Plant Science Bulletin archive
Issue: 1977 v23 No 3 Fall
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
September 1977 Volume 23 No. 3
Introductory Botany at Miami University. Charles Heimsch 26
Introductory Botany at Miami University
The initial experience with a new pattern of introductory botany courses at Miami University was presented in an earlier report (Heimsch, 1973). This pattern was formulated in response to a change in the general curricular requirement which applied to all students in the university. The essence of this change was a reduction in the amount of credits in science required and the modification of most courses which represented full year sequences in favor of single quarter units. Under the new scheme students were able to satisfy the science requirement of 9 credit hours with courses in a single department or in two or three different ones. It might be noted that students in the college of Arts and Sciences were required to earn 6 additional credits in science courses.
In the earlier report the experience with the new curriculum was considered only for the initial 2-year period. It seems desirable to present information for the subsequent 3-year period and, in addition, for the year just completed in which the academic calendar has been changed from a quarter to a semester arrangement.
The major change affected with the new curriculum, offered first in 1971-72, was to supplant the full-year survey course dedicated primarily to non-majors with seven quarter courses in different botanical areas as introductory experiences. These courses were as follows:
Plant Biology—Principles as exemplified by structure and function in seed plants.
The Plant Kingdom—Principles through a survey approach emphasizing environmental adaptation, re-production and evolution.
Plants, Man and Environment—Current environmental problems in relation to elementary principles of plant ecology.
Plants and Civilization—Man's social and economic development; history, exploration, food and other uses, and future demands.
Trees and Shrubs—Identification of native and introduced woody plants.
Spring Flora—Identification of spring-flowering components of local flora.
Vegetation of North America—Considers various aspects of the major types of North American vegetation.
In addition, a 2-quarter General Botany course recommended for majors was retained. It was a more intensive version of the Plant Biology course which involved a greater total amount of class time.
The essence of this program of introductory courses has been continued with the adoption of a semester calendar for the university. Some changes were necessary, however, because of the reduced opportunity for offerings with no increase in teaching staff, and the impact of the calendar (early semester) on seasonal courses, particularly Spring Flora. These changes involved the elimination of the Plant Biology course and combining the essentials of the Plant Kingdom and Spring Flora courses in a new offering en-titled Natural History of Plants. Also the General Botany sequence was changed to a one-semester, 4-credit offering.
The enrollments in these courses over a 6-year period are given in Table 1. Never were all of them given during the same term. Spring Flora and Trees and Shrubs were seasonal, being offered only in the Spring and Fall, respectively. Staff limitations because of priorities for other courses also restricted offerings. In general, the maximum offering was provided in the Fall quarter when programs for the entire year were set for most students. Certain courses offered during the other terms, though, attracted students as well as in the Fall, but this was somewhat dependent on the number of sections able to be offered. As a matter of interest, University enrollment in 1971-72 was 13,131, and in 1976-77 it was 14,752.
The course that attracted the most students clearly was Plants, Man and Environment, but this was offered most frequently and with the most sections. Considering the fewer number of sections for the course Vegetation of North America, it may be said to have "drawn" nearly as well. Decisions on the number of sections to be offered at one time were based primarily on previous experience, but adjustments were effected on the basis of demand as reflected in pre-registration data. Available staff within the
limits of reasonable teaching loads had to be considered. Registration for Plants and Civilization, offered only in a single section, has also been at a high level. With these three courses there is no question that the appeal can be attributed at least in part to the fact that they did not include a laboratory.
All of the other courses included laboratory experience, so it is clear that the requirement for laboratory work does not turn all students away. Plant Biology, Trees and Shrubs, and Spring Flora were solely elective courses, and most of class time was devoted to laboratory experience. The last two of the above courses presented a special case. Over and above the fact that they offered experiences in identification, the fact that class time was spent in the field (on the campus and nearby areas) in a combined lecture-laboratory experience presumably held appeal in itself. The classes in these courses were individual section with a maximum of 30 students.
The enrollment in the two-quarter General Botany course (Bot. 101, 102) may be considered to have held very well considering the alternative courses that were available. The core of students in the course was comprised of prospective majors and other science students, but the enrollments suggest that a considerable body of other students elected this more general experience rather than that of the topical courses. Encouraging was the enrollment in the trailer sequence begun in the Winter quarter of 1972-73. The fact that enrollment dropped in the second part of the sequence begun in both the Fall and Winter is likely attributable to a variety of factors.
The adoption of a semester calendar in the University has not been completely favorable to the program of introductory courses in the department. The courses offered in the quarter calendar which were continued as semester offerings generally drew as well or even better among the students. Other than the reduced opportunity for course offering by one-third, the greatest impact of the semester calendar concerned the Spring Flora course. If there was some special appeal of the prospects of spending class time among the flowers of the field at that time of the year, the enrollment of the course reflected it inasmuch as nearly 300 students in 10 sections were taught during the last year of the quarter calendar. In the new calendar it was clear that less than half of the second semester would offer suitable weather for field classes, thus Spring Flora and Plant Kingdom were combined with the objective of continuing the primary elements of each. The initial offering attracted far less than the previous enrollment in the Spring Flora course, but it was not a complete disappointment. During the past year an alternative course retaining the title Spring Flora has been approved. This course aims to spend the first half of the second semester on topics such as flower structure and function, evolution, classification, and pollination and seed dispersal with reduced laboratory time, then during the second half of the semester class time will be increased and weather should permit most of it to be spent in the field. This course will be offered during 1977-78 and some basis for students preference should be gained. Contrastingly, the limited experience with the Plant Kingdom included in the Natural History of Plants is ideal for students in some programs. Therefore, there would likely be reluctance to withdraw it in favor of the revised Spring Flora, if this latter drew a heavy enrollment. A possible alternative would be to offer both with student credit restricted to only one of them.
It can hardly be questioned that the program of offering topical courses as alternatives to the conventional general survey introductory course has been successful. Course enrollment has been sustained in general from year to year, and the total number of students in the entire year at this level in the program has been increased dramatically. Clearly this program has demanded increased teaching service by the faculty. This demand has been met in part by the increased use of graduate assistants and teaching fellows particularly in the laboratory courses (including those emphasizing identification and field experience). The students have performed creditably, even outstandingly, and the experience they have gained has been of great value.
