garden, and USSR Academy of Sciences: Institute of Biophysics. Topics include Space Applications, Polar Stations/ Undersea Habitats, Submarine Technology, Global Change, Space-based Sensors, and Closed Systems Testbeds. Abstracts due August 2, 1991. For information: Jill Roumeliotis, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Tom Bevill Center, Room 284C, Huntsville, AL 35899, 1-800-448-4035.
International Symposium on Tropical Crop Research
has been postponed until September of 1992. New deadlines include pre-registration by 30 Sep 1991, submission of abstracts by 31 Dec 1991 and payment of fees by 31 Mar 1992. For more information contact: N. Saifudeen, Secretary, International Society for Tropical Crop Research and Development, P. B. No. 2210, Trivandrum-695 010, India (Telephone 0471-6991 (R) or 0471-54-439 (0); Telex 0435-309 JAS IN).
9th International Congress of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
Maastricht, The Netherlands, August 30-September 5, 1992 Organizing Secretariat: Prof. Dr. F.C.S. Ramaekers, Department of Molecular Cell Biology; University of Limburg; P.O. Box 616; 6200 MD MAASTRICHT, The Netherlands; Tel. 31-43-888642; Fax. 31-43-437740.
XII Congress on Sexual Plant Reproduction
organized under the auspices of the International Association of Sexual Plant Reproduction Research will be held in Columbus, Ohio (USA), July 19-23, 1992. The theme of the congress will be "Plant Reproductive Biology: Pollen, ovules and seeds." For further information write to:: Dr. V. Raghavan, Department of Plant Biology, The Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (USA). Tel. 614/292-4723; Fax: 614/ 292-2180.
Katherine Esau International Symposium on Plant Structure: Concepts, Connections and Challenges
will be held March 28 through 31, 1992 at the University of California, Davis. The symposium will explore fundamental questions of plant structure, showcase new approaches to this study, raise major debates of existing concepts and identify new connections in plant biology. The program will feature an extensive international group of invited speakers who will focus on fundamental issues of interdisciplinary interest in plant structure, as well as selected contributed papers to be presented in poster sessions. For details and registration information contact: Vito S. Polito, Chair, Katherine Esau Symposium Committee, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Society of Ethnobiology 15th Annual Conference
March 25-28, 1992, hosted by the Archaeobiology Program, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Contact: Bruce D. Smith, Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560. Phone 202/357-1572; Fax 202/357-2208.
First National Fuelwood Conference
sponsored by the National Arbor Day Foundation. The 3-day conference is scheduled for Nov 11-13 in Lincoln, Nebraska. For details and a registration packet, write to The Arbor Day Institute, P. O. Box 81415, Lincoln, NE 68501-1415, or phone Kathy Austin at 402/474-5655.
University of California, Riverside 15th Annual Symposium in Plant Physiology
"Perspectives of Plant Carbon and Water Relations from Stable Isotopes," has been organized by Tony Hall, Irwin Ting, Jim Ehleringer, and Graham Farquhar for January 9-11, 1992 . The symposium is limited to 175 persons. A fee of S25 (non-students) and $10 (students) is required to cover registration and a luncheon on Saturday, January 11. To receive information, and registration and poster applications, contact Cindi McKeman, Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, Phone 714/787-3423, Fax 714/787-4437.
Stanzione Zoologica di Napoli
Seagrasses: from molecule to ecosystem. Eco-physiology and molecular biology of seagrasses: a practical and theoretical course for graduate and post doctoral students. Benthos Ecology Laboratory, SZN, Ischia (Bay of Naples), Italy. 24 August-20 September 1992. Course Directors: R.S. Alberte (University of Chicago, USA & L. Mazzella (Stanzione Zoologica de Napoli, Italy). Sponsored by: Stanzione Zoologica di Napoli. Registration fee: Lire 1,100,000, which includes meals and accommodation.. Information: Jean Gilder Congressi snc, via G. Quagliariello 35/E, I-80131 Napoli, Italy. Tel: +39 81 546 3779/545 4617. Fax: +39 81 546 3781.
Ingeniero Efraim Hernandez Xolocotzi Guzman
Dr. Hernandez X., who had been a Corresponding Member of the Botanical Society of America since 1982, died at home in Chapingo, Mexico on 21 February 1991. A Profesor-Investigador Emeritus at the Colegio de Postgraduados, Escuela Nacional de Agricultura, located at Montecillos east of Ciudad, Mexico, he was a self-described "botanico en servicio de su pain" ("botanist in service of his country"). And serve his country he did, first as an agricultural loan officer during the late 1930's, followed by wartime and post-war employment with the American Embassy in Mexico, and then with the Rockefeller Foundation program to collect, study, and preserve Mexico's indigenous maize races. He then served as Head of the Botany Department, School of Agriculture, Monterrey (1950-52), and in various capacities (from lecturer to head of research) with the Escuela Nacional de Agricultura from 1953 until shortly before his death.
Despite his often heavy administrative burden, he still managed to teach and advise hundreds of students, to record reams of invaluable ethnobotanical data, and to assemble vast collections of indigenous Latin American crop germplasm. His short text APUNTES SOBRE LA EXPLORACION ETNOBOTANICA Y SU METODOLOGIA recounts this indefatigable collector's sometimes humorous, sometimes hair-raising, adventures collecting plants in rural Latin America. But, most of all, this unique little gem (one of his six books and more than 200 publications in total) records this eminent ethnobotanist's philosophy.
Maestro Hernandez, as his students called him, was educated in the New York City public school system, matriculated at Cornell, and then returned to Harvard some years later for a master's degree. Maestro Hernandez told me some years ago that at Cornell, Liberty Hyde Bailey became his role model, if not hero. Mix this Bailey-influenced New York education (some of which was acquired on the streets) with the blood and instincts of an intensely proud Mexican campesino, and the product was an erudite scholar and teacher with an iron will, quick wit and temper, and an ego sufficiently well-developed so that inspired leadership came easily.
In addition to the many honors he received from various Mexican institutions and organizations, Maestro Hernandez X. was named a Distinguished Economic Botanist by the Society for Economic
Botany in 1986, a year in which he also received the Frank N. Meyer Medal for Plant Exploration from the Crop Science Society of America. For additional biographic details, see his obituary (written by H. Garrison Wilkes) in Economy Botany 45(2):299-300.-Peter K. Bretting, USDA/ARS, NCRPIS, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011
Charles Russell Metcalfe
Charles Russell Metcalfe, OBE, Corresponding Member of the Botanical Society of America, former Keeper of the Jodrell Laboratory, Kew, and after his retirement, Honorary Research Associate at the Royal Botanic Gardens, died on June 16, 1991, aged 86. He was born on September 11, 1904, in Whiteparish, Wiltshire, England.
