Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1977 v23 No 1 SpringActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

March 1977 Volume 23 No.1


Officers for 1977   2
Sectional Officers for 1977   2
Activities of the Society   5
A Plants and Man Course. Irving W. Knobloch   6
Teaching Beyond the Introductory Course: Plant Anatomy. James L. Seago   6
Meetings, Conferences, Courses   8
Botanical Potpourri   8
Help!   9
Professional Opportunities   9
Personalia   10

Book Reviews
Beautiful Thai Orchid Species. H. Kamemoto and R. Sagarik   11
Green Algae: Structure, Reproduction and Evolution in Selected Genera. J. Pickett-Heaps   11
The Development and Function of Roots. J. G. Torrey and D. T. Clarkson (eds.)   11
Human Poisoning from Native and Cultivated Plants. J. W. Hardin and J. M. Arena 12
The Biology of Nitrogen Fixation. A. Quispel (ed.)   12




*Warren H. Wagner, Jr. Department of Botany University of Michigan

Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 313/764-1484


*Herbert G. Baker

Department of Botany University of California Berkeley, California 94720 415/642-7036


*Patricia K. Holmgren (1975-1979) New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458



*Barbara D. Webster

Department of Agronomy and Range Sciences University of California Davis, California 95616 916/752-2468


*Shirley C. Tucker

Department of Botany

Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 504/388-8485


AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY: Robert Ornduff (1975-1977)

Department of Botany

University of California

Berkeley, California 94720


Donald R. Kaplan (1976-1978) Department of Botany

University of California

Berkeley, California 94720 415/642-4187

William L. Culberson (1977-1979) Department of Botany

Duke University

Durham, North Carolina 27706 919/684-2048; 684-3715


Department of Botany University of California Davis. California 95616 916/752-6426; 752-0617

* Persons so marked are members of the Council. EDITOR. PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN:

*Richard M. Klein (1976-1980)

Department of Botany University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont 05401 802/656-2930



Department of Botany

1735 Neil Avenue

Ohio State University

Columbus, Ohio 43210



*Barbara F. Palser

Department of Botany

Rutgers University

New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 201/932-2847


*Peter H. Raven

Missouri Botanical Garden 2315 Tower Grove Avenue St. Louis, Missouri 63110 314/ 772-7600


*Theodore Delevoryas Department of Botany University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712 512/471-3329

DEVELOPMENTAL SECTION: Chairman (1976-1978) :

*Howard T. Bonnett Department of Biology University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403 503/686-4533

Vice-Chairman (1976-1978) :

Peter B. Kaufman

Department of Botany

University of Michigan

Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 313/764-1464

Secretary (1976-1978):

Barbara D. Webster

Department of Agronomy and Range Sciences University of California

Davis, California 95616


Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1979):

Jerome P. Miksche

U.S.D.A. Forest Service

North Central Forest Experiment Station

Institute of Forest Genetics

P.O. Box 898

Rhinelander, Wisconsin 54501



ECOLOGICAL SECTION: Chairman (1977) :

*W. Dwight Billings

Department of Botany

Duke University

Durham, North Carolina 27706 919/684-5544

Vice-Chairman (1977):

James A. Quinn

Department of Botany

Rutgers University

New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 201/932-2844

Secretary (1977-1979):

Carol C. Baskin

School of Biological Sciences University of Kentucky

Lexington, Kentucky 40506 606/258-8770

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1979):

Patricia A. Werner

Kellogg Biological Station

Michigan State University

Hickory Corners, Michigan 49060 616/671-5119


Chairman (1977-1978) :

Joseph Ewan

Tulane University Herbarium Tulane University

New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 504/865-5191

Secretary-Treasurer (1971-1977):

*Ronald L. Stuckey

Department of Botany 1735 Neil Avenue

Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210 614/422-6095

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1973-1977) :

Emanuel D. Rudolph Department of Botany 1735 Neil Avenue

Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210 614/422-3082


Chairman (1977-1978) :

Peter R. Day

Department of Genetics

Connecticut Agricultural Exp. Station New Haven, Connecticut 06504 203/787-7421

Vice-Chairman (1977-1978) :

Henry Aldrich

Department of Botany University of Florida

Gainesville, Florida 32611 904/392-1096

Secretary (1975-1978) :

Annette Hervey

New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458 212/220-8671

Representative to the Council (1977-1978) :

*O'Neil Ray Collins

Department of Botany

University of California Berkeley, California 94720 415/642-2923

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1978) : Peter R. Day

Department of Genetics

Connecticut Agricultural Exp. Station

New Haven, Connecticut 06504



Aureal T. Cross

Geology Department

Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 48823 517/355-4630; 332-6187

Secretary-Treasurer (1975-1977):

"David L. Dilcher

Department of Plant Sciences Indiana University

Bloomington. Indiana 47401 812/337-9455


Richard M. Klein, Editor
Department of Botany
University of Vermont
Burlington, VT. 05401

Editorial Board
Donald Kaplan, University of California, Berkeley
Beryl Simpson, Smithsonian Institution

March 1977   Volume Tewnty-three    Number One

Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., Dr.Rirchie Bell, Department of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 26514.

Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical Society of America are obtainable at the rate of$4.00 per year. Send orders with checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.

Manuscripts for publication in Plant Science Bulletin should be addressed to Richard M. Klein, Department of Botany, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT. 05401. Announcements, notes, notes, short articles of general interest to members of the Botanical Society of America and the general botanical community at large will be considered for publication to the extent that the limited space of the Bulletin permits.

Material submitted for publication should be typewritten, double-spaced, and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.

Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.

The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401. Second class postage paid at Burlington, VT.


Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1976-1977) : Thomas N. Taylor

Department of Botany

1735 Neil Avenue

Ohio State University

Columbus, Ohio 43210


PHYCOLOGICAL SECTION: Chairman (1977-1979): *James R. Rosowski

Department of Botany

University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 402/472-3203

Secretary (1975-1977) :

Richard B. Searles

Department of Botany

Duke University

Durham, North Carolina 27706 919/684-3375

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1979): Larry R. Hoffman

Department of Botany

University of Illinois

Urbana, Illinois 61801



Chairperson (1977-1979): *Anitra Thorhaug

Department of Microbiology University of Miami

Miami, Florida 33152

305/330-7431; 361-3339

Vice-Chairperson (1977-1979): John L. Gallagher

Marine Science Institute

University of Georgia

Sapelo Island, Georgia 31327 912/485-2332

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1979): Joseph Arditti

Department of Developmental and Cell Biology University of California

Irvine, California 92664



Chairman (1977) : *Robert P. Adams Department of Botany

Colorado State University

Fort Collins, Colorado 80523


Vice-Chairman (1977) :

Nikolaus H. Fischer

Department of Chemistry Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 504/388-4418

Secretary (1977-1978) : David Seigler

Department of Botany University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois 61801 217/333-7577

Treasurer (1976-1977) :

Mark W. Bierner

Department of Botany

University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee 37916 615/ 974-2256

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1978): Jean Langenheim

Department of Biology

University of California

Santa Cruz, California 95064


PTERIDOLOGICAL SECTION: Chairman (1977-1978) : Augustus E. DeMaggio Department of Biological Sciences

Dartmouth College

Hanover, New Hampshire 03755


Secretary-Treasurer (1975-1977):

*Gerald J. Gastony Department of Plant Sciences

Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana 47401


Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1978) : Dean P. Whittier

Department of Biology

Vanderbilt University

Nashville, Tennessee 37203


STRUCTURAL SECTION: Chairman (1977) :

Richard C. Keating

Biology Department

Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Illinois 62025 618/692-3927

Vice-Chairman (1977) :

Harry T. Horner, Jr.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology Iowa State University

Ames, Iowa 50011

515/294-8635; 294-3872

Secretary-Treasurer (1975-1977) :

*Donald R. Kaplan

Department of Botany University of California Berkeley, California 94720 415/642-4187

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1975-1977) : Natalie W. Uhl

Bailey Hortorium

467 Mann Library

Cornell University

Ithaca, New York 14850


SYSTEMATIC SECTION: Chairman (1976-1977) : *Marshall Johnston

Department of Botany University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712 512/471-4327


Secretary (1977-1979):

Melinda F. Denton

Department of Botany University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98195 206/543-8850

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1976-1978; William D'Arcy

Missouri Botanical Garden

2315 Tower Grove Avenue

St. Louis, Missouri 63110



Chairman (1977) :

Franklin Flint

Department of Biology

Randolph-Macon Woman's College Lynchburg, Virginia 24504

804/846-7392, ext. 432

Vice-Chairman (1977): Donald Huffman

Department of Biology Central College

Pella, Iowa 50219


Secretary (1976-1978):

*Leroy G. Kavaljian

Department of Biological Sciences California State University

Sacramento, California 95819 916/454-6360; 454-6535

Representative to AJB Editorial Board (1976-1980) S. N. Postlethwait

Department of Biological Sciences

Purdue University

West Lafayette, Indiana 47907



Chairman (1977) : Charles Richards

Department of Botany University of Maine Orono, Maine 04473

Secretary-Treasurer (1977): *LeRoy K. Henry

1023 Whitley Drive

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15237 412/ 364-3206

PACIFIC SECTION: Chairman (1977) : Robert F. Thorne

Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden

1500 N. College Avenue

Claremont, California 91711


Vice-Chairman (1977) : Kenton Chambers

Department of Botany Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331 503/ 754-4106

Secretary-Treasurer (1977-1979) :

*David Bilderback

Department of Botany University of Montana Missoula, Montana 59801 406/243-2512

Councilor (1977) :

Charles N. Miller

Department of Botany University of Montana Missoula, Montana 59801 406/243-5382


*James F. Matthews

Department of Biology

University of North Carolina Charlotte, North Carolina 28213 704/597-2315

Secretary-Treasurer (1975-1977): Dana Griffin III

Department of Botany

University of Florida

Gainesville, Florida 32601


Chairman of Activities Committee (1977) : Glenn Ray Noggle

Department of Biology

North Carolina State University

Raleigh, North Carolina 27607



The By-laws of the Society provide that "all active members of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., who have been members of the Society for a total of 25 years are eligible for retired membership upon retirement from professional activities . . . retired members shall be exempt from payment of annual dues. They shall have all the privileges of active membership including receipt of the Flant Science Bulletin and Yearbook, except that those who wish to continue receiving the other publications of the Society (i.e., American Journal of Botany et al.) may do so by payment of one-half the amount of the annual dues set for active members."

The Treasurer's Office keeps a complete* list of memberships, including the number of years of membership. This historic document can serve to ascertain the eligibility of members who may fit the "retired" or "retired sub-scriber" category. The Treasurer should be contacted for further information.

* Well, more or less; we try awfully hard!

A thought for the day from the $$$ Treasurer:

Contributions made to the Botanical Society of America are deductible as provided in section 170 of the Internal Revenue Code. Bequests, legacies, devises, transfers or gifts to the Botanical Society of America are deductible for Federal estate and gift tax purposes under the pro-visions of sections 2055, 2106 and 2522 of the Code.


A Plants and Man Course

Irving W. Knoblock
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan

Past issues of the Bulletin have contained descriptions of general courses designed to attract students to botany. Indeed, the June 1976 issue of PSB contains three such articles, all very well done indeed. Each instructor has a different background and faces different problems. Diversity of approach is therefore to be expected. Our department has many fine offerings in botany including a "General Botany" course. In a University of over 43,000, we found that we had nothing in the plant area sufficiently elementary to be of interest to majors in History, English, Psychology, Music and other areas and yet we felt that many of these had a need and a desire for a "cosmic consciousness" acquaintance with our field.