In formulating the array of topical courses, one of the objectives was to provide a choice of subjects for the student, particularly the non-major. An unexpected con-sequence of the program has been that a significant number of students with an initial experience in one or more of the topical courses have elected botany as their major. In 1971-72 there were 119 registered majors in the department, while in 1976-77 there were 181 majors. Formulation of departmental programs for these students have posed some problems, but they have not been insurmountable. A respectable major program need not be stereotyped, and students who have utilized the topical courses for their introductory experiences have generally met the challenges of the core of required advanced courses.
Further experience with the semester calendar will be required to determine if the success of the program can be continued. If evaluations are to be made on the basis of student enrollment, it must be recognized that with a reduction of course offering possibilities by one-third, an obvious concomitant of a change from a quarter to semester calendar, an equivalent reduction in total students for the year should be expected. The initial experience with the semester calendar does not deviate markedly from what should have been expected. Perhaps with adjustments which experience will dictate as desirable, semester enrollments will be increased.
In presenting this review of our experience with a "different" pattern of introductory botany courses, enrollment figures have been emphasized as a criteria of effectiveness. Enrollments reflect certain factors relating to popularity, tradition, trends of the time, etc. Not all of these would apply to an uninitiated freshman, and upperclass students often are influenced by the experiences of their peers in selecting courses. It is gratifying that in 1975-76 there was a total of 1254 upperclass students among the total of 2551 registrations for the year in these courses.
More important is the question of whether the array of topical courses as alternatives to the classical introductory survey of the discipline is educationally sound. In practice this resolves itself as an experience in-depth within a narrow sector of the discipline as against a limited sampling of many sectors. Obviously some students prefer one, some the other. In view of the fact that students differ greatly in goals, personal commitments, attitudes and preferences, alternate options in any subject are seemingly valid. Standards and professional pride arc in no way sacrificed if a meaningful experience in identification for a student leads to an awareness and application of diversity among plants. One feature of a meaningful curricular program advocated by many educators is a degree of freedom of choice among courses. The program of introductory courses that has been discussed is of this character and has proven to be beneficial to the overall departmental effort.
No claim is made that the program is unique, even though it may be. When formulated, it was developed with-out design or pattern relating to programs known to exist elsewhere. Courses comparable to some of the topical
offerings are known to be offered elsewhere, but we are not aware of any program with the variety of introductory courses that we have developed at Miami University. Successful course patterns for a department in one institution may well be unsuitable in another. The success we have enjoyed may be attributable in large measure to back-ground circumstances at Miami. Although identification of the critical factors is uncertain, the results of our total experience are presented for the meaning they may have for departments in other institutions.
Heimsch, C. 1973. Teaching and introductory courses. Plant Sci. Bull. 19: 50-52.
Of Botanical Things Past
Lawrence J. Crockett
The Botanical Society of America has had a long and proud heritage as the national botanical organization, and it is hoped that, during this time of stress and strain in the Halls of Science, knowing more about our noble past will help to unify us. Nations, groups and individuals are all seeking their roots; if a botanist can't find hers or his, who, pray tell, may?
Throughout history, not just the history of scientific societies, but history in its broadest sense, there have been voices that cried, "The time is not yet ripe!" In 1893, just prior to the formation of our Society, there were voices crying "The time is not yet ripe!"—voices raised vigorously against the time's ripeness for the foundation of a national botanical society. Time has proved they were wrong.
The Botanical Society of America was an outgrowth of the Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S. On 22 August, 1892, while meeting with the A. A. A. S. in Rochester, New York, they adopted the following resolution:
"That a Committee of nine members be appointed by the Chairman to consider the formation of an American Botanical Society, after obtaining the views of the Botanists of America on the proposition, and report thereon at the next meeting of the Club." (l )
One year later, to the very day, the report of that Committee was read to the Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S., meeting at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. The great Liberty Hyde Bailey chaired that meeting and, therefore, presented the report of the Committee he headed. The majority report that he presented to that gathering was that all attempts to establish a national botanical society outside the A. A. A. S. should be ABANDONED! Voices were crying, "The time is not yet ripe!"
It may have been THE majority report, but, fortunately for American botany, as it turned out, there were dissidents. One was Professor F. Lamson-Scribner, who felt that a national botanical society might be formed but had no plan to offer. Another botanist was wiser: he had a plan. The dissident was Professor Charles Reid Barnes, then Professor of Plant Physiology at the University of Wisconsin, the campus at which the meetings were in session. Perhaps, having the meetings on his own campus gave him courage! Charles Reid Barnes vigorously op-posed the majority opinion and submitted the following minority report to the Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S.: (2)
"As a member of the committee appointed last year to report on the feasibility of forming an American botanical society I find myself unable to agree with the majority in reporting that such organization through the initiative of the Botanical Club is not feasible at present. Another member of the committee also dissents from the majority report, viz., Prof. F. Lamson-Scribner; but I am not able to say whether he would approve of the plan which I suggest, as I have had no opportunity of submitting the same to him.
At the time the plan was broached for the formation of a national botanical society I was not in favor of it, believing that the time was not yet ripe for such an organization. On thinking over the matter during the year past I have become convinced not only that the time is opportune, but that the Botanical Club, an open association of the loosest possible organization. can establish a restricted society without friction, and with great benefit to the science of botany.
I therefore submit the following suggestions in lieu of the majority report. I recommend:
Then, happily for us today, the majority opinion was rejected and the minority report adopted by two thirds of the members of the Club! Before this vote a "lengthy discussion" occurred by those present; this included Elizabeth Gertrude Britton, wife of Nathaniel Lord Britton, then Director of the New York Botanical Garden. They began to ballot (without nomination) for ten members of the new society, but, apparently, the voting was not completed until the afternoon session(3). Did difficulties arise or was it just too near lunch time when the balloting began?
