Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1989 v35 No 4 WinterActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

THOMAS N. TAYLOR, Editor Department of Botany, Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (614) 422-3564

Editorial Board
JUDITH A. JERNSTEDT Dept. of Agronomy & Range Science, University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616
RUDY SCHMID Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California, 94720
HARDY W. ESHBAUGH Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056

PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN (ISSN 0032-0919) is published four times per year by the Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave.. Columbus. OH 43210. Second class postage pending at Columbus. Ohio and additional mailing office. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Robert H. Essman, Botanical Society of America, 1735 Neil Ave.. Columbus. OH 43210.

December, 1989 Volume 35 No. 4

The four letters that follow were received in response to Ray Evert's suggestion (PSB V. 35, No. 3) that the Botanical Society of America consider a name change. Dr. Niklas requested that his letter be published without any editorial alterations and in its entirety. Any errors, therefore, are not the responsibility of the editor.

Thomas N. Taylor Editor

Letter to the Editor

I am writing in response to R.F. Evert's article in Plant Science Bulletin. Initially I did not consider the implications of the article too seriously. For the Society to expend time and money to change the word "Botany" to "Plant Biology" sounded like a semantic argument not even worth changing their logo for.

However, on further reflection, I realized such a change was actually condoning and reinforcing the current plague in our discipline of de-emphasizing botanical basics. Dr. Evert states most undergraduate and graduates interested in plants are enrolling in biology departments, not botany departments. I doubt this is always a conscious choice but perhaps one of necessity (or desperation!). At some universities (as Dr. Evert has suggested) the declining support of botany departments has caused administrators to consider the science as superfluous and engulf botany as a satellite of biology. Changing the name "Botany" to "Plant Biology" just reinforces this idea (to these misguided individuals) of botany being useless and forces more students to become "biologists" when perhaps they want more in-depth training as "botanists."

It is my observation that most students preferring to enroll in biology departments to study plants are actually more interested in molecular, cellular and genetic aspects of biology as a whole, rather than the "biology of plants." For these students a biology department offers a wonderful inter-disciplinary approach to their chosen field of interest. However, in this type of environment I feel students interested in plants (botany) may get short-changed. They may not be exposed to the level of training they desire in their chosen discipline. In a "worse case" future scenario, I can see a biology department offering a program in botany (plant biology) with only one or two botanists on its faculty. This would be horrifying for both the students and the professor. I can appreciate the urgency in trying to "sell" botany as a useful science in academia and industry. But I guess I belong to the faction of idealists who still feel (perhaps naively) that although Botany is a branch of biology it should not be completely submerged within biology. Losing the autonomy of botany as a science would be an equal loss to "botanists" and "biologists."

Like Dr. Evert, I can see no direct negative consequences resulting from a change in the name of the Society. Any change would just be symptomatic of a much more sad and serious problem. I do not believe we are "missing out on the golden opportunity to enter the 21st century with a new image and renewed vitality." It is my personal opinion that the distinctly "archaic odor" of the word botany has vitality in its historic breadth and a conceptual image encompassing all aspects of our science from the past on through the future. And although this world is far from idealistic, I don't believe we should give up educating people about "botany" (or any subject) just because some individuals misinterpret its meaning. After all, if we do not condone prejudice when it relates to races, religions or sex, why should we give into it when it relates to science?

Changing the name of the Society for conceptual purposes or under the pretext of image may seem to some to be a good self-preservation tactic, but to me it shows that we as "botanists" have little confidence in our own field. The words of Petonius Arbiter (Chief Lieutenant for Emperor Nero) come to mind: We trained hard but it seemed that every time we were beginning to form up we would be reorganized...I was to learn, later in life, that we


tend to meet any new situation by reorganization, and what a wonderful method it can be for creating the illusion of progress while producing confusion, inefficiency and demoralization.

I sincerely hope the Society does not choose to change its name. Not because I believe the word botany means anything different than plant biology, but simply because I believe there is no need to "sell-out" just to "sell" our discipline.

C.F. Scagel
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology
Oregon State University

Letter to the Editor

I am responding to the recent pair of articles in PSB about the usefulness of changing the name of the Botanical Society of America to something else, "American Society of Plant Biology" seems the prime candidate for a new name. I think the idea of changing the name is useless, but after my first emotional reaction I realize I wouldn't fight it. I have finally given up on the Gramineae. I still use it, but don't insist the same from my students. It is thinking about my students and names that arouses my desire to comment.

The point is the reason behind wanting to change the name, i.e., increasing the strength of the BSA. I contend that name changing won't do it. There are many possible actions; I suggest one effort that I think would pay off richly. It won't be easy. That is, be sure that students can attend meetings on a low budget. The last meeting I went to, at Davis, forced you to pay for a meal ticket, whether you wanted it or not, if you wanted to stay on campus. (Toronto was too far, too expensive even for me.) As an impoverished student I managed these meetings by sharing a dorm room and keeping a loaf of bread and a jar of peanut butter at hand. My meal money was saved for beer and the banquets. A student will stay with us if she/he is excited by the interactions, not just in the meeting rooms and halls, but dorms, pizza joints . you know the story. But the interactions are impossible if a student can't afford them. It appears we all recognize that the future of the organization lies in attracting budding botanists. My exhortation is to the meeting organizers, not the name changers. End of my comment.

Thanks for the invite to offer a point of view.

David H. Wagner Department of Biology University of Oregon

Phooey on Name Change

If Professor Evert truly believes, "A botanist by any other name is still a botanist," then why bother to change the name of The Botanical Society of America? This idea reminds me of the recent flap at the University of Georgia when our dean of Home Economics proposed changing the name of her school to that of "Human Ecology." Among the stated purposes were attracting additional funds and outstanding faculty. Fortunately, political pressure from out-raged graduates prevented the name change.

Personally, I see few positive consequences resulting from a name change! Quite frankly, many university administrators nowadays are so far removed from anything other than "lust" for their own positions and inflated salaries that they spend little time wondering what botany is all about. It is doubtful that being labeled "plant biologists" would be viewed by them with additional favor. Second, let us have at least some degree of confidence that funding agencies will continue to rank proposals by their merits rather than by a name. Indeed, I seriously doubt if young people truly interested in plants object to the term botany. As far as I am concerned, those that object to "botany" can go to one of those "biology" places where faculty some-times know little about plants other than what they consume at a salad bar. Finally, I suggest that few molecular types are likely to publish in our journal regardless of what it is called. They are going to continue to publish in the journals they are familiar with in their fields.

What can we do to encourage persons to join our society? First, we should apply political pressure to change the tax laws so that most of us can once again deduct professional dues as business expenses. We can encourage our students and colleagues to join the society--pointing out they have an obligation to do so. I am sad to say that few in my home "botany" department of nearly 25 professors are members, but we can try. We need to do something about our journal. As it now stands it is rather boring, dull and uninteresting with few articles of a general nature that appeal to a wider readership, and especially botanists in smaller non-research colleges.

In conclusion I say phooey on a name change! I am please to be labeled a botanist. Further, one can be assured that if a name change goes through, my dropped membership will not be picked up by any other molecular types of my acquaintance.

Samuel B. Jones
Department of Botany
The University of Georgia

A Rose is a Rose, is a Rose...

A recent proposal, by Ray Evert, to change the name of our Society and that of its Journal raises two issues. The first is whether "botany" is a label that is too old fashioned (and perhaps pejorative). Essentially, the issue is whether we as a Society can change our external appearance by replacing the label "botany" with a more appropriate and perhaps more modern one. The second issue is whether we are providing the intellectual leadership and stimulation necessary to continue to attract bright and serious minded students to our Society. Essentially, the issue is whether we as a Society will survive over the long run. This second issue is not explicitly raised by Ray, but it can be clearly inferred by the context in which his proposal was discussed informally at the Toronto meetings. Regardless, of the original intent of the proposal by Ray Evert, discussions concerning the future of our Society are an inevitable component in our deliberations. Indeed, they are part of our obligation to the Society.


In my opinion, the first of these two issues is trivial--the suggestion that we rename our Society and its Journal will have little or no lasting consequence. Our Society and its Journal have a quality product to sell and have been doing so for many decades. Changing our "label" will not change the "product." Therefore, I feel no compulsion to resist a change in the name of our Society or in the name of our Journal; nor do I find myself inspired to suggest a new name for either--"A rose by any other name would smell as sweetly." The more
important issue lies elsewhere. I believe that the underlying issue raised by Ray's proposal is the perception that our Society is in one way or another losing ground as perhaps reflected in a decline in our ability to recruit new student members. The suggestion that we change the name of our Society only appears to address this issue because the problem is perceived to lie at the level of "external appearance." I share Ray's concern, but differ with him regarding how the problem can be corrected. I feel the problem is not with our label or our product. Rather it stems from the fact that individual members often feel attracted to publish their re-search in more specialized journals and to participate in more specialized societies where their work will achieve greater visibility and incur greater dividends among a selected but influential audience. These journals and societies are insulated from one another much as our society is from them The problem of isolation is not unique; however, the consequences of isolationism vary from one society to another. In our case, we may be loosing ground, while other societies are gaining in strength perhaps because of a shift in what is perceived as "fashionable" science by young academics and funding agencies alike. Thus, our Society faces a problem that lies not from within but from the external pressures revolving around the continued specialization of biological disciplines and a constantly shifting emphasis on what aspects of science receive attention. Currently, our Society and its Journal provide a large umbrella covering a variety of botanical disciplines. However, our coverage is not broad enough. It does not successfully encompass the disciplines that are currently growing at a rapid rate and attracting the attention of many bright young minds. These include plant molecular biology, plant biotechnology, plant biophysics, and a variety of other areas that are only modestly represented among our current membership.

