Plant Science Bulletin archive

Issue: 1976 v22 No 2 SummerActions


A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

June 1976   A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.   Volume 22 No. 2


Introducing students to plants through their relations with man. Jean H. Langenheim and Kenneth V. Thimann   14
A personal approach to the teaching of non-major botany courses. William A. Jensen   15
Botany for non-science majors—the cultural approach. Richard M. Klein   16
Re: "On toadstool soup and legal aspects of marihuana" by Ernest Small. William A. Emboden   17
Meetings, Conferences, Courses   17
Progress Report: Marine Flora and Fauna   18
Botanical Potpourri   18
A Memo to the Vice President for Academic Affairs   18
Professional Opportunities   19 Book Reviews
Geographical Guide to Floras of the World. S. F. Blake & A. C. Atwood   19
Guide to the Literature of Botany. B. D. Jackson   20
Flora Japonica. C. P. Thunberg   20
Flora Indica. W. Roxburgh and N. Wallich   20
Novae Plantarum Species Praesertim Indiae Orientalis. A. G. Roth   20
Historia Natural y Cronica de la Antigua California. M. del Barco   20
International Journal of Chronobiology. Volume 1. No. 1   21
Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. D. Mueller-Donibois & H. Ellenberg   21
New Plants from Old: Pruning and Propagation for the Indoor Gardener. C. M. Evans   21
Plant Physiology. R. G. S. Bidwell   21 Introduction to Plant Science—A Humanistic and Ecological Approach. N. H. Russell   21
Perspectives of Biophysical Ecology. D. M. Gates and R. B. Schmerl (eds.)   22
The Mechanism of Photosynthesis. C. P. Whittingha,n   22
How to Know Western Australian Wildflowers, Parts I. II, III. W. E. Blackall and B. J. Grieve   22
Allelopathy. Elroy L. Rice   23
Wildflowers of the Southeastern United States. Wilbur H. Duncan and Leonard E. Foote   23
Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices. H. 7'. Hartmann and D. E. Kester   23
Pollen. R. G. Stanley and H. F. Linskens   23
Essentials of Cell Biology. Robert D. Dyson   24
Root Anatomy and Morphology, A Guide to the Literature. Robert H. Miller   24
Controlled Environments for Plant Research. R. J. Downs   24


Introducing Students to Plants through Their Relations with Man

Jean H. Langenheim and Kenneth V. Thimann
University of California. Santa Cruz

We have been stimulated to attempt a fresh approach to the teaching of introductory plant science, partly under the prodding of thoughtful students who sensed a need for a greater understanding of the interrelationships between plants and their own lives, partly because we and some others have for a long time felt that the students' interest in the fascination of plants was not sufficiently aroused by the type of courses usually taught. It is also undeniable that the plant sciences as actually practiced in the real world are largely concerned with those plants that have been utilized by Man. A botany course should in our view give the students not only a concept of the science itself but also some insight into how the science is made use of.

On the other hand, we felt unwilling to sacrifice solid content just to achieve attractiveness and popular appeal, and therefore have worked out a course which covers a good deal of fundamental science along with numerous examples of application. Thus the course has become an introduction to the plant sciences emphasizing the relation-ship of plants to human affairs. The level at which it is given makes it suitable for biology majors, but comprehensible (at least in large part) by upper division students whose interests lie in other subjects than biology. Students majoring in art, literature, economics, anthropology and environmental studies have all passed the course and some have done exceptionally well, although the majority have indeed been biology majors. The course is based on lectures but is heavily supplemented by demonstration of plants and visual material presenting a global perspective, and by discussion groups. We are fortunate also in our location, which enables the class to visit nurseries, wineries, lumbering operations and the wholesale production and processing of vegetables.

Inevitably the course emphasizes the flowering plants because of their role in supplying the varied needs of Man. From the beginning it is made clear that the origin of our civilization rests upon the utilization of flowering plants to provide food, clothing, shelter and to meet our aesthetic needs. Since we pay attention to the evolutionary development of plants and their role in the composition of ecosystems, students do make the acquaintance of the lower plants both at the outset and later on in connection with genetics, fermentation, decomposition in soils, systematics and plant diseases.

The first part of the course deals with the long history of the evolution of plants and the much shorter history of their relationships with Man. Indeed this relationship has been mutual, since man has not only made use of the plants but has modified them to fulfill his needs effectively. An associated major group of topics is the emergence of agriculture in several parts of the world, the growth of technology and its development into plant science. From there we go directly into treatment of the functioning of the individual plant: photosynthesis, respiration and carbohydrate metabolism, growth and its hormonal control and the uptake of water and minerals. Next we discuss the diversification of plants within populations, which involves genetics, then the organization of this diversity into classification systems, and finally the study of ecological processes and ecosystems, taking particular account of the role of soils.

The second part of the course takes up the most important groups of plants and their products, showing something of how these are synthesized and how they are processed for human use. The cereals naturally come first, since they provide the largest part of human energy and offer an outstanding example of the outcome of selection and breeding over the centuries. Other plants notable for their carbohydrate yields logically follow. Sugar plants lead to a discussion of fermentation and thus of yeasts, fiber plants to treatment of polysaccharides and cell walls as well as of textiles, and edible roots and tubers to understanding the mechanisms of storage and conversion of reserves. Fruits are discussed in relation to the wide diversity of re-production structures and the physiology of ripening. Under wood we included both the development of secondary tissues and the protection and utilization of forests.

