Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1990 v36 No 2 SummerActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.<left> </left>

THOMAS N. TAYLOR, Editor Department of Botany, Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (614) 422-3564

Editorial Board
JUDITH A. JERNSTEDT Dept. of Agronomy & Range Science, University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616
RUDY SCHMID Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California, 94720
HARDY W. ESHBAUGH Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056

PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN (ISSN 0032-0919) is published four times per year by the Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave.. Columbus. OH 43210. Second class postage pending at Columbus. Ohio and additional mailing office. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Robert H. Essman, Botanical Society of America, 1735 Neil Ave.. Columbus. OH 43210.

May, 1990 Volume 36 No. 2

The two letters that follow are responses by Ray F. Evert to letters that appeared in PSB V. 36, No. 1. Dr. Evert requested that these appear in the same issue with the letters that they address, however, this was not possible due to the timing of distribution of PSB. The 5 contributions that follow Dr. Evert's letters are either in response to his original name change suggestion (V. 35, No. 3), or in response to the letters that appeared later (V. 35, No. 4; V. 36, No. 1) on this same subject.

Thomas N. Taylor, Editor

Reply to William Louis Stern

Many thanks for your letter and the copy of your note on the name "botany," which appeared in the Plant Science Bulletin.

I agree with virtually everything you say in your note, including your suggestion that "botanical sciences" might be a better designation. (If I were to edit your note, I would make but one "change," and that would be to insert "the concept of" after "above-that" in line 9 of the first paragraph.)

Hopefully, our letters will motivate the membership to become more involved in the promotion of botany in general and the Society in particular. The suggested name change was not thought of as a cure-all, but something to be considered as one step toward revitalization.

Reply to Peter Bernhardt

Thank you for your "Open Letter" of January 16, concerning the "B" word. I'm sorry that you found my essay (PSB V. 35, No. 3) disturbing. I certainly did not imply any serious consequences for retaining the B word nor did I insist upon anything in that essay. My attempt was to get people thinking about the future of botany in general and of our Society in particular--both of which have been of great concern to me all of my professional life.

Quite frankly, I do not know whether to take your letter seriously or as an attempt on your part to be humorous. If I take it seriously, then I am disturbed that you would refer to such things as "some tired tactic that is usually practiced by race hate groups," or "a contempt for the history of our discipline." I am appalled that an idea should be attacked so venomously, especially by someone in academia.

Congratulations on the success of your book, and best wishes for a pleasant visit to Sydney on the shore of Botany Bay.

Ray F. Evert
Department of Botany
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Letter to the Editor

I read with surprise Dr. R.F. Evert's proposal in the Plant Science Bulletin (Vol. 35, No. 3) that the BSA consider changing its name so that reference to botany is changed to reference to "plant biology." As one who for many years was not a member of BSA, I feel especially qualified to comment on his proposal. Though I got both my undergraduate and graduate training in departments which were called "biology" rather than "botany," I have always regarded myself as a botanist, and I have done so without the slightest feeling of embarrassment or inferiority. However, I join associations and societies not for reasons of emotion or professional loyalty, but because I want to have my personal copy of the journal they publish. If the journal does not regularly have articles in it which are useful to my research or teaching, then no matter what its "prestige," I do not need a personal copy, and can depend on periodic checking of the journal's recent issues in the library to see if there are articles I especially need to read. Thus, I do not join the society which publishes that journal.

Early in my professional career I joined BSA, but over a couple of years I found, as one whose research and teaching centered on plant autecology and vegetation research, that while there were excellent articles on


my favorite subjects in the American Journal of Botany, there were very few of them. In contrast, the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club regularly had articles in those two fields. The second journal was very useful in my teaching and research; the first was not. Therefore, given my tight budget, I dropped my membership in BSA and then joined the Torrey Botanical Club, so that I would receive their journal. Note that it was not to escape reference to "botany" or for greater "prestige" that I left BSA. It was simply because the journal did not have enough articles in my field to make it useful for me to receive it. (I recently dealt more extensively with this issue of prestige vs. usefulness in ASB Bulletin 37: 22-28).

Four years ago two plant ecologist friends who were officers in BSA/AJB chastised me for my non-membership, and I explained my reasons. They assured me that the editorial committee was making an effort to strengthen its coverage of subject fields previously not emphasized, and that I would begin to see more autecological/physiological ecology articles. Indeed I did see an increase in such articles, and now I have rejoined the BSA. I have even gotten so enthusiastic that last year I submitted a physiological ecology article to the journal (now in press). If AJB has enough articles in a researcher's subject area that she/he needs to read the journal regularly, then society membership will follow, regardless of the name of the society; if it doesn't have many articles in that field, then no name change will compensate.

Stewart Ware
Department of Biology
College of William and Mary

Letter to the Editor

The recent exchange of letters in the PSB concerning the possibility of changing the name of the Botanical Society of America to the Plant Biology Society of America has been interesting and is certainly a timely topic. I don't know how many universities have already eliminated or changed the names of their botany departments, but it is probably a pretty large number. The Department of Botany at U.C. Davis, for example, is about to be changed to the Section of Plant Biology in the Division of Biological Sciences. I must say that I don't exactly agree with the way things have turned out here, but I do agree with the intention to modernize our structure and to make the study of plants more immediately recognizable and more attractive to new students. I think that the argument that "A rose is a rose. " is a good argument, and one which is certainly true for people who already understand what botany is, but it really isn't a valid argument for many young students and for a great number of non-scientists.

One of the largest businesses in the U.S. today is the advertising industry. Advertising tends to influence us to buy things and to say and think things that we might not do otherwise. One of the best ways to improve market standing is to figure out a catchy phrase or term that people remember. I think that this same principle should be applied now to BSA. I'm not saying that we should hire an advertising firm to suggest ways to change our image, but that we should attempt to analyze what our image is to the outside world and to try to make that image more immediately recognizable and meaningful. It should be apparent to the outside world that we are an up-to-date and dynamic organization. We can not afford to assume that the outside world knows about us as a Society. We have to take charge of our destiny by projecting what we really are.

The members of BSA encompass a broad spectrum of scientists and include a large number of people working in state of the art disciplines who apply front line research techniques in innovative ways. My guess based on talking to several people outside of science is that they tend not to think of the study of botany in those terms. When professional botanists think of botany they think of it in the context of what really happens, but people outside of botany often do not.

One of the things people tend to bring up in discussing this name change is just who are we trying to convince, and this is a good question. People who already under-stand what botany means are not the target we're trying to reach. Instead I think we should aim for young people who are beginning to think of careers and older students who haven't had the benefit of coming in contact with botanists. We need to develop outreach programs to show young students exactly what plants and the study of plants are about. I think that an early step in doing this is to make the name of the major society of professional scientists who study plants instantly understandable to everyone regardless of their experience. The simple change in our name to Plant Biology would accomplish a lot. It would improve our name recognition and it would make what we do more understandable to society at large. Everyone knows what a plant is and almost everyone knows that biology means the study of living things.

Our problem now is that we have declining enrollments in botany classes across the country, declining numbers of graduate student applicants and a decrease in our society memberships. I think that one reason for this is that many students in elementary and high schools either don't know what botany means, or that they think of it as a dying science. Changing the name would provide one outward sign that we are a dynamic science. I think that if we would have anticipated our deteriorating image several years ago that we would not be in the poor shape that we now find ourselves. Our choice is to take charge now or to let things decline further.