In a career of almost 40 years at the Jodrell Laboratory, Kew, and for 20 years of a highly productive retirement, C. R. Metcalfe dedicated himself to the study of plant anatomy and played a decisive role in the production of the two comprehensive series of volumes on dicotyledons and monocotyledons. During the Second World War he was also active in research to find natural substitutes for products which had previously been imported into England.
After an education at Marlborough College and Downing College, Cambridge, Metcalfe studied plant pathology under F. T. Brooks at Cambridge and then worked as research assistant to W. Buddin at Reading. In 1930 he obtained a PH.D. with a thesis on the "shab" disease of lavender. In the same year he was appointed Assistant Keeper of the Jodrell Laboratory, Kew, in succession to Mr. L. A. Boodle. Metcalfe was a founder member of the International Association of Wood Anatomists, and at his death the last still living, and became a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London in 1939; he was its Botanical Secretary from 1956 to 1962 and was a vice-president for the year 1962-1963. The importance of his research in plant anatomy was recognized by the Society, which awarded him the Linnean Medal in 1971. He was also honored by the Netherlands Botanical Society and was appointed OBE in 1966.-William Louis Stern, Dept. of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611-2009.0
Michael Irwin Cousens
Mike Cousens, 46, died Oct. 24, 1990, from injuries suffered in an automobile accident. Mike received his BS from Eastern Michigan University in 1966, his MS from Iowa State University in 1969, and his PhD from Washington State in 1973. For several years he taught at the University of West Florida, and in 1986 moved to Weber State University. Mike served as secretary of the American Fern Society 1981–1984 and was an associate editor of the AMERICAN FERN JOURNAL at the time of his death. His premature loss is difficult for his friends and colleagues across the country, who honored him by dedicating an issue of the AFJ to him, wherein a more complete biography will be found—[from the Fiddlehead Forum]
Oran B. Stanley
Oran B. Stanley, Colgate University professor of botany emeritus, died June 1 in Bangor, Maine, on the day before his 82nd birthday.
Professor Stanley joined the Colgate faculty in 1934 as an instructor in botany. He served as chairman of the botany department 1946-61 and of the department of biology 1961-64. He was a member of the planning committee for Olin Hall from the first presentation in 1954 to its completion in 1971. He also served as president of the Colgate chapter of Phi Beta Kappa 1959-60, was a member of the Athletic Council 1965-68, president of Delta Chapter of Kappa Delta Rho Inc. and Colgate's unofficial photographer for several years. Among his publications were two texts with the late C.J. Hylander : Plants and Man (1941) and College Botany (1949). He retired from Colgate in 1972. In 1966 the Colgate Alumni Corporation awarded Stanley a Maroon Citation for his "contributions to the welfare of the college, apart from the excellence of his teaching . . . and his students of many generations have become and remained his close friends, who continue to be taught through the influence that a great teacher exerts."
Born June 2, 1909, in Mooresville, IN, he was the son of Albert D. and Anna Aebker Stanley. He received his B.S. magna cum laude from Butler University and his Ph.D. from Yale.—[from the Mid York Weekly ]
"Nature's Corner" is reserved for descriptions of natural areas that may be just a few acres in size — just corners of nature that are being preserved by private individuals or organizations. Nature Conservancy (they have their own newsletter) and governmental (either federal or state) areas are not eligible. Please send information on "Nature's Corners" in your part of the world to the Editor, PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN.
Cacapon River: Pine Cabin Run Ecological Laboratory
The Cacapon River, a Potomac tributary in the eastern panhandle of West Virginia, is one of the healthiest streams in the mid-Atlantic region. Its status is not due to anything humans have contributed, but rather to geographic serendipity — it's sandwiched in a 50-mile wide strip of land between the vast eastern megalopolis and the state's coal fields to the west. Its riverbanks, host to Acer saccharinum, Asimina triloba, Physocarpus opulifolius, Betula nigra, and the globally rare Ptilimnium fIuviatile, constitute one of the most intact riparian ecosystems in West Virginia.
But, this biotic wealth is dead in the path of a land development boom. Parts of the River are within 25 minutes of Winchester, VA, one of the fastest growing cities of the country and part of Washington, D.C.'s urban sprawl. Rampant recreational development threatens the River with pollutants such as silt and sewage.
Under the directorship of Dr. George Constantz, Pine Cabin Run Ecological Laboratory has been pursuing a three-pronged strategy of preservation for the Cacapon. First, the lab has just completed a three-year study of fecal coliform bacteria, pH, turbidity, and other indicators of river health. The means and variances of all parameters will serve as the River's ecological baseline. Second, starting in 1992, the Lab will initiate a less intense monitoring effort. By comparing the monitoring results with the baseline, the Lab will be able to identify nascent ecological degradation while it is still reversible. All of the interest earned from the Lab's Endowment Fund is earmarked to support monitoring for perpetuity. And, third, through its quarterly newsletter (Called CACAPON), guided canoe trips, and illustrated natural history talks, the Lab is training a company of dedicated River stewards among the residents of the Cacapon basin.
This unique blend of baseline research, ecological monitoring, and education is serving as a model for river conservation throughout the country. For more information about this project, contact George Constantz, Pine Cabin Run Ecological Laboratory, Route 1, Box 469, High View, West Virginia 26808.
Nitrogen Fixation: Achievements and Objectives.
P. Gresshoff, L. E. Roth, G. Stacey and W. Newton, eds. 1991. Routledge, Chapman & Hall. ISBN 0-412-02591-4 (cloth US$55.00 , Can$68.95). —This is the published proceedings of the 8th international congress on nitrogen fixation. Many of the achievements referred to in the title are indeed impressive while some of the objectives may be nearly as far away as when the first international symposium volume was published 15 years earlier. Still, this was the first time that someone was able to describe formation of Rhizobium nodules on non-legumes of agricultural interest. E.C. Cocking, in a grand finale to the regular presentations, described formation of root nodules on the oilseed Brassica napus. Two other groups presented posters describing nodulation of rice.
We await further confirmation of their results in formal publications. With a proceedings volume there are several questions that I ask when considering purchase. Is it reasonably priced so that it gives fair value for money spent? Is it a timely publication of high standard? Will the articles be of interest to any but attendees as a permanent record of their attendance? Does it represent the state of the art in the field as a whole, or is it focussed on a narrow area?