Once chosen, the Committee of Ten was directed to select an additional fifteen members. These twenty-five botanists were then invited to become Charter Members of the new national botanical society, the name for which
had not yet been decided upon. Not all those noted botanists accepted membership in the new national botanical society. Only those who accepted will be listed below:
ARTHUR, Joseph Charles, Professor of Vegetable Physiology and Plant Pathology, Purdue University.
ATKINSON, George Francis, Professor of Botany, Cornell University.
BAILEY, Liberty Hyde, Professor of Horticulture, Cornell University.
BARNES, Charles Reid, Professor of Plant Physiology, University of Wisconsin.
BESSEY, Charles Edwin, Professor of Botany, The University of Nebraska (He always wanted the included.)
BRITTON, Nathaniel Lord, Director of the New York Botanical Garden.
BRITTON, Elizabeth* Gertrude, Bronx Park, New York.
COULTER, John Merle, Professor of Botany, University of Chicago.
CORVILLE, Frederick Vernon, Chief Botanist, U. S. D. A.
GREEN, Edward Lee, Professor of Botany, Catholic University, Washington, D.C.
HALSTED, Bryon David, Professor of Botany, Rutgers College.
HOLLICK, Charles Arthur, Instructor in Geology, Columbia University.
MACMILLAN, Conway, Professor of Botany, University of Minnesota.
ROBINSON, Benjamin Lincoln, Curator of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University.
SARGENT, Charles Sprague, Director of the Arnold Arboretum.
SMITH, John Pennell, 505 Park Avenue, Baltimore, Md.
THAXTER, Roland, Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard University.
TRELEASE, William, Director of the Missouri Botanical Garden.
WILSON, William Powell, Director Philadelphia Museums.
UNDERWOOD, Lucien Marcus. Professor of Botany, Columbia University.
, Elizabeth Gertrude Britton was the first woman member of the society.
We close with the recommendation that the Council of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., take under its consideration the printing, in the American Journal of Botany, each year, in its August issue, a photograph of Professor Charles Reid Barnes. Might not a Charles Reid Barnes Award be made each year at our national meetings?
If anyone may be thought of as a "founder" of the Botanical Society of America, it is he. He dared to cry, "The time IS ripe!"
Possible Trip to China, May 1978
The Botanical Society of America has been asked to organize a delegation to visit botanical institutions in the People's Republic of China for approximately three weeks in 1978, probably in May, and to host a delegation from the People's Republic in the United States, also in 1978. Each delegation is to consist of ten members. Applications are solicited from members of the Botanical Society of America and other interested botanists and should include: 1) a brief curriculum vitae and list of five representative recent publications, 2) an analysis of the reasons why, on the basis of established contacts or similar research pro-grams, a visit to the People's Republic of China would be especially valuable in promoting scientific interchange.
The delegation will be headed by Professor Arthur W. Galston of Yale University, Chairman of the Botanical Society of America's Committee on Interchange with the People's Republic of China and selections of the primary delegation and alternates will be made by a committee consisting of him, Dr. Anitra L. Thorhaug, University of Miami, and Dr. Peter H. Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden. This committee will also seek funds for the trip to China and for the return visit of the Chinese delegation to the United States. Suggestions about institutions to be visited or the itinerary in general will also be welcome, as will indications of willingness to host the Chinese delegation on its return visit to the United States, tentatively scheduled for October 1978. The delegation will be as diversified as possible within the framework of interest of the Botanical Society of America and for this reason sectional nominations of delegates will also be sought and will be weighed heavily in the selection of the primary and alternate lists. Application materials and inquiries must be received prior to 15 October 1977 and should be directed to: Chinese Exchange Visits, c/o Dr. Peter H. Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. 63110.
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., Dr.Rirchie Bell, Department of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 26514.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Society can be obtained for $4.00 per year. Orders plus checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." should be sent directly to the Treasurer of the Society.
Manuscripts for the Plant Science Bulletin should be submitted to the editor. The Bulletin welcomes announcements, notes, notices and items of general interest to members of the Botanical Society and to the botanical community at large. No charge for inclusion of notices is made. Material submitted must be typed, double-spaced and in duplicate. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.
Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401. Second class postage paid at Burlington, VT.
Plant Permits and Endangered Species
TWO SYSTEMS OF PLANT PERMIT REGULATIONS issued by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are now in effect. For activities involving export, and in certain cases import, of named plant taxa in some 46 families, regulations for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (and the list of taxa) were published in the February 22, 1977 Federal Register 42(35, IV): 10461-10488. An application suggestions leaflet (C-1) is also available.
For activities involving export, import, and interstate commerce of plants to be listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, regulations appeared in the June 24, 1977 Federal Register 42(122, II): 32373-32381. An application aid leaflet is in preparation. Although no plants are yet listed under the Act, herbaria can apply under both regulations now.
To obtain copies of the two final regulations and apply for permits contact: Federal Wildlife Permit Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 20240; telephone 202/634-1496.
Enforcement of the import and export regulations for terrestrial plants, under both the Trade Convention and the Act, is the responsibility of the Department of Agri-culture. Address inquiries to: Regulatory Services Support Staff, Plant Protection and Quarantine. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 635 Federal Bldg., Hyattsville, Md. 20782; telephone 301/436-8247.
INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SEED PROTEIN IMPROVEMENT IN CEREALS AND GRAIN LEGUMES will be held under the auspices of the FAO of the United Nations at Neuherberg FRG on September 4-8, 1978. Contact John H. Kane, United States Energy Research and Development Administration. Washington, D.C. 20545.
ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY with the Crop Science Society of America and the Soil Science Society of America will be held in Los Angeles on November 13-18, 1977.
INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE USE OF ISOTOPES AND RADIATION IN RESEARCH ON SOIL-PLANT RELATIONSHIPS will be held under the auspices of FAO and the International Atomic Energy Agency in Colombo, Sri Lanka on December 11-15, 1978. Contact John H. Kane, United States Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, D.C. 20545.
THE ORGANIZATION FOR TROPICAL STUDIES is currently offering its 15th consecutive year of graduate courses in tropical science in Central America. Courses of 8 weeks duration will be given in January, February and March 1978. The courses are field-oriented, at the graduate level and require that the student undertake research projects. Closing dates for applicants is 31 October 1977. Additional information can be obtained from: Organization for Tropical Studies, P.O. Box DM, Duke Station, Durham, N.C. 27706.