Under topics concerned with nitrogen, the legumes naturally occupy first place. together with protein production and the nitrogen cycle. There follows a discussion of medicinal alkaloids and their role in history and of caffeine and its role in beverages and hence in economic and social life. Under lipids we take up the synthesis and utilization of fats and oils. Under terpenoids we consider not only the biosynthesis but the importance of the terpenoid-producing plants in providing perfumes, spices, resins and rubber. Historical, anthropological and even biochemical approaches thus became a part of the broad interpretation of the plant sciences, as indeed they should be.

The course closes with a consideration of world problems of plant usage, including food supply of the world and human nutrition, with special references to population growth. We take up also the impact of plant diseases on these problems. Last comes an examination of the preservation and modification of ecosystems, through a historical perspective and the development of models for the optimal usage of land.

Throughout, an attempt has been made to draw together the many topics and, once a principle has been introduced, to make use of it in other parts of the course. Thus under the organization of diversity students are introduced to the major plant families which are treated again (in varying detail) as their contributions to Man's welfare are reviewed. Under genetics the roles of mutation, hybridization and polyploidy frequently occur. The discussion of hormonal control at the beginning reappears in treatments of seed germination, of differentiation, and of the growth and maturation of fruit. Morphology and anatomy, which are treated briefly in the early part, are supplemented in numerous parts of the course dealing with relevant plants and their functions, such as water uptake, transpiration, flowering, wood formation, root and stem modification, and many other topics.

Since no suitable current text is available for the course, we have made use of a lengthy reading list culled from numerous books and journals. This need has provoked the authors to prepare a book specifically covering the broad content of the course.


A Personal Approach to the Teaching of Non-major Botany Courses

William A. Jensen
University of California, Berkeley

For the past 18 years I have been teaching a course known at the University of California at Berkeley as Botany 10. This is a course that is specifically designed for the non-major. Its aim is to introduce students who are not particularly interested in science to botany. Through the years that I have been teaching this course, I have tried a variety of approaches and introduced a number of features, none of which I think are original or unique with me, but which have resulted in what I like to tell myself is a successful course.

Before describing the way I teach Botany 10, I think the appropriate questions to ask are why should there be a non-majors course and what are the educational goals for such a course? With a large student population there exists a great heterogeneity among the students both in terms of ability and interests. It seems therefore only logical, where one can afford it, to have a separate class for those students that are interested in learning some botany but to whom it is clearly an optional endeavor rather than part of their major goals in a university education. This brings up the second question as to what are the goals of such a course. I feel they are to introduce students to the world of plants in a way that they get some basic fundamental idea of the science and some facts that they can use in their daily lives and leave the course in a positive frame of mind. Many of these students have had disastrous brushes with previous science courses where they were treated as second-class citizens.

I therefore have set out to design a course which would be interesting to them, that will not try to cover all the basic principles of botany or necessarily touch on all the major plant groups, but which will give them something to remember in a positive way from a biological science.

After first using a standard lecture-laboratory format and later a lecture-demonstration one, I finally decided to use the audio-tutorial approach to teaching this group of students. I have used this method for some eight years and continue to be delighted with the response of the students to it. The pattern I follow is a rather traditional one in terms of AT education. The students are expected to come to a room set up with 18 booths. The room is open some 30 hours a week and there are usually some 250 students in the class. They schedule their own time in the AT room and they must complete each week a unit consisting of three parts. The average time taken to complete these three parts is approximately 34 hours. The booths contain a tape re-corder, the materials they need for that unit, as well as a terrarium and a small pond in the form of a large gallon jug. Each week a new plant is put in the booths with a small written statement about it, and each week a number of cartoons with some biological significance are also used. The student is expected to bring his textbook and is given a series of handout materials to be used with the course. Also in the traditional mode, there are materials at a center table that will not fit into the booths and that are used to get the students out of the booths.

A feature that I introduced a few years ago that appears to he working well is to give the students at the beginning of each week a series of 12 questions, four on each of the three parts of the unit. The next week the student is quizzed on one of these 12 questions. The questions serve as a focal point for the students listening to the tapes and are in effect a series of learning objectives that are placed in a format that is extremely meaningful to a student, namely a quiz question.

As the quizzes are a major portion of the student's grade, it would seem logical that each of the students would make sure that he knew all of the answers to the questions. In fact, most do make this effort and I found that one of the problems with the AT method was solved because of this. This problem relates to the fact that once the students get into the booths they are loathe to interrupt themselves or to be interrupted by an instructor. By having the questions available and making them aware that the teaching assistants and the professor are a fair game to get the answers from, I end up with a lot more interaction between the students and the teaching assistants. The teaching assistants are also told that they can help the student to find the answers, but they are not simply to tell them the answers that they can memorize in some rote fashion. This makes for an interesting interaction between the students and the TA that has turned out to be on the whole highly successful. It would also seem apparent that the grades would be high on the quizzes hut in fact this is only partially true—much to my initial surprise. Even when given the chance with enough work to achieve perfect scores on all the quizzes, this rarely happens and the grade distribution is far more normal than one would anticipate in such a situation.