This volume, like most others of its kind, is published from camera-ready copy supplied by the authors. It is a well-constructed and cleanly printed book with an attractive and sturdy binding. Most contributions appear to have been carefully edited by the authors. For a volume of 850 pages the price seems quite fair. There is an index to authors and a table of contents that lists all of the oral presentations. Unfortunately, the poster presentations are not listed by title or topic anywhere. Thus, they can only be retrieved by knowing the author's name or by browsing through the entire volume. There are about 70 main documents and over 300 posters so that browsing is not simple.
This volume arrived within 8 months of the symposium so it is certainly timely. Rapid publication precludes peer review of contributions but I believe the editors and symposium organizers made good choices in their selection of presenters. The main articles vary in style, clarity and depth of presentation but on the whole they are of very high standard. There are many articles that should be of interest to people who are not specialists in particular aspects of nitrogen fixation but who would like an overview of a number of areas.
Environment and biotechnology get their mention in a special section. Here representatives of USDA (Shantaram), industry( Ronson) and EPA (Sayre) discuss controlled release of genetically engineered micro-organisms. The last article of this group, by Sayre, details the many steps required before general release into the environment is to be permitted. It provides a readable example of the way that EPA policy actually works in this area. For a more general use of the term environment, Uiterkamp provides a good discussion of the way humans intervene in the nitrogen cycle and he gives a European perspective on the many problems of the nitrogen cycle.
Practical aspects of nitrogen fixation and legume inoculation were discussed by Bohlool with particular reference to sustainable cultural systems, and by Paau with reference to inoculant development. Tropical agriculture per se received only one slot, in the excellent article of Mulongoy and Akobundu from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. They dealt with live mulch and alley cropping methods which hold considerable promise in tropical systems.
Overall, this volume fairly reflects the field of nitrogen fixation with a slight bias toward basic research and legume symbiotic systems. In the SCIENCE CITATION INDEX there are about 325 papers with nitrogen fixation, nodulation or related words in their titles in 1989. Nif and nod genes account for a quarter of the 1989 publications and about 1/3 of the present volume. Non-legume symbioses get less than a proportionate share here with around 1/6 of the 1989 publications but only about 4/70 papers in the present volume. Chemistry and enzymology are fairly represented with about 10 % of papers in each case. Physiological aspects of plants and bacteria are well represented here.
With the strong emphasis on nif and nod genes we would hope to see progress in the area and in fact there are a number of notable advances discussed in this volume. A large French group, represented by Denarie at the meeting, reported on the structure of a sulfated lipo-oligosaccharide that serves as the initial signal from Rhizobium meliloti to the alfalfa plant to induce nodules. Dazzo reported that N acetylglutamic acid serves as the branching factor in white clover root hairs. It is just one of several factors produced by R. trifolii that alter root hair morphology. T.A. LaRue reported significant progress in mapping a number of sym genes of peas. These genes, interestingly, appear to cluster in one particular linkage group, in a manner perhaps parallel to that of the nod genes of the bacterial symbiont.
Other papers by members of the main groups in study of nif and nod genes presented their recent results in dissecting the roles of the many genes. Most have made a successful transition from mapping and transposon mutagenesis to sequencing and structure comparison, and some are doing biochemical studies of the encoded proteins (other than nitrogenase enzyme per se). V.K. Shah reported very elegant work on in vitro FeMo cofactor synthesis and the role of
homocitrate or its analogs in the synthesis and function of the cofactor. D.P.S. Verma suggested that nodulin-26 is a channel forming protein related to a pea protein that is induced by changes of turgor pressure. Nodulin-26 is also very similar to the major intrinsic protein of bovine lens and Marcker discussed the implications of sequence similarities between nod proteins and nodulins, and some animal proteins. These and more recent examples published elsewhere point to the remarkable evolutionary conservation of some protein sequence domains.
Evolution of nodulation in the broader sense was discussed by Sprent and Mullin. Sprent considered the formation of legume nodules while Mullin looked at the actinomycete symbioses which occur with a diversity of angiosperms. Sprent pointed out that as they evolved from a free-living photosynthetic ancestor, the rhizobia generally gave up their photosynthetic ability, ability to grow autotrophically and tight regulation of nitrogen fixation by combined nitrogen. In turn they gained some special adaptations to infect specific hosts and live effectively on available carbon sources. Loss of the photosynthetic function is not absolute, as was discussed in a fascinating paper by Hardy. As described in his paper at least one stem-nodulating strain of Rhizobium is photosynthetically competent. There are probably many more waiting to be identified.
Mullin had the courage to attempt construction of a parsimonious evolutionary tree of the genera known to be nodulated by actinomycetes and concluded that origin from a single common ancestor is not supported by present information. Frankias, the actinomycete partners, seem to be ubiquitous soil microbes and it appears likely that nodulation developed several times during evolution of angiosperms. Why only one non-legume (Parasponia) is known to be nodulated in nature by a Rhizobium is an important unanswered question. It is just one of many.
Looking back to the contents of the first symposium proceedings we can see striking progress in the biochemistry and molecular genetics of nitrogen fixation but much less clear advances in the practical aspects and actual chemistry of the nitrogenase reaction. We have a much better understanding of the anatomy and physiology of nodulated legumes and there has been progress with non-legumes and associative symbioses. We may be near a breakthrough in understanding nodulation host range (c.f. the Cocking article) and there is the possibility that we can begin to engineer bacterium and host plant in fruitful and predictable ways. The present volume provides a tantalizing sample of what is known and hoped.—Larry J. Davis, Kansas State University, Manhattan .
Analysis of Growth and Development of Xanthium.
1990. R. Maksymowych. Cambridge University Press, 220 pp. —This monograph is a worthwhile update within the Cambridge Developmental and Cell Biology Monograph Series for advanced undergraduate and graduate student audiences. Maksymowych has revised his 1973 Analysis of Leaf Development to include new research findings on the development of leaves and stems of Xanthium in this volume. Building on the excellent foundation of his previous volume, the author has incorporated new chapters on analyses of the development of petiole structure, epithelial canal cells, stem growth, phyllotaxis, phytohormone induced changes of morphology, and research cultivation techniques for Xanthium. Most chapters retained from the previous edition have been updated with discussions of data and micrographs from pertinent recent literature. Frank Salisbury has contributed a chapter summarizing techniques and results from experiments that have utilized Xanthium in flowering research. Both Maksymowych and Salisbury discuss the controversial taxonomy of this much studied genus, each adopting different specific epithets for plants which were apparently derived from the same initial population. Thus, no systematic consensus is achieved between these authors, but the reader is provided with a good overview of the issues involved. James Brooks has contributed an appendix in which three- and five-point numerical differentiation formulae are derived.