Thomas L. Rost
Department of Botany
University of California, Davis

More Than a Name Change Needed

The four responses (PSB V. 35, No. 4) to Ray Evert's suggested name change of "Botany" to "Plant Biology" reveal that the problem is not the name but a lack of students and a positive image. To borrow comedian Rodney Dangerfield's line, "Plants don't get no respect" Whether the name is botany, plant biology, plant science, botanical science, or phytoscience does not seem to be that important. More students and a better image can be attained by better "advertising" in the form of educating other administrators, scientists, students, and the public about plants (see "Plant scientists should promote plant science through education," in The Plant Cell 1: 655-656, 1989).


Botanists in BSA and the many other plant science societies are not taking advantage of the fact that plants have always been essential and are becoming more and more important in human civilization. Plants directly or indirectly provide most of our oxygen, food, fuel, and paper, and much of our medicine, clothing, and building materials. They also are important in water treatment, recycling of sewage via composting, and soil erosion control. Plants are particularly important in the field of painting. Many art masterpieces have flowers as their subject. World record prices were paid for Van Gogh's paintings, "Irises" and "Sunflowers" If all animals except humans were destroyed, people could fairly easily survive. If all plants were destroyed, human survival would be very much in jeopardy.

Marketing angles for plants abound: Arbor Day; the American Forestry Association's "Global Releaf" program to plant 100 million trees to help reverse the greenhouse effect; NASA research indicating that houseplants absorb indoor air pollutants; the great health benefits of large amounts of fruits, vegetables, and grains in the human diet; the psychological benefits of plants in the human environment; Biosphere II, NASA's program to grow plants in space as an integral part of a life support system; and the slogan, "Pick up a spade and plant some shade," used by the Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria, Australia, to promote tree planting to prevent skin cancer.

The well-publicized "science education crisis" also offers an opportunity for botanists to put more emphasis on plant education. Some notable efforts include the American Gardening Association's GrowLab class gardening program, and the Wisconsin Fast Plants program. Fast plants go from seed to flower in just two weeks under continuous fluorescent lighting in a class-room situation and can serve as a long-needed model plant for botany education. The animal rights dilemma should work to botany's advantage since the decline in animal dissection in science teaching opens the way for more plant use in biology education. The problem botany needs to overcome is the illogical attitude, shared by most of science, that science teaching is not very important compared to research. Botany educators also need to get on the "publish or perish" bandwagon and publish refereed articles on botany education so all educators can utilize innovative teaching methods. Establishment of a "Plant Science Education Journal" would be highly desirable. Botanists could also write more plant articles for science teaching periodicals, such as Science and Children, Science Scope, The Science Teacher, Journal of College Science Teaching, Journal of Biological Education, Journal of Chemical Education, and The American Biology Teacher (Editor's note: Articles of this type are also welcomed for publication in the Plant Science BuIletin).

Botany societies may also be able to gain publicity by providing news releases to the media. Stories from organizations like the Audubon Society, the National Wildlife Federation, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science often make national headlines. I don't remember ever hearing a national news story mentioning a plant science society.

The call by science education reformers for science education to be more interdisciplinary and related to the real world also is an advantage for botany since botany is an interdisciplinary field already, and plants are so important in everyday life. College level courses in math, chemistry, physics, biology, art, history, etc. could be taught using nothing but plant examples, if desired. Few plant examples are generally used in most courses except those taught by botanists.

Scagel's letter (PSB V. 35, No. 4) noted the great history of botany as a major strength. Botanical history could easily be turned to an advantage. As an example, a poster on ten notable events in horticultural history (HortScience 23: 735, 1988) was hung in a busy hallway outside classrooms and numerous non-plant students read it while waiting for class. Many famous scientists worked extensively with plants but are not often associated with botany. Charles Darwin is an excellent example. There are also hundreds of historical botanists who made great contributions but are virtually unknown even to most botany graduates.

Gardening is the number one leisure activity in the U.S.A. There is a largely untapped market for popular articles about plants written by scientists (see "The write stuff," HortScience 24: 419, 1989). The lack of scientists writing popular articles about plants means the public's view of plants is more likely to be shaped by pseudo-science like that in the best seller, The Secret Life of Plants. There is also a relative lack of television shows about plants compared to the numerous shows about animals, e.g., "Wild Kingdom."

Favorable publicity and recruitment of new students for botany might also be attained by providing certificates to public school students with botany projects in science fairs. There might even be a "Botany Olympics," similar to the Chemistry Olympics. The National Science Foundation's education arm supports science education programs of many types, but few deal with botany education. Botany does not seem to be in the game since other science societies often obtain major grants from NSF for education projects.

The solution to botany's problems of few students and little respect will require more educational efforts which can serve to better market botany as an essential and exciting field of science. Better cooperation among the numerous plant science societies, e.g., plant physiologists, plant taxonomists, plant anatomists, plant molecular biologists, phytochemists, plant pathologists, agronomists, horticulturists, foresters, weed scientists, plant entomologists, etc. would make such educational efforts more likely to succeed.

David R. Hershey
Department of Horticulture
University of Maryland

Letter to the Editor

Let me say at the outset that as a mycologist I am not in favor of changing the AJB to the AJPS. The British Mycological Society also suffered an image problem with the Transactions (of the British Mycological Society = TBMS) and their solution was a major revamp of the journal including changing the name to Mycological Research; similarly one could envision the AJB becoming Botanical Research.

Other points that seem germane to the issue: One is that an author (or one of multiple authors) must be a member of the BSA. This is characteristic of U.S. society


journals and precludes a great many potential contributors. In this context it is worth noting that: 1) publication in journals of British societies (e.g., Journal of General Microbiology and Mycological Research) does not require society membership, and 2) the Canadian Journal of Botany is also an open journal, represents the full panoply of botany, and is what the AJB used to be. Concerning this last remark--up through the 1960's mycological articles appeared regularly in the AJB and the BSA had an active microbiology section. No more! Why?

R.T. Moore
Dept. of Biology & Biomedical Sciences
Univ. of Ulster at Coleraine, N. Ireland

The Demise and Redemise of Botany at Harvard

Some of my Harvard colleagues, whose command of the finer points of the English language is less complete than it should be (tut! tut!), have misinterpreted a remark made by Professor William Stern in his recent article in PSB (V. 36, No. 1) as being uncomplimentary to the state of botanical science at Harvard. Obviously, this is not Professor Stern's intention and, lest the occasional other reader of the Bulletin labors under the same mis-apprehension, I hasten to clarify the situation. This notice also allows me to thank Professor Stern for his compliment.

The misunderstanding arises in a statement Professor Stern makes in his discussion of the word "botany" - "nor, conversely, did the establishment of a Biology Department stem the demise of botany at Harvard" Confusion is not merely caused by the some-what inelegant and ambiguous phraseology Professor Stern uses (the absence of an antecedent "neither" to his "nor," an implied double negative and a suspicion of a mixed metaphor) but by the use of the word "demise" Understandably this can mean "death" and I must confess that at first reading I immediately examined myself in the mirror. I seemed to be in good health and, since I was in the throes of preparing my federal income tax return, I knew I was not in heaven. Seeking further assurance, I took the first opportunity to acquaint myself with the condition of my scientific colleagues in Cambridge. They seemed to be going about their botanical business with the necessary brilliance and energy expected of them. Thus reassured, and knowing that Professor Stern is absolutely incapable of untruth, I appreciated that he uses the word "demise" in its original sense - the transfer of a legacy or sovereignty (Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary); hence, the complimentary nature of his statement. Obviously he means that no semantic manipulation can prevent the continuance of the tradition of botanical excellence at my institution.

This is true, and shows that the great legacy established by Asa Gray, confidant of Charles Darwin and founder of North American botany, is being carefully handed on from generation to generation quite independent of terminological vagaries. This tradition, mediated through familiar names in North American botany like Charles Sargent, Elmer Merrill, I.W. Bailey, Ralph Wetmore, . . . etc., etc., continues up to the present. Why else would the Botanical Society of America, in all it perspicacity, recently give awards of merit to Martin Zimmermann and John Torrey (the junior)? We thus appreciate that Professor Stern recognizes this demise and redemise of botany at Harvard and thank him for emphasizing it is in his article.