The Corvallis, Oregon Environmental Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has published a 72-page report on "Susceptibility of Woody Plants to Sulfur Dioxide and Photochemical Oxidants.
The classic textbook of A. J. Eames, "Morphology of Vascular Plants" has been reprinted by R. E. Krieger Co., 645 New York Ave., Huntington, N.Y. 11743.
The most recent manuals in the Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States, coordinated by the College of Marine Studies, University of Deleware, Lewes, DE 19958 include Tardigrada, Scyphozoa, harpacticocoid Copepoda and Marine Fungi.
Volume 1(3) of the new journal Systematic Botany includes the proceedings of a symposium on "Plant Population Biology at the Crossroads."
Copies of the AIBS document, "Public Responsibilities Issues for Biology, What's New. What's Needed" are avail-able from Dr. Robert Krauss, College of Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Or. 97331.
The cassic textbook of Hill, Popp and Grove, "Botany" has been reprinted by R. E. Krieger Co., Huntington, N.Y. 11743.
Dr. Irving W. Knobloch, Department of Botany & Plant Pathology, Michigan State University. East Lansing is compiling biographies of all plant collectors in Northern Mexico. If you have collected there and have not been contacted, please send him your complete name (no initials), your business address, date and place of birth, the states in which you collected, the years in which you collected, the herbaria where deposited and any other pertinent data.
PAUL WEATHERWAX, Professor Emeritis of Botany at Indiana University died 18 October 1976.
WALTER V. BROWN, Professor of Botany at the University of Texas, Austin died 16 May 1977. A memorial fund has been established to assist graduate student research.
GEORGE A. KALMBACHER, Taxonomist emeritis of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden died 9 June 1977.
SAM GRANICK, Professor at The Rockefeller University, died 22 April 1977.
DOROTHY I. FENNELL, Mycologist at the Northern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agri-culture, died 20 July 1977. Deductable contributions for a memorial in her name may be sent to Dr. Jack W. Powers, Vice President of Program Support, Re-search Corp. 405 Lexington Ave, New York, N.Y. 10017.
A PLANT PHYSIOLOGIST is being sought by the Department of Botany, University of California, Davis. The applicant will teach and do research on the mechanism of photosynthesis, emphasizing aspects of the light re-action or photosynthetic electron transport. For detailed information, contact: Dr. Richard H. Falk, Department of Botany, University of California, Davis CA 95616.
The Cooperative College Register, 621 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314 has been re-established as a communications link and matching service for positions and position-seekers for higher education.
AN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN MARINE BOTANY is being sought at Duke University Marine Laboratory. Research utilizing marine facilities is anticipated with specific research area (physiology, ecology, systematics, etc.) and plants to be studied (phytoplankton, seaweeds, fungi, bacteria, vascular plants) open. A strong research program and a contribution to the teaching and graduate training programs is expected. Starting either January or September 1978. Send curriculum vitae, graduate and undergraduate transcripts and 3 letters of recommendation to: Dr. R. B. Searles, Chairman, Search Committee, Department of Botany, Duke University, Durham, N.C. 27706.
A PLANT PHYSIOLOGIST/ WEED SCIENTIST is being sought by the Department of Botany, University of California, Davis at the Assistant Professor level. The major thrust of the research program should involve the mechanism of absorption of herbicides and naturally-occurring molecules by roots and germinating seeds and can include translocation of such molecules from roots and the influence of edaphic and biotic factors on these processes. Teaching will include an upper division undergraduate plant physiology or weed science course, a seminar and the direction of graduate student research. The Ph.D. is required. Applicants should submit a curriculum vitae, list of publications, reprints, transcripts, a resume of research and teaching goals and should request three letters of recommendation to be sent to Dr. Floyd M. Ashton, Chairperson of the Search Committee, Department of Botany, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 before 1 November 1977.
A PALEOBOTANIST is being sought by the Department of Botany, University of California, Davis at the assistant or associate professor level. A Ph.D. is required as is a strong background in geology. Teaching includes one or more courses in paleobotany, the candidate may also be involved in general botany or biology and should be interested in graduate student supervision. Applicants should submit a curriculum vitae, transcripts, lists of publications and reprints, resume of teaching and research goals and request that 3 letters of recommendation be sent to Dr. John M. Tucker, Department of Botany, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 by 15 November 1977.
DR. WILLARD PAYNE, formerly director of the Division of Biological Sciences at the University of Florida has been named Director of the Cary Arboretum, the environmental and plant science center of the New York Botanical Garden.
DR. ICHIRO FUKUDA of the Toyko Woman's Christian University, is spending a sabbatical year at McGill University as Visiting Professor at the Genetics Laboratory of the MacDonald campus working with DR. WILLIAM F. GRANT.
DR. WILLIAM C. STEERE, President Emeritis of the New York Botanical Garden received the G. Miles Conrad Award of the BioSciences Information Service at the annual banquet of Biosis on June 10, 1977.
DR. S. B. HENDRICKS received one of the 1976 Finsen Medals.
DR. RICHARD A. HOWARD, Director of the Arnold Arboretum was awarded an honorary D.Sc. at the commencement exercises of Framingham State College.
DR. ROY A. MECKLENBURG, Professor of Horticulture at Michigan State University has been appointed as President of the Chicago Horticultural Society.
DR. HENRY CLAY BUTCHER IV, formerly at Brookhaven National Laboratory, has been appointed as Professor of Biology at Loyola College in Maryland.
DR. T. T. KOZLOWSKI, A. J. Riker Professor of Forestry at the University of Wisconsin, Madison has been appointed director of the Biotron.
Annual Report of the
During the past six months, the average time for regular-type manuscripts was 5 months and for short communications was 4 months, after acceptance of revised manuscripts.
3) recent advances in a specialized research area, 4) over-view of major research contributions to plant science. Heretofore, the Editor has selected articles for this category from submitted papers. Members of the Editorial Board would act as reviewers in some instances and would make final selections. Special papers should be the same length as regular articles.