I believe that botany (or whatever label we eventually select) has a great deal to offer all aspects of the biological sciences. This has been shown repeatedly from the time of Charles Darwin to the time of Barbara McClintock. It is our task to carry this educational mission on into the 21st century. This requires the continued leadership of our current and past elected officers and the continued efforts of each of us. Our efforts must be directed toward a continued dialogue with our individual colleagues who currently participate in other societies and with the officers of other societies that share our interest in plants. Along these lines, one of our first efforts ought to be to bring the Botanical Society of America and The American Society of Plant Physiology together at jointly sponsored meetings. This could be achieved initially by scheduling our two meetings such that they overlap for one or two days during which time jointly sponsored symposia could be offered. This would provide the forum necessary to show that "botany" is an integrated discipline relying on the themes of structure, development, biochemistry, and physiology. The two societies represent facets of the same intellectual challenge, yet by happenstance we have been isolated from one another. Truly, there are tactical problems with organizing a joint meeting of this size. But an overlapping of one or two days and the problems that may occur are far outweighed by the benefits to us as scientists and to our respective societies.

As a Society, we must extend ourselves to incorporate the new technologies being generated by the molecular manipulation of plants. These are rapidly growing and are attracting some of the best undergraduates to study plants. I firmly believe that the more traditional areas of botany are not surrogates to these technologies, but can contribute insight into the relationships between the molecular level of organization and development. Indeed the relevancy of the more classic areas of botanical research to the more modern areas of plant molecular biology and plant biotechnology will provide the next substantive wave of new research--the integration of modern plant genetics with structural-developmental botany leading to the elimination of the genotype-phenotype dichotomy. All botanists can share in this enterprise. Our Society can provide the leadership and the organizational context for this research breakthrough.

Our Journal provides the context for another type of effort. The journal ought to reflect the best efforts of every scientist investigating plants. We need to expand our journalistic horizons without diminishing the crisp outlines of good scientific inquiry. By so doing, our Journal would be a necessary fixture on the bookshelf of every "botanist." The journal has made efforts in this direction by providing Special Papers and Short Communications. Journals like SCIENCE and the various ANNUAL REVIEWS have capitalized on these two formats. We have not, but the opportunities are endless. Therefore, I call upon our new editor to actively solicit articles from research leaders in the fields of genetics, molecular biology, development, and biotechnology, as well as plant physiology, structural botany, and systematics. The Journal's associate editors should be consulted and utilized in this regard. They provide a vital resource that in the past has not been completely utilized.

Ray Evert has provided our Society with leadership for many years and I am sure that he and others like him will continue to do so. My response to his proposal is not a challenge to our traditional values or the leadership that has produced worldwide recognition for our Society and its Journal. Indeed, the reader should know that my letter was initially solicited by David Dilcher as a counterpoint to Ray's opinion as was to have been published along side Ray's letter. This clearly illustrates the open attitude that our leadership likes to foster in the Society. Unfortunately for editorial reasons, the Bulletin's editor thought better of the idea. Nonetheless, I hope that by focusing on the essential issues that face us we will achieve solutions that transcend the cosmetic and pro-vide long term benefits for botany. This will require, however, an open forum for debate.

Karl J. Niklas Cornell University



Change in Editorship

Effective January 1, 1990, Nels Lersten will be the new editor of the American Journal of Botany. Please direct your manuscripts to him: Dr. Nels R. Lersten, Department of Botany, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (515-294-2169).

1990 Annual Meeting

The Botanical Society of America will meet with AIBS in Richmond, Virginia, 5-9 August 1990. In addition to contributed papers, poster sessions, and a good variety of field trips, the following symposia and workshops have been scheduled: Symposia: Stebbins Symposium on Plant Evolution; Plant Gametes; Vascular Differentiation; Ecology of Terrestrial Orchids; Symposium on Essential Botanical Knowledge at the College/University Level; Plant Systematics: The Past Decade Through the Year 2000; Phylogeny of the Asteridae; The Supraspecific Taxonomy of the Triticeae (Gramineae): An International Symposium; and The Use of rbeL Sequence Data in Phylogenetic Reconstruction.

Workshops: Using Antibodies in Plant Biology; Introduction to Cladistics; Using Wisconsin Fast Plants." in the Classroom and in Research; and Electrophoresis for Class-room and Research Laboratories.

Information on registration, housing, field trips, and ticketed social events will be published in the March issue of BioScience.

Botanical Society Awards

The following prizes were awarded on 9 August 1989 at the dinner for all botanists jointly hosted by the Botanical Society of America (BSA) and the Canadian Botanical Association/L'Association Botanique du Canada at their Annual Meeting held in Toronto, Ontario in conjunction with the American Institute of Biological Sciences (for more information on BSA awards, see AWARDS section below):

BSA Merit Awards

These awards are presented to persons who have made outstanding contributions to botanical science. This year five botanists were recognized:

Joseph A. Ewan - Historian of American botany and natural history, including Rocky Mountain naturalists and such early figures as Banister, Bartram and Barton; a prolific writer, engaging teacher and sparkling public speaker.

David E. Fairbrothers - Eminent taxonomist, authority on New Jersey plants and their history; pioneer and international leader in chemosystematics using protein data to clarify relationships; promoter of the National Pinelands Preserve and consultant to lawmakers on endangered species.

Arthur R. Kruckeberg - Pioneer and authority on serpentine endemism; builder of bridges across fields of edaphic ecology, systematics, cytotaxonomy, evolution, conservation and ornamental and native plant horticulture; outstanding teacher.

Richard W. Pohl - Premier expert on grasses of temperate and tropical America; inspiring classroom teacher and advisor of many noted agrostology students; botanist whose notoriously wry sense of humor keeps him from every being "glumey."

Shirley C. Tucker - Worldwide leader in use of floral ontogeny to elucidate evolution in many families, most recently the legumes, ardent lichenologist on the side; tireless worker for the Botanical Society as committee member, section officer, Program Director and President.

Ralph E. Alston Award

This award, for the best contributed paper in phytochemistry presented at the annual meeting, was made to Anita M. Brinker, University of Illinois, Urbana, for her paper, "A reexamination of the phytoalexins in sugarcane."

Isabel C. Cookson Paleobotanical Award

This award, given for the best contributed paper in paleobotany or palynology presented at the annual meeting, was presented to Debra A. Willard, University of Illinois, Urbana, for her paper, "Phylogenetic analysis of lepidodendrid lycopods and ecological influences on their evolution."

George R. Cooley Award

This award, given annually by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists for the best paper in plant systematics presented at the annual meeting, was given to Elizabeth A. Kellogg for her paper entitled, "Phylogeny of the Triticeae (Poaceae): Molecular and morphological data."

Darbaker Prize

This award is made for meritorious work in the study of microscopical algae. The recipient is selected by a committee of the BSA which bases its judgement primarily on papers published during the last two calendar years. The prize for 1989 went to Rose Ann Cattolico, Professor of Botany at the University of Washington. Dr. Cattolico's research has included exciting and innovative studies of the mechanisms underlying chloroplast evolution in marine algae. Her research efforts have provided significant contributions toward the elucidation of chloroplast DNA structure, packaging, and evolution in the Chromophyta and Rhodophyta.

Ecological Section Award

This award, for the best student paper in ecology at the annual meeting, was presented in 1988 to Susan A. Langevin of Louisiana State University for her paper, "Hybridization between red rice and cultivated rice (Oryza sativa)." The award for 1989 went to Martha R. Weiss, University of California, Berkeley for her paper, "Floral color change and maintenance of older flowers: an experimental evaluation of their roles in pollinator visitation."

Katherine Esau Award

This award, given to the graduate student who presents the best paper in developmental and structural botany during the annual meeting, in 1988 went to Cynthia S. Jones, University of California, Berkeley, for her paper, "Positional influences on leaf development in a wild and cultivated Cucurbita species." The 1989 award went to Jeffrey P. Hill, University of California, Riverside, for his paper, "Changes in reproductive development associated with the evolution of self-pollination in Arenaria uniflora."


Margaret Menzel Award

This award, given by the Genetics Section for an outstanding paper presented in the contributed papers sessions of the annual meeting, was presented to Claude W. De Pamphilis, University of Michigan, for his paper, "Evolution of chloroplast DNA under relaxed selection in beechdrops (Epifagus virginiana: Orobanchaceae), a nonphotosynthetic angiosperm."

Jeanette Siron Pelton Award

The Conservation and Research Foundation honors the memory of Jeanette Siron Pelton with sponsorship of this award to be given for sustained and imaginative productivity in the field of experimental plant morphology. The award for 1989 was presented to Elizabeth M. Lord of the University of California, Riverside, in recognition of her outstanding, original studies on the development and function of floral organs. Her multifaceted approach, using anatomical and physiological techniques as well as kinematic analysis especially in the comparison of cleistogamous and chasmogamous flowers have significantly advanced our knowledge of flower development as well as its function in breeding systems. Her finding that inert latex beads are moved from the stigma to the ovary by the stylar matrix has provided exciting new insights on postpollination events.