The text is subdivided into two broad subject groups: morphological and physiological aspects of the development of the aerial portions of the Xanthium plant. There is no discussion of subterranean organs in this volume, presumably because no notable research has been conducted on this aspect of development for this species. Concepts such as the plastochron index and relative elemental rates of elongation are introduced with straightforward examples that should be easily followed by the reader. The chapters on morphological development of Xanthium shoots represent a precise summary of the most meticulous and thorough studies performed on the developmental anatomy of leaves and stems to date. The chapters on physiological aspects of Xanthium development provide a correlative bridge between leaf development and such fundamental cellular processes as DNA and chlorophyll synthesis, respiration, and fluctuations in isoenzyme patterns. The influences that gibberellic acid has on leaf and internode growth is thoroughly explored, as is this substance's alteration of Xanthium phyllotaxis. The physiological section is concluded with Salisbury's chapter that summarizes over sixty years of research on photoperiodic induction of
flowering, in which Xanthium has figured predominately. Here, the reader is introduced to the "Xanthium floral stage index," which played a tremendous role in the collection of quantitative information on the timing of floral induction research in this species. This quantitative approach is used to update the reader with regard to current hypotheses concerning both the inorganic and organic aspects of reproductive transition to flowering.
The major attraction of this book is the concise manner in which quantitative analyses of both cytological and physiological aspects of plant growth and development are presented. One would hope that this volume would inspire future researchers toward equally rigorous analyses of other plant species.—Roger D. Meicenheimer, Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH.
Biology of the Red Algae.
K. M. Cole and R. H. Sheath, eds. 1990. Cambridge University Press. ($110.00)—This book is the first major work on red algae since the publication of "Biology of Rhodophyta" by P. Dixon, in 1973. Twenty-six experts, including the two editors, contributed to the eighteen chapters. The book focuses on recent research and current knowledge of red algae biology. However, not every aspect of this subject is covered since this is not a classic textbook. Actually, it is designed to be a reference for teachers, advanced students, and researchers. Those who specialize in morphology, phycology, aquatic biology (including limnology and oceanography), and plant evolution will find new and stimulating material to read. The chapters arc arranged so that the topics progress from cell organelles to the whole organism, and from genetics, through structure, function ecology, systematics and evolution. Unfortunately, applied topics have been excluded. The first six chapters are devoted to cell structure, chromosomes, genetics and cell division. Included is a chapter on microspectrofluorometric studies of DNA, which stresses new methodologies and instrumentation that are being applied to the studies of red algae life histories. The four chapters that follow cover several topics in physiology including: osmosis, carbon metabolism, pigmentation, photoacclimation and cell wall biology and chemistry. Another four chapters arc devoted to various aspects of ontogeny, e.g., vegetative growth and development, sexual reproduction, and cystocarp, sporangia and spore development. Some specific topics discussed here include apical cell division, branch initiation, cell differentiation and enlargement, and polarity.
The chapters on marine and fresh water ecology offer hitherto sparsely published information on the affects of the physical, chemical, and biotic factors on the communities and the distribution of red algae. The marine chapter offers a compilation of the scattered literature, while the fresh water chapter concentrates on macrophytic rhodophytes of rivers and streams. Reproductive strategies are covered in a single chapter. Here the author summarizes current knowledge of red algae breeding systems.
The final chapter includes several aspects of taxonomy and evolution. This chapter presents a brief history of the major themes in the development of the taxonomy of red algae, and it highlights new techniques in systematics that are being applied to vegetative and reproductive development. In addition, the authors show how ultrastructure, chemotaxonomic and developmental approaches are being used to examine evolutionary problems. A classification of red algae orders is included in this chapter.
The organization of the book and of each chapter makes it easy to locate specific topics and items. At the beginning of each chapter there is a table of contents. The presentation of information starts with an introductory section, and in most of the chapters, ends with a summary plus a list of acknowledgements and a list of references. The illustrations (including drawings and SEM and TEM photographs) are of excellent quality. At the end of the text there is a subject index and a taxonomic index. This scholarly work is a welcome addition to the list of reference books on algae.—Herbert H. Grossman, 519 Briarwood Lane, State College, PA.
The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: Asia and the Pacific.
1991. N.M. Collins, J.A. Sayer, and T.C. Whitmore, eds. NY: Simon and Schuster, 256 pp. — Scarcely anyone who reads a newspaper, watches television, or listens to the radio can claim to be ignorant of the destruction of tropical forests. Despite the media barrage relatively few people really have a broad understanding of the complex political, social, economic, and biological issues involved, particularly those issues associated with tropical forests outside of the Americas. Additionally, the media often presents conflicting estimates and statistics regarding the extent of the destruction and the present state of the resources. The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: Asia and the Pacific, produced under the auspices of the Tropical Forest Conservation Programme of The World Conservation Union (IUCN), is a marvelous book that not only addresses the regional issues involved in tropical forest destruction and conservation but also provides accurate facts and figures for what remains of the forests. The editors of this book state, "We are confident that this atlas presents the best available information on the tropical forest resources of Asia and the Pacific." I agree.
The Atlas is divided into two parts. The first part
consisting of 11 chapters introduces and discusses the complex interrelated issues in the region that are involved in the conservation of the tropical forests. These forests are defined as closed canopy tropical rain forests and the adjacent monsoon forests. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the entire book. Chapter 2 on Forest Wildlife gives a balanced summary of both plant and animal resources including a list of botanic gardens and zoos in the region. Chapter 3 covers the People of the Tropical Forests, meaning the tribal peoples living in the forests. Chapter 4 discusses the history and impacts of shifting cultivation on the tropical forests. Chapter 5 discusses the Agricultural Settlement Schemes promulgated by governments in the region most notable of which is the "transmigration" scheme of the Indonesian government. Chapter 6 covers Natural Rain Forest Management, which is largely concerned with timber and secondary forest product management. Chapter seven focusses on the Tropical Timber Trade responsible for much of the destruction of the forest. Chapter 8 surveys the various governmental policies including land use planning affecting forest conservation. The chapter also includes suggested criteria that should be used for helping countries to formulate policies for forest conservation. Chapter 9 reviews the various kinds of protected areas in the Asia-Pacific region and includes an analysis of benefits that can be derived from maintaining protected areas. Chapter 10 reviews and analyzes the FAO's Tropical Forest Action Plan (TFAP). TFAP was formulated by several international organizations including the IUCN, World Resources Institute, the World Bank, and the FAO to "restore, conserve, and manage forests and forest lands in such a way that they sustainably benefit rural people, agriculture, and the general economy of the countries concerned." This is an ambitious plan only begun in 1985 but already stirring change in a number of sectors. Chapter 11, the final chapter in the first section, provides a summary of the issues as well as a number of sobering and frightening statistics. It also considers the future of tropical forests and strategics for conserving them. It is stated that the fate of the Asian-Pacific tropical forests will be sealed in the next decade!