5. I would like to express my continuing sincere appreciation to all reviewers. I am impressed with their cooperation and dedication. Without their assistance, the editorial tasks would be virtually impossible to accomplish.
E. M. Gifford
Annual Report of the Business Manager of the American Journal of Botany
Richard A. Popham
CANNELL, M. G. R. AND F. T. LAST (eds.). Tree Physiology and Yield Imrpovement. Academic Press, London. (U.S. Edition: Academic Press, New York). 1976. 567 pp., illust. £.15.00.
This book is a compendium primarily of review papers presented at a conference on physiological genetics and forest tree yield held near Edinburgh, Scotland, 1975, under the auspices of I.U.F.R.O. Conference objectives were to examine physiological and morphological characteristics limiting wood yield, the underlying inherent differences in forest tree yield and heritability of characteristics that may be exploited by breeding. Papers presented emphasized physiology rather than genetics as there have been few heritability studies on physiological attributes of trees. The papers are divided into 6 groups; carbon-fixation efficiency, shoot and cambial growth, water stress, frost hardiness, mineral nutrition, and problems concerning use of physiological selection criteria. Specific topics dealt with are photosynthesis and growth models and various factors affecting photosynthesis including enzymatic criteria and carbon fixation efficiency. Tree and stand form was examined from the standpoint of genetic differences in canopy characteristics, tree forms and the environmental conditions and mechanisms influencing them, inherent differences in shoot growth, photo-periodic response, shoot and leaf development and bud break. The role of plant hormones in regulating shoot elongation, diameter growth and crown form, leaf-cambium relations and the relation of leaf cell dimensions and tracheid diameters on potential wood production were also explored.
The prospect of making selections among trees based on water relationships has potential in yield improvement. Breeding for drought resistance is explored and the physical parameters for drought resistance examined. Oxygen trans-port and oxygen deficiency on wet sites is also discussed. Frost hardiness as an adaptation factor to consider in tree selection and various aspects of this physiological phenomenon are reviewed. Two papers deal with the role of tree nutrition as a genetic trait. The role of mycorrhizae in nutrient uptake and the implications for compatible genetic matchings between mycorrhizal fungi and tree host were examined. This particular aspect of yield improvement looks promising and will hopefully be receiving more research emphasis.
Finally, papers are presented concerning the problem of physiological selection criteria. These papers address competition as a factor influencing yield improvement, maternal effects on early performance of tree progenies, and other variations in morphological and physiological characteristics of trees that have implications for tree improvement. In discussing physiological problems many of the papers use as an example the particular species the authors have studied. Most of the papers have extensive bibliographies leading a person interested in the topic to a wealth of current scientific knowledge. Readers of this book should find it a useful reference. The book should also prove valuable for courses in advanced physiology and genetics.
Peter R. Hannah University of Vermont
GARETH-JONES, E. B. (ed.). Recent Advances in Aquatic Mycology. Elek Science, London. 1976. 749 pp., illust. £ 21.00.
The editor of this volume, a noted British mycologist, gives two aims for the book: To bring together current reviews of topics devoted to aquatic fungi; to update the 1961 volume of Johnson and Sparrow (Fungi in Oceans and Estuaries). Both are successful.
This book consists of 27 papers divided into four sections, two on marine fungi—Ascomycetes, Fungi Imperfecti and Basidiomycetes and Lower Fungi—and two on freshwater fungi—Ascomycetes, Fungi Imperfecti and Basidiomycetes and Lower Fungi. Topics within each section are sufficiently varied so that a wide range of interests and specialties are reviewed, from ultrastructure and physiology to fungi in cooling towers or sewage. One chap-ter lists films on aquatic fungi available in Europe, Canada, and the U.S.
The chapters are replete with data presented as extensive tables, graphs, and photographs. The style of writing of the individual chapters is concise and to the point; evaluation of data is presented to a limited extent.
This reference will be of interest and value to the specialist in aquatic mycology and related fields and to those who wish to maintain a broad botanical library. It belongs in undergraduate and graduate libraries for obvious reasons; it could be used also to enhance the base of microbiology courses which usually contain precious little on microorganisms other than bacteria. Considering the falling rate of exchange of the pound, the high quality of reproduction and large size of this volume, this book is less expensive than many one-third its size.
Deana T. Klein St. Michael's College
RAVEN, PETER H., RAY F. EVERT AND HELENA CURTIS. Biology of Plants (2nd ed.). Worth Publishers, Inc., N.Y. 1976. xv + 685 pp., illust.
One of the challenges of teaching an introductory course is sometimes to give you just the right amount of information to tantalize the better students without completely losing the poorer ones. And so it must be for the authors of textbooks used in such courses. Raven, Evert and Curtis have succeeded in meeting this challenge; their Biology of Plants adequately covers the body of knowledge generally recognized as Botany, yet resists the temptation to be encyclopedic.
The style of writing is easy to comprehend, which is in part a reflection of Ms. Curtis' earlier efforts in writing for the introductory student. Key words are both underscored and italicized and often defined on the spot as well as in the excellent glossary. The abundant photographs and diagrams not only enhance the explanations offered in the text but should prove a boon to the harassed laboratory instructor with an overly large class. Unfortunately, some label lines blend with the background of the black and white photographs so as to make them unclear. Otherwise the editing of the book is excellent and errors are minimal.
When I first looked at the table of contents, it seemed to be an awkward arrangement of topics, because it differs so from my present text, but after having read the book in its entirety, I find it refreshingly different. Several con-current themes carry the topics logically from chapter to chapter, with evolution being a strong unifying theme throughout. In this way the review of the plant kingdom, for instance, is an integrated part of the text instead of having the appearance that it was added, just in case some-one would want to use the text for a two-semester course. The use of this book just might rejuvenate even my tired old lectures!
B. D. Scott Northwest Missouri State University
LEWIS, WALTER H. AND MEMORY P. F. ELVINLEWIS. Medical Botany. Plants Affecting Man's Health. John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. 1977. 515 pp., illust. $27.50.