A. J. Sharp Award

This award, given for the best student paper presented in the American Bryological and Lichenological sessions, was presented to Francois Lutzoni, National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, for his paper, "Systematics of the Ionaspis-Hymenelia complex (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America."

Edgar T. Wherry Award

This award is given for the best paper presented during the contributed papers sessions of the Pteridological Section. There were two awards in 1989. One went to Cathy A. Paris of the University of Vermont for her paper, "Evolutionary genetics of the Adiantum pedatum complex: Phylogeny and biogeography." The other went to George Yatskievych of the Missouri Botanical Garden for his paper, "A reconsideration of the genus Pityrogramma in the southwestern United States."

Charles Edwin Bessey Award

Beginning in 1989 and each year there-after, the Teaching Section will recognize the outstanding contributions made to botanical instruction by presenting this award. Charles Edwin Bessey has long been recognized as one of the leading American botanical scholars. Not only was he an outstanding investigator and author, he was a remarkable teacher and a maker of scholars. As a teacher, Professor Bessey had no superiors. In the classroom and laboratory he was so full of enthusiasm that his students were simply "infected" with the subject he was teaching, even students who cared little for botany. In addition to imparting his enthusiasm and spirit of scholarly activity to scores of botanists, and their students, Professor Bessey is also recognized as the driving force behind the introduction of the compound microscope in teaching and research laboratories.

This year, the award was presented to Samuel Noel Postlethwait who, like Charles Bessey, is recognized both as a scholar and as a teacher. Professor Postlethwait has been an inspiration to his students and has done much in promoting the teaching of botany during his tenure in the Biology Department at Purdue University, particularly in developing the audio-tutorial method of instruction. His enthusiasm for teaching and spirit of scholarly activity infects his students, who, in the spirit of Charles Bessey, continue to inspire others in the field of botany.

Henry Allan Gleason Award

This award is given annually by the New York Botanical Garden in recognition of an outstanding recent publication in the field of plant taxonomy, plant ecology, or plant geography. The 1989 award went to Paul Fryxell for his book, Malvaceae of Mexico (Systematic Botany Monographs no. 25). More than half of the 372 recognized species of Malvaceae in Mexico are endemic, and Fryxell himself described more than 70 of these. How we have a full treatment, complete with names, synonymy, descriptions, commentary, and dot-maps. The herbarium study is backed by extensive field work, including the preparation of about a thousand numbers. No armchair botanist, Fryxell! His magnum opus will stand as the definitive treatment of Mexican Malvaceae for many years to come.

Jesse M. Greenman Award

This award is given by the Missouri Botanical Garden in recognition of the best paper published during the previous year based on a Ph.D. dissertation treating the systematics of vascular plants or bryophytes. The 1988 award was presented to Carol A. Todzia for her publication, "Chloranthaceae: Hedyosmum," which appeared in Flora Neotropica Monographs, Vol. 48. The monograph is derived from a Ph.D. dissertation under the direction of Dr. Beryl Simpson of the University of Texas.

Election of BSA Corresponding Members

At the annual meeting of the BSA in August, four persons were elected as corresponding members. Corresponding members are distinguished senior scientists who have made outstanding contributions to plant biology and who live and work outside of the United States. The number of such members is limited to fifty living persons. Those elected at the 1989 Annual Meeting were:

Tony Bradshaw - Professor Bradshaw is a member of the Royal Society, former President of the British Ecological Society, author of over 150 scientific publications, and a major professor to many graduate students now active in ecology. He has been one of the most important and influential researchers in plant biology over the past three decades. His early work on heavy metal tolerance in plants growing on mine spoils represents the most forceful demonstration of rapid evolution in plants, and it caused a fundamental shift in the idea of evolution being a slow process. Today his work is a feature in virtually all general textbooks in botany, biology, and ecology. His important review paper on phenotypic plasticity in plants, published in 1965, defined a field that today is an increasingly active area of research. Professor Bradshaw's research on applied ecology serves as an example of how basic ecological research can help solve society's problems.


Antonio Krapovickas - Professor Krapovickas has been a leader in botanical science in Argentina in noteworthy ways. In his 25-year career at the University of Corrientes he has created an active her-barium containing 250,000 specimens and, as its director, has built up an Institute of Botany with a staff of over 40 and an excel-lent botanical library. A new building is being constructed to house the Institute with funds obtained through CONICET, which will insure permanence to the Institute of Botany as an important institution in Argentina. Dr. Krapovickas is active both nationally and internationally in professional botanical activities, having participated in 60 congresses and meetings in ten other countries in addition to Argentina over the past 40 years, often in a leadership capacity. He has served as president of the Sociedad Argentina de Botenica, President of the Sociedad Argentina de Gendtica, Commission member for CONICET, and as member of the committee for Flora Neotropica. The major thrusts of his research involve systematics, the continuing exploration of the rapidly depleting resource of tropical floras, and plant domestication and improvement. He is one of the world's leading specialists on the taxonomy of the angiosperm family Malvaceae, having produced generic revisions, reports of new species and new genera, and analyses of plant geography throughout South America, a center of diversity for this family. He is an authority on the taxonomy and evolution of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae) and on the genetics, breeding germplasm, and conservation of the peanut. This work has added much to U.S. programs on peanut breeding, as well as to ethnobotanical studies of peanuts.

Jake MacMillan - Professor MacMillan, from Bristol University, has made innovative and pioneering contributions to our know-ledge of the chemistry, biochemistry and physiology of the class of plant hormones, the gibberellins (GAs). His definitive chemical approaches have given the field a firm foundation for the current studies on physiological and ecological problems related to the GAs. He is the international authority on the chemistry of the GAs. His pioneering research on the GAs has resulted in numerous seminal contributions which include: the original determination of the molecular structure of the GAs (then known only as fungal metabolites of Gibberella funjikuroi); the first chemical identification of a GA from a higher plant; the innovative use of computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the identification of GAs in crude plant extracts and for metabolic studies using stable isotopes; and major contributions to the knowledge of GA metabolic pathways, first in fungi and then in higher plants. His re-search is notable for its interdisciplinary nature and his vigorous collaboration with botanists around the world. He has more than 230 publications, and his basic contributions to plant physiology are fundamental and permanent.

Arlette Nougarede - Professor Nougarede is preeminent among active French plant anatomists, and her work has had influence worldwide on perceptions of the growth, structure, and development of apical meristems. Her studies on heterogeneity of roles and cytological activity in the cell population comprising the shoot apex have stimulated a great deal of work elsewhere. Her laboratory has been a leading one in studying the cytological events during transition to flowering, organelle changes during various parts of the cell cycle, and the effects of exogenously applied hormones to meristems. She and her associates have produced over 400 research papers, and her many students have gone on to continue productive research careers. Many American scientists have worked with her in her laboratory, and benefited from her knowledge of relationships between structure and function in apical meristems. The work from her laboratory is always of the highest quality, with carefully designed, rigorously conducted experiments. She has done pioneering work in quantifying DNA contents of cells, and in using autoradiographic techniques to study meristem growth.

submitted by:
Gregory J. Anderson
Secretary, BSA

Thank You

The Society would like to thank Professor W.M. (Bill) Hess of Brigham Young University for representing the Botanical Society at the inauguration ceremonies of Rex Edwin Lee as the new president of Brigham Young University. The Society was one of eighteen societies and professional organizations represented by delegates at the ceremony.


These are exciting times for the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS). AIBS is a federation of some 40 biological societies and research centers representing over 80,000 scientists, including those in the affiliated Botanical Society of America. During the past six years it has been re-structured with the revitalization of Bio-Science, the development of strong programs for education and public responsibility, the purchase of a national headquarters building in Washington, D.C., and the establishment of the American Foundation for Biological Sciences. Plant scientists who have not followed these changes should know more about them.

AIBS was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1947 as an operating division to further the advancement of the biological sciences and to foster and en-courage research and education in the biological, medical, environmental, and agricultural sciences. In 1955 it became an independent non-profit organization. A new constitution and bylaws were approved in 1983, which resulted in the establishment of a twelve member Board of Directors and an AIBS Council. Each of the affiliated scientific societies has a representative on the AIBS Council. Currently the BSA representative is John L. Gallagher of the University of Delaware. From its membership, the Council elects four members to the Board of Directors so that the Board is representative of the affiliated societies as well as the individual members. The Board is responsible for establishing the policies of the AIBS as well as for fulfilling the scientific and corporate obligations of the


Institute. Moreover, the Council and Board of AIBS recently approved the establishment of the American Foundation for Biological Sciences, the function of which is to pro-vide a mechanism to attract private funding to support new AIDS programs.

AIBS has long been recognized as an organization that manages an annual conference within which the meetings of a number of affiliated societies are coordinated. In recent years, as many as 3,600 biologists from 15-20 affiliated societies have gathered at the annual AIBS meeting. In 1988 the theme of the meeting was "Biological Diversity," and this year the theme was "Global Change." Members of BSA will find most of the symposia, papers, posters, and discussion sessions to be of interest owing to the broad base and appeal of these presentations. For example, at this year's meeting there were symposia on "Air Pollution and Forest Health," "Modeling of Acid Rain," "Long-term Ecological Monitoring for Global Change," "Molecular Biology of Fungal Development," and "Biophysical Factors in Plant Growth and Development." The annual meetings are always preceded or followed by 20 to 30 field trips covering a multitude of topics, guided tours to natural areas and preserves, and visits to museums and areas of floristic interest.