The students also meet one hour a week in a general assembly. This is to provide them an overview for the week's work and for this I have designed a series of multi-image lectures. I found that with the technology that was involved in the AT methods, straight lectures on Monday, even if well done, did not particularly appeal to the students. Neither did motion pictures, nor did I have much luck with guest lecturers. I therefore decided that a fairly spectacular approach was necessary for the assemblies and have designed the 3-screen multi-image lectures. Three images are used side-by-side on a large screen. In our


Richard M. Klein, Editor
Department of Botany
University of Vermont
Burlington, VT. 05401

Editorial Board
Robert W. Long, University of South Florida
Donald Kaplan, University of California (Berkeley)
Beryl Simpson, Smithsonian Institution

June 1976   Volume Tewnty-two   Number Two

Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., Dr. C. Ritchie Bell, Department of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 26514.

Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a year. Send orders with checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.

Manuscripts intended for publication in PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN should be addressed to Dr. Richard M. Klein, Department of Botany, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401. Announcements, notes, short scientific articles of general interest to the members of the Botanical Society of America and the botanical community at large will be considered for publication to the extent that the limited space of the publication permits,

Material submitted for publication should be typewritten, doublespaced, and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.

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The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401. Second class postage paid at Burlington, Vermont.


most recent developments, I use six projectors with three dissolve units; the whole apparatus is coordinated with a tape recorder by a programmer. This means that once the lecture is recorded, properly cued, and set up it can be easily run with a single operator. The topics I use are such things as Introduction to the World of the Cell, Plant Communities, Photosynthesis. Intertidal Life, and Evolution. The student response to these multi-image lectures has been overwhelmingly favorable and I am pleased by the interest that they generate in the students with regard to the more detailed knowledge given in the AT units.

In addition to the AT units and the assembly, the students must do two outside projects. One is a take-home experiment where the students are given seeds of tall and dwarf peas in plastic cups. They plant the peas in vermiculite and take them to their rooms for the actual growing periods. They are given three cups, two with dwarf seeds and one with tall, and asked to measure the growth rate from the time that the seedlings appear until they are about one week old. Then I give them gibberellic acid in a lanolin paste and tell them to put this on one of the sets of dwarf plants and to continue measurements. At the end they are asked to write the report of their experiment in the form of a scientific paper after I have given them a lecture in the assembly on the art of writing a scientific paper. The purpose of this is to get them familiar with a formal approach to language and to give them a slightly vicarious thrill of writing their own scientific paper. The results of this project have been uniformly good and the propaganda value of having the plants go into the dormitories is excellent. Again this is another way of getting interaction between the instructor, TA and students because many problems arise during the experiment and the writing of the paper.

The second project is one of their own choosing. They can do anything at all that they want for the final project for the course so long as they can write me an explanation as to how this project relates to the course. I urge them to use some interest of their own for the project and see how they can relate that to plants. The types of projects that I have gotten over the years continue to please, amuse, intrigue, astonish and delight me. I have received everything from traditional term papers on the use of drug plants by Hopi Indians to a taped message that went with a freshly cooked Chinese dinner, explaning the origin of all the vegetables and the materials used in preparing the dinner. I have had mobiles made of pine cones, all carefully identified to species, to batiks on ultrastructural motifs, to architectural renderings of a room made into a live-in model of a cell, to beautifully executed ecological studies of an eucalyptus grove or a wild canyon slope. I have had sketch books, photograph albums, as well as a delightful game based on the identification of mushrooms. Students have made short motion pictures as well as read my fortune with tarot cards explaining at the same time all the botanical significance of the flowers and plants shown on them. 1 have received an easy reader explanation of photosynthesis which would have made one of the finest children's books on that subject I have ever seen, as well as a cartoon rendering of the life of an Amanita mushroom. I am terribly pleased with the ingenuity and originality that the students have shown in their projects and have had the projects commented on favorably by the students year after year.

The topics covered in the course are strong on higher plant physiology, anatomy and reproduction with a strong ecological theme running throughout the course. Because we are so close to the Pacific Ocean and a rich intertidal flora, I lead one voluntary field trip each year to the ocean and have a unit devoted to the types of organisms and the ecology of the intertidal zone. I also utilize an excellent exhibit at a local museum for one of the units. The Oakland Museum, which is within easy bus and public transportation from Berkeley, has a display that represents a transect of the state from the ocean across the mountains. That week we take our tape recorders and earphones over to the museum, where the museum guards check them in and out for us. I find that this is a good way to introduce students to an outstanding museum as well as giving them a break from their normal routine in the AT laboratory. Again they appear to appreciate this novelty and are agree-able to investing the time that it takes to get to the museum.

I believe that in using the audio-tutorial method, the assemblies, the paper and project I fulfill the goals I have set for this course. The students get a reasonably comprehensive introduction to plants and almost universally come away with a positive feeling.

Botany for Non-Science Majors —
The Cultural Approach

Richard M. Klein
University of Vermont

A cursory examination of the paperback hooks in your local supermarket will demonstrate that even as straight-forward a biological process as sex can have many variations on a theme. Although the ways of teaching Botany to non-science majors may be fewer in number, they are certainly no less profound.