P.B. Tomlinson
Harvard Forest
Petersham, MA


Dear colleagues:

Some of the members of the various Societies that meet each year under the auspices of AIBS have been heard to complain about the high cost of meeting registration. Perhaps some explanation of what AIBS does with the money it collects from registration fees would alleviate the distress. In coordinating the meeting, AIBS financially covers all costs except those directly incurred by the individual societies. These costs include: 1) rental of all facilities, 2) fees charged by the universities for processing housing reservations and other services (usually $15 per registrant), 3) printing and mailing of all registration and meeting information and meeting promotion, 4) production, publication and mailing of a several-hundred-page program of the meeting, 5) the hiring and salaries of all on-site personnel, which includes audio-visual technicians, registration personnel and security guards, 6) shuttle service if necessary, 7) the services of the decorator who arranges the vinyl portfolios, 8) production of an addendum of last-minute changes, 9) all-participant social functions such as the mixer on Sunday evening, 10) all the expenses of its staff and meetings office throughout the year and on site to coordinate the meeting.

The funds to pay for all these services are received through registration fees, advertising, and sponsorship of the rental booths in the Exhibit Hall. No other funding is received. In the past two years the cost of printing and postage has risen astronomically, as have campus-based salaries, meeting room charges and audio-visual rental.

It is AIBS policy to plan the meeting to break even financially so as to minimize the cost to registrants. The meeting has never been a money-making endeavor. Actually, in some years AIBS has operated the meeting at a significant loss, and AIBS has no "rainy day fund" to cover such losses. As a result, the registration fee is directly dependent on the attendance level.

The 1990 meeting will have an attendance about 50% of that held in Toronto in 1989, but the operational expenses won't be cut in half. To meet the costs of the meeting, it will be necessary to adjust the level of the registration fees accordingly. The only other firm source of meeting revenue is exhibitors' fees, which AIBS has raised in past years. These fees will not be lowered for Richmond, even though the exhibitors will be paying about twice as much per attendee as they did in Toronto.

Fortunately, the pricing for 1990 at the Richmond Center will be lower than some campus charges AIBS has experienced in recent years. However, estimated expenses will only be reduced by about 35%, especially as AIBS itself is handling all social events and field trip registrations this year. Thus the expense per attendee will increase 130% (65% of costs divided by 50% of attendance) to $85 x 130%, or $110 for regular, and $45 x 130%, or $58.50 for


students. When the early registration (before June 8) bonus is figured in, the fees for 1990 will be $98 for regular members and $52 for students. Late registration will be $120 and $70. This is still a low fee in comparison with other scientific societies. (For example, the American Phytopathological Society meeting held in Richmond last year charged $115 for members and $155 for non-members for early registration.) It is likely that with increased attendance expected in 1991 in San Antonio, AIBS may be able to adjust the fees back downward, subject to ever-present inflation, of course.

Rest assured that AIBS always makes every effort to keep dorm/hotel room, banquet and transportation costs as low as possible. However, some universities have not been so scrupulous, and have changed the agreed-upon rates and/or conditions between the time the contracts were signed and the actual date of the meeting (usually about a 5-year span).

In closing, I'd like to ask each of you to stop and consider just how much planning, organizing, coordinating, renting, printing, hiring, mailing, and negotiating goes on so that a group of scientists can get together and share their research once a year. I can assure you that you've probably not over-estimated the hours put in by the AIBS staff on each meeting. AIBS meetings are a tremendous resource for the cost to the individual, and they go remarkably smoothly given the hurdles that must be overcome. In order to continue providing high quality and prestigious meetings, AIBS must be able to meet the costs incurred.

Meredith A. Lane
McGregor Herbarium
University of Kansas


Resolution Critical of Transplantation as a Primary Means of PIant Preservation

Adopted by the
Botanical Society of America
at the Council Meeting in Toronto, Ontario
August 1989

Maintenance of total biological diversity in the mosaic of the globe's remaining ecosystems not irreversibly altered by human activities requires urgent emphasis centered on total habitat preservation of critical minimum areas with appropriate buffer zones. Total habitat preservation should be the major priority in questions of preservation of populations of plant species regarded as rare, threatened or endangered. Plant species interactions and reactions to habitat variables, both biotic and abiotic, represent a complex summation of genotypic responses developed through evolution. Removal and transplantation of a taxon or attempts at developing artificial ecosystems to support rare, threatened, or endangered plants is basically inferior to their protection within ecosystems in which they occur naturally. In choosing policies for solution of conflicts between economic development and conservation, propagation in artificial habitats or gardens of plant species deemed significantly endangered or threatened should be considered as the least desirable alternative. Integrity of natural habitat must be a policy of first order.

Judges Needed for Ecological Section Best Student Paper Award

Once again, the Ecological Section of the Botanical Society of America is offering an award for the best student paper presented at the annual meeting. Even though we are meeting separately from the ESA this year, we still have 19 students competing for the award. We would like to have each paper judged by a least three people who have reasonable expertise in each area. Each judge will typically judge three or four papers. The number of competing papers in each area is as follows: Pollination and Reproductive Ecology - 8 (Tuesday a.m.), vegetation and Conservation Ecology - 1 (Tuesday p.m.), Plant Populations and Demography - 2 (Wednesday a.m.), and Physiological Ecology and Competition - 8 (Wednesday p.m.). I am especially in need of responses from physiological ecologists for the Wednesday afternoon session (several papers concern salinity effects). We have no papers to be judged on Thursday.

If you are planning to attend this year's BSA meeting in Richmond and would be willing to judge papers, please contact: Barb Benner, E. 1319 43rd Avenue, Spokane, WA 99203 (509/624-1040) by July 1 (or earlier if possible). I need to know your area of expertise and the times and days you will be available to judge.

Ecology of Terrestrial Orchids

The Ecological Section has organized a day-long symposium examining ecological processes in terrestrial orchids for the annual meeting in Richmond. The 14 invited speakers will present the results of recent research on morphological and genetic variation, pollination mechanisms, germination and life history patterns. Reproduction, both at the individual and population level, will be a central theme. The symposium will be held all day on Monday, August 6. For more information, contact: Ann Antlfinger, Biology Department, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182 (402/554-2256).

Life Sciences Educational Summit

On 5 March at the request of Tom Rost, I represented the BSA at a Life Sciences Educational Summit Organizational Meeting in Washington, DC. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the necessity for and advisability of planning a "summit" meeting of the various life sciences professional organizations. The general agenda of such a meeting would be the development of a life sciences educational platform--a "position paper," so to speak, similar to that recently developed by the American Chemical Society for chemistry education.

By the time you read this report, at least the first of the planning sessions for the meeting will have occurred. The outcome of these sessions will be to determine a date, time, place, and specific agenda for a Life Sciences Educational Summit. Members of the planning committee are: Dr. Sharon Zablotney, Michigan State University, Dr. Marian Johnson-Thompson, University of the District of Columbia (both representing the American Society for Microbiology), Dr. Barbara Saigo, University of Northern Iowa (American Institute of Biological Sciences), Dr. David Scott, University of Rochester (Federation of Societies for Experimental Biology), Ms. Rosalina Hariston (National Association of Biology Teachers), and Dr. Terry L. Hufford, George Washington University (BSA).