Although AIBS is perhaps best recognized for its role in conducting annual meetings, the Institute is involved in many other activities that are of major benefit to botanists and other biologists. Foremost among the initiatives of the "new" AIBS are those for communication, education, public responsibility, and special science pro-grams. Within the last few years, BioScience has become one of the preeminent publications of its kind, offering interpretative articles of the highest quality across all disciplines of biology as well as timely and useful features. Each year a number of journal issues address specific themes such as "Tree Death: Cause and Consequence," "Conservation Biology," "Hawaii's Unique Biology," and "Landforms and Ecosystems." This fall, BioScience will publish a special theme issue on "Yellowstone National Park-- the Fire" (see ANNOUNCEMENTS below). Be-sides having feature articles, BioScience also fosters communication among biologists by means of a number of special sections, "Viewpoint," "Roundtable," "Education," "Biologist's Toolbox," and "Books." The "Viewpoint" page and "Roundtable" essays may cover any topic of interest to biologists, from science policy to technical controversy. The "Education" section includes observations and opinions on the teaching of plant science and other areas of biology. The "Biologists's Toolbox" contains commentaries, descriptions, and review of new instruments and computerware. BioScience also publishes special book review issues each year. In recognition of its outstanding quality, BioScience has recently received a number of awards, including the Olive Branch Award for its coverage of the nuclear winter topic and the Gold Circle Award for general science publishing excellence.

The Public Responsibilities Committee of AIBS has several important functions. It produces Forum, a bimonthly publication that focuses on the activities of Congress and various governmental agencies as these affect biology. It tracks legislative initiatives and monitors congressional hearings and briefings. Members of this committee also prepare "Washington Watch," a monthly feature in BioScience. Numerous Congressional publications and a computer-based system for following legislative progress are used by the program. AIBS is often called upon to identify biologists who provide expert testimony to Congress. Most recently, expert testimony has been provided concerning appropriations for NSF, USDA, and NOAA, and legislation to foster the maintenance of genetic diversity in plants and animals. AIDS has also been a strong sup-porter of efforts to increase funding for biological research in federal agencies and universities.

Over the past six years AIBS has sponsored and helped fund a Congressional Fellows Program. The Program is designed to bring well-qualified working biologists into direct contact with our nation's decision-making processes. It fosters understanding among biologists of how public policy is formulated and how it can be made responsive to the essential insights of the biological disciplines. Each fellow spends one year as a special legislative assistant on the staff of a Congressional committee or works directly with an appropriate member of Congress. The American Society of Plant Physiologists, for example, fully funds a fellow each year, while a number of other societies have joined together to support a person in collaboration with AIBS.

As yet another part of its service to the biological community, AIBS initiated a program in 1954 of advisory services to various federal agencies. In 1964 it created the Special Science Programs Department (SSP) to consolidate grant- and contract-supported activity within one group. Included in SSP activities are the organization and management of: panels of experts for peer review; panels to evaluate technical and scientific aspects of agency programs; the organization of scientific, technical, and policy workshops, seminars, and symposia. AIBS also maintains a consultant service, through which it identifies professionals who are willing to serve as consultants to biologically oriented departments in colleges and universities.

Although many of the activities of AIBS do not come immediately to the notice of BSA members, nevertheless, it is important for us to appreciate the influence the Institute plays backstage in bringing our needs and those of biology in general before the national legislature and in reporting the activities of that body to the AIBS member-ship. AIBS is the voice of biology on "The Hill." BSA benefits from its affiliation with AIBS, and more importantly, individual plant biologists can benefit directly by becoming members of AIBS. AIBS is no longer just a meeting organizer but an active force speaking for all of us in biology. Their address is: 730 11th Street, N.W., Washing-ton, DC 20001-4584 (202/628-1500).

William Louis Stern
Member, AIBS Board of Directors
Department of Botany
University of Florida



Timothy Charles Plowman

17 November 1944-7 January 1989

"Now cracks a noble heart. Good night, sweet prince, and flights of angels sing thee to they rest" (Hamlet).

Ethnobotany has lost one of its most devoted disciples and beloved practitioners with the tragic passing of Timothy Plowman. A man of generosity and kindness, modesty and honor, his untimely death has cut short a remarkable career of immense promise. Already far on the way as one of the most discerning, original and effective naturalists of our century, Tim was a gentleman, a friend of everyone, an understanding and devoted teacher, a scholar of extraordinary depth, a tireless and demanding researcher happy to share his experience and counsel with whoever sought his advice.

Tim Plowman's interest in and love of plants developed as a child growing up in the temperate woodlands surrounding Harris-burg, Pennsylvania. An avid collector even as a boy, his passion for plants grew into the central metaphor of his life. After attending college at Cornell University he went as a graduate student to the Botanical Museum of Harvard University where he worked under the direction of Richard Evans Schultes. Such was his promise that even before enrolling in the graduate school, Tim was dispatched by Professor Schultes to the Amazon on an expedition that would define the course of his professional life. In the fall of 1966 Tim returned from Brazil flush with excitement and fully committed to spending the rest of his life in pursuit of the mysteries of the tropical rain forest. Having received his Master's Degree in 1970, he undertook for his doctoral dissertation a revision of the genus Brunfelsia (Solanaceae). His thesis, which included a comprehensive chapter on the ethnobotany of the genus, was based on over 15 months of continuous fieldwork in Central and South America and the Caribbean.

By the time his Ph.D. was officially conferred in 1974, Tim was already deeply involved in the project for which he will always be remembered--a 15-year effort to decipher the complex taxonomy of Erythroxylum and to study the ethnobotany of coca, the sacred leaf of the Andes and the notorious source of cocaine. Of Tim's 80 published scientific papers, 46 are related to his work on Erythroxylum and his position as the world's authority on the genus enabled him to speak eloquently and powerfully in defense of the traditional use of coca by beleaguered indigenous peoples of the Andes and Northwest Amazon.

Tim left Harvard for the Field Museum of Natural History in 1978 where he became tenured in 1983, and was appointed curator in 1988. If Tim grew up at the Botanical Museum at Harvard, he came into his own at the Field Museum and his years there were both the happiest and most productive of his remarkable career. His interdisciplinary interests in systematics, ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology led him to interact with an increasingly diverse group of scholars which included not only fellow botanists but also archaeologists, phytochemists, ethnographers and pharmacologists. In addition to carrying out an active scientific research program as co-principal investigator of the National Science Foundation Projeto Flora Amazónica, he served on the editorial boards of numerous journals including Flora Neotropica Monographs, Advances in Economic Botany, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs and Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Between 1984-1988 he was Co-Editor-in-Chief of the journal of Ethnopharmacology and the scientific editor of Fieldiana. He was vice president of the Beneficial Plant Research Association, a Fellow of the Linnean Society, and a member of many professional societies including the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, Society of Economic Botany, Council of Biology Editors, Society of Ethnobiology and the New England Botanical Club. As chairman of the Botany Department of the Field Museum of Natural History (1986-1988), Tim secured a substantial increase in NSF funding for the herbarium and developed a new facility for the curation of economic collections. His enthusiasm, spirit of cooperation, professional rigor and passionate commitment to botany proved infectious and under his leadership, morale in the Botany Department soared.

Credentials, alone, however, present but a shadow of the man who affected so many lives in such profound ways. For Tim, life was but a vehicle for seeking understanding and for expressing freedom. If there is a word to describe Timothy Plowman it would be freedom, and he lived with the conviction that every person had the right to pursue his or her own path unshackled by the bur-dens of social convention. Equally at ease in the tranquil world of plants or amidst the society of people, Tim had a charisma hot to the touch, and those privileged to have spent time with him often developed a respect that bordered on reverence. He was a true renaissance scholar, a man out of time, whose breadth of interests and passions went far beyond the boundaries of his beloved field of botany. But it is as a botanist and intrepid plant explorer that Tim will be best remembered. He spent over five years of his life in the most remote and inhospitable regions of the Andes and Amazon, making over 15,000 collections of unsurpassed quality. Typically he always considered his time in the field as a privilege, and he never failed to remember his fellow botanists toiling away in the less romantic confines of herbaria. Tim seemed to have a Rolodex in his head that recorded the name of every specialist in every group of plants, and he constantly was on the lookout for specimens that might prove useful to a distant colleague. He collected everything. His voucher specimens were not only complete, but aesthetically beautiful and whenever possible he augmented them with invaluable collections of live material. Living plants, many new to science and collected first by Tim, may be found in botanical gardens throughout the world.

In the rain forests of the Amazon Tim felt the fullness of life. He marvelled at the thousand themes, the infinitude of form, shape and texture that so clearly mocked the terminology of temperate botany. He always travelled in the forest as a student and his commitment to ethnobotany grew in part from his direct experience with the indigenous peoples who understood the plants in ways that he believed he could only hope to emulate. To be in the forest, he said, was to be in Eden, and to say the names of the plants was to recite the names of the gods. He believed that all forms of life were manifestations of the sacred. Hence for Tim, biological and cultural diversity represented far more than the foundation of stability, they were articles of faith; fundamental truths that indicated the way things were supposed to be.