Students of herbalist medicine have long awaited an authoritative book that interprets traditional folklore and herbal information in the light of modern clinical data on drugs and their source plants. Professionals have perhaps been apprehensive of such a book, expecting it to be a dangerous tool in the hands of an inexpert and adventure-some public. "Medical Botany" is the controversial realization of both these expectations.
The first section of the book effectively outlines the kinds of plant poisons and reviews the diverse kinds of injurious plants. Included are notes on the chemical structure of poisons and the physiology of poisoning. The second edition of the book comprises the structure and virtues of the known remedial plants. Review of modern, clinical data and commentary on the physiology of remedial action amplify the traditional recitation of virtues from herbals and Indian lore. The last section of the book covers the psychoactive plants. Such drugs as stimulants, hallucinogens, and depressants are discussed thoroughly from an informative cultural outlook. The book is provided with useful appendices, including a classification of the plant kingdom, a bibliography, and a glossary.
"Medical Botany" succeeds in bringing a much needed modern, clinical outlook to the traditional folklore of herbal medicine. Although the descriptions of plants included are useless for those eager to identify usable plants in the wild, the book should prove to be a valuable guide to the pertinent chemical compounds of plants—in the hands of botanists and physicians. The volume is especially helpful to botantists advising physicians on poisonous plants.
David Barrington University of Vermont
GRANT, VERNE. Organismic Evolution. W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco. 1977. 418 pp., illust.
Verne Grant has written a logical, readable, extensively documented survey of the evolutionary process Beginning with the basics of population genetics, including such microevolutionary processes as allele repacements under varying conditions of selective force and population size, the book gradually widens in scope to present the con-temporary understanding of the mechanisms of speciation and macroevolution. It is satisfying to see discussions of the latter processes presented in conjunction with the former, for too often macroevolution is glibly propounded with little regard for the underying processes. Next is a consideration of the evolution of humans, with emphasis on our phylogenetic and ecological background, pertinent selective forces and trends which shaped the human organ-ism, and the interplay between organic and cultural evolution that has made man what he is.
Grant pauses often to discuss various contemporary disagreements (such as the meaning and implications of orthogenesis and the relative roles of selection and drift) in a fair manner, but rarely fails to point out his own opinion and his reasons for holding it. Thus one reads not an undigested review of the field, but evolution as Grant perceives it, with wide latitude for skepticism and disagreement by the reader.
The book is replete with illustrations, examples and explanation of hypotheses and experiments, so that the reader gains a tangible grasp of the modes of inquiry as well as the concepts they produce. Grant assumes a general biological background on the part of the reader, including an understanding of basic Mendelian genetics. Thus the book is appropriate as a text for a course in evolution for college students, as an ancillary text for other courses, or as personal reading for anyone desiring an understanding of how the process of evolution is understood today and what questions are being asked by students in the field.
Jerrold I. Davis University of Vermont
Barley Genetics III. Proceedings of the Third International Genetics Symposium, Garching (Germany). 1975. 849 pp.
This thick volume contains 135 scientific papers presented at the symposium, each by a different author or authors. Some of the topics covered are Biochemical Gentics, Mutation Induction, Chromosome Engineering, Breeding Techniques, Physiology of Kernel Yield, Selection Theory and Application. Most of the contributions are intended for specialists, but the opening address by the late G. A. Wiebe and the short closing speech by G. Fischbeck are of general interest to geneticists and plant breeders. Two points are emphasized. 1. The value of more sophisticated techniques as applied to breeding problems, and 2. the need for obtaining, maintaining a broad genetics base for breeding, consisting of a large gene pool.
G. L. Stebbins
BEATLEY, JANICE C. Vascular Plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada. Technical In-formation Center, Office of Technical Information, Energy Research and Development Administration, Springfield, Va. 1976. 308 pp. Available as TID-26881, $9.75 (foreign $12.15) from National Technical In-formation Service, U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Spring-field, Va. 22161.
Dr. Beatley's book, in large measure, represents information previously presented in a series of publications over a period of 16 years, during her association with the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology at the University of California, Los Angeles. The availability of this information now, in a single text, plus new, included data, makes this book a valued reference.
In the first part of the volume the author characterizes the physical features and vegetation types as they occur over the more than 1,300 square miles of the Nevada Test Site. This large, government-controlled area within southern Nevada is geographically oriented so as to include portions of two Southwestern deserts. Thus, vegetation is classified and described as Mojave, transition or Great Basin, with an analysis of associations within each of these regions. The treatment is effective, logical and well documented. Twenty-five pages of black and white photographs follow, providing visual aspects of many of the vegetation categories de-scribed.
The second, and major, portion of the book is devoted to an annotated checklist of vascular plants. The value of this section is greatly enhanced by the inclusion of taxa occurring beyond the Test Site boundaries (the Test Site comprising only one-fifth of the total 8,000 square mile area represented). The list of 1,093 entries incorporates the latest nomenclatural changes and, for the traditionally taxonomically complex groups, reflects the interpretations of recognized experts.
As a whole, the book must be rated as an important contribution to the knowledge of Southwestern botany. Three main features combine to make it so: the careful work of the author, as reflected throughout the volume; the focus upon the botany of an uniquely interesting and largely inaccessible desert area; and the contribution it makes toward the eventual compilation of a flora for all of Southern Nevada, an area not presently treated in any current text.
Wesley E. Niles
1-IORIKAWA YOSHIWO. Atlas of the Japanese Flora II: An Introduction of Plant Sociology of East Asia. Bakken Co., Ltd., Tokyo. 1976. 3 pp. + 362 maps + I-XII (Indices). 35,000 yen (cloth, boxed).
An elegant oversized book, Volume II follows essentially the same format as Volume I. All pages are de-voted to Spermatophytes while the preceding publication included some Pteridophytes and Bryophytes. The first 8 illustrated pages are devoted to 3 families of Gymnosperms; the next 195 to 59 families of Archichlamydeae; the next 148 to 25 families of Monochlamydeae; and the last 11 to 25 families of Monocots. A total of 362 taxa are represented. A short discussion of methods is found on page 8. Each page contains the scientific name of the taxon, of each common synonym, and of the family. The common and family names appear in Japanese "Katakana" and in Roman letters. The life form (modified from Braun-Blanquet and Ellenberg) and general distribution are given. The illustrations consist of an aerial neap of Japan and neighboring regions with dots, each representing a "geoquadrat" (10 minutes in latitude and 15 minutes in longitude), to indicate locations of the taxon. In addition there are 2 other diagrams indicating elevational distributions: one between meridians 120° and 146° across Japan, and the other between parallels 24° and 46° as one moves from north to south.