I would like to put forward several suggestions in regard to a summit and would hope that many of you will either respond to them, offer alternative ideas, or both. First, there have been many meetings recently regarding science education and science literacy, sponsored by AAAS and others. I would suggest we don't need another of this general type, but rather we need to carefully consider what is indeed "essential" to students' knowledge of science in general and of plant science in particular. These "essentials" must be considered in two different ways: what we believe necessary for every citizen to know about botany, or life science, to function as an "informed adult," and secondly, what we would expect people to know in order to enter study above the high school level. Perhaps the same body of knowledge would serve each function equally well. Secondly, a summit must not concern itself solely with curricular matters, even though this is what most of us understand best. We could devise the best high school biology curriculum ever seen, and if students have no interest in taking the courses, it is all for naught. Thus, we must concern ourselves with generating and maintaining interest in the sciences. We must be concerned with activities that will get more students into the pipeline. This, to me, means two things: we, as scientists, must get involved in early childhood education, and we must become involved directly with students as well as with their teachers. Most of us, I suspect, would feel a bit awkward working with a group of third graders, yet here is a level where our involvement is desperately needed. Studies show that loss of interest in science occurs principally at two levels; the third grade and junior high school. Thus, if a goal is to get more students interested in science, or specifically in botany, it does us little good to focus all of our attention on bright junior and senior high school students. Finally, there must be some change in the "reward system" at the college and university level for faculty involvement in pre-college education. It is obvious that time spent in these activities is time taken away from research, teaching, or other university activities. The critical implication of this is that if significant and long-lasting reform is to take place in science education, it will require a sustained effort by university scientists, thus a considerable involvement of time. It will not be enough to offer a summer workshop for high school teachers and feel we have made our contribution to increasing scientific literacy. That does not belittle in any way the value of such activities, they indeed are important and have value. Such activities simply will not accomplish what needs to be done to effect meaningful and long-lasting reform.

Please provide me with your guidance and wisdom in regard to 1) what the botany platform should be, that is, our goals, and 2) what the important items for discussion at the Life Sciences Educational Summit should be. Should we perhaps have a "botany summit" at the upcoming meetings in Richmond?

Terry L. Hufford
Department of Biological Sciences
George Washington University

Conservation Committee News

Periodically, members of the Conservation Committee (BSA) will be contributing legislative updates and occasional commentaries on topics of interest to botanists. We also welcome any suggestions you might have. Inquiries or comments can be sent to the chairperson of the committee: Susan R. Kephart, Department of Biology, Willamette University, Salem, OR 97301 (Tel: 503-370-6481; FAX: 503-370-6148). Other committee members include: Ed Clebsch, Art Gibson, James McGraw, Barbara Saigo, and Joe Win-stead.

LEGISLATIVE UPDATE - National Biological Diversity and Environmental Research Act (HR 1268, introduced by James Scheuer, and companion Senate version, S2368, introduced by Daniel Moynihan) would establish national priorities and strategies for conserving biological diversity; develop a system for including information about the status of species, populations, and communities as a part of environmental impact statements; and provide leadership in conservation efforts via a national research center. The House version has been approved by the Natural Resources Subcommittee of the Science Committee and is also being considered by the Fish and Wildlife Subcommittee of the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee. A full science committee vote is expected in May. The Senate version has been referred to the Environment Committee, but needs more co-sponsors. Members are encouraged to address letters of support to Gerry Studs (Chair, Fish and Wildlife Subcommittee, House version) and Walter Jones (Chair, Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee) and to write their own senators to urge co-sponsorship of the Senate version.

Several other bills and amendments would also establish a National Institute for Research on the Environment, which would be modeled after NIH and would address a broad range of environmental issues and problems (idea credited in part to Steve Hubbell and Henry Howe, University of Illinois-Chicago). (Such an institute is expected to increase funding opportunities for botanists, of course!) The Senate version (S2371) calls for a feasibility study by the National Academy of Sciences. An amendment to study the concept has passed the House (attached to a bill creating a Cabinet-level EPA). Some threat of a veto of this House bill-amendment is possible because the Bush Administration is apparently opposed to the creation of an independent bureau of environmental statistics to be established by this bill. Members are urged to write letters in favor of retaining the House bill and to contact a committee that is organizing lobbying efforts for the creation of a national institute for environmental re-search (c/o Prof. Henry Howe, Biological Sciences, M-0066, University of Illinois-Chicago, Box 4348, Chicago, IL 60680; FAX: 312-996-2017).

Ancient forests are being targeted by a number of bills. A bill that would provide explicit protection is the Ancient Forest Protection Act, introduced in the House by Jim Jontz. Members are urged to write their senators, asking them to introduce a companion bill in the Senate. Three House bills (1037, 1552, 3828; introduced by Pat Williams and Peter DeFazio) would permanently ban log exports from federal land. Such action would help protect the few existing


old growth forests and improve domestic job opportunities for timber industry workers. Companion bills have been introduced in the Senate (754, 755). A bill by Bryant (TX) would ban clear-cutting as a management practice.

Bill H.R. 2144 (Urban and Community Forestry Act of 1989) recently passed the House. This bill would implement a national tree-planting program, promote awareness of the value of tree cover in urban areas, and promote the maintenance of urban trees.


Golden Medal for T.T. Kozlowski

Congratulations to Prof. T. T. Kozlowski, who was awarded the Honorary Golden Medal of the Polish Associations of Forestry in March. The medal was given for his "re-search endeavors in the field of Forestry and especially Forest Physiology and Ecology"


Assistant Researcher, UC Irvine

To assume many responsibilities for taro and orchid projects. The candidate should have expertise or experience with 1) taro seed germination, 2) clonal propagation of taro, 3) tissue culture of taro, especially Colocasia esculents var. esculents, 4) salinity tolerant taro, 5) protoplast, cell isolation and culture, 6) tissue and organ culture of orchids, in particular leaf, root and node explants, but also other tissues, 7) seed germination of terrestrial and epiphytic orchids, 8) isolation and culture of orchid protoplasts and cells, 9) HPLC and 10) mRNA isolation. Familiarity with, and interest in both orchids and taro are essential. Application must include a curriculum vitae, list of publications, selected reprints (no more than 5) and the names of three people who can be contacted as references. Please send applications to Dr. Joseph Arditti, Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92717. Applications must be received no later than one month following the publication date of the issue carrying this announcement. The University of California is an Equal Opportunity, Affirmative Action Employer.

Postdoctoral Research Associate/Research Associate

The Rensselaer Fresh Water Institute, a research center of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, invites applications from qualified researchers interested in limnological studies. The Rensselaer Fresh Water Institute maintains a research field station on Lake George in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, as well as offices and laboratories on the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute campus in Troy. Positions are open at the Postdoctoral Research Associate and Research Associate levels as commensurate with experience. A Ph.D. in a limnological science is required. Filling of these positions is contingent on the availability of research funding. Specific areas of interest include aquatic plant ecology, aquatic macroinvertebrate ecology, microbial ecology and aquatic chemistry. Interested individuals should submit a letter of application, curriculum vitae, representative publications, and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of three potential sources of recommendations to: Dr. Charles W. Boylen, Director, Rensselaer Fresh Water Institute, MRC 203, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180-3590 USA (518/ 276-6757). Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is an Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity Employer.


Botanical Society of America Annual Meeting

The annual meeting will be held with AIBS from 5-9 August 1990 in Richmond, Virginia. Nineteen field trips and nine workshops will
be presented, in addition to a number of symposia and contributed papers. Registration forms may be obtained from: Dr. Jerry
Baskin, BSA Program Officer, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (606/257-8770) or from: AIBS Annual Meeting, 730 11th Street NW, Washington, DC 20001-4521 (800/992-2427; FAX 202/628-1509).