Tim had a special affinity for Indians, and his uncanny ability to gain their trust and confidence was one measure of the deep respect he had for their way of life. He empathized with their world view which defined man as but one element inextricably linked to the whole of creation. It was this unique cosmological perspective, he believed, that enabled the Indians to comprehend implicitly the intricate ecological balance of the forest he loved so dearly. Tim viewed with pain, dismay and increasing anger this other world view, one in which man stands apart, that now threatens the forest with devastation. It was one of his fondest hopes that the lessons of ethnobotany might ultimately facilitate a dialogue between these two world views such that folk wisdom might temper and guide the inevitable development processes that today ride roughshod over much of the earth. The many of us who loved him as a brother and respected him as a colleague can do no better service to his memory than to continue our own struggles to make this dream of his a reality.

Wade Davis West Vancouver, B.C., Canada


Plant Molecular Biology/Physiology

The Trinity College Department of Biology invites applications for a tenure track position at the level of Assistant Professor beginning in the fall term, 1990. Applicants must have a Ph.D. degree; post-doctoral experience is preferred but not required. Teaching responsibilities are a course in plant physiology, an upper level course in an area of the applicant's interest, participation in a team-taught introductory biology course, and periodic instruction of courses for non-majors. The candidate will be expected to initiate and pursue a program of independent research in which upper level students may participate; start-up funds are available. Send curriculum vitae, graduate and undergraduate transcripts and three letters of recommendation to: Donald B. Galbraith, Chairman, Department of Biology, Trinity College, Hartford, CT 06106. Evaluation of applications will begin on 1 December 1989 and continue until the position is filled. Trinity College is an equal opportunity/ affirmative action employer and actively seeks applications from women and minorities.

Genetics Assistant Professor

The University of Wisconsin/Stevens Point is seeking to fill a tenure track position, to begin August 28, 1990, that involves teaching and research in botany and gene-tics. Send curriculum vitae, three letters of reference and all transcripts to: V.A. Thiesfeld, Chair, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI 54481. Women and minorities are urged to apply.

Curator of Living Collections

The University of California Botanical Garden, Berkeley, has a vacancy for a full-time curator. Duties would include: development of collections, preparation of grant proposals, supervision of assistants, and liaison with academic departments and other botanical gardens, as well as other duties that may be required from time to time. Applicants should have a doctoral degree and be trained in taxonomy with a strong interest in living collections. Ability to interact successfully with a wide variety of people, ranging from students and academics to gardeners and the general public is a must. Applicants should send a complete résumé and arrange to have three letters of recommendation sent to: Dr. Robert Ornduff, Director, Botanical Garden, Centennial Drive, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 by December 15, 1989. Final selection will be made by mid-January and an appointment as soon as practical after that date. For additional information, call Dr. Ornduff at 415-642-2089 (8-9 a.m. PST) or 415-527-5095 (5-6 p.m. PST). The University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer.

Plant Cell Biologist Assistant Professor

The Department of Biological Sciences at Rutgers University-Newark invites applications for a tenure-track assistant professor in the area of plant cell biology beginning September 1990. Candidates should have post-doctoral experience and will be expected to establish an independent research program and to interact with a young and dynamic faculty in cell, molecular and developmental biology. The position carries a competitive salary with a substantial start-up package commensurate with a major research effort. A full complement of state-of-the-art facilities in cell and molecular biology is available in the department. Applications consisting of curriculum vitae, three letters of reference, and a brief description of research interests should be sent by February 1, 1990 to: Dr. Harvey H. Feder, Chairman, Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102 (201/648-5347) (FAX: 201/648-1007). Rutgers is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.

Department Head

The Department of Plant Pathology and Crop Physiology, Louisiana State University, invites nominations and applications for the position of department head. The department head will administer and lead research and undergraduate and graduate instructional programs in plant pathology, plant physiology and weed sciences within the department. The department head reports to both the Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station and the Dean of the College of Agriculture and is responsible for maintaining liaisons with department heads, agricultural commodity groups, industry, government and other public groups. Candidates must have a Ph.D. in plant pathology, plant physiology, nematology, weed science or closely related plant science, with demonstrated scholarly ability, outstanding administrative and leadership capabilities or potential, and qualification for appointment as tenured full professor and full member of the graduate faculty. Nominations, applications or inquiries should be directed to: Dr. K.L. Koonce, Assistant Director, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, 104F LSU Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70893 (504/388-6030). Nominations should be made by February 1, 1990.


Applications will be accepted through March 1, 1990 or until a qualified applicant is found and should include vitae and university transcripts. The application should also request letters of recommendation to be sent directly to the above address from five individuals familiar with the applicant's qualifications. The Louisiana State University System is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer.

Population or Community Ecology

Tenure-track assistant professor position to teach introductory biology and upper-division specialty courses. Background should include research in population or community ecology with computer analysis. Southern Oregon State College is dedicated to quality teaching and encourages independent research. Ph.D. required. Send curriculum vitae and three letters of reference to: Dr. Stephen Cross, Department of Biology, Southern Oregon State College, Ashland, OR 95720 by 1 February 1990. Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.

Southern Illinois University-Two Faculty Positions

The Department of Plant Biology at South-ern Illinois University invites applications for two tenure-track positions at the assistant professor level. We are seeking out-standing candidates in the fields of phylogenetic plant biology and aquatic environmental biology. Candidates for the position in phylogenetic plant biology will have expertise in the use of gene molecular biology and/or modern methods to resolve problems in vascular plant systematics. Candidates for the position in aquatic environmental biology will have expertise in use of modern methods and technology to resolve problems of aquatic ecosystems. Candidates must have a Ph.D., postdoctoral experience, and evidence of ability to compete successfully for extramural funding. We strongly encourage applications from women and members of minority groups. Successful candidates are expected to establish a vigorous research program and participate in undergraduate and graduate teaching/training. Please submit curriculum vitae, a statement of research and professional goals, representative reprints, and arrange to have at least three letters of reference sent by February 28, 1990 to: Dr. Lawrence C. Matten, Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901. Southern Illinois University is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.


Paleobotanical Colloquium

The 8th Mid-Continent Paleobotanical Colloquium will be held at the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago on Friday, April 20 and Saturday, April 21, 1990. To receive the 2nd circular (to be mailed in February), contact: Dr. Peter R. Crane, MPC, Department of Geology, Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605.

AAAS Annual Meeting

The 1990 American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting will be held in New Orleans, 15-20 February 1990. The program will include more than 250 symposia, technical sessions and workshops in virtually every field of scientific inquiry; intensive seminars; and short courses. Research results may be presented in poster sessions. For information and registration forms, see Science magazine (1 Sept., 10, 24 Nov., 8 Dec.) or write to: AAAS Marketing, 1333 H Street, NW, Washing-ton, DC 20005. FAX: 202-289-4021.

Spring Systematics Symposium

The 13th Annual Spring Systematics Symposium will be held at the Field Museum of Natural History on Saturday, May 12, 1990. The topic of the symposium this year is Evolutionary Ethics and includes the following speakers: Mary C. Bateson, Alan Gewirth, Laurie R. Godfrey, Evelyn Fox Keller, Lynn Margulis, Robert J. Richards, Michael Ruse, Lawrence B. Slobodkin, Elliott Sober, Adam Urbanek, George C. Williams and Patricia Williams. For registration information, write or call: Symposium Coordinator, Department of Geology, Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496, Tele.: 312/922-9410, ext. 298.

XVth International Botanical Congress

The XVth International Botanical Congress will be held in the Tokyo area during August and September, 1993. Nomenclature sessions will be held from 23-27 August; general sessions from 28 August-3 September. The first circular will be prepared in 1990. Requests for information and other questions should be directed to the Secretariat: XV International Botanical Congress Tokyo, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan.


Iowa Lakeside Laboratory

Summer Fellowship in field biology for predoctoral students or recent Ph.D. graduates. Stipend $2,000. Fellows pay modest fees for room/board and lab space. A candidate's work should have a component for which a summer at the lab would be especially profitable. The 55 ha lab is located on glacial terrain on the western shore of deep West Okoboji Lake. Many small lakes, wet-lands, prairies, streams and woodlands are nearby. Potential applicants should contact the director and/or send an application which will include a cover letter, vitae, and a one- to two-page synopsis of the proposed project. Specific reasons why the station is particularly suitable are critical to the application. Two letters are requested, including one from the research advisor. Applications will be accepted up to April 1, 1990. Send to: Robert W. Cruden, Acting Director, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242.

Smithsonian Research Fellowships

The Smithsonian Institution announces its research fellowships for 1990-1991 in the fields of History of Science and Technology (including natural history), Biological Sciences (including ecology, environmental studies, evolutionary biology, marine biology, natural history, paleobiology, systematic and tropical biology), Materials Analysis (including archaeometry and conservation science) and other fields. These fellowships are awarded to support independent research in residence at the Smithsonian


in association with the research staff and using the Institution's resources. Predoctoral and postdoctoral fellowship appointments for six to twelve months, and graduate student appointments for ten weeks are awarded. Applications are due January 15, 1990. Stipends supporting these awards are: $25,000 for senior postdoctoral fellow; $20,000 for postdoctoral fellows, and $12,500 for predoctoral fellows (all stipends are per year plus allowances). For graduate students, there is a $3,000 stipend for the ten-week tenure period. Awards are based on merit. Smithsonian fellowships are open to all qualified individuals without reference to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age or condition of handicap of any applicant. For more information and application forms, please write: Smithsonian Institution, Office of Fellowships and Grants, 7300 L'Enfant Plaza, Washington, DC 20560. Please indicate the particular area in which you propose to conduct re-search and give the dates of degrees received or expected.