The second portion of the book consists of individual reviews for eighteen countries replete with copious statistics and color maps detailing the present state and distribution of the forests. The maps were compiled using the latest computer technology. The files used in compiling the Atlas are available for use with permission for the World Conservation Monitoring Centre in Cambridge, UK. Each of these country reviews has been compiled by experts from both within and without the respective countries. Having recently lived and/or botanized in several of the countries reviewed I can attest personally to the accuracy of the reviews for them. I was particularly impressed by the wealth of information presented on specific research projects and conservation efforts currently being undertaken in the various countries. The Atlas is well written and illustrated. The text is not inflammatory but rather lets the information speak for itself. A strong point of the book is its emphasis on recommendations for improving conservation activities in the area. It is essential reading for anyone concerned with the conservation of tropical forests. Although the book is particularly useful for scientists and layman alike who are unfamiliar with the Asia-Pacific region, the Atlas is also invaluable for those of us already working there. Let us hope that quick action for tropical forest conservation in the Asia-Pacific region ensures that we are not left only with maps and photos of the forests rather than the real thing.—Timothy Lowrey, Dept. of Biological Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
Monitoring for Conservation and Ecology.
F.B. Goldsmith, ed. 1991. London: Chapman and Hall, 275 pp. ISBN 0-412-35600-7 ($35.00)—In recent decades, ecological methods and principles have found useful application to "real world" problems such as nature reserve design, range management, response of ecological systems to industrial pollutants, and assessment of global climate change. Much of this application has been accepted by the academic community; witness the profusion of high caliber journals such as JOURNAL. OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT, and now ECOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS. It was with no little eagerness, then, that I opened this book. I fully expected, judging from the title and from the names of several of the contributors, to be treated to a tour de force, an indispensable reference source. How wrong I was.
In the Preface by F.B. Goldsmith (the volume's editor), we are promised answers to why monitoring is important in site management and how monitoring may be able to answer specific questions. Fair enough; but Goldsmith lost me from the start by stating that ecological "surveys" are the realm of children running through the fields oohing and aahing over the wonders of nature. Apparently, we field ecologists are out there for the fun of it, at best with rather vague objectives. On the other hand, monitoring is "disciplined" and "intrinsically purposeful." I put the book down for several weeks.
Upon returning, I opened to Chapter 1, a discussion by J.M. Hellawell of the rationale for monitoring. Here, we are informed that monitoring is a "process" because it explicitly recognizes change (presumably ecology does not). Hellawell also accuses ecological surveys (a redundancy in his lingo?) of having "no preconception of what the findings ought to be." Again, monitoring is deified as "disciplined" and "presupposes that one already has an idea, however vague, of the results which one expects to obtain." If the results are known, then why monitor? This arrogance of Goldsmith and
Hellawell permeates other chapters and renders ludicrous some of the later discussion of statistical treatment of data. And this is all in the first three pages!
In all fairness, there are several good chapters reviewing specific tools. Usher, in his usual reasoned manner, discusses the scientific requirements of a monitoring program. He makes some statements about autocorrelation that all field workers should heed and re-read before going out to romp in the field. The two most rigorous chapters arc by T.J. Crawford (calculating and interpreting wildlife indices) and P.A. Keddy (choice of state variables and their use in decision making). Keddy, by the way, is the only non-British author.
Other chapters on remote sensing (J.T.C. Budd), monitoring of plant populations (M.J Hutchings), and data bases (C.E. Appleby) are cursory treatments of complicated topics. There is also a series of chapters on monitoring different taxa (butterflies, birds, vegetation). The vegetation chapter is handled by Goldsmith who devotes a great deal of space discussing mapping, a technique he states we should aim to avoid. I was left knowing a great deal about why he thinks certain methods are inappropriate for vegetation monitoring, but very little about those he thinks are appropriate. He also provides some statistical advice (and a worked example) that could set the ecological use of statistics back to the dark ages (see his use of the t-test).
Unfortunately, most chapters hold nothing new and are painfully elementary, raising the unanswered question as to the intended audience of the book. The reader is repeatedly referred to the literature for detailed treatment. It is this detail that is lacking from this slim volume: the naive reader might learn just enough to be dangerous.—Christopher Dunn, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL.
Modern Methods in Orchid Conservation: The Role of Physiology, Ecology and Management.
H.W. Pritchard, ed. 1989/ Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,173 pp. ISBN 0-521-37294-1. $42.50 (cloth).—This small book is based on the proceedings of an orchid conservation symposium held in 1986 at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England. It is unfortunate publishing took so long given the book's brevity. The book consists of 15 chapters varying in length from 4 to 18 pages. All 22 contributors have British affiliations. The book is attractively packaged and soundly bound, and contains a very nice two color illustration of Maxillaria acicularis on its washable cover. The many tables, figures, and black and white plates are of high quality. Unfortunately, the index does not include alphabetical references to species names. Other than for a few minor editorial problems (Figure 7, plates not labeled; the "Newsletter" subheading, p. 155, is not well connected with the text that follows; use of 'This" data vs "these" data, p.159), the text reads well and there were no obvious typos.
The first seven chapters deal with the "role of physiology", which as used in this book involves various details of how new orchid plants can be grown from pollen or seed, or via tissue culture techniques. Included with this group are two chapters on mycorrhizal fungi and their role in the germination and establishment of orchids. Chapters 8-11 treat "ecological" matters, and Chapters 12-15 cover "management" aspects of orchid conservation.
I believe the book attains the editor's goal of being "a useful starting point" relative to orchid conservation. It falls short, however, of being useful "for those involved in all aspects of conservation". If nothing else, the reader is imbued with the sense that a large number of institutions, scientists, and amateurs are sincerely concerned with the plight of our world's rare orchid species and are trying to do something about it.
Butcher and Marlow ("Asymbiotic germination of epiphytic and terrestrial orchids"), briefly review special case histories of several rare or endangered species of European and U.K. orchids, and note that while reintroduction is an exciting goal to aim for, and that specific programs are underway, much remains to be learned before most rare species can even be successfully propagated in the laboratory or green-house. Disturbing are the examples given by Butcher and Marlow, and by Knees ("Import and export of orchids and the law"), that as soon as rare orchid species are located or rediscovered (e.g. Paphiopedilum micranthum, and P. sanderianum), they immediately become re-threatened with extinction by commercial or amateur collectors!