The diagrams illustrating elevational distributions are very interesting. This volume will be extremely useful to phytogeographers, plant sociologists, and ecologists who wish to make comparisons of life forms, habitats, etc., between vicariads of Japan and other regions.
A. J. Sharp University of Tennessee
WEILGOLASKI, F. E. (ed.). Fennoscandian Tundra Ecosystems; Part 1. Plant and Microorganisms. Ecological Studies, Vol. 16. Springer-Verlag, N.Y. 1975. 366 pp., illust.
These studies of northern European tundra ecosystems add another geographical link to our understanding of an important circumpolar biome. F. E. Wielgolaski has assembled thirty-nine papers on the function and organization of tundra ecosystem in Norway, Finland and Sweden. As Part 1 (Plant and Microorganisms), this volume deals mainly with site decriptions, abiotic variables, primary production, decomposition and nutrient cycling. The Table of Contents for Part 2 (Animals and Systems Analysis) is given in the beginning of this volume. Both Parts 1 and 2 represent research funded through the International Biological Programs (IBP) in Norway, Finland and Sweden. Therefore, a large amount of information on Fennoscandian tundra ecosystems is here made available in English for comparison with similar IBP tundra studies in Canada, the United States, Russia and Great Britain. The authors of most of the papers presented here make some effort to compare their results with those of workers in the United States and Canada.
As an abstract and ambiguous term, `tundra' includes a multitude of ecosystems. Recognition of this variation is treated effectively in these Fennoscandian studies. Here, tundra is broadly defined as approximating areas with mean annual air temperatures below 0° C. In Norway, Finland and Sweden this definition includes all alpine zones (low, mid and high) as well as the subalpine birch zone and even subarctic woodands of pine and birch. Hence the presence of tree-form plants in the vegetation does not preclude its classification as tundra. Arctic tundra is found in northern
Finland, but these studies do not include this type. At least twelve different tundra ecosystems were studied intensively. However, most of the studies reported here were conducted on six types at Hardangervidda, Norway; dry meadow, wet meadow, lichen heath, willow thicket, birch forest and snow bed. In addition, intensive ecosystem analyses were carried out in a pine forest, three birch forests and a low alpine heath at Kevo, Finland and in a bog at Stordalen, Sweden. This vegetational heterogeneity in alpine study areas, associated with variations in snow cover, drainage and elevation, presents problems to intensive IBP projects which usually center around one 'representative' ecosystem (i.e., Wet Meadow at Barrow, Alaska). Measurements of productivity and decomposition across the Fennoscandian gradient of tundra variation is a herculean task which has been well accomplished in the present volume.
Presumably one of the important goals of the IBP is to obtain an understanding and estimate of productivity for whole tundra landscapes. In separate studies at Hardangervidda, Norway, the tundra vegetation was classified and mapped and the productivity of some of the map units was determined. However, these studies were not synthesized here into an overall estimate of landscape productivity.
The diversity of ecosystems and sites studied, together with the wide range of topics and organisms covered in this volume do not leave the reader with an overview of the functioning of Fennoscandian tundra systems. Not all the papers contrbiute to such an understanding: a paper on plant colonization of glacial morraines is interesting but out of place and another on the effects of grazing might be more appropriately placed in Part 2. A number of papers deal with the physiology of moss or lichen species which grow at the study sites. These arc concerned more with the physiological adaptations of individual species to the tundra environment than with the functioning of the whole system. However, the detailed consideration of cryptogams and their contribution to production is impressive.
The diverse papers are pulled together and integrated to some extent by an introductory chapter to each section and an initial site description which presents a long table giving most of the climatic, soil, vegetational and productivity data for each site. The fact that F. E. Wiclgolaski is the main or co-author of at least one-fourth of the papers also lends continuity. Each of the papers in this volume deals with actual results in a concise and succinct way. Long descriptions of methods and philosophical approach are avoided and the data is presented in well-organized tables and graphs. Unfortunately there are few pictures aside from about 12 photographs of the study sites in the first chapter.
Charles H. Racine
BURNS, GEORGE W. The Science of Genetics. An Introduction to Heredity. 3rd Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co., N.Y. 1976. $13.95.
This introductory genetics text is well suited for the motivated student with better than average intellect. The introductory chapter is superb; it provides a stimulating glimpse of the field by discussing organisms of experimental interest, methods of investigation, and specializations within genetics. Chapters on probability and statistics pro-vide information prerequisite to mastery of classical genetics (the introductory student, often at the sophomore level, should appreciate these discussions). Sections of the book dealing with classical and population genetics are liberally infused with refreshingly different illustrations of genetic phenomena. Examples with historical significance have been retained. Each chapter lists a substantial number of questions with answers provided in the appendices. The frequent use of references provides students with a convenient introduction into the literature and stresses the experimental nature of genetics. Appendices include descriptions of the life cycles of selected organisms of significance to genetic investigation. Unfortunately the diagrams accompanying these descriptions, although neatly reproluced, are pedestrian and unstimulating. Illustrations and photographs throughout the remainder of the book, how-ever, are of good to excellent quality, providing useful amplification of topics. The addition of color could be a stimulating addition to this and many other genetics books.