Awards Presented by the Botanical Society of America

Each year, during the annual banquet of the Botanical Society of America, achievement awards of various kinds are presented, some by the Botanical Society itself, others by designated Botanical Society Sections, and still others by industry and botanical institutions of different kinds. As the years pass, the numbers and kinds of awards have increased and keeping track of them has proven to be one of the burdens of the Secretary of the Society. In addition, a few awards have been discontinued. Thus, David L. Dilcher, who was secretary several years ago, suggested that information on each of the awards be assembled and published in the Blanc Science Bulletin for the benefit of all members of the Society. Some of the information is contained in the By-Laws of the Society (Article X. Committees) when the recipient(s) of the award is recommended by one of the Society's standing committees. The Botanical Society Merit Award, Pelton Award, Esau Award, and Cichan Award are of this kind. Information on awards given by the Society on behalf of other functional units had to be garnered from officials of those units. Robert W. Kiger and Anita L. Karg of the Hunt Botanical Institute helped with biographical data. Thus, the compilation below took several years to complete and sometimes involved repeated requests for data owing to incomplete information and to periodic changes in the officials having the information.

For each award the following information was requested: 1) What is the full name of the award? 2) For whom (or what) is the award named, if germane, and why is the person (or organization) so honored? 3) What is the purpose of the award and what are the requirements (or restrictions)? 4) By what selection process is the awardee named? 5) How often is the award made? 6) Of what does the award consist? 7) If the award is monetary, from what source are the funds derived? 8) Are there any other facts of interest about the award? In most cases it was possible to secure all the information requested and this is listed below following the sequence of the numbered statements above. If the information provided was inappropriate it has been omitted.

Ralph E. Alston Award in Phytochemistry

This award is named after Ralph Eugene Alston (1925-1967), advisor to many students in phytochemistry and one of the leading authorities in biochemical systematics at the time of his death. The Phytochemical Section recognizes the outstanding presentation in phytochemical research at the annual meeting. The Section Chairperson selects a peer review committee to recommend the awardee. Normally, the award is made yearly following judging of papers at the annual meeting. A monetary award of $100 is given from donated funds. The area of phytochemistry is not restricted. The research may be broadly based in areas of plant systematics, biochemistry, plant biosynthesis, macromolecules, or secondary metabolites.

Botanical Society of America Merit Award

Merit Awards honor one or more persons judged to have made outstanding contributions to botanical sciences. It is not necessary, although desirable, that they be members of the Botanical Society of America. They should be residents of North America, if custom is to be followed. The selection committee consists of three members appointed by the President of the Society who also serves on the committee, ex officio. Members serve a three-year term with the terms staggered so that one member retires and one new member is added each year; the member in his/her third year of office serves as chairperson. Awards are made annually and consist of a Certificate of Merit.

Michael A. Cichan Award

This award was established to honor the memory of Dr. Michael A. Cichan (d. 1987). The award will be given annually to the best paper published during the previous year in English in the areas of evolutionary and/or structural botany by a researcher under the age of 40. The paper is chosen by a commit-tee of three persons appointed by the BSA President, each serving three year terms. At least one member should be from the Paleobotanical Section and one from the Developmental and Structural Section. The award consists of a cash prize and a certificate. Support for the award is derived from a fund established by contributions from Dr. Cichan's friends and colleagues. The first award will be given in 1990.

Isabel Cookson Paleobotanical Award

Isabel Clifton Cookson (1893-1973), a paleobotanist/palynologist from Australia, left money to the Paleobotanical Section in her will because the Section had nominated her for Corresponding Membership in the BSA. The award is for the best paper in paleobotany or palynology presented by a student at the annual BSA meetings. The research must have been done while the recipient was a student. An evaluation committee of three Section members is appointed by the Chair-person. The award is made every year at the BSA meetings and consists of $300, a certificate, and a BSA banquet ticket. Funds are derived from the Cookson Endowment Fund. Cookson was an Honorary Member of the Paleobotanical Section.

George R. Cooley Award

The award is named for George Ralph Cooley (1896-1986), banker and benefactor of


plant taxonomy. It recognizes the best paper presented at the American Society of Plant Taxonomists' annual meeting by a person who has been awarded the Ph.D. degree within the past ten years or by a current graduate student. The awardee must be a member in good standing of the ASPT and prior winners are ineligible. The recipient of the award must be the presenter of the paper. Individuals must indicate their eligibility on the Title Submission Form which they submit to the Program Chairperson. Multiple-authored papers are acceptable but single authorships are encouraged. (The award is given to the person presenting the paper.) Criteria for judging presentations are as follows: inclusion of a statement of the problem; quality of the science involved in the study; completeness of the presentation; clarity of the oral presentation; effectiveness of audiovisual materials; and the significance of the research. All areas of taxonomic work are considered for the award. Judging is the responsibility of the ASPT Honors Committee. The award is made annually and consists of $350 and a framed certificate.

Darbaker Prize

The prize is named for Leasure Kline Darbaker (1879-1946) of Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania, who had general interests in natural history and special interests in histological pharmacognosy, plant pathology and physiology, microbiology, and the algae. It is given for meritorious work in the study of microscopic algae based on papers published by the nominee during the last two full calendar years previous to the closing date for nominations. Presently the award is limited to residents of North America and only papers published in the English language are considered. The selection committee is appointed by the President of BSA and consists of a chairperson, who is the senior member, and two other members each serving three-year terms with one new member being appointed each year. The prize is given annually and consists of a sum of money, the amount being determined by income from a trust fund, and an inscribed certificate. Funds for the prize derive from a bequest.

DNA Plant Technology Corporation Student Prize

This prize recognizes the best presentation in plant tissue culture made by a student at the annual sessions of the Physiological Section. A committee of professors is appointed each year to evaluate the presentations. Each committee member completes an evaluation form with numerical indications in several categories. Scores are tabulated as a sum, as ranks, and are compared between and within the evaluation team. The greatest sum and highest combined ranking determine the winner. The prize is given annually if applicable to papers presented. The prize is a $100 check at the meeting followed by a certificate in the mail. Funds come from an endowment invested in a long-term certificate of deposit. The prize was established in 1984 by Ross Koning (Eastern Connecticut State University).

Ecological Section Best Student Paper Award

This award was established to acknowledge the best presentation at the annual meeting by a graduate student working on a plant ecological research project. The awardee is recommended by a panel of more senior people who judge 4-5 papers each and rate them. The award is made once a year and consists of $50, a certificate, and a ticket to the BSA banquet. Funds for the award are de-rived from an endowment dedicated to the award.

Katherine Esau Award

Named for Katherine Esau (1898- ), premier plant anatomist and for many years doyenne of phloem investigators. The award is made to the student who presents the outstanding paper in Developmental and Structural Botany at the annual meeting of the Society. To be eligible for the award the student must be the sole author or the senior author of the paper and must present the paper based on his/her own work. To be judged for the award the student must check the appropriate category provided with the Call for Abstracts form. Evaluation is made by a committee appointed by the BSA President in consultation with the Chairperson of the Developmental and Structural Section. The selection committee consists of a chair-person and two other members each serving three-year terms with one new member being appointed each year. The President serves on the committee ex officio. The award is presented annually and includes $250 and an award certificate. Funds for the award result from interest on a $10,000 gift to the Society from Professor Esau.

Henry Allan Gleason Award of The New York Botanical Garden

Henry Allan Gleason (1882-1975), ecologist and taxonomist, was formerly Head Curator of the New York Botanical Garden. The award is given for an outstanding recent publication in plant taxonomy, plant ecology, or plant geography, areas of special interest to Gleason. Selection of the recipient is by an in-house, ad hoc commit-tee of varying membership. It is presented annually and consists of a check for $500. Funds for the award derive from interest on a gift of H.A. Gleason.

Jesse M. Greenman Award

The award is named for Jesse More Green-man (1867-1951), who was Curator of the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium from 1919 until 1943. The purpose of the award is to recognize the paper judged best in vascular plant or bryophyte systematics based on a doctoral dissertation that was published during the previous year. The awardee is selected by a special committee named by the director of research at the Garden. Each year's award is publicized in botanical journals and other publications, and at the same time information concerning submission of papers for the following year's award is published. The award is annual and consists of $250. Funding for the award is derived from the Alumni Fund of the Missouri Botanical Garden, a special deposit supported by donations from alumni of the Garden. 1988 marked the twentieth year that the Jesse M. Greenman Award has been given.

Lawrence Memorial Award

The award is named for George Hill Mathewson Lawrence (1910-1978), founding director of the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation at Carnegie Mellon University, in memory of his life and achievements. Its purpose is to support travel of doctoral candidates in connection with their dissertation research in any of Dr. Lawrence's fields of special interest: systematic botany, horticulture, or the history of the plant sciences, including bibliography and exploration. The recipient of the award is selected from among candidates nominated by their major professors (see ANNOUNCEMENTS section below for 1990 nomination information). Nominations are accepted for students from any country and the award is made strictly on the basis of merit--the recipient's general scholarly promise and the significance of the proposed research. The award committee includes representatives of the Hunt Institute, the Hunt Foundation, the Lawrence family, and the botanical community at large. It is presented biennially and consists of $1,000. The fund from which the award money is derived was established initially by contributions from the Lawrence family and the Hunt Foundation, augmented by donations from Dr. Lawrence's colleagues and friends. The selection process is administered by the director of the Hunt Institute in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Li-Cor, Inc. Student Prize

The prize is given for the best presentation in plant physiology made by a student at the annual sessions of the Physiological Section. A committee of professors is appointed each year to evaluate the presentations. Each committee member fills out an evaluation form with numerical indications in several categories. Scores are tabulated as a sum, as ranks, and are compared between and within the evaluation term. The greatest sum and highest combined ranking determine the winner. The prize is offered annually and consists of a $50 check at the meeting followed by a certificate in the mail. Funds come from an endowment invested in a long-term certificate of deposit. The prize was established in 1984 by John McClendon (University of Nebraska) and Ross Koning (Eastern Connecticut State University). The endowment check comes from Li-Cor.