Farrell and Fitzgerald ('The Nature Conservancy Council and orchid conservation"), and Warren ("A private conservation project in the coastal rainforest in Brazil: the first ten years"), are two of the more interesting chapters for someone looking for information dealing with "hands on" problems and opportunities associated with orchid conservation. In the former, the interesting tale is told of the "Orchid Wardening Scheme" (i.e. orchid police!), and how U.K. orchids are being protected under this program. Warren presents a brief, down-home account of his experiences in Brazil with the Equatorial Plant Company, and how through exchange of information and propagules, one individual can greatly assist the worldwide goal of orchid conservation. I particularly liked his account of how he was once lost in the jungle at night and forced to sleep there. As a result, he learned "that the canopy was soon sodden after dark and dripped all night through". Through his newfound observations of jungle moisture mechanics, he was able to make suggestions about how greenhouses ought to be managed.
A few complaints about the book: 1. Lacking in
most chapters are clear introductory or summary statements describing the relationship of the topic to the overall goal of orchid conservation. Without some connection, these chapters hang by themselves without clearly contributing to "modern methods of orchid conservation". For example, Hailes and Seaton's chapter ("The effects of the composition of the atmosphere on the growth of seedlings of Cattleya aurantiaca"), and Wells and Cox's chapter ("Predicting the probability of the bee orchid (Ophrys apifera) flowering or remaining vegetative from the size and number of leaves"), are informative papers in their own right. However, it is unclear how these papers will help conserve orchids any more than any other studies published elsewhere dealing with some aspect of orchid propagation or ecology. Among the questions that could have been addressed to draw these chapters into focus include: Have the techniques been used on any rare orchids? Should they be? What recommendations can be made for future experiments with rare orchid species using the techniques or information presented? How do the techniques used or results generated relate to the larger issue of orchid conservation problems or principles? The editor could have presented such information in a more detailed introductory chapter, or the authors could have been directed to provide such details. 2. Few chapters mention suggested directions for future research. 3. The book lacks a thorough preface/introductory chapter or summary. 4. The price seems high considering the physical size of the book, its brevity, and its timeliness.
In California, if proposed developments require the taking of habitat essential to sensitive plant species, the "solution" often dictates that they be dug up (if perennials) and moved elsewhere. If the situation is fortunate to have habitat restoration specialists involved, they will attempt to determine cultural requirements of the "impacted" species, and try to duplicate these conditions in a different locale. The seeming innocence and naivete of this approach contrasts loudly with information presented in MODERN METHODS IN ORCHID CONSERVATION. This book, and many others, are needed to educate the public that conservation of sensitive plant species involves more than transplanting, or putting a fence around a plant or two. A large number (army?!) of amateurs and professional scientists have devoted their lives to studying the Orchidaceae, and yet, as MODERN METHODS amply demonstrates, a very large number of questions remain concerning even basic orchid propagation techniques and principles. —R. John Little, Research Associate, University Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
Plant Form: An Illustrated Guide to Flowering Plant Morphology.
A. D. Bell (line drawings by A. Bryan). 1991. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854279-8 (Paper, $49.95). — "Flowering plants exhibit a fascinating array of external structures which can be studied with the naked eye or at most a simple hand lens." So begins the preface to this most unusual book, which does indeed support the initial assertion. This is not an introductory text (though it includes a section about the basic principles of morphological description) nor yet a treatise for the narrow specialist (although some sets of terminology are explored in excruciating detail) but rather a reference book in which to look at different patterns of vernation or for information on the intricacies of epiphylly or for any number of other bits of botanical esoterica. The strengths, and they truly are strengths, of the book are the marvelous illustrations and the extensive and thorough cross-referencing. More about these anon.
One of the two important weaknesses is the bibliography, which is given as a "references" section rather than as a "literature cited." Thus, within a section on an interesting topic, there is no citation of additional literature on that subject. This is to a certain extent compensated by the very satisfying cross-reference to related topics within the book itself. However, if one wants to read something about spines, say, or tubers, beyond what is covered in this text, one is left to peruse the entire references listing looking for additional materials, or going to the library and dredging through indices (not in itself an excercise to be avoided, but the author of this book could easily have provided a good start).
The other major weakness is the manner in which the really superb line art is labelled. In an effort to distinguish section labels (a=species y, b=species z, etc.) from structure labels (Ax=axillary, Br=branch, etc.), the section labels are lowercase bold and enclosed in parentheses, while the structure labels are capitalized (initial letter only), light face and without parentheses. However, the same type face and size is used for both; in addition, there are scale-bars for each section in many of the illustrations. None of these things is bad in and of itself, but when the number of taxa and structures illustrated rises to ten species and ten structures (as on page 203, "Cacti and cacti lookalikes"), even the very interested and motivated student of plant structure almost loses interest while figuring out which scale bar belongs to which portion of the illustration, and trying to hunt down the section marker for Euphorbia caput-medusae (f) in order to see the "Lsc" [leaf scar].
On the other hand, the manner in which the book is
set up, illustrated, and cross-referenced are well-organized and render it very easy to use. Each topic, of which there are 157 arranged in 15 more inclusive categories (including leaf, stem and root morphology, reproductive morphology, seedlings, meristems, etc.) is accorded a two-page spread that includes a clear and pertinent color photograph, well-executed line drawings, and a usually fairly lengthy paragraph of text that explains the structure under consideration with reference to the accompanying illustrations and to other topics and illustrations elsewhere in the book. The illustration number is the same as the page number on which it is found; the page numbers are large and readily spotted when flipping through the book. In addition to the number, each page header boldly proclaims the topic covered on that page. The table of contents includes a listing of the inclusive categories and all of the topics; the index includes all of the topics and every vocabulary word and every species mentioned anywhere in the book. Finding information that is included in the book is as easily done as one could hope for, except within the line drawings, as noted above.
Botany is peculiar to zoologists, in that we botanists use the word "anatomy" in the sense that they would use "histology," and "morphology" where they would use "anatomy." And, there are quite a number of "plant morphology" books that are really an explication of the features of the different divisions (phyla) of plants, i.e. taxonomies of the higher categories. This book on plant form is one of the few that I have encountered that is truly a book about the morphology of flowering plants—it does not delve into the cellular level, it does not talk about breeding systems or the difference between gametophytes and sporophytes--just the structures of the sporophyte that we sec without microsectioning. To a zoologist then, this is an anatomy of the plant body; to botanists it is a guide to the external form that is made up of the various tissue types encountered in books by Esau or Fahn. Too bad it doesn't include gymnosperms and ferns, or I would recommend it as a companion volume to any text used in a plant anatomy course. As it is, I recommend it to botanists, horticulturists and others who may want to know how a cladode differs from a phyllode, and would like to have pictures as well as words in the answer.—Meredith A. Lane, McGregor Herbarium, University of Kansas, Lawrence .