Conference on Ferns and Other Snore-Dispersing Vascular Plants

An international conference on "Progress in Pteridology" takes place at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Saturday, 23 June to Wednesday, 27 June, 1990, preceded by a pteridology field trip to northern Michigan based at the Biological Station, Douglas Lake, from Monday, 18 June to Fri-day, 22 June. The field trip will visit many habitats, especially in the Upper Peninsula south of Lake Superior, and will emphasize rare and recently discovered woodferns, Dryopteris, fir mosses, Huperzia, and moonworts, Botrychium. The conference embraces contributed papers, posters, and symposia, the latter including phytogeography, agamospory, developmental biology, nucleic acids in phylogeny, and gene silencing in polyploids. All persons interested in pteridophytes are welcomed. For further information and brochure contact: Dr. Florence S. Wagner, Conference Coordinator, Department of Biology and Herbarium, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (313/763-3684; FAX 313/747-0884).

4th International Mycological Congress

The IMC 4 will be held in Regensburg, Germany from 28 August-3 September 1990 and is sponsored by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the International Mycological Association. Sixty symposia in 6 parallel sessions are planned, along with poster sessions and workshops for special interest groups. Abstract deadline is June 15, 1990. For a copy of the Final Circular, please contact: Prof. Dr. Andreas Bresinky, Botanisches Institut der Universität, D-8400 Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany (Tel: 941/9433108; Telex: 6 5658 unire d; FAX: 941/9432305).

International Symbiosis Congress

The first circular for this congress, to be held in Jerusalem from November 17-22, 1991, is now available. Seventeen symposia and two workshops are currently planned. For further information, please contact: Prof. M. Galun, Scientific Secretariat, Symbiosis Research Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel (Tel: 972 3 5459163; Telex: 342171 VERSY IL; Fax: 972 3 5413752, Bitnet: EEEM@ TAUNOS).



PeaStats: A Computer Program for Use With Introductory Plant Biology Courses

A computer program has been developed in the Botany Department of the Ohio State University that is being used successfully in the introductory botany course to analyze (using the t-test) data that students gather from a six-week experiment on the effects of gibberellic acid (GA) on dwarf pea plants. The program is designed to work with IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputers with at least 640 kb RAM and EGA or VGA graphics hardware. Students individually grow two normal and four dwarf pea seedlings in the greenhouse, periodically applying GA to a treatment group consisting of two of the dwarf seedlings. The final averages from each student are recorded for each category of pea plant: normal control, dwarf control and treated dwarf. PeaStats uses data from each individual student's pea plants to plot a line graph showing the growth rates of each group of pea plants over the course of the experiment. It uses the final averages from an entire lab section (usually 18-28 students) to plot a histogram with one bar for each of the three groups of pea plants. Finally, PeaStats performs a t-test using the lab section data, printing out means, variances, degrees of freedom, t-values, and significance levels. Students have the option of viewing all results on screen or printing the results on an Epson dot-matrix printer or a Hewlett-Packard LaserJet printer. Any printer may be used for the majority of the output; however, printouts of the graphics are restricted to the two above-mentioned printers. Color monitors are preferred (and colors may be changed while using the pro-gram), but monochrome monitors are usable if the graphics adapter is of an EGA or VGA type. It is possible to save the data that a student types in and retrieve it at a later time. Data entry is interactive, user-friendly, and does not require the students to have any prior knowledge of the use of a computer. An additional advantage of the program, beyond introducing students to basic statistical methods, is that students who have never before used a computer are introduced to computers through a pro-gram that is designed for beginners.

PeaStats is offered free as a service to the botanical teaching community. Anyone interested in having a copy of the program should send a blank, MS-DOS formatted, 5.25" floppy diskette (double-density, not high-density) to: Paul O. Lewis, Department of Botany, The Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210-1293.

Agricultural Applications of Plant Tissue Culture

This special three-week, intensive course on plant cloning will be offered once during the summer session (June 25-July 13), possibly twice (July 16-August 3) if Section 1 completely fills by May 26. There is an enrollment limitation of only 20 students per section. All students must register for Section 1 initially. Early registration is advised. The full tuition, processing fee, and lab fees of $475 must accompany your application (VISA or Mastercard accepted). On-campus housing in the main student dormitory is available (either single or double occupancy), only with meals. If you choose to live on campus, a separate housing con-tract will be sent and payment must be made at the time of application (VISA/Mastercard accepted for tuition only). Those paying full fees receive 6 units of University credit and may enroll for a letter grade or on a pass/no grade basis. For further information, contact: Curtis Grassman, Office of the Summer Session, University of California, Riverside, 2117 Administration Bldg., Riverside, CA 92521-0107 (Tel: 714/787-3044).


The Buffalo Museum of Science and Michigan State University have initiated TAXACOMNET, an information service for systematic biology which is a network extension of the Buffalo Museum's TAXACOM dial-up service. TAXACOM-NET consists of 3 mailboxes which accept mail messages from any network source and then automatically distribute those messages to any biologist who has added his/her name to the mailbox mailing list. This service is capable of reaching biologists on BITNET, Internet, ACSNET (Australia), JANET (United Kingdom), EARN (Europe) or on any other gatewayed network. Announcements, notes, news, requests, and technical contributions are delivered to network user accounts in the form of mail messages. There are no restrictions placed on participation in the mailing lists; any network user may post a contribution to them, and there is no cost. The three TAXACOM-NET lists are: 1) Taxacom Announcements and News (BITNET: taxacoma@msu; Internet: This mailing list is intended for postings of general interest to researchers, curators and students in systematic biology. 2) Taxacom Requests (BITNET: taxacomr@msu; Internet: This list is designed for queries in any area of systematic biology, such as requests for information, research assistance, contacts, etc. 3) Taxacom Technical (BITNET: taxacom t@msu; Internet: This is a mailing list for discussion of information management in systematic biology including networking, database systems, data management for specimen, taxon, and character data analysis, taxonomic workstations, distributed and shared databases, data exchange standards and other matters relating to systematics data processing. For further information about subscribing, contact: Dr. J.H. Beach, Department of
Botany and Plant Pathology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (Tel: 517/355-4695; BITNET: jhbeach@msu; Internet:

International Organization of Plant Biosystematists 1989-1992

Participants from 23 different countries attended the five-day IOPB symposium, July 10-14, 1989, organized under the chairman-ship of Soichi Kawano, Kyoto University, and held at the Kyoto Municipal Hall, Kyoto. Highlights of the Symposium included 22 papers by invited speakers; 3 poster sessions with a total of 102 posters, a full-day field trip to Nara and a 3-day post-symposium excursion to Tateyama. Like the preceding IPOB Symposia, the 1989 Symposium helped to weld friendships and initiate collaborative research, especially between field and laboratory-oriented workers. The next IPOB symposium will be held in 1992 at the Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, and will be hosted by Dr. Peter Raven.


Past President, Dr. K. Urbanska (Zurich) has initiated an informal "Arctic-Boreal-Alpine Plant Biology" working group within the IOPB framework. More details may be obtained from her: Geobotanische Institut, Stiftung Rubel, Zurichbergstrasse 38, CH-8044, Zurich, Switzerland (Tel: 01/256 38 77; FAX: 01/252 01 92).

IPOB Chromosome Number Reports (formerly published in Taxon) are now being published in the IPOB Newsletter. Send information for these reports to: Dr. Clive A. Stace, Department of Botany, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, England).

If you are interested in joining IOPB, membership fees for 1990-1992 are $25.00 ($10.00/year for institutions) and may be sent to: Dr. H.C.M. den Nijs, Secretary-Treasurer, Hugo de Vries Laboratorium, Biologisch Centrum Anna's Hoeve, Universiteit Van Amsterdam, Kruislaan 318, 1098 SM Amsterdam, The Netherlands (Tel: 020/525-7660; FAX: (31 20) 525-7715).