Margaret Y. Menzel Award

The Genetics Section Award is named after Mary Margaret Young Menzel (1924-1988), teacher of genetics and botany, researcher on the cytotaxonomy and cytogenetics of Malvaceae and Solanaceae, and special counselor to women in science. The award is for the outstanding contributed genetics paper presented at the annual meeting of the Botanical Society of America. The paper must deal with genetics or cytogenetics to be eligible. The selection is based 75% on the quality of research and 25% on the quality of the presentation. Officers of the Genetics Section and members of the selection committee are ineligible. A committee is assigned by the chairperson of the Genetics Section to judge the contributed papers and to select the outstanding one. The award is made annually and consists of a certificate, a monetary prize that varies between $50 and $100, and a ticket to the BSA banquet to receive the award. The funds derive from interest on monies donated to the Margaret Menzel Trust Fund. The first Margaret Menzel Award was presented in 1988.

Jeanette Siron Pelton Award of the Conservation and Research Foundation

The award is named to honor the memory of Jeanette Siron Pelton (d. 1966) of Minneapolis whose special interest was plant morphogenesis. It was established by the Conservation and Research Foundation of New London, Connecticut in 1969. The award recognizes sustained and imaginative contributions in the field of experimental plant morphology broadly defined to include subcellular, cellular, and organismal levels of complexity. Publications need not be restricted to reports of original research but may include books and reviews, prefer-ably appearing within the last five years before the award. Candidates are selected by a committee appointed by the BSA President. The committee includes a chairperson and two other members, each serving three-year terms with one new member being appointed each year. The committee submits names of candidates for final approval to the Foundation. The Foundation, wishing to have the award encourage younger investigators, has requested the Pelton Award Commit-tee to nominate candidates in the earlier stages of their careers. There is no restriction as to sex, nationality, or society affiliation, nor the language in which the investigations are published. The award is made from time to time when the Society recommends a candidate acceptable to the Foundation. The award carries a stipend of $1,000.

Aaron J. Sharp Award

Aaron John Sharp (1904- ) is an eminent American bryologist and teacher of botany, now retired, at the University of Tennessee. He has made numerous contributions to the study of bryophytes and lichens, and has trained many students. The purpose is to encourage student participation in the annual program and to recognize the most professional presentations by students. Only students may compete for the award and each must announce his/her intention with his/her abstract. Students must also make the presentations at the meeting. A commit-tee of three professional bryologists or lichenologists makes the selection after hearing all talks. The award is made annually and consists of $200 from the American Bryological and Lichenological Society and $100 from the Bryological and Lichenological Section of BSA. From the B & L Section, it is the annual allotment. The award is always cosponsored with the American Bryological and Lichenological Society.

Edgar T. Wherry Award

Edgar Theodore Wherry (1885-1982) was professor of botany at the University of Pennsylvania for many years and made note-worthy contributions to North American pteridology, floristics of ferns, and pat-terns of evolution in ferns. The award is made for the best contributed paper at the annual meeting. A selection committee of three members is appointed by the secretary-treasurer of the Pteridological Section. The award is made annually and consists of a stipend of $100. Funds are derived from the Section treasury, which comes from membership dues and an allotment from the Society. The award is considered to be for pteridologists relatively early in their careers, rather than for more senior, established workers.

Compiled by:

William Louis Stern Department of Botany University of Florida



Organization of Biological Field Stations

Summer opportunities for field courses in 1990 offered at biological field stations are summarized in a poster prepared by the Organization of Biological Field Stations. Most offerings are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in biology. For a copy, contact Dr. Richard W. Coles, Secretary OBFS, Washington University Tyson Research Center, P.O. Box 351, Eureka, MO 63025.

Strawberry Research Grants

The North American Strawberry Growers Association, Inc. annually awards $20,000-$25,000 to support research that will benefit the strawberry industry. Grants generally range in size from $500 to $5,000, and involve germplasm evaluation, crop production, crop protection or marketing. For a list of research priorities and proposal guidelines, please write to Dr. Marvin Pritts, Department of Pomology, Plant Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Search for Out-of-Print Book

Kaoru Kitajima is interested in buying a copy of "Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States" (Agricultural Handbook No. 450, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1974). If anyone has a copy to sell, please contact Kaoru Kitajima, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, APO Miami 34002-0011.

Request for Information

We intend to review the reproductive biology of the Orchidaceae. To make this review as comprehensive as possible, we are requesting unpublished or soon-to-be published data sets on breeding systems in orchids. The information will be used to make phylogenetic, biogeography, and growth habit comparisons among species. We are particularly interested in natural levels of fruit set (% of flowers producing fruits) and, where available, results of hand pollinations. Also, any data on seed set (% of seeds bearing embryos) would be useful. To show natural variation in the data, we would appreciate that they be broken down by site and year where appropriate. If the information is already in manuscript form, authors may send manuscripts, indicating to which journal the article has been or will be submitted. Direct information to: Jess K. Zimmerman, Smithsonian Environmental Re-search Center, P.O. Box 28, Edgewater, MD 21037. Your help will be greatly appreciated and acknowledged.

Jess K. Zimmerman Ricardo N. Calvo James D. Ackerman

AIBS 1990 Leadership Elected

John Patrick Jordan, president of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) has announced the results of recent elections for a number of important leader-ship positions within the Institute's Board of Directors and Council. Paul G. Risser (University of New Mexico) is the new president-elect and will become president in 1991. Four members of the twelve person Board of Directors were elected, two by the membership-at-large and one by the council of affiliate scientific societies. They are: Theodore J. Corvello (California State University), Judith S. Weis (National Science Foundation), Neal M. Barnett (University of Maryland) and John L. Gallagher (University of Delaware). Four new members of the 55 member plenary advisory Council of Affiliate Societies were elected by the membership-at-large. They are: Barbara L. Bentley (SUNY at Stony Brook), Lafayette Frederick (Howard University), Frances C. James (Florida State University) and David Reichle (Oak Ridge National Laboratory).

Fire Impact on Yellowstone--Special Issue of BioScience

The fires that burned over the Greater Yellowstone area during the summer of 1988 were remarkable for their intensity, scale, and the public attention they provoked. Now, a year after the last embers died out, scientists evaluate the ecological impact. In the first set of scholarly papers to be published assessing the effects of these fires, biologists report that almost all ecological processes in the area were affected by the fires. The fires present a unique opportunity for scientists to deter-mine how features such as vegetation and landscape patterns interact to produce specific responses to major disturbances. Seven major articles on the Yellowstone fires appear in the November 1989 issue of BioScience, published by the American Institute of Biological Sciences.

New Mountain Research Station Facility

The University of Colorado's Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research has been awarded funding by the National Science Foundation to build a new alpine tundra laboratory for its Mountain Research Station. The modular, quonset-hut-shaped building will be constructed at 3,500 m on Niwot Ridge, in the Niwot Ridge Biosphere Preserve, and should be available for use during the 1990 field season. The laboratory will facilitate research conducted at the Mountain Research Station, such as the NSF-funded Long-Term Ecological Research project carried out by researchers from INSTAAR and elsewhere. The building will have 12-V power from a combination of solar cells and an existing wind turbine and will be heated by solar panels. It will be insulated to permit year-round work, well-lighted, and contain space for a variety of types of research, equipment storage, and emergency or short-term housing. We invite research applications for work that will take advantage of this new facility. For more information, con-tact: Dr. David W. Inouye, Director, Mountain Research Station, 818 County Road 116, Nederland, CO 80466, (303) 492-8842, or via electronic mailto: INOUYE_D_CUBLDR@VAXF.COLO-RADO.EDU

Biodiversity Fair

The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County is hosting the SITES exhibit "Tropical Rainforests: A Disappearing Treasure" from 3 March-27 May 1990. A number of activities are being organized to supplement this event, including a Biodiversity Fair. The fair will be held on Saturday and Sun-day, 21-22 April 1990 in conjunction with the Los Angeles area celebration of the 20th anniversary of Earth Day. If you have any questions or are interested in exhibiting at this fair, please contact: Jennifer Bevington (213-744-3344) or Sue Lafferty (213-744-6912) at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90007.


Call for Information

The American Horticultural Society is compiling a new, expanded edition of North American Horticulture, A Reference Guide.
To make this guide as complete as possible, we urge all readers to send us the names and addresses of local, state, and regional horticultural organizations and programs, including plant societies, trade associations, professional associations, conservation organizations, educational programs, significant plant collections, horticulture libraries and museums, and major flower shows. One area of expansion intended for the upcoming edition will include historical horticultural displays, zoological parks with plant collections and natural history museums with horticultural and botanical exhibits. Please send information to Tom Barrett, American Horticultural Society, 7931 East Boulevard Dr.. Alexandria. VA 22308, 703/768-5700 or 1-800-777-7931.