An approach to this important course now being used at the University of Vermont attempts to bring Botany into focus as a factor in the cultural life of man. The course opens with an overview of what plants are, what they look like and what they do. Care is taken to avoid professional and scientific terminology; vascular systems are plumbing, photosynthesis is a factory and a pea plant is just a pea. The basis for everyday cliches is provided, e.g., putting down roots, a chip off the old block, etc. Peter Kalm, the Michaux's, the work of Linnaeus are included as people who have done important things. Digressions into carnivorous (man-eating) plants, pollination vectors and nematode-trapping fungi provide a basis for seeing the diversity of plants. Students are asked to look for plant imagery and symbolism in their daily lives and they discover that Kleenex boxes are plant designs, that the pillars outside chapel are modified tree trunks and that a peaches and cream complexion has interesting connotations.

The bulk of the course is divided into sections, each dealing with plant-related cultural phenomena. Each section consists of lectures and readings from an extensive bibliography that includes books, articles and journal papers selected from many fields. A section on plants in religion includes discussions on the plants of the Judeo-Christian Bible, plant symbolisms (the lily in 11-15 century paintings of the Annunciation, the Doctrine of Signatures, lotus mantras, maize among the Hopi, etc.), and the use of specific plants in ritual (peyote, the palm). A section on alcoholic beverages includes information on fermentative metabolism, the economic botany of wine, beer and distilled drinks, and also includes material on the role of whiskey in the American Revoution, beer and prohibition, and wines in religion.

Not unexpectedly, The Drug Scene is popular although medical aspects are not discussed. Opium is viewed both as


a livelihood for Turkish peasants and as a cause of the Opium War in China; marijuana is considered historically in various cultures, and the anthropological, social and religious aspects of the solanaceous alkaloids are introduced. Cocaine provides a springboard for a discussion of smuggling. The caffeine alkaloids form a separate section. Tea is discussed as part of the esthetic life of Japan (the tea garden, flower arranging) and the West (afternoon tea). Coffee provides entry into the world of Samuel Pepys and chocolate can be viewed as a part of developing Africa, but the botany of these products is not ignored. Even cola drinks can be looked at as an example of successful crossculturation and an outstanding example of advertising success.

Major cereal crops are examined from a variety of points of view. The Green Revolution is looked at in terms of politics, land tenure and priorities in allocation of re-sources. Wheat can be examined as it affects industrialization of the western world. Aspects of plant disease, famine and current political matters can be investigated. Among other major crops, sugar is viewed in economic and political terms, and in Vermont some attention is paid to maple syrup. The ethnobotany of beans and squash, the role of the potato in Ireland and in the population boom of 17th century Europe, the story of paper and other fiber crops all serve to show the interrelatedness of agriculture with human history, including the history that is being made today.

Plants as components of the esthetic life of man can. of course, include so many different things that selection becomes a personal matter. The history of gardening, aspects of both eastern and western landscape and still life painting, poetry and prose imagery are obvious choices. Because of my personal interest, a lecture-demonstration on Bonsai is always included. The relation of art forms to the historical, cultural and religious use of plants serves as an integrating theme, tying together what might other-wise be isolated and esoteric topics.

Depending on the phase of the moon, other topics appear or fail to appear from year to year. With adequate prelude on the botany and processing of these substances, essential oils can be covered by restricting the topic to perfume (including a selection of magazine advertisements) or from the medical or the industrial point of view. Spices and herbs provide unlimited scope; history, economic botany, witchcraft and demonology, culinary use (with a handout of gourmet recipes), medical aspects, etc., can be chosen. Medical botany can include the history of digitalis, reserpine, aloe, aflatoxins, ergot and others that can pique the interest of many students.

Films are occasionally used and projection slides are employed in every lecture. Munchables include toasted soybeans (lecture on beans), and raisins and grapes during the lecture on wine (university regulations and course budgets are very restrictive). Students are given a lump of bread dough to hold, smell and feel during the lecture on bread.

There is a midterm and a final examination that include both essay and objective questions. Each student is required to write two book reviews on volumes selected from the bibliography and each must submit a term paper on some topic related to the course. Term paper topics are selected by student-instructor interaction, frequently after personal consultations and, where possible, a starting bibliography is provided. Some term papers are excellent and topics as diverse as the history of lumbering in Vermont, the use of fertility-controlling plants in various cultures, the religious significance of herbs and one truly outstanding paper on plant imagery in Shakespeare's plays. Frankly, the course is a good deal of work and the load can be overwhelming where there are, as there has been, up to 150 students. Nevertheless, the preparation of this course has been intellectually exciting and is a change of pace from the more usual botany courses. And at least some of the students say that they have enjoyed it and learned something from it.

Re: "On Toadstool Soup and Legal
Aspects of Marihuana" by
Ernest Small

William A. Emboden
California State College, Northridge, California 91324

It is unfortunate that Dr. Small chose to redefine the role of the plant taxonomist in his article in Plant Science Bulletin (2l[3]:34-37, 1975). He says that taxonomists ". . , should be willing to view the appropriateness of terminology not merely from the chauvinistic confines of their particular discipline, but with common sense, impartiality, and the needs of society paramount in importance." This statement implies to me that the taxonomist abandon his commitment to the use of correct, legal and valid names as defined by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature in order to serve needs of society including law enforcement agencies.