It was decided, therefore, that we would be quite selective and only include in our projected course such topics as have had or still have an impact on man himself. We felt that once their interest had been aroused, at least some of the students might be motivated to take one or more of our advanced offerings. Botany 201 consisted of about 25 lectures and 3 tests. The course organizer handled about 10 of the lectures and guest lecturers gave the others. Some use was made of films and transparencies.

The first topics covered were as follows: Man's Debt to Plants, Life History of a Seed Plant, The Kinds of Plants and Plant Processes. These were of an introductory nature and definitely non-technical. The next lecture was on Interesting Drug Plants and told the story of Digitalis, Rauwolfia, Autumn Crocus, Ephedra, Belladonna, Aloe and Dioscorea.

Two lectures were given on the use and abuse of "hard" drugs. A member of the pharmacognosy department found an attentive audience as he discussed marijuana, cocaine, peyote and opium (and its derivatives). Frequently we were able to enlist a person on campus to talk on the social and psychological aspects of drug use (as contrasted to medical effects).

The fungi are of great interest and importance and one of our mycologists discussed edible and poisonous fungi. Another expert lectured (with startling transparencies) on those fungi which affect man (athlete's foot, blastomycosis and so forth). Then a wheat rust film was shown and explained, followed by the intriguing story of the potato famine. Before leaving the fungi, a period was spent on the respiratory activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the impact this has had on mankind. We offer no apology for discussing at this point the kinds of beer, wine, whiskies, and liquors in existence and how they are made. One could, if one chose to, go into the problem of alcoholism since it is definitely a plant-oriented subject.

When properly handled, the historical aspects of plants can hold the attention of the non-major. Part of one lecture was entitled "King, Emperor and Opium" and dealt with the contest between Great Britain and China over the opium trade. A second lecture, "Cotton, Slavery and the Civil War," provided an opportunity to discuss plant fibers and epidermal hairs and their value. A third lecture in this series, "Herbs, Spices and Christopher Columbus," makes the point that one purpose of the mission was to obtain rare spices from the Orient. Therefore, in addition to the historical tale, the subject of old and new world spices is explored. Although malaria is caused by a protozoan which in turn is carried by the female mosquito, yet the early cure for the malady was an extract of cinchona bark. Students seemed to be interested in the history of the search for high-yielding strains of cinchona and related aspects. There are few more depressing stories in existence than the one concerning the exploitation of the South American Indian by the Rubber Barons when Hevea was the principal source of rubber. Not only can one mention the gathering, curing and shipping of the rubber, but a great deal of attention can be paid to Henry Wickham's part in the ultimate establishment of rubber plantations in the far east. Other latex-hearing plants are also mentioned here to round out the theme. A film on the Bounty mutiny sets the stage for "Breadfruit and the Mutiny on the Bounty". This topic is a splendid example of how history and botany may dovetail.

Two lectures (with transparencies) on edible and poisonous wild plants and one lecture (with student participation) on organic gardening set the stage for the final lectures. One of these deals with the anatomy and physiology of science ("Science and the Citizen"). How scientists work and the attitudes they must employ is certainly news to our particular group of students. The education of the public in this area at a time of anti-science, indeed, anti-intellectual feeling, is of vital concern.

The last three lectures, including a film, discuss the food problems of spaceship earth at a time of growing concern for an ever-expanding population. The parts that plants have played in the formation of our coal and oil, the Green Revolution, and the quality of life (as it relates to overpopulation) are given due consideration in this block.

No textbook is available to adequately cover the varied subjects as given. We felt that a small paperback such as Fuller and Ritchie's General Botany was sufficient for the strictly botanical (traditional) aspects. Other required texts were used, however, but these were placed in the Assigned Reading section of the library.

Two one hour tests and a two hour final, all multiple choice, were the basis of grading. With such a lengthy list of books to be consulted, it did not seem fair to keep the students in a constant state of torment; accordingly, for every assignment we listed the (in our opinion) most important points and we did this in question form. We had about 350 questions in all, and the students were in-formed that these same questions were a pool from which the test questions would be taken. We did use 200 of the questions on the test, and it was our feeling that this procedure constituted enough of a challenge. Questionnaires distributed in the last period were returned with the comment that the grading system was very fair.

Teaching Beyond the Introductory
Course: Plant Anatomy

James L. Seago
SUNY, College at Oswego
Oswego, N.Y.

That plant scientists pay significant attention to their teaching activities is abundantly clear from the number of articles and commentaries which have appeared in the Plant Science Bulletin, CUEBS reports, and elsewhere. Yet, most of the concerns involve methods for making


easier or more efficient the instruction of large groups of students in introductory courses. It seems to me that too much emphasis has been placed on modifying courses for the sake of efficiency and ease of the professor and system. There is more to teaching botany than the demonstration and evaluation of accumulated facts and theories: students have other needs which have too often been ignored.

While I have seen articles on the meaningful participation of students in advanced undergraduate courses (e.g., Thornton, 1972), I am concerned about the apparent failure of botanists to engage students in activities that enable students to appreciate and understand botanical science. Therefore, my purpose here is to describe an approach to teaching plant anatomy whereby a student might gain a better understanding and appreciation for the reasons and methods by which ideas and facts are generated, in addition to learning the current status of knowledge in this discipline.

COURSE FORMAT AND REQUIREMENTS—The plant anatomy course has been taught four times in seven years to 41 students.