BIOSIS has named Ms. Susan Hall to the position of Education Specialist in the Education and Training Group of the User Services Department. Ms. Hall's responsibilities include conducting training seminars for users of BIOSIS' online databases, preparing support and instructional materials for database users, and serving as a representative at exhibits held throughout the United States and Canada. In addition, she contributes articles to BioSearch, a newsletter for users of BIOSIS' online services.

BIOSIS and SilverPlatter to Introduce CD-ROM product in 1990

BIOSIS, the world's largest abstracting and indexing service for the life sciences, and SilverPlatter Information, Inc., the leading publisher of databases on compact disc (CD-ROM), have announced that they will produce Biological Abstracts on Compact Disc
(BA on CD), a new CD-ROM product for 1990. BA on CD will be issued quarterly, starting in March 1990. It will employ SilverPlatter's easy-to-use software, enabling users to search by Title, Author, Corporate Source, Source Journal, Abbreviated Journal Title, CODEN, Language of Article, Language of Summary, Abstract, Descriptors, Concept Codes (Major and Minor), Biosystematic Codes, Super Taxa, Publication Year, and Update Code. For more information, including price options, contact: BIOSIS, 2100 Arch Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-1399 (1-800-523-4806; 215-587-4800; Telex 831739).

Summer Field Courses 1990

Mountain Lake Biological Station announces its summer field courses. First term (June 10-July 14) courses include: Biology of Insects (taught by George W. Byers and Christine A. Nalepa), Natural History of the Southern Appalachians (Philip C. Shelton), Animal Population Biology (Stephen G. Tilley), Workshop in Nature Photography (June 24-30, taught by John Danehy) and Workshop for Secondary School Teachers (July 1-14, taught by Jerry O. Wolff). Second term (July 15-August 18) courses include: Evolutionary Genetics (Bruce Grant), Experimental Biology of Fungi (Rytas Vilgalys), Quantitative Methods in Field Biology (Joseph Travis and Henry M. Wilbur), Workshop in Allozyme Techniques (July 15-28, Charles R. Werth), and Workshop in Molecular Techniques for Field Biology (July 29-August 18, Daniel J. Burke and Michael P. Timko). Scholarships are available. For further information and application, write to: Director, Mountain Lake Biological Station, Rm. 251, Gilmer Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22901.

Technigues in Pollination Biology

We are working on a "Handbook of Experimental Techniques for Pollination Biology," and are soliciting either references to techniques used for pollination studies (e.g., studies of pollinator behavior, breeding systems, seed abortion, pollen, nectar, etc.), or descriptions of unpublished tricks of the trade. If you have something to contribute, please contact: David W. Inouye, Mountain Research Station, University of Colorado, 818 County Road 116, Nederland, CO 80466; 303-492-8842; e-mail address: Inouye_D_CUBLDR@VAXF.COLORADO.EDU or Carol Kearns, Department of Zoology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742; 303-454-4085; e-mail address: CK5@UMAIL.UMD.EDU.

Nominations for Lawrence Memorial Award

The Award Committee of the Lawrence Memorial Fund invites nominations for the 1990 Lawrence Memorial Award. Honoring the memory of Dr. George H.M. Lawrence, founding Director of the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, the award ($1,000) is given biennially to support travel for doctoral dissertation research in systematic botany or horticulture, or the history of the plant sciences, including literature and exploration. Major professors are urged to nominate outstanding doctoral students who have achieved official candidacy for their degrees and will be conducting pertinent dissertation research that would benefit significantly from travel enabled by the award. The committee will not entertain direct applications. A student who wishes to be considered should arrange for nomination by his/her major professor; this may take the form of letter which covers sup-porting materials prepared by the nominee. Supporting materials should describe briefly but clearly the candidate's program of research and how it would be significantly enhanced by travel that the award would support. Letters of nomination and supporting materials, including seconding letters, should be received by the committee no later than 1 May 1990 and should be directed to: Dr. R.W. Kiger, Hunt Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (412-268-2434).

Illinois Biological Monographs

The Illinois Biological Monographs (IBM), an established series of book-length publications in biology, has been published in its present form since 1957. Published monographs have been of consistently high quality. The IBM committee encourages submission of quality manuscripts based on original research from all areas of biology. Past emphasis has largely centered on taxonomic, systematic and ecological studies. The IBM series is published by the University of Illinois Press, working closely with both the IBM Committee and the authors. Given the present high costs of publication, relatively concise monographs are being solicited--no more than 250 manuscript pages. Scholars are not encouraged to submit unrevised theses. Review procedures involve peer review from outside the University of Illinois as well as careful evaluation by the IBM committee. Every effort is made to complete reviews as quickly as possible--generally within a two-to-three month period. All manuscripts should be submitted to: Dr. David Seigler, Department of Plant Biology, 289 Morrill Hall, 505 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (217-333-3261).


Pearcy, R.W., J. Ehleringer, H.A. Mooney and P.W. Rundel. Plant Physiological Ecology. Chapman and Hall, New York, 1989. 457 pp. $105.00 (cloth).

As the authors state in their introduction, the diverse field of plant physiological ecology concerns phenomena which range from the biochemical/organellar scale to succession and evolutionary scales. The actual measurements physiological ecologists take to lend insight into these phenomena are, for the most part, taken on organs (e.g., leaf, root) or whole plants, and over days to years in duration. As field-portable, reliable, accurate instrumentation has been developed, especially over the last 15 years, the ability of physiological ecologists to measure plant and environmental processes in situ has grown rapidly. This volume is designed as a guide to the methodology of field measurements of the environment in which plants grow, and of the physiological and morphological responses of plants to their environment. Though other such volumes have been assembled over the last 3 decades, this one is, by far, the most complete and extensive.

This volume can be comfortably divided into three sections: chapters 1-2, which cover the nuts-and-bolts aspects of field instrumentation, including measurement errors, recorders and data loggers, instrument set-up, etc.; chapters 3-6, which cover measurement of environmental factors; and chapters 7-17, which cover measurement of plant responses. Each chapter includes basic background information on the process or pathway in question, reviews of alternative methods for measurement (generally with ample discussion of advantages and disadvantages of each), sample data from relevant studies, and an extensive citation list. Particularly noteworthy is the inclusion of chapters on below-ground aspects of plant physiological ecology, including measurement of soil nutrient availability, nutrient uptake and use, and root system structure and function. Another plus: a lengthy chapter on stable isotope use covers this rapidly expanding methodology well. The final chapter on methods for studying air pollution effects covers the range of scales at which this set of phenomena can be covered, from small leaf cuvettes to environmental gradient studies.

The combination of methods descriptions, comparative evaluations, and extensive citations makes this volume a bookshelf must for any scientist studying plant responses to the environment. It also has a wealth of good information for students, but its price will put it out of reach for most for some time to come.

Ralph E.J. Boerner
Department of Botany
The Ohio State University

Steeves, R.A. and I.M. Sussex. Patterns in Plant Development. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1989. xv + 388 pp., illus. ISBN 0-521-24688-1 (cloth); 0-521-28895-9 (paper). Price: $44.50 (cloth); $14.95 (paper).

The long-awaited second edition of Pat-terns in Plant Development under a new publisher is a worthy successor to the first edition published about 17 years ago. As in the first edition, the subject matter with its focus on vascular plants is covered in 17 chapters. Although the text is consider-ably updated to reflect the more recent trends in plant developmental biology, it is not entirely rewritten.

An introductory chapter is followed by two chapters on embryogenesis, several chapters on the shoot and its appendages, two chapters each on roots, organ and tissue differentiation and vascular cambium and a final chapter dealing with alternate pat-terns of development. The chapters are well-developed with carefully selected examples to illustrate the concepts. The wholly new material introduced principally relates to molecular biology of embryogenesis, clonal analysis in the study of pat-tern formation and whole plant developmental biology. The great strength of the book lies in its integration of the old versus the new information and of the genetic and biochemical findings. Although by necessity the book does not provide exhaustive surveys of the topics, on the whole it serves as an excellent treatment of plant development presented consistently from the structural and organismic perspective. Each chapter rounds off with a selected bibliography --by no means the latest in the literature, but sufficient to direct the reader to more extensive treatment.

Included in this book is something for students of all persuasions who use vascular plants as experimental systems to digest and evaluate and perhaps to criticize, but above all to be informed of the latest trends in the study of development of this fascinating group of plants. On the negative side, I must confess to a feeling that a few areas should have been further developed -- for example, pollen embryo development has matured sufficiently to warrant a more detailed treatment than is provided. I also feel that the quality of the text is not matched by the quality of some of the half-tones, which are printed darkly (for ex-ample, Fig. 13.1a, b; Fig. 14.7, etc.).

V. Raghavan
Department of Botany
The Ohio State University


Weber, W.A. Colorado Flora: Western Slope. Colorado Assoc. Univ. Press, 1344 Grandview Ave., Box 480, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, 1987. xvii + 530 p. ISBN 0-87081-171-1. Price: $14.50.

Webster, R.D. The Australian Paniceae (Poaceae). J. Cramer, Springackern 2, D-3300, Braunschweig, F.R.G., 1987. iii + 332 p. ISBN 3-443-50006-4. Price: none given.

Weissbach, A. and Weissbach, H. Methods for Plant Molecular Biology. Academic Press, Inc. 1250 6th Ave., San Diego, CA 92101, 1988. xix + 543 p. ISBN 0-12-743655-3. Price: $45.00.


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