There are, however, features that recommend the book less highly. Index and glossary, extremely important to students, are weak. Far more index entries refer to authors than to subjects (reasonable until the paucity of subject entries is noted). Subject headings are rarely subdivided for efficient use. The chapter on regulation of gene expression would most certainly need supplementation as it is out of date; although it considers histones, it omits discussions of important molecular constituents (e.g., heterogeneous nuclear RNA, poly-A, non-histone chromosomal proteins) and concepts (e.g., posttranslational modification of polypeptides, maturation and transport of transcript). Also, the addition of diagramatic 'descriptions explaining experimental techniques in molecular genetics would supplement the present approach and benefit students (most of whom have had only rudimentary exposure to chemistry, biochemistry or physics at the time they enroll in introductory genetics). Another instance of deficiency concerns macromolecular structure and nemy within the chromosome, as well as reiterated and unique DNA sequences. As with any text, individual instructors will have to evaluate for themselves whether the level of precision and discrimination between hypothesis and fact are acceptable. On the whole I feel that this book ranks highly as an introductory text to classical and population genetics and somewhat lower in molecular genetics.
Robert C. Ullrich University of Vermont
MONTGOMERY, F. H. Seeds and Fruits of Plants of Eastern Canada and Northeastern United States. University of Toronto Press, Toronto and Buffalo. 1977. 232 pp. $25.00.
The distinctive characteristics of seeds are well known to plant scientists. Until now, however, there has been no good book which allows the identification of a large number of seeds (including seeds that are technically fruits) of native and introduced species. Professor Montgomery's book is a welcome reference.
The keys are based on the length/width ratios along with a chart of characteristic shapes and are simple to use. When they don't work there are more than 1,100 excellent black and white photographs to help. The illustrations are of exceptionally good quality considering the problems of obtaining clear photographic details of 3-dimensional objects.
The book should be in every library and laboratory where taxonomic work is involved. Wildlife specialists will be especially pleased as it will facilitate the difficult task of identifying the seeds from the crops of birds and the
stomachs of animals. In addition to being a useful reference, the artful photographs display the wonderful array of sizes, shapes, seed coat sculptures and textures displayed among the flowering plants.
The book is an odd size, 10" deep and 7" high which lies open on a table but may cause problems on the book-shelf. Also, if the genera and species in the keys contained page numbers referring to the text and illustrations, it would save the extra step of referring to the index each time a seed was keyed out.
H. W. Vogebnann University of Vermont
VIERECK, LESLIE A. AND ELBERT L. LITTLE, JR. Atlas of United States Trees. Alaska Trees and Common Shrubs. Volume 2. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1975. 19 pp. text, 82 pp. maps $3.10.
LITTLE, ELBERT L., JR. Atlas of United States Trees. Minor Western Hardwoods. Volume 3. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1976. 13 pp. text, 210 pp. maps. $9.10.
These two volumes are part of what will become a five-volume Atlas of Trees and Shrubs of the Continental United States and Alaska. Volume I, "Conifers and Important Hardwoods", was the first of the series. To be completed at a later date are Volume 4, "Minor Eastern Hardwoods", and Volume 5, "Florida Trees".
Volume 2 contains maps showing the natural ranges of 82 native woody species found in Alaska. The range of each species is shown clearly by brown lines and dots on a black and white base map of the state at a scale of 1:10,000,000. Within the range, locality records are designated by brown circles. Similar brown circles designate areas outside of the main range where the species is known to exist in restricted populations. Also included in Volume 2 are 23 general maps providing information on climate and geography.
Volume 3 contains 8 by 11 inch maps of 210 tree species found in the west that were not included in Volume I. All species are represented on a base map of the Western United States by brown shading at a scale of 1:10,000,000. A base map of North America is added for those species whose range extends into Mexico or Canada. Small populations outside of the main range are shown by small brown circles, and an X indicates where one of these populations has recently become extinct.
The objectives of the series to show accurately where each woody species can be found have been well fulfilled. The maps show where each species can be found for study, collection of seed, or for identification. Although the Atlas is primarily of interest to foresters, the series should also prove valuable in areas such as ecology and land use planning.
James Vogelmann University of Vermont
COBLEY, L. S. AND W. M. STEELE. An Introduction to the Botany of Tropical Crops. 2nd Edition. Long-man, London. 1977. 371 pp. illust. $12.50 (paper).
Since a large percentage of the world's people are living in tropical lands, their basic food plants are of more than casual interest to plant scientists living in more temperate climates. Interest-provoking photographs of these plants, information on their preparation for use, their nutritional value, and their storability and palatability can provide the student with an appreciation of the problems of survival in lands whose histories are being written in today's newspapers. The first edition of this book was revised primarily by W. M. Steele who added a good deal of classical floral and fruit morphology, information rarely obtain-able in most texts. Unfortunately, the utility of the book is limited by the apparent assumption that the audience would be familiar with the plants. Neatly executed line drawings of floral morphology do not provide the North American reader with any idea of what the mangosteen, the guava, or nutmeg and mace look like as growing plants. Many photographs are muddy. I found very little information that is not in Shery's "Plants and Man".
Richard M. Klein University of Vermont
GRUND, DARRYL W. AND KENNETH A. HARRISON. Nova Scotian Boletes. J. Cramer, FL-9490, Vaduz, Germany. 1976. DM 60. (Available from Lubrecht & Cramer, 152 Mountainside Drive, Randolph, N. J. 07801). 283 pp., 68 plates. $19.50.
The relatively recent surge in popularity of wild mush-rooms has brought about a need for new treatments based on modern taxonomic concepts of the North American species. Many boletes are edible, but the difficulty of identifying the species has deterred many from collecting and studying them. Several regional treatments have appeared in the last decade. To these can now be added this work on the boletes of Nova Scotia. The authors adopted the approach of collecting, taking detailed notes on habitat, size, color, odor, taste of fresh material, and then following with detailed microscopic and microchemical studies on the voucher specimens. They provide detailed descriptions, line drawings of microscopic structures and black-on-white photographs of some 80 species of the common species of Nova Scotia. A synoptic key and a dichotomous key are provided to aid identification. Their taxonomy is conservative; ten genera are recognized: Boletus (38 species), Boletellus (2 species), Boletinellus (1 species), Fuscoboletinus (5 species), Gyroporus (2 species), Leccinum (4 species), Pulveroboletus (1 species), Strobilomyces (2 species), Suillus (17 species), and Tylopilus (8 species). Informative introductory information on methods of collecting and subsequent study, and on morphology and terminology are provided.
Clark T. Rogerson The New York Botanical Garden
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT BURLINGTON, VERMONT 05401