Lectures: For the first three weeks of the semester, I give lectures providing an overview of embryogeny, seed structure and germination, development and function of meristems, primary and secondary growth, origin and structure of organs and included tissues (root and shoot: dermal, ground, and vascular; primary and secondary). After I deliver talks on selected aspects of these areas during the middle of the term, each student gives a 20-30 minute talk on a fairly narrow topic of his choice during the last weeks of the semester. The student talks, representing one-fourth the course credit, are accompanied by an out-line and a bibliography. The quality of these talks has been quite good, and the discussions generated extend most talks to an hour.

A text(s) is used to provide students with background, factual information, ideas, and theories which are not introduced in the lectures, talks, and formal labs. Laboratories: Formal labs are normally conducted for only

5-6 weeks. These introduce the same topics as above in developmental sequence, and are of a demonstrative nature, using fresh materials where possible.

Tests: When tests are given, they are essay and/or oral, except for lab practicals, and account for one-fourth the grade.

Problems: Approximately half the course grade is based upon a lab research problem and paper. During the over-view period, students get ideas of the kinds of topics and areas for potential anatomical study. After establishment of the problem and determination of procedures to he employed, the student and I decide in advance if the problem is within the scope of the course and our physical limitations and is a significant and appropriate anatomical problem. At the end of the formal lab period, the students are expected to begin the lab phases of their research problems. The rest of the semester is spent pursuing the lab research problem. Students are strongly encouraged to share information and ideas on their problems during this time.

One major benefit derived from the problems is that most students learn standard microtechnique procedures in order to solve their problems. They perform microscopic measurements and drawings, and about a quarter of them have learned photomicrography for the presentation of their results. Thus, microtechniques assume a role in the solution of a problem rather than being an end in themselves.

The research paper is due the last day of classes and is written in standard scientific format. Because each student has already given a talk with a literature review, the introduction and discussion sections of the paper do not usually contain a large list of references, but it is expected that each discussion contain some comparisons to a limited number of reports. 1 read a draft of any paper to provide the student with constructive comments on content, grammar, and style. The communicative aspects of science thus assume a greater importance.

Some selected titles of research papers are: Vascular transition in Cucumis; Tendril ontogeny in Passiflora; The origin and development of periderm in the Fuchsia stem; Cortical disintegration in the roots of Pamianthe peruviana; A study of the origin of adventitious roots in Peltandra virginica; and Morphology and development of the rhizome of Psilotum nudum.

RATIONALE—Rationales for an investigative approach to teaching have been provided by Holt et al. (1969), Thornton (1972), and Cox and Davis (1972). My reasons for adopting this approach to teaching are: to place students in situations whereby decisions of relative significance must be made and self-discipline achieved; to facilitate learning and creativity by letting students do things potentially very interesting and rewarding to them-selves; to place students in positions where they can better appreciate and understand why and how scientists generate ideas and information; and to help them develop concepts of scientific communication.

The decision-making process is vitally important: students need to make hard decisions in order to grasp science; the core of scientific process revolves around decision-making. While students need some assistance. their major decisions on the problems, procedures, and work are not taken away. Floundering, inherent in formulation of problems and procedures and later during collection of data and observations, is an important aspect of this decision-making process. Some degree of floundering is useful in the attainment of the self-discipline in intellect and work habits necessary to pursue a scientific problem. Discipline which is self-generated, self-directed, and self-perpetuated seems very meaningful to a student. Students need courses and programs which give them responsibility, decision-making roles, and the opportunity to practice intellectual autonomy and self-discipline (cf., Cox and Davis, 1972).

In addition to the pedagogical significance which I attach to decision-making and self-discipline, I should like to reinforce the notion of active participation by students in research activities (cf. Holt et al., 1969), those things which scientists engage in and which they relate to others. Certainly, we do not expect many students to become active scientists, but all of us want our students to under-stand the processes of science. What better way can this he accomplished than by active participation in research activities? Such participation seems to have escaped most of our science students, even majors. The result is that there are large numbers of college graduates with science backgrounds who have not really experienced the frustrations, successes, and failures of science and thus do not understand science.

It must be emphasized that involvement in "original research" is not asked for. The problems can be simple or complex, rehashes of earlier works, or they may even involve a problem for which credit is given in a concur-


iently enrolled course, e.g., Microtechniques. For the student, the work is original and he can begin to determine its overall significance by way of the literature review and my help and criticism. Providing students problems or directing them to problems reduces creativity and intellectual curiosity. Therefore, I do not suggest topics for study in this course and the students do not work on research areas of interest to me except by their own choices.

The research paper and talk are important because they give students chances to engage in serious scientific communication and meaningful library work and to see the needs for adequate verbal and writing skills in botanical science. As a result, it is often easier to get students to take appropriate English or Public Address courses for improvement or enhancement of writing and/or speaking skills.

While many students completing this course have memorized fewer anatomical facts than have most anatomy students, their research problems, talks, etc., pro-vide excellent opportunities for significant and meaningful accumulation of knowledge. The achievement of some minimal standard of knowledge is thus not sought.

In conclusion, the major obstacle, especially to handling two such courses concurrently (Plant Anatomy, Plant Kingdom), is to work within the time limits and the energy and sanity levels of the instructor.


Cox, D. D., and L. V. Davis. 1972. The context of biological education: The case for change. CUEBS, AIBS Education Division, Washington, D.C.

Holt, C. E., P. Abramoff, L. V. Wilcox, Jr., and D. L. Abell. 1969. Investigative laboratory programs in biology. Bioscience 19: 1104-1107.

Thornton, J. W. 1972. The laboratory: A place to investigate. CUEBS, AIBS Education Division, Washington, D.C.

New Hampshire. Specialized courses in Underwater Re-search and in Introduction to Marine Science for Teachers will be given twice during the season and individualized research in marine biology will also be available. Contact Shoals Marine Laboratory, 202 Plant Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON PLANT CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE will be held at the University of Calgary on August 20-25, 1978. Information and Circular No. 1 can be obtained from the IAPTC Congress, Conference Office, University of Calgary. Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada.