Botanist and Illustrator

I am seeking work as a scientific illustrator and would be glad to send you my curriculum vitae and examples of my botanical illustrations upon request. My training is in systematic botany with a minor in art. Please contact: Sue Sill, Ph.D., 33 Camden Place, Corpus Christi, TX 78412 (Tel: 512/992-5337).


Raghavan, V. Developmental Biology of Fern Gametophytes. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1989. 361 pp., ISBN 0-521-33022-X. Price: $80.00.

This represents a thorough review of literature through 1986-87 pertaining to the spore and gametophyte phase of the fern life cycle. In contrast to other compilations (1, 2), which treat both gametophytes and sporophytes, this is a focused treatment of only the haploid phase. The book follows an ordered and logical progression from sporogenesis to germination, gametophyte growth and differentiation, and sexuality. It is written clearly, generally accurate, referenced fully, and will serve as an excellent guide to the various developmental processes in fern gametophytes. Some chapters (e.g., Chapter 5) appear to be less critical of the literature than others. This partly reflects the limited number of researchers in the area. Also, I was disappointed with the extent of coverage in Chapter 11 on sexuality and genetics. The fact that many recent studies have shown that extant diploids are, in fact, genetically diploid, in spite of high chromosome base numbers, could have been emphasized and covered more fully. Instead, emphasis is primarily on polyploidy, homologous pairing and genetic load. Also, on p. 222 the statement that, "intra-gametophytic selfing [is] . genetically equivalent to self-fertilization in flowering plants. " is incorrect. The term used should be intergametophytic selfing.

It should be noted that previous compilations (1, 2) contain much of the same information through the respective dates of 1979 and 1983. Thus, although Raghavan's review is more completely referenced and up-to-date through 1986-87, there is considerable overlap in many areas. Better service would have been done by delaying completion of the book for a few years in order to incorporate investigations using more modern molecular approaches. Nonetheless, one can certainly get the sense from this book that fern gametophytes present an interesting and unique experimental system. Hopefully, the book will pique the interest of plant biologists and encourage broader participation in the experimental study of these organisms.

  1. Dyer, A.F. (ed.) The Experimental Biology of Ferns. Academic Press, NY, 1979, 657 p.
  2. Dyer, A.F. and C.N. Page (eds.) Biology of Pteridophytes. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 86 B, 1985, 474 p.

Leslie G. Hickok
Department of Botany
University of Tennessee


Bajaj, Y.P.S., ed. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry 8. 9: Plant Protoplasts and Genetic Engineering I. II. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07096-2491, 1989. No. 8: 499 p. ISBN 0-387-50789-2, 0-387-50789-2, Price: not given; No. 9: xx + 444 p. ISBN 0-387-19194-1. Price: $225.00.

Becking, R.W. Pocket Flora of the Redwood Forest. Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Ave., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20009, 1982. xi + 237 p. ISBN 0-933280-02-5. Price: $15.00.

Behnke, H.-D., Esser, K., Kubitzki, K., Runge, M., and Ziegler, H. progress in Botany Vol. 50. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. (see address above at Bajaj), 1989. xix + 386 p. ISBN 3-540-50289-0, 0-387-50289-0.

Blackwell, W.H. Poisonous and Medicinal Plants. Prentice Hall, Inc., Prentice Hall Bldg., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, 1990. xix + 329 p. ISBN 0-13-684127-9. Price: not given.

Bock, G., and Marsh, J., eds. Applications of Plant Cell and Tissue Culture. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 3rd Ave., New York, NY 10158, 1988. ix + 269 p. ISBN 0-471-91886-5. Price: $54.95.

Bock, J.H., and Linhart, Y.B., eds. The Evolutionary Ecology of Plants. Westview Press, 5500 Central Ave., Boulder, CO 80301, 1989. xiii + 600 p. ISBN 0-8133-7464-2. Price: $53.50.

Boddy, L., Marchant, R., and Read, D.J., eds. Nitrogen. Phosphorus and Sulphur Utilization by Fungi. Cambridge University Press, 32 E. 57th St., New York, NY 10022, 1989. x + 316 p. ISBN 0-521-37405-7. Price: $89.50.

Bonham, C.D. Measurements for Terrestrial Vegetation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (see address above at Bock and Marsh), 1989. x + 338 p. ISBN 0-471-04880-1. Price: $49.95.

Borrelli, P. Crossroads: Environmental Priorities for the Future. Island Press (see address above at Becking), 1988. xiv + 352 p. ISBN: 0-933280-67-X. Price: $17.95.

Briggs, W.R., ed. Photosynthesis. Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003, 1989. xxi + 524 p. ISBN 0-8451-1807-2. Price: $150.00


Brower, L.P. Mimicry and the Evolutionary Process. University of Chicago Press, 1988. vii + 127 p. ISBN 0-226-07608-3. Price: $14.95.

Brucher, H. Useful Plants of Neotropical Origin and Their Wild Relatives. Springer-Verlag New York (see address above at Bajaj), 1989. x + 296 p. ISBN 0-387-18743-X. Price: $98.00.

Burkhardt, F., and Smith, S., eds. The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Volume 4, 1847-1850. Cambridge University Press (see address above at Boddy et al.), 1988. xxxiii + 711 p. ISBN 0-521-25590-2. Price: not given.

Burton, W.G. The Potato. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (see address at Bock and Marsh), 1989. xi + 742 p. ISBN 0-470-21191-1. Price: not given.

Cherry, J.H., ed. Environmental Stress in Plants: Biochemical and Physiological Mechanisms. Springer-Verlag New York (see ad-dress above at Bajaj), 1989. viii + 369 p. ISBN 0-387-18559-3. Price: $111.90.

Clausen, R.R. and Ekstrom, N.H. Perennials for American Gardens. Random House, 201 E. 50th St., New York, NY 10022, 1989. xviii + 631 p. ISBN 0-394-55740-9. Price: $35.00.

Crang, R.F.E., and Klomparens, K.L. Artifacts in Biological Electron Microscopy. Plenum Publishing Corp., 1988. xix + 233 p. ISBN 0-306-42863-6. Price: $45.00.

Davies, R.A. and Lloyd, K.M. New Index for 1988. Clarendon Press (Oxford University Press), 200 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016, 1989. vii + 198 p. ISBN 0-19-8542-64-X. Price: $39.95.

Davis, P.H., and Cullen, J. The Identification of Flowering Plant Families, 3rd Ed. Cambridge University Press (address above at Boddy et al.), 1989. x + 133 p. ISBN 0-521-37335-2, 0-521-37707-2. Price: $29.95.

Farr, D.F., Bills, G.F., and Rossman, A.Y. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. APS Press, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, MN 55121, 1989. viii + 1252 p. ISBN 0-89054-099-3. Price: $59.00.

Fisher, T.R. The Vascular Flora of Ohio. Volume 2: The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio, Part 3: Asteraceae. Ohio State University Press, 1070 Carmack Rd., Columbus, OH 43210-1002, 1989. x + 280 p. ISBN 0-8142-0446-5. Price: $65.00.

Friday, L., and Laskey, R., eds. The Fragile Environment. Cambridge University Press (address above at Boddy et al.), 1989. x + 198 p. ISBN 0-521-36337-3. Price: $19.95.

Fry, S.C. The Growing Plant Cell wall: Chemical and Metabolic Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (address above at Bock and Marsh), 1988. xviii + 333 p. ISBN 0-470-21079-6. Price: $49.50.

Gledhill, D. The Names of Plants. Cam-bridge University Press (address above at Boddy et al.), 1989. vi + 202 p. ISBN 0-521-36668-2. Price: $44.50.

Gould, J.L., and Gould, C.G. Life at the Edge. W.H. Freeman and Co., 41 Madison Ave., 37th Flr., New York, NY 10010, 1989. ix + 162 p. ISBN 0-7167-2011-6. Price: $10.95.