The Liverworts of Britain and Ireland.
A. J. E. Smith. 1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ix+ 362 pp. ISBN 0-521-23834-X. $90.00 (Cloth).—Any book on the liverworts of Britain and Ireland invites comparison with the venerable Macvicar Student's Handbook of British Hepatics, which has served as the primary source of information for over sixty years. Smith is unduly modest when he claims that his work ". . . can only be regarded as a guide...". For most of its users, it is destined to become the primary source of taxonomic information about liverworts and hornworts in the U.K. and Ireland. But it is much more than a simple compilation of taxonomic keys and descriptions. It brings in reported chromosome counts, ecological observations and leads to special literature for those interested in more than just the identity of the species. One gains the clear impression that the author has both a great sensitivity to the subtleties of habitat niches of species and to variations that are revealed only by careful study. His notes on separating four superficially similar species in the difficult genus Jungermannia are both insightful and reassuring to the user of the book. Other helpful features for neophyte bryologists and students include diagrams of measurement methods, leaf insertions, sexual conditions, shapes and cell features all critical for identification. The keys deserve special mention because they take into account variations found in genera and species which may go either way at a particular dichotomy. By so doing, Smith has made the keys easier to use and has enhanced chances for success by the user even though some "purists" would eschew such a pragmatic approach to identification. Arrangement of taxa follows Grolle's system for the most part and the author makes clear that no phylogeny is implied from the natural (or phenetic) order of presentation of taxa. Overall, the taxonomy appears to be conservative without dumping difficult taxa into a few catch-all groups as is sometimes done. Errors and oversights are few so far as can be determined before the book has been used for a few years. In the key to orders, the basal meristem and indeterminate sporophyte of Anthocerotales would seem to merit notice and all Sphaerocarpos spores do not remain in adherent tetrads although that appears to be true in British specimens. Many taxa are widely holarctic in their distribution and such patterns are briefly summarized for each species. Here some lapses occur: Geocalix graveolens, Blepharostoma trichophylla and Targionla hypophylla are known from Hawaii, but the sole Pleurozia pupurea record from Hawaii is based upon a specimen of Pleurozia conchaefolia. Putting such trivialities aside, we have been presented a well-illustrated, clearly written, original treatise which should find wide use across western Europe, eastern North America, and to a considerable degree in Japan. It is a most worthy modern successor to Macvicar and it will surely serve its users well for many years to come. The price of the cloth bound edition is too high and we can hope that a reasonably priced printing can be issued soon for the benefit of personal users such as amateurs and students.—Harvey A. Miller, Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando.
The Japanese Iris.
C. McEwen. 1990. Hanover, NH:University Press of New England, 153 pp. ISBN 0-87451-512-2 (cloth $29.95) —McEwen, former Dean of Medicine at NY University, and author of many articles on irises, has gone a long way towards dispelling many of the "widely held erroneous impressions" surrounding the fascinating Iris ensata. For example, the species has no requirement to be grown in water; plants are grown in this manner in order to enjoy the beauty of their reflection on the water's surface. Mysteries surrounding the place of origin, history of cultivation, and the species' checkered nomenclatural past arc ably treated. McEwen does not shy away from any topic—and cheerfully guides the reader through both the intricacies of "methods for the induction tetraploidy" (the author's major contribution to Japanese Iris breeding) as well as the "official rules governing the judging and evaluation of seedlings." Some readers may be disappointed by the modest number of color plates (32). However, the photographs are well-chosen to illustrate the range of diversity in I. ensata from the wild species to the major types of cultivars and various garden settings. An 8-page glossary (covering terms as diverse as "allopolyploid" and "diamond-dusted") completes this informative and high quality horticultural treatise.—Aaron Liston, Dept. of Botany &Plant Pathology, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis.
Wildflowers: Legends, Poems and Paintings.
H. E. Laughlin (ed). 1989. McKinney, TX: Heard Natural Science Museum. No ISBN. (Cloth, $19.95).—This is a cute little cloth-covered book of wildflower paintings by the editor's late wife Mary Jo Laughlin, with an accompaniment of short poems by Nancy Richey Ranson, whose name "remains synonymous with the Dallas flora" [or so the book says]. The book begins with short biographies of the artist and poet, continues with the paintings and poems, and concludes with a page to page-and-a-half explication of interesting scientific or folkloric arcana about each species. Some 30 species of wildflowers (with a liberal sprinkling of exotics) are exalted in verse that is too sentimental to be Dickensonian, but has its childlike, evocative moments: "Like tiny hats, these purple brooms /Are deftly trimmed with waving plumes /the crown is soft, I think I'll try /To trim it with a butterfly...", although the religious overtones may offend some.. The art is accurate enough, if not detailed botanical illustration. This is the sort of "botanical" book I used to buy for my relatives when I was in graduate school: about plants, but not so esoteric that it bores the casual naturalist. Looking it over, though, I find myself wondering why it was published in book form, rather than as a boxed assortment of pleasant greeting cards.—M.A. Lane, McGregor Herbarium, University of Kansas, Lawrence.
Heliconia: An Identification guide.
F. Barry and W. J. Kress. 1991. Smithsonian Institution Press, 334 pp. ISBN# 1-56098-006-0. $35.00 (cloth); ISBN 1-56098-007-9. $16.95 (paper).-Heliconias have recently burst into notoriety as cut flowers and as popular landscaping and potted plants in warm parts of the world. As a result, there has been a surge of species, varieties, and cultivars introduced into cultivation. This book does an admirable job of putting order into the naming of these plants and presenting the beauty and diversity of the genus to specialists and the general public alike. As the title indicates, this is primarily an identification manual, presented in a field guide format and illustrated by 200 color photographs. species and cultivars are grouped into broad categories that are easily located by the innovative use of color—codes borders along the outer margin of each page, and standardized information of important characters of the plant is provided for each entry. A series of brief introductory chapters discusses the naming of heliconias, terminology of plant features, the genus' botanical relatives in the Zingerberales, and other aspects of the biology of Heliconia. Some of these topics merit more thorough treatment, but they at least provide a general frame of reference for beginning enthusiasts. The authors' concerted effort to standardize names for the heliconias included in the book should serve to prevent the proliferation of conflicting names in the future. Since only about half of the known species and cultivars are treated, however, this task is only partially accomplished, and one can foresee an enlarged and updated version of the guide once further research has been completed. Three chapters appear as appendicies and address different aspects of the cultivation of heliconias. With this broad coverage of botanical and horticultural aspects of the genus, Berry and Kress' field guide can legitimately claim to be the definitive information source on heliconias today, and t will undoubtedly contribute to even greater interest and appreciation of this speciose, tropical genus.—Paul E. Berry, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
Anyone wishing to review a book for PSB should write to the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 August, 15 November, 15 February or 15 April of the appropriate year).—Ed.