THE NORTHEAST SECTION OF THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY will hold its field meetings on 3-7 July 1977 at the University of Maine; contact Dr. L. K. Henry, 1023 Whitley Drive, Pittsburgh. PA 15237.

SECOND INTERNATIONAL MYCOLOGY CONGRESS will be held 27 August-3 Sept. 1977 at the University of South Florida, Tampa. Contact Melvin S. Fuller, Department of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

CANADIAN PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOCIETY annual meeting will be held at the University of Guelph on 25-28 July 1977. Contact R. J. Copeman, Department of Plant Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.

GENETICS SOCIETY OF CANADA annual meeting will be held at the University of Manitoba on 27-29 June 1977. Contact P. J. McAlpine, Department of Genetics, 685 Bannatyne Ave., Winnipeg, Manitoba.

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES annual meeting will be held 21-26 August 1977 at Michigan State University, East Lansing. Information on registration. housing, field trips, tours and transportation may be obtained by writing the AIBS Meetings Department, 1401 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209. The in-formation will also be found in the March 1977 issue of BioScience.



COLLOQUIUM ON PLANT CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE will be held 6-9 Sept. 1977 at Ohio State University by the College of Biological Sciences in co-operation with the College of Agriculture and Home Economics. Distinguished speakers from several countries will lecture, and the program includes discussions on the physiology of growth and morphogenesis, genetics and applications to agriculture. Contact The Fourth Annual Colloquium, College of Biological Sciences, 484 W. 12th Ave., The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

THE ORGANIZATION FOR TROPICAL STUDIES is offering its fourteenth consecutive year of graduate courses in tropical science in Central America. The courses are field-oriented, intensive and conducted at the graduate level. Tropical Biology courses will be taught in Costa Rica. Contact Organization for Tropical Studies, P.O. Box DM, Duke Station, Durham, NC 27706.

INTRODUCTION TO MARINE SCIENCE courses, broadly oriented four-week courses for undergraduates, will be offered by the Shoals Marine Laboratory operated cooperatively by Cornell University and the University of

In 1979 The National Aeronautics and Space Administration will begin launches every half year of new scientific satellites called "LDEF" (Long Duration Exposure Facility). Each large, cylindrical structure, about 14 feet by 30 feet, can mount over 70 experimental packages and will remain in orbit for at least six months, when another shuttle will retrieve it, return it to earth and NASA will then send the experimental packages back to their owners. Interested botanists should send their ideas to Universities Space Research Association, Attention Dr. M. H. Davis, Box 3006, Boulder, Colo. 80307. (And away we go into the wild blue yonder!—ed.)

The New York Botanical Garden announces the publication of Taxonomic Literature 11, A-G by Frans A. Stafleu and Richard S. Cowan. The 1100 page book lists plant scholars and their works and detailed information is also provided on outstanding botanical explorers and collectors.

The Council for International Exchange of Scholars, 11 Dupont Circle, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036 has prepared a Directory of visiting lecturers and research scholars.

Academic Press announces the initiation of Experimental Mycology. An International Journal with Edward C. Cantino as editor-in-chief. Volume 1, No. 1 appeared in


January 1977 and subsequent numbers will appear quarterly.

The Physiological Section of the Society is establishing a prize for the best student paper in plant physiology to be given at the annual meeting. The paper must be chiefly research of a graduate student. Additional information can be obtained from Anitra Thorhaug, Chairperson of the Physiological Section, Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Miami, P.O. Box 520875, Miami, FL 33152.

Forthcoming articles of interest to botanists that will appear in BioScience include: D. B. Botkin—"Forests. Lakes and the Anthropogenic Production of Ca," and T. W. Mulroy and P. W. Rundel—"Annual Plants: Adaptation to Desert Environments."

The Societas Internationalis de Plantarum Demographia has agreed to act as distributor of Russian to English translations of scientific papers. Additional information can be obtained from Dr. P. A. Werner, W. K. Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University, Hickory Corners, MI 49060.

A Gazetteer of the Chihuahuan Desert Region and Supplement to the Chihuahuan Desert Flora is now avail-able from Dr. J. S. Hendrickson, P.O. Box 8495, University Station, Austin, TX 78712. The Gazetteer consists of a computer printout of 22,941 place names plus 22 maps.

The Torrey Botanical Club Bulletin will appear quarterly rather than bimonthly beginning with volume 104. The number of pages per issue will be increased so that essentially the same number of pages each year will he published. The Bulletin's pages are open to active, family or life members who wish to publish in any area of botany and book reviews are also invited. The Index to American Botanical Literature will be continued. The present editor is H. David Hammond, Department of Biological Sciences. State University College at Brockport, Brockport, NY 14420.


Student vascular plant specimens advertised in ex-change for cryptogams and lower vascular plants from Texas A&M University in the December 1976 issue of the Plant Science Bulletin are available from the Biology Department Herbarium, Department of Biology, and not the Tracy Herbarium, (TAES) Department of Range Science, curated by Dr. Frank Gould. The Curators regret any confusion that may have arisen from the announcement.

Sometimes your editor gets very lonely and wishes that he could hear from the membership. Suggestions, criticisms, items of general interest and manuscripts are welcomed from all members of the Society and their friends. Ernie Gifford, Editor of the American Journal of Botany. has agreed that he will not publish any poetry and I have agreed that I will not publish any science.


A CHAIRMAN FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY is being sought at Miami University for a five year renewable term. The department, with 15 faculty members, 30 graduate students and ca. 170 undergraduate majors, carries out an extensive program of undergraduate and graduate instruction and research. Applicants must have a reputation for excellence in research and teaching. Candidates should send curriculum vitae and three letters of reference to Dr. Charles M. Vaughn, Department of Zoology. 282 Upham Hall, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056.