Gradwohl, J., and Greenberg, R. Saving the Tropical Forests. Island Press (address above at Becking), 1988. ix + 214 p. ISBN 0-933280-81-5. Price: $24.95.

Graniti, A., Durbin, R.D., and Ballio, A., eds. Phytotoxins and Plant Pathogenesis. Springer-Verlag New York (address above at Bajaj), 1989. xv + 508 p. ISBN 0-387- 18564-X. Price: $117.90.

Hartley, C.W.S. The Oil Palm. Tropical Agriculture Series, Longman Scientific and Technical Publ., Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE, England, 1988. xii + 761 p. ISBN 0-582-40400-2. Price: not given.

Hartmann, H.T., Kester, D.E., and Davies, F.T., Jr. Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices, 5th Ed. Prentice Hall (address above at Blackwell), 1990. vii + 647 p. ISBN 0-13-68106-0. Price: not given.

Hastorf, C.A. and Popper, V.S. Current Paleoethnobotany: Analytical Methods and Cultural Interpretation of Archaeological Plant Remains. University of Chicago Press, 1989. xii + 236 p. ISBN 0-226-31893-1. Price: $9.95.

Hect, S. and Cockburn, A. The Fate of the Forest. Verso, 29 W. 35th St., New York, NY 10001-2291, 1989. x + 266 p. ISBN 0-86091-261-2. Price: $24.95.

Janick, J. Plant Breeding Reviews. Volume 7 - The National Plant Germplasm System of the United States. Timber Press, 1989. viii + 230 p. ISBN 0-88192-137-8. Price: $39.95.

Keeley, S.C. The California Chaparral: Paradigms Re-Examined. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 1989. viii + 171 p. ISBN 0079-0943. Price: not given.

Kloppenburg, J.R., Jr. First the Seed: The Political Economy of Plant Biotechnology. Cambridge University Press (address above at Boddy et al.), 1988. xviii + 349 p. ISBN 0-521-32691-5. Price: not given.

Koop, H. Forest Dynamics. Springer-Verlag New York (address above at Bajaj), 1989. xii + 229 p. ISBN 3-540-51577-1, 0-387-51577-1. Price: $56.00.

Kricher, J.C. A Neotropical Companion--An Introduction to the Animals. Plants, and Ecosystems of the New World Tropics. Prince-ton Univ. Press, 3175 Princeton Pike, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648, 1989. xii + 436 p. ISBN 0-691-08521-8. Price: $16.95.

Kurz, W.G.W. (ed.). Primary and Secondary Metabolism of Plant Cell Cultures II. Springer-Verlag (address above at Bajaj), 1989. xi + 315 p. ISBN 3-540-50861-9, 0-387-50861-9. Price: $97.60.

  Larkum, A.W.D., McComb, A.J., and Shepherd, S.A. Biology of Seagrasses. Elsevier Science Publ. Co., Inc., P.O. Box 882, Madison Square Station, New York, NY 10159, 1989. xxiv + 885 p. ISBN 0-444-87403-8. Price: $152.75.


Lawrence, E. Henderson's Dictionary of Biological Terms. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1 Wiley Dr., Somerset, NJ 08875-1272, 1989. ix + 637 p. ISBN 0-470-21446-5. Price: $49.95.

Lazell, J.D., Jr. Wildlife of the Florida Keys: A Natural History. Island Press, Suite 300, 1718 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20009, 1989. xvi + 253 p. ISBN 0-933280-98-X. Price: none given.

Lauffer, M.A. Motion in Biological Systems. Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003, 1989. xiv + 274 p. ISBN 0-9451-4261-5. Price: $75.00.

Leck, M.A., Parker, V.T., and Simpson, R.L. Ecology of Soil Seed Banks. Academic Press, Inc., 1250 6th Ave., San Diego, CA 92101, 1989. xxii + 462 p. ISBN 0-12-440405-7. Price: $69.95.

Leins, P., Tucker, S.C. and Endress, P.K. (eds.). Aspects of Floral Development. J. Cramer, Inc., Berlin, 1989. v + 239 p. ISBN 3-443-50011-0. Price: $68.80.

Lewin, R.A. and L. Cheng (eds.). Prochloron: A Microbial Enigma. Chapman & Hall, 29 W. 35th St., New York, NY 10001, 1989. xiii + 129 p. ISBN 0-412-01901-9. Price: $53.00.

Linskens, H.F., and Jackson, J.F. Gases in Plant and Microbial Cells. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07096-2491, 1989. xxii + 352 p. ISBN 3-540-18821-5, 0-387-18821-5. Price: $165.00.

Linskens, H.F., and Jackson, J.F. (eds.) Plant Fibers. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 1989. xxiii + 377 p. ISBN 0-387-18822-3. Price: $195.20.

Little, E.L., Jr., and Wadsworth, F.H. Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. U.S.D.A. Agric. Handbk. No. 249. (order from: E.L. Little, Jr., 924 20th St. S., Arlington, VA 22202), 1989. x + 556 p. Price: $16.00.

Loomis, W.F. Four Billion Years: An Essay on the Evolution of Genes and Organisms. Sinauer Assoc., Inc., 1988. xvi + 286 p. ISBN 0-87893-476-6. Price: none given.

Manniche, L. An Ancient Egyptian Herbal. Univ. Texas Press, P.O. Box 7819, Austin, TX 78713-7819, 1989. 176 p. ISBN 0-292-70415-1. Price: $19.95.

Moore, T.C. Biochemistry and Physiology of Plant Hormones. 2nd Edition. Springer- Verlag New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07096-2491, 1989. xv + 330 p. ISBN 0-387-96984-5. Price: $49.00.

Mucina, I., and Dale, M.B. (eds.). 1989. Numerical Syntaxonomy. Kluwer Academic Publ. Group, P.O.B. 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989. 215 p. ISBN 0-7923-0388-1. Price: $129.00.

Murray, D.R. Nutrition of the Angiosperm Embryo. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1989. x + 246 p. ISBN 0-86380-077-7. Price: $79.95.

Nagendran, C.R., and Dinesh, M.S. The Embryology of Angiosperms: A Classified Bibliography (1965-19851. Indira Publ. House, P.O.B. 37256, Oak Park, MI 48237-0256, 1989. 240 p. ISBN 0-930337-05-0.
Price: $62.00.

Okaichi, T., Anderson, D.M. and Nemoto, T. Red Tides: Biology Environmental Science and Toxicology. Elsevier Sci. Publ., 1988. xxii + 489 p. ISBN 0-444-01343-1. Price: $91.00.

Pearcy, R.W., Ehleringer, J., Mooney, H.A. and Rundel, P.W., eds. Plant Physiological Ecology: Field Methods and Instrumentation. Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 29 W. 35th St., New York, NY 10001, 1989. xix + 457 p. ISBN 0-412-23230-8. Price: $110.00.

Preston, R.J., Jr. North American Trees, 4th Edition (exclusive of Mexico and tropical Florida). Iowa State Univ. Press, 2121 S. State Ave., Ames, IA 50010, 1989. xxvii + 407 p. ISBN 0-8138-1171-6. Price: $39.95.

Punt, W., Blackmore, S. and Clarke, G.C.S. The Northwest European Pollen Flora, Volume V. Elsevier Sci. Publ., 1988. vi + 154 p. ISBN 0-87268-X. Price: $84.25.

Robinson, G. The Forest and the Trees: A Guide to Excellent Forestry. Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Ave., Suite 300, Washing-ton, DC 20009, 1988. xiv + 257 p. ISBN 0-933280-40-8. Price: $19.95.