* = in review or declined for review
Development & Structure
*Developmental and Cell Biology Series 25, Pattern Formation in Plant Tissues. Tsvi Sachs. 1991. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th St., New York, NY 10011. ISBN 0-521-24865-5. US$75.00 (Cloth)
**Plant Form. Adrian D. Bell. 1991. Oxford Univ. Press. 200 Madison Ave. New York, NY 10016. ISBN 0-19-854279-9. US$95.00 (Cloth) ISBN 0-19-854219-4. US$49.94 (Paper)
Species Conservation: A Population-Biological Approach. A. Seitz & V. Loescheke Eds. 1991. Birkhauser Boston Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, MJ 07096-2491. ISBN 0-8176-2493-7
*British Plant Communities. Vol. 1 Woodlands and Scrub. J.S. Rodwell, Ed. 1991. Cambridge Univ. Press, 40 West 20th St., New York, NY 10011-4211. ISBN 0-521-23558-8. US$ 150.00 (Cloth)
*Quantitative Approaches to Phytogeography. P. L. Nimis & T. J. Crovello, Eds. 1991. Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P. O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN 0-7923095-X. US$169.00, 275.00 Dfl., £95.00 (Cloth)
The Ethnobotany of Aublet's Histoire Des Plantes De La Guiane Francoise (1775). M. J. Plotkin, B.M. Boom & M. Allison. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden. No. 35. 1991. ISBN 0161-1542. US$12.95
*A Forest Journey: The Role of Wood in the Development of Civilization. John Perlin. 1991. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. ISBN 0-674-30892-1. US$14.95 (Paper)
*U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. Managing Global Genetic Resources. 1991. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington DC 20418. ISBN 0-309-04390-5. US$19.95 (Cloth)
Beyond Natural Selection. R. Wesson. 1991. MIT Press, 55 Hayward St., Cambridge, MA 02142. ISBN 0-262-23161-1. US$29.95 (Cloth)
Microbiology and Mycology
*Tropical Lichens: Their Systematics, Conservation, and Ecology. The Systematics Assoc. Special Vol. 43. D. J. Galloway, Ed. 1991. Oxford Univ. Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016. ISBN 0-19-857720-6. US$120.00 (Cloth)
*Geological Evolution of Antarctica. M.R.A. Thomson, J.A. Crame & J.W. Thomson, Eds. 1991. Cambridge Univ. Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011. ISBN 0-521-37266 (Cloth)
Biology and Biochemistry of Nitrogen Fixation. MJ. Dilworth & A.R. Glenn, Eds. 1991. Elsevier Science Publishinig Company Inc., P. O. Box 882, Madison Square Station, New York, NY 10159. 1991. ISBN 0-444-88960-4. US$120.00 (Cloth)
Response of Plants to Multiple Stresses. 11.A. Monney, W.E. Winner & E.J. Pell, Eds. 1991. Academic Press, 1250 - 6th Ave., San Diego, CA 92101. ISBN 0-12-505355-X. US$69.95 (Cloth)
*Clonal Growth in Plants: Regulation and Function. J. van Groenendael & H. de Kroon, Eds. 1990. SPB Academic Publishing, P. O. Box 97747, 2509 GC The Hague, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-5103-056-8. US$43.00 U.S. (Paper)
*Plant-Microbe Interface: Structure and Function. P.A. McGee, S.E. Smith & F.A. Smith, Eds. 1991. International Specialized Book Services, Inc., 5602 NE Hassalo St., Portland, OR 97213-3640. ISBN 0-643-01987-8. US$30.00 (Paper)
Methods in Plant Biochemistry. Vol. 6: Assays for Bioactivity. P.M. Dey, J.B. Harborne & K. Hostettmann, Eds. 1991. Academic Press, San Diego, CA 92101. ISBN 0-12-461016-1. US$55.00 (Cloth)
*Illustrated Field Guide to Ferns and Allied Plants of the British Isles. C. Jermy & J. Camus. 1991. Int. Spec. Book Services, Inc. 5602 NE Hassalo St., Portland OR 97213. US$17.95 (Nat. Hist. Mus. Publications, Cromwell Rd., London, U.K. SW7 5BD)
*A World of Ferns. J. M. Camus, A. C. Jenny, & B. A. Thomas. 1991. Int. Spec. Book Services, Inc. 5602 NE Hassalo St., Portland OR 97213. US$22.95 (Nat. Hist. Mus. Publications, Cromwell Rd., London, U.K. SW7 5BD)
*Spores of the Pteridophyta. A. F. Tryon & B. Lugardon. 1990. Springer-Verlag, New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus NJ 07096-2491. ISBN 0-387-97218-8. US$98.00 (Cloth)
Systematics, Taxonomy, Floristics
*Flora of the Outer Hebrides. R. J. Pankhurst & J. M. Mullin. 1991. Int. Spec. Book Services, Inc. 5602 NE Hassalo St., Portland OR 97213. US$39.95 (Nat. Mist. Mus. Publications, Cromwell Rd., London, U.K. SW7 5BD]
*Passion Flowers. J. Vanderplank. 1991. The MIT Press, 55 Hayward St., Cambridge MA 02142. ISBN 0-262-22043-1. US$35.00 (Cloth)
*Roadside Wildflowers of the Southern Great Plains. C. C. Freeman & E. K. Schofield. 1991. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045. ISBN 0-7006-0448-0. US$29.95 (Cloth). US$ 17.95 (Paper)
*Vascular Plants of Minnesota. G.B. Ownbey & T. Morley. 1991. Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2037 University Avenue S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55414. ISBN 0-8166-191508. US$39.95 (Cloth)
**Wildflowers: Legends, Poems and Paintings. Nancy Richey Ranson & Mary Jo Laughlin. 1991. Heard Natural Science Museum, Rt. 6, Box 22, McKinney, TX 75069. US$19.95 (Cloth)