A CHAIRMAN FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY AND MICROBIOLOGY is being sought at the University of Oklahoma. An established scientist with demonstrated leadership and proven research record is desired. Applicants must provide evidence of teaching credentials at both undergraduate and graduate levels. The department has 20 faculty members. Candidates should send a curriculum vitae, list of publications and three letters of reference to Dr. Paul G. Risser, Department of Botany and Microbiology, 770 Van Vlect Oval, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019.

A POSITION IN PLANT ECOLOGY at the State University of New York at Binghamton will be filled for September 1977. Teaching duties include courses in advanced ecology, introductory field ecology and seminars in the area of the applicant's research interest. Candidates should send a curriculum vitae, reprints, preprints, a list of grant proposals, and a statement on research and teaching interests to Chairperson, Plant Ecology Search Committee, Department of Biological Sciences, State University of New York at Binghamton. Binghamton, NY 13901.

ASSISTANT PROFESSORSHIPS IN MOLECULAR BOTANY and/or ULTRASTRUCTURE and in PLANT ECOLOGY are being sought at the University of Massachusetts. Ph.D. degrees are required and post-doctoral experience is preferred. Candidates should have demonstrated ability and potential in teaching and research. The positions will involve teaching and active research in area of speciality, direction of graduate students, and contributions to the general departmental teaching program including introductory-level courses. Curriculum vitae, brief statement of research interests and three letters of reference should be sent to Head, Department of Botany, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003.

RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES IN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT are being offered by the Kasetsart University of Thailand at the Kog-Ma watershed management research project, a 65 ha. area in the province of Chiengmai at an elevation of 1300-1600 m. Facilities include an onsite research station, monitored weirs and several climate stations. Additional information can be obtained from the Department of Conservation. Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand.

A PLANT MORPHOLOGIST is being sought by the Department of Biology of the University of California, Los Angeles. The position is for an Assistant Professor with commitments to teaching and research. Teaching responsibilities include participation in the introductory biology course and advanced courses in plant morphology plus seminars in the area of the applicant's research interests. A curriculum vitae, list of publications, the names of three references and a summary of research interest should be sent to Chairman of the Search Committee, Department of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024.

A PHYCOLOGIST/ALGAL BIOLOGIST is being sought by the Department of Botany, University of Rhode Island. The area of specialization is flexible, but the appointee should be able to teach undergraduate and graduate level courses in marine and fresh-water phycology and develop a strong research program that complements in-


terests of the departmental faculty. Statements of professional interest, curriculum vitae, reprints and names of three referees should be sent to Marilyn M. Harlin, Chair-man of the Search Committee, Department of Botany, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, R.I. 02881.

A TECHNOLOGIST WITH PLANT PHYSIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND is being sought by the Weyerhaeuser Co. The applicant will assist with planning and execution of experiments on the reproductive processes of loblolly pine and will assist with efforts to improve vegetative propagation of loblolly and shortleaf pine. A M.S. is preferred, although both B.S. or Ph.D. applicants will be considered. Contact Dr. Michael Greenwood, Weyerhaeuser Co., Hot Springs Forestry Research Center, P.O. Box 1060, Hot Springs, AR 71901.

THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PROGRAM of higher education and research training awards fellow-ships to support independent research in the Institution's collections, facilities and laboratories. Supported by stipends of $10,000 per year plus research allowances; research scholars and doctoral candidates are invited to apply to the Office of Academic Studies, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560.

TWO LECTURERS IN BOTANY are being sought by the Universiti Malaya. A lecturer in experimental taxonomy of vascular plants with special reference to techniques such as cytology, phytochemistry, computer-assisted systematives and interest in evolutionary studies is desired. A lecturer in cryptogamic botany with emphasis on the Malesian flora is also desired. Both positions are open. Positions are tenable for 3 years with possibility (not automatic) for renewal. Applicants must hold Ph.D. degrees. For application forms write (Airmail) to The Registrar, Academic Positions, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, 22-11, MALAYSIA.

A FACULTY MEMBER IN PLANT DEVELOPMENT AND APPLIED BOTANY is being sought by the Department of Biology, Millersville State College. Applicants with doctorates should be interested in teaching biology to non-science students and biology majors and in developing undergraduate and graduate courses in their speciality. Opportunity exists to participate in community-oriented education and to engage in research. Experience in horticulture or plant pathology desirable. Rank depends on qualifications. Reply by April 15, 1977 to Dr. A. C. Hoffman, Chairperson of the Search Committee, Department of Biology, Millersville State College, Millersville, PA 17551.


At the annual banquet of the Botanical Society in June 1976, three members of the Society joined the ranks of Merit Awardees. The first awards were made in 1956 at the 50th anniversary of the Society and one or more have been presented each succeeding year. The botanists selected by the awards committee for 1976 are:

CHARLES RICK, University of California, Davis "for major work basic to economic importance involving both the cytology and genetics of crop plants and for spreading his knowledge and capabilities as an authority on this subject to many places in the world."

PAUL WEATHERWAX of Indiana University "for long continued devotion to gaining an understanding of the probable origin and evolution of one of our most important crop plants, Zea /nays, and for ancillary information essential to comprehending the problems in dealing with and improving this most important grain."

THOMAS W. WHITAKER of the U.S. Department of Agriculture "for distinguished contributions to the understanding of economic plants, notably their improvement, and for a unique contribution in interpreting this understanding in terms of their domestication and their influence on the development of civilizations."

The Darbaker Award for meritorious work in the study of microscopical algae was made to KARL R. MATTOX and KENNETH STEWART of Miami University "for their cooperative research contributions which have greatly enhanced the understanding of the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of numerous taxa of microscopical green algae."