The polytypic nature of the genus Cannabis is a concept dating from the eighteenth century (cf. Economic Botany 28:304-310). Lamarck's distinctions were not vague, as stated by Small, but clearly set forth and contrasted with the earlier description of Linnaeus. In stating that the recognition of more than a single species of Cannabis is a "legal maneuver." Small implies that taxonomists who have served as expert witnesses under oath in courts of law are attempting to defraud the courts. It is, however, the overwhelming consensus of opinion among taxonomists who have studied the genus that Cannabis is polytypic. In an earlier paper (Lloydia 36:144-165), Small and Beckstead present a table listing the sources of Cannabis grown by these authors in Ottawa. Most of the seed was supplied by reputable sources and botanical gardens throughout the world. These species of Cannabis were supplied under several names including C. ruderalis and C. indica. Small and Beckstead chose arbitrarily to call all of these a single species.

Invoking the names of Shakespeare, Stein and Locke does not reinforce Dr. Small's contentions. His species concept must accommodate the necessity to name species correctly or to employ existing names. If the use of names were "subjective" and "arbitrary" as Small suggests, it would be impossible for botanists effectively to communicate with each other. Dr. Small may choose to subordinate his use of plant names to "the needs of society," but many taxonomists do not recognize "chauvinistic confines" and will continue to function as taxonomists rather than adjuncts to a society that to Small is "paramount in importance."

Meetings, Conferences, Courses

THE SOCIETY FOR ECONOMIC BOTANY will hold its annual meeting on June 13-16, 1976 on the campus of the University of Illinois, Urbana. A symposium on "Crops: Cultivated Resources, Origins and Potential for Society" with be featured.


THE HUNT INSTITUTE will have a major retrospective exhibit of 19th Century still life paintings at Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh from April 5 to July 30, 1976. Supported in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts, the exhibit, titled "American Cornucopia," will display 59 major paintings supplemented by several dozen drawings, watercolors and chromolithographs.

THE PHYTOCHEMICAL SOCIETY OF NORTH AMERICA will hold its annual meeting on August 8-11, 1976 at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. A symposium on "The Structure, Biosynthesis and Degradation of Wood" will be featured. Further information is available from Dr. Constance Nozzolillo, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa KIN 6N5, Canada.

THE SEVENTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON PHOTOBIOLOGY will be convened in Rome, Italy on August 29-September 3. There will be 15 symposia. Inquiries should be addressed to Dr. A. Castellani, CNENCSN, Casaccia, Casella Postale 2400-00100, Roma, Italia.

THE NINTH INTERNATIONAL MEETING ON PLANT GROWTH SUBSTANCES will be held in Lausanne, Switzerland on August 30-September 4, 1976. In-formation can be obtained from Dr. P.-E. Pilet, Institut de Biologic et Physiologic Vegetales de l'Universite, Place de la Riponne, 1005 Lausanne.

A MAN-ENVIRONMENT IMPACT CONFERENCE, sponsored by several groups of teachers and educators, will, be held at the Four Seasons Sheraton Hotel in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on November 24-27, 1976. The conference is designed to study the problems of teaching and learning positive environmental attitudes. Information obtainable from Craig Copland, Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Downsview, Ontario, Canada M3J IP3.

A PLANT HARDINESS WORKSHOP will be held at the meeting of the Society for Cryobiology on August 1-6, 1976. Contact D. M. Strong, Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Md. 20014.

Progress Report: Marine Flora
and Fauna

Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States was initiated by the Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biological Laboratory in 1967. In 1973, the pro-gram was moved to the College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware. In view of the growing emphasis on environmental work and the urgent need for precise and complete identification of coastal organisms, the shortage of systematists to handle identification and classification and the current inadequacy of identification and classification aids, manuals on these organisms are invaluable. Each manual is based primarily on recent systematic research and a fresh examination of the plants and animals. Each major group, treated in a separate manual, includes an introduction, illustrated glossary, uniform keys, annotated check lists with information on history and related biology, references to the literature on the group and a systematic index. Geographical coverage extends from the headwaters of estuaries seaward to approximately the 200 meter depth on the continental shelf from Maine to Virginia. Manuals are most useful in the northeastern United States, but will have general application in many surrounding coastal areas. Manuals appear in print aperiodically. The following six manuals are in print and are available from the

Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. The price per copy is given in parenthesis.

Cook, D. C. and R. O. Brinkhurst. 1973. Annelida: Oligochaeta. 22 p. (350)

Borror, A. C. 1973. Protozoa:Ciliophora. 62 p. (950) Moul, E. T. 1973. Higher Plants of the Marine Fringe. 60 p. (650)

McCloskey, L. R. 1973. Pycnogonida. 12 p. (300) Manning, R. B. 1974. Crustacea:Stomatopoda. 6 p. (45¢)

Williams, A. B. 1974. Crustacea:Decapoda. 50 p. ($1.10)

Two manuals are in press:

Pollock, L. W. Tardigrada

Larson, R. J. Cnidaria: Scyphozoa Seven manuals are in final revision:

Drouet, F. and R. Hildebrand. Bluegreen algae Cavaliere, R. Fungi

Higgins, R. P. Kinorhyncha

Turner, R. T., W. Baranowski and J. M Reinhart. Benthic Shelled Gastropods

Cutler, E. B. Sipunculoidea

Coull, B. C. Harpacticoid Copepoda

Zullo, V. A. Cirripedia

Editor of the series is Dr. Melbourne R. Carriker, Professor of Marine Studies in the College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, Lewis, Delaware 19958.