Roughgarden, J., May, R.M., and Levin, S.A., eds. Perspectives in Ecological Theory. Princeton Univ. Press, 3175 Princeton Pike, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648, 1989. vii + 394 p. ISBN 0-691-08508-0. Price: $22.50.

Rowan, K.S. Photosynthetic Pigments of Algae. Cambridge Univ. Press, 32 E. 57th St., New York, NY 10022, 1989. xiii + 334 p. ISBN 0-521-30176-9. Price: $59.50.

Rundel, P.W., Ehleringer, J.R. and Nagy, K.A., eds. Stable Isotopes in Ecological Research. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07096-2491, 1989. xv + 525 p. ISBN 0-387-96712-5. Price: $160.00.

Schell, J. and I.K. Vasil, eds. Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants, Vol. 6: Molecular Biology of Plant Nuclear Genes. Academic Press, Inc., 1250 6th Ave., San Diego, CA 92101, 1989. xxvi + 49 p. ISBN 0-12-715006-4. Price: $79.50.

Schuster, R.M. The Hepaticae of South Greenland. J. Cramer, Berlin, 1988. 255 p. ISBN 3-443-51014-0. Price: none given.

Sears, P.B. Deserts on the March. Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Ave., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20009, 1988. xv + 241 p. ISBN 0-933280-90-4. Price: none given.

Shivanna, K.R., and Johri, B.M. The Angiosperm Pollen Structure and Function. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1989. xv + 374 p. ISBN 0-470-21330-2. Price: $29.95.

Singer, R. New Taxa and New Combinations of Agaricales (Diagnoses Fungorum Novorum Agaricalium IV). Fieldiana Botany, New
Series, No. 21 (Field Musuem of Natural


History, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496), 1989. iii + 133 p. ISSN 0015-0746. Smith, J.M. Evolutionary Genetics. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1989. xii + 325 p. ISBN 0-19-854215-1. Price: none given.

Sommer, U., ed. Plankton Ecology: Succession in Plankton Communities. Springer-Verlage New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07096-2491, 1989. x + 369 p. ISBN 0-387-51373-6. Price: $98.00.

Soule, M.E., and Kohn, K.A., eds. Research Priorities for Conservation Biology. Island Press (in cooperation with the Society for Conservation Biology), 1718 Connecticut Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20009, 1989. xii + 97 p. ISBN 0-933280-99-8. Price: none given.

Stanwood, P.C., and McDonald, M.B. Seed Moisture. Crop Science Society of America, 1989. xvii + 115 p. ISBN 0-89118-525-9.
Price: none given.

Steeves, T.A., and Sussex, I.M. 1989. Patterns in Plant Development. Cambridge Univ. Press, 32 E. 57th St., New York, NY 10022, 1989. xv + 388 p. ISBN 0-521-24688-1 (hard cover), 0-521-28895-9 (paper). Price: $44.50 (hard cover); $14.95 (paper).

Stumpf, P.K., and Conn, E.E. The Biochemistry of Plants--A Comprehensive Treatise - Molecular Biology, Volume 15. Academic
Press, 1989. xv + 707 p. ISBN 0-12-675415-2. Price: $150.00.

Szegi, J. Proc. of the 9th International Symposium on soil Biology and Conservation of the Biosphere. Vol. 1 and Vol. 2. Akademiai Iado', 1987. 944 p. ISBN 963-05- 4760-0, 963-05-4761-9. Price: $89.00 ea.

Tattar, T.A. Diseases of Shade Trees. Rev. Edition. Academic Press, Inc., 1989. xix + 391 p. ISBN 0-12-684351-1. Price: $42.95.

Tazawa, M. Cell Dynamics 1, 2. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07096-2491, 1989. 193 p., 159 p. ISBN 0-387-82094-9, 0-387-82095-7. Price: $99.00, $89.00.

Tjamos, E.C., and Beckman, C.H., eds. Vascular Wilt Diseases of Plants. Basic Studies and Control. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 1989. xiv + 590 p. ISBN 0-387-18560-7. Price: $147.60.

Torrey, J.G., and Winship, L.J. Applications of Continuous and Steady-State Methods to Root Biology. Kluwer Academic Publ., POB 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989. xv + 245 p. ISBN 0-7923-0024-6. Price: $79.00.

Tryon, R.M., and Stolze, R.G. Pteridophyta of Peru, Part II. 13. Pteridaceae--15. Dennstaedtiaceae. Fieldiana Botany, New Series, No. 22 (Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605-2498), 1989. iv + 128 p. ISSN 0015-0746. Price: none given.

Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. and de Wilde, W.J.J.0. Flora Malesiana: Series I - Spermatophyta. Flowering Plants Vol. 10, Part 4. Kluwer
Acad. Publ. Group, 101 Philip Dr., Assinippi Park, Norwell, MA 02061. 43 p. ISBN 0-7923-0422-5. Price: $77.00.

Vermeulen, J.J. Orchid Monographs - Volume 2: A Taxonomic Revision of the Continental African Bulbophyllinae. E.J. Brill, Leiden, POB 9000, 2300 PA Leiden, The Netherlands, 1987. 311 p. ISBN 90-04-08458-4. Price: $88.00.

Vigil, E.L., and Hawes, C. Cytochemical and Immunological Approaches to Plant Cell Biology. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Academic Press, 1989. x + 152 p. ISBN 0-12-721930-7. Price: $14.95.

Voisin, A. Grass Productivity. Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Ave., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20009, 1988. xvii + 355 p. ISBN 0-933280-64-5. Price: $19.95.

Warner, F.D., and McIntosh, J.R., eds. Cell Movement. Vol. 2: Kinesin, Dynein, and Microtubule Dynamics. Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003, 1989. xvi + 478 p. ISBN 0-8451-4267-4. Price: $98.00.

Warner, F.D., Satir, P., and Gibbons, I.R. Cell Movement, Vol. 1: The Dvnein ATPases. Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1989. xvii + 337 p. ISBN 0-8451-4266-6. Price: $88.00.

Walker, D.A., and Osmond, C.B., eds. New Vistas in Measurement of Photosynthesis. The Royal Society, 6 Carlton Terrace, London SW1Y 5AG, England, 1989. viii + 222 p. ISBN 0-85403-377-7. Price: £48.25.

Wheeler, E.A., Baas, P. and Gasson, P., eds. IAWA List of Microscopic Features for Hard-wood Identification. Intl. Assoc. of Wood Anatomists, Inst. of Syst. Botany, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Nether-lands, 1989. 90 p. Price: $20.00.

White, J.J. and Smith, E.R., compilers. Catalogue of the Botanical Art Collection at the Hunt Institute. Part 3: Plant Portraits. Artists H. Hunt Inst., Carnegie Mellon Univ. Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890, 1988. pp. 265-565. ISBN 0-913196-42-8. Price: $15.00.

Wilding, N., Collins, N.M., Hammod, P.M. and Webber, J.F. Insect-Fungus Interactions. Academic Press, 1250 6th Ave., San Diego, CA 92101, 1989. xvi + 344 p. ISBN 0-12-751800-2. Price: $33.00.

Withner, C.L. The Cattleyas and Their Relatives, Volume I. Timber Press, 9999 S.W. Wilshire, Portland, OR, 1988. v + 147 p. ISBN 0-88192-099-1. Price: $29.95.

Zimdahl, R.L. Weeds and Words: The Etymology of the Scientific Names of Weeds and Crops. Iowa St. Univ. Press, 2121 S. State Ave., Ames, IA 50010, 1989. xix + 125 p. ISBN 0-8138-0128-1. Price: $19.95.

Zweifel, F.W. A Handbook of Biological Illustration, 2nd Ed. The Univ. of Chicago Press, 5801 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, 1988. xvi + 137 p. ISBN 0-226-99701-4. Price: $27.00.


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