The New York Botanical Award for an outstanding contribution to fundamental aspects of botany was made to ALBERT C. SMITH. of the University of Massachusetts "for distinguished contributions to our understanding of tropical floras and primitive angiosperms. His paper, "The genus Micropiper (Piperaceae)" in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 71: 1-38. 1975, describes research which forms almost a model study for completeness of its design, including nomenclature, distribution patterns, taxonomy, anatomy of apical meristems, SEM of pollen and photomicrographs of pubes-cent characters."

The Henry Allan Gleason Award of the New York Botanical Garden was made to G. LEDYARD STEBBINS "evolutionary theorist par excellence, whose books, papers, lectures and personal conversations have for more than 40 years provided guidance to plant taxonomists and stimulated them to think about the theoretical foundation of their artful science."

The Jessie M. Greenman Award of the Alumni Association of the Missouri Botanical Garden is given in recognition of the best paper in plant systematics based on a doctoral dissertation published during the previous year. The 9th annual award was presented to S. ROB GRAD-STEIN of the Institute for Systematic Botany of the University of Utrecht, Netherlands, for his dissertation, "A taxonomic monograph of the genus Acrolejeunea (Hepaticae)," published as Bryophytorutn Bibliotheca, Volume 4.

The Isabel C. Cookson Paleobotanical Award was presented to ELIZABETH WHEELER of North Carolina State University for her paper, "Some fossil dicotyledonous woods of Yellowstone National Park."

The George R. Cooley Award of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists is given for the best paper on plant systematics presented at the annual meeting. It was presented to ROBERT C. GARDNER of Ohio State University for his paper, "Patterns of adaptive radiation in Lipochaeta DC (Compositae) of the Hawaiian Islands."

The Award of the Pteridological Section for the best paper dealing with any aspect of pteridology was presented to HAROLD W. ELMORE of the University of Waterloo for "Interaction of auxin, gibberellin and cytokinin with ethylene in the control of apogamous bud induection in Pteridium aquilinurn (L.) Kuhn."

Thomas O. Duncan, who received his doctorate from the University of Michigan. has accepted a position at the University of California, Berkeley. Duncan's dissertation was concerned with the biosystematics of the Ranunculus hispidus complex.



KAMEMOTO, H. AND R. SAGARIK. Beautiful Thai Orchid Species. Published by the Orchid Society of Thailand, GPO Box 953, Bangkok, Thailand. 1965.

Dr. Haruyuki Kamemoto is Professor of Horticulture at the University of Hawaii, former Head of the Department, and the outstanding orchid cytologist of our time. His collaborator, Dr. Rapee Sagarik, is Professor of Horticulture and Rector at Kasetsart University, founder of the Thailand Orchid Society, and an orchid breeder and grower. Thailand is a country rich in beautiful orchids. This book brings all three of them together.

The book does not attempt to describe all Thai orchid species (but suggests The Orchids of Thailand by G. Seidenfaden and T. Smitinand for those who are interested). Rather it describes and illustrates 20 of the more spectacular genera. Descriptions are complete, lucid, well-written and easy to read. The color photographs are excellent. In addition, the book contains accounts and photo-graphs of collecting expeditions, an account of Bangkok's weekend orchid market and an Appendix listing the chromosome numbers of Thai orchid species. This is not only an excellent book, but also a beautiful one. It will enrich any library and could serve as a welcome gift for any plant or orchid lover.

Joseph Arditti University of California, Irvine

PICKETT-HEAPS, J. Green Algae: Structure, Reproduction and Evolution in Selected Genera. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts. 1975.

In his introduction, Pickett-Heaps states: "The book has become a personal record of a biologist's fascination with the beauty and variety of algal cells, and his sense of wonder at how they grow, reproduce, and order their lives." What follows is an alluring combination of opulent illustrations, factual information, and stimulating ideas. The outlook is that of a cytologist, and comparative aspects of cell ultrastructure are the primary concern in evolutionary speculations.

The selection of organisms is based largely, but not exclusively, on those algae which Pickett-Heaps and his co-workers have personally examined. Genera or groups which have not been extensively studied with the electron microscope are not considered. Chlamydornonas, Volvox, several unicellular and colonial Chlorococcales, certain genera of the Ulotrichales (sensu lato), the Oedogoniales, several genera of the Zygnematales, and Chara are treated in depth; siphonalean orders are conspicuously absent.

Throughout the text, Pickett-Heaps' bias toward microtubules and associated systems is apparent. A major theme is the diversity of mitotic and cytokinetic details among the green algae. The structure of the motile cells and the structure and development of the cell wall receive particular attention. To those who are not familiar with the previous publications of Pickett-Heaps, Mattox, and their co-workers, the elimination of heterotrichous chaetophoralean algae such as Fritschiella from the pre-embryophyte stock may seem surprising. On the basis of the behavior of microtubules during cytokinesis and of the symmetry of the motile cell, Pickett-Heaps had earlier postulated that evolution of the green algae proceeded along two different pathways. This thesis is elaborated here and has received strong support from the ultrastructural studies of Mattox and other investigators. The bulk of green algae thus far examined are placed by Pickett-Heaps in a "phycoplast" line of evolution characterized by ephemeral spindle fibers, a phycoplast (a system of transversely oriented microtubules which lie in the plane of cytokinesis) and by motile cells which have radial symmetry. Other green algae, including Klebshormidium, Coleochaete, the Zygnematales and the Charales, are characterized by spindle fibers persisting through telophase and by motile cells which are asymmetric in the insertion of the flagella—features also characterizing embryophytes. Pickett-Heaps suggests that the primitive green algae are not among the Volvocales (which belong to the phycoplast line) but among the diverse flagellates, as the prasinophytes (e.g., Pedinornonas). From an archetypal green flagellate, one line led to the Zygnematales, Coleochaete, the charophytes and the embryophytes. This hypothesis, based upon ultra-structural details, has received strong support from biochemical studies. To date, all organisms in the embryophyte line of evolution have been found to possess glycolate oxidase whereas those algae in the phycoplast line lack this enzyme and most possess glycolate dehydrogenate. Many current notions on the classification and evolution of green plants need to be radically altered.