Dr. Arne K. Strid, Professor of Botany in the Institute for Systematisk Botanik (Kobenhavns Universitet), Gothersgade 140, 1123 Kobenhavn K. Danmark has been appointed secretary of the International Organization of Plant Biosystematists. He is responsible for the production of the IOPB Newsletter and requests that interested biosystematists consider publication of notes, brief scientific reports, review articles and announcements, requests for seeds, book reviews, etc., in the IOPB Newsletter.

Benjamin Green, founder of the Cape Mendocino Natural Park Fund, requests assistance in furthering the concept of a park in this area. There are 400,000 acres in northern California that need preservation. Contact Benjamin Green at Route 2, Box 293, McKinleyville, Calif. 95521.

The Eunice Rockwell Oberly Memorial Award Committee announces that the Oberly Memorial Award, consisting of a citation and a cash prize, is made to the American citizen who compiles the best bibliography in the field of agriculture or one of the closely-related sciences in the two-year period preceding the year in which the award is made. Deadline for nominations is March 15, 1977. Information can be obtained from David K. Oyler, Chair-person, Oberly Memorial Award Committee. Steenhock Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisc. 53706.



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I will hold your questionnaire until I receive your reply and evaluate it in light of my legal and personal rights. If I do not hear from you by the end of this term, I assume that you are content to have me discard it. If I receive a stern letter demanding that I answer your questionnaire before you reply to this questionnaire, I shall write OBSCENE MAIL—RETURN TO SENDER on the envelope and return it to your office via inter-departmental messenger.


ASSISTANT PROFESSOR—BIOCHEMISTRY. The Department of Biochemistry at Michigan State University has an opening for an assistant professor with research interests in plant biochemistry. A Ph.D. degree is required and post-doctoral experience is preferred. The applicant is expected to establish a research program and to teach in the undergraduate and graduate programs of the department. Curricula vitae, names of three references and a statement of research interests should be sent to Dr. Robert Barker, Chairman, Department of Biochemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824.

PHYSIOLOGICAL PLANT ECOLOGIST. California State Polytechnic University has a faculty position available for September 1976 to teach ecology and plant physiology. Appointments will be at the assistant professor level. The applicant will be expected to participate in basic courses and to develop advanced courses in the specialty as well as to conduct research programs involving undergraduate and graduate students. Dr. R. W. Ames, Biological Sciences Department, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, Calif. 91768.

PLANT PATHOLOGIST or MYCOLOGIST. A temporary position to teach in one or both of these areas with possible participation in biology and botany courses. This is an academic year lectureship to replace a faculty member on leave. Dr. R. W. Ames, Biological Sciences Department, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, Calif. 91768.

PLANT PHYSIOLOGIST. The School of Natural Science at Hampshire College, Amherst, Mass., is seeking a botanist with a teaching specialty in plant physiology. Research interests in agriculture or limnology are desirable. Starting July '77 or before. Rank is open and salary negotiable. Minority and women candidates are urged to apply. Please send a letter stating ideas about teaching, curriculum vitae, and 3 letters of reference to: Botanist Search, c/o Judith Wilson, School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, Amherst, Mass. 01002.


BLAKE, S. F., and ALICE C. ATWOOD. Geographical Guide to Floras of the World. An Annotated List with Special Reference to Useful Plants and Common Plant Names. Part I. Africa, Australia, North America, South America, and Islands of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Washington, 1942. Reprinted by Otto Koeltz Science Publishers, Konigstein/Ts., 1974. 336 pp. DM 90.-.

Originally published as U. S. Dept. of Agric. Misc. Publ. 401, this work is again reprinted. The book was intended as a three-part work. Part II contains western Europe, and was originally published as U.S.D.A. Misc. Bibl. 797 (1961). Part IIl, which was to contain central and eastern Europe and Asia, was not published.

This work is still useful, providing a well organized


listing of general and local floras with informative notes on all entries. The geographical subdivision is highly de-tailed, greatly facilitating its use. Numerous references to very local floras (i.e., county, district, island) are given. A list of periodical abbreviations is provided to prevent ambiguity. An author index, providing full names and year of birth and death, and a geographical index are also provided. The quality of reproduction is excellent. This work, with its companion volume, is one of the most useful botanical bibliographies available.

JACKSON, BENJAMIN DAYDON. Guide to the Literature of Botany; Being a Classified Selection of Botanical Works, Including Nearly 6,000 Titles not in Pritzel's "Thesaurus". London, 1881. Reprinted by Otto Koeltz Science Publishers, Koenigstein/Ts., 1974. xxvi + 626 pp. DM 110.-.

Originally published by Longman, Green & Co./Dulau & Co., this important botanical bibliography is reprinted. The volume is of interest because of its arrangement by subject and for its number of entries. Citations are cryptic, sometimes to the point of exasperation, as only the bare essentials are provided. Brief informative notes are provided for some of the entries. Reproduction and paper are of excellent quality. This work is one of the most important bibliographic references, but does take some getting used to because of its older and abbreviated style of citation.

THUNBERG, CARL PETER. Flora Japonica, Sistens Plantas Insularum Japonicarum Secundum Systema Sexuale Emendatum Redactas ad XX Clases, Ordines, Genera et Species, cum Differentiis Specificis, Synonymic Paucis, Descriptionibus Concinnis et XXXIX Iconibus Adjectis. Leipzig, 1784. Reprinted by Oriole Editions, Inc., New York, 1975. lii + 418 pp., illus. $65.00.

Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1823), a student of Linnaeus, was one of the first Europeans to collect extensively in Japan. Since Japan was open only to the Dutch at that time, he passed himself off as Dutch. Thunberg was a prolific author, of which Flora Japonica was one of the most important. This work follows the Linnean system of classification and nomenclature. Many new species are described, making it of great interest to monographers.

The printing quality is only fair, with some pages hard to read because of missing, incomplete, or blurred type. Five fold-out plates of average quality are included.

ROXBURGH, WILLIAM and NATHANIEL WALLICH. Flora Indica or Descriptions of Indian Plants. Edited by William Carey. Serampore, Vol. I, 1820, Vol. II, 1824. Reprinted by Oriole Editions, New York, 1975. Vol. I, ix + 7 + 493 pp., Vol. II, v. + 583 pp. $65.00.

The complete and informative title of this work is: Flora Indica or Descriptions of Indian Plants by the late William Roxburgh, Edited by William Carey to which are Added Descriptions of Plants More Recently Discovered by Nathaniel Wallich. After Roxburgh's death in 1814, Carey edited the manuscript incorporating many new species and comments by Wallich. However, in 1832, disturbed by substantial additions being made by Wallich and cessation of that publication after only two volumes, Carey's and Roxburgh's children published the entire original manuscript minus Wallich's additions. The second edition has been reprinted several times and is the best known; this is the first reprint of the rare first edition. Often overlooked, the first edition contains numerous new species which have been incorrectly attributed to the second edition. The reprint of this rare work is indeed much welcomed. The quality of reproduction is fair with much broken and blurred type, making some parts difficult to read.

ROTH, ALBERTI GUILIELMI. Novae Plantarum Species Praesertim Indiae Orientalis. Ex Collectione Doct. Benj. Heynii cum Descriptionibus et Observationibus. Halberstadt, 1821. Reprinted by Oriole Editions, New York, 1975. iv -{- 411 pp. Price $35.00.

This very important work of Alberti Guilielmi (Albrecht Wilhelm) Roth (1757-1834) is reprinted for the first time. It is based primarily on Heyne's East Indian collection and follows the Linnean system of classification and nomenclature. Numerous new species are described.

Reproduction is fair with many pages difficult to read because of blurred and broken type. In spite of these shortcomings, we are indeed fortunate to have this work available.

Richard P. Wunderlin University of South Florida, Tampa

MIGUEL DEL BARCO. Historia Natural y Cronica de la Antigua California. Adiciones y Correcciones a la Noticia de Miguel Venegas. Edited with a preliminary study, notes and appendices by Miguel Ledn Portilla. Universidad Nacional Autdnoma de Mexico. Instituto de Investigaciones Histdricas, Mexico. 1973. lxxv pp., 8 pl. 2 maps. 100 pesos.

This work has been buried as a manuscript in the Biblioteca Nazionale of Rome since the 1770's. It was written by a Jesuit who went to Baja California in 1738 or 1739 and stayed there until 1768, when the Jesuits were expelled from Mexico. An acute observer, interested in all aspects of nature, he stored up an enormous amount of information about the plants, the animals and the mineral resources of the region. All this information went with him when he left Mexico and settled in Bologna, where he lived in exile until he died in 1790.

Still, he never planned to write a book on Baja California. What moved him to do so was the appearance, in 1757, of a work by Miguel Venegas entitled Nitocia de la California, edited and considerably modified by Andres Marcos Burriel. Venegas had never been in Baja California. His work, based on reports and answers to questionnaires by various missionaries, was completed in 1739. The job of editing was turned over to Burriel, who revised and amplified the work.

Barco saw the work when it appeared and immediately noted its imperfections. But it was not until he was livine>, in exile that he had the time to put his comments and corrections down on paper, and called his work Adiciones y Correcciones a la Noticia de Miguel Venegas. So, for 200 years, the work of Venegas has been considered a basic study on Baja California, while the corrections have lain in the manuscript archives in Rome.

For the botanist, one part of the Barco work is of special interest: chapter 4 on trees; chapter 5 on "fleshy plants" (cacti) ; chapter 6 on shrubs and herbs; chapter 7 on wheat; and chapter 8 on agaves and roots. These 70 pages provide detailed descriptions of the most important plants of the peninsula and equally detailed discussion of their uses. Since Barco was not a botanist, his plants are cited by common names only. The editor has tried to provide scientific names, with identifications from various


botanical works on Baja California, and dictionaries which include names of Mexican plants. As a result, there are errors of identification and spelling. The introduction by the editor contains a fine biography of Barco, and an excellent history of the work.

Ida K. Longman

HALBERG, A., A. REINBERG and H. SIMPSON (eds.). International Journal of Chronobiology. Vol. 1, No. 1. Chichester: John Wiley. 1973. $13.00 per year.