The outstanding feature of the book is the wealth of illustrations (approximately 860), most taken from previous publications. Many of the scanning electron micro-graphs are stunning in their beauty, and an appendix with paired micrographs of desmids and other phycological objets d'art for stereo-viewing is included. While the large amount of blank space in the book helps to set off some of the photographs, I felt that it could have been used a little more judiciously to provide better coordination between the placement of text and illustrations. For example, discussion of Bulbochaete begins on p. 282 and ends on p. 314 but the illustrations do not begin until p. 311 and run through p. 356 with many pages blank except for the legends.

Undoubtedly, there will be details and speculations which specialists may find controversial. Students in my phycology course found the book a delight and it will see service in our plant diversity course as well. I wholeheartedly recommend it for every college library and for the personal libraries of plant cytologists, morphologists and taxonomists.

P. W. Cook University of Vermont

TORREY, J. G. AND D. T. CLARKSON (eds.). The Development and Function of Roots. Academic Press, N.Y. 1975. 618 pp. illust. $32.25.

It is virtually impossible to review comprehensively a book of this type. Drs. Torrey and Clarkson, in organizing the third Cahot Symposium, assembled 29 plant scientists whose research encompassed almost all aspects of the structure, morphogenesis, physiology and ecology of roots. Each participant reviewed his field of specialization at a level considerably higher than that of an advanced text and just a bit lower than that of a review in Annual Re-views of Plant Physiology. In choosing the level of cover-age, the authors very wisely allowed themselves room to introduce ideas, concepts and, in some cases, speculations that belong in a book of this sort and are rarely entertained in a monographic presentation. The result is, frankly, splendid. There is adequate coverage of the pertinent literature, mostly recent publications in the field, to provide


a base for graduate courses that include the development and function of roots. The research worker can find enough ideas for a lifetime of intensive study. The book is very well edited, and the jarring juxtaposition of varying styles of writing is kept to a minimum. Typographical and egregious errors are few and far between, the printing and binding are more than adequate, and photographs are satisfactory, although not sparkling.

One would have desired more coverage on mycorrhiza in view of the growing realization that this fungal-root association may be basic to water uptake by woody perennials, but several recent volumes fill this gap. Having been bothered for many years by the apparent absence of root hairs from many plants growing in soil and the positive statements in texts about the role of epidermal hair cells in water uptake, I looked in vain for a discussion of this matter. This is an observation, not a criticism.

Richard M. Klein University of Vermont

HARDIN, JAMES W. AND JAY M. ARENA. Human Poisoning from Native and Cultivated Plants. Second edition. Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina. xii + 194 pp., illus., index. 1974.

This book should be dedicated to all those food nuts who go after the wild asparagus armed only with the naivete and abandon of wood sprites. If you are bent on savoring natural goodies from the great out-of-doors, this is a guidebook to take with you.

The book includes numerous lists of poisonous plants categorized broadly under Allergies, Dermatitis, Internal Poisoning. The many black and white line drawings of flowering plants are simple, but emphasize the morphological characters that make a meaningful identification possible. Photographs, both black and white and in color, of a number of important poisonous plants also add to the general usefulness of this book. The bibliography is subdivided into general references and manuals listed by U.S. state and Canada. A brief glossary and line drawings of types of flowers and leaves, leaf shape and margins should be of great help to the non-taxonomic botanist or non-scientist.

Any botanist who is asked for information on poisonous plants would do well to have a desk copy of this volume.

Deana T. Klein St. Michael's College, Vermont

QUISPEL, A. (Editor). The Biology of Nitrogen Fixation. North Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

In recent years numerous volumes on biological nitrogen fixation have been published. This is hardly surprising. Recent advances in understanding the biochemistry of the process, transfer of the nil gene controlling the enzyme nitrogenase between various procaryotes, the natural occurrence of a nitrogen-fixing association between roots of a non-leguminous plant and Rhizobium, and the demonstration of nitrogen fixation by free-living rhizobia have rekindled interest in the process. In addition, the world-wide specter of impending food shortages has created a plethora of crash programs on various aspects of biological nitrogen fixation in the expectation this may provide an energy-cheap source of nitrogen for plant growth.

The Editor assembled an imposing array of experts to discuss the multifaceted nature of biological nitrogen fixation in both free-living and symbiotic systems. Although the volume is devoted primarily to the biological aspects of the problem, a 100-page section at the end of the book deals with the biochemistry, genetics and regulation of nitrogen fixation.

A chapter by R. H. Burris on methodology is a welcome summary for the experimentally inclined reader. The free-living N2-fixers are dealt with both from the view-point of their activities as studied with pure cultures, in the rhizosphere and in the phyllosphere. The Arnon and Yoch contribution on photosynthetic bacteria is excessively devoted to the photosynthetic process, with nitrogen fixation peripheral, rather than vice versa.

Symbiotic systems are treated effectively by Millbank (blue-greens), Vincent (Rhizobium), and Bond (actinomycetes) and the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis are thoroughly discussed by several authors. Appleby provides a fine account of the role of leghemoglobin. A theme which pervades many of the accounts is the possibility of extending the process to new plant systems and a chapter on the genetics of diazotrophs points to some of the exciting possibilities which molecular biology and genetic engineering may render into realities in the future.

Any volume of 769 pages combined with the linguistics of 22 authors from 7 countries poses severe problems. Considering the immensity of the editorial chore, the volume is well edited. Professor Quispel is to be congratulated for producing the modern sequel to the classic volume on nitrogen fixation of the 30's by Fred, Baldwin and McCoy.


W. S. Silver University of South Florida

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