This periodical will publish quarterly new results from the area of chronobiology. Focal point for the journal is the evaluation of anatomy-in-time of living material. Papers of biorhythm interest are now collected in one location especially since review articles inform about work scattered in other places. Although Volume 1 suggests that it will deal with numerous rhythmic aspects reaching from psychology to agriculture, the focal area seems to be biochemical physiology. If the first impression is substantiated by volumes to follow, the journal is probably more intended for the biomedical sciences. But time will tell whether a broader view including all aspects of biological rhythmic phenomena will be attempted.

Helmut H. Lieth University of North Carolina

MUELLER-DOMBOIS, D. and H. ELLENBERG. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. 1975. 547 pp.

This is a reference book that is the first integrated synthesis of European and Anglo-American approaches to vegetation science. The term "vegetation ecology" is coined for the first time and defined as the study of plant communities (or vegetation). According to F. R. Fosberg's foreword, American ecologists are now out of excuses if they still show ignorance of European methods of vegetation analysis; after the publication of this book, such ignorance will be by choice.

The book has five parts, 15 chapters, four appendices, a good reference section, and subject and author index. Part I provides all the background needed to understand the rest of the book. Part II discusses with great detail field methods of vegetation analysis. Part III deals with the ordination and classification of vegetation. The material is presented in detail so that it is useful to anyone that wants to apply any of the methods presented. In part IV the authors discuss the causes of plant distribution. Part V summarizes the aims, methods, and future of vegetation ecology.

The book toys with the idea of ecosystems, but is never successful in integrating the "ecosystem view" with classic vegetation synecology. The discussion on succession reviews specific papers dealing with succession but modern concepts of succession are treated superficially. One of the most serious omissions of the book is not recognizing the work of L. R. Holdridge. Regardless of one's view of Holdridge's life-zone concept, the fact remains that his methods of vegetation analysis, mapping, and tropical forest classification are widely used.

Ariel E. Lugo University of Florida

EVANS, CHARLES M. New Plants from Old: Pruning and Propagation for the Indoor Gardener. Random House, N. Y. 1975. 113 pp.

The book is apparently written for the neophyte indoor gardener with three-quarters of the 113 pages devoted to propagation. Unfortunately, Mr. Evans emphasizes differences between propagation techniques rather than similarities and readers must draw the material together for them-selves. Certain minor errors also are apparent, such as the misspelling of Hormodin (TM) and his implication that seeds of all indoor plants germinate within one week. There are better books on plant propagation available in the same price range. One such volume is Kramer, J. 1973. Grow Your Own Plants. Scribner & Sons, N.Y.

D. R. Evert University of Vermont

BIDWELL, R. G. S. Plant Physiology. The Macmillan Biology Series. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York; 1974. xxvi + 643 p. illus. $14.95.

Few introducfory textbooks of plant physiology have been acclaimed by students or professionals. Students have condemned them for superficial coverages of important concepts, disorganization, and a lack of readability which bred boredom. Among the new books, R. G. S. Bidwell's Plant Physiology is clearly the best. It is comprehensive, thoughtful, and has an easy-to-read narrative style. Charts and illustrations are abundant. Scattered through the text are interesting and important interpretations of research and descriptions of experimental methods.

The book is divided into six sections, but for most courses only three need be developed thoroughly. The first section contains a survey of the important biological molecules, and a discussion of cells and cell organelles. The final two sections present such novel topics as the physiology of marine algae and plant communities. Any one or all of these sections could be omitted without detracting from the other material.

The core of Bidwell's book concerns metabolism, nutrition and translocation, and growth and development. The metabolism section begins with a discussion of energy transfer and is followed by clear, up-to-date presentations of photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen metabolism. Plant nutrition and translocation are presented routinely. Unfortunately, in a chapter entitled "Leaves and the Atmosphere", Bidwell separates material which would be less confusing if developed together. Photorespiration and factors affecting photosynthesis that were presented earlier are rehashed; while transpiration is separated from water uptake and movement, and, even then, covered poorly. Growth and development is certainly the best organized section. The subject is approached with emphasis on the whole plant. Mechanisms and controls are presented as they occur ontogenetically, and summarized in a chapter dealing with hormone action.

This book will prove useful as an introductory text for undergraduate courses in plant physiology. It is especially well adapted to a biochemical point of view. As a student, I recommend it highly.

Philip W. Petty University of Vermont

RUSSELL, NORMAN H. Introduction to Plant Science—A Humanistic and Ecological Approach. Illust., 302 pages, West Publishing Co., New York, 1975.

This book is designed for a single semester course for the liberal arts major. After introducing the reader to some ecological concepts, some properties characteristic of living organisms, and the cell theory, the book surveys the plant kingdom. In a brief two hundred pages the reader is exposed to the major plant divisions with basic physiological, anatomical, genetic, and ecological concepts being interjected along the way. The last third of the text is


devoted primarily to general ecology and contains an excellent chapter examining the theory of evolution by natural selection.

Scientific material is nicely broken up by poems and interesting botanical essays. The author encourages the student to think critically. His own deep respect for plants and natural environments is evident through his writing.

Although the text is not intended as a reference, it could be more substantial. I was particularly disappointed with the rather cursory treatment of the cultural and economic impacts that plants have had on man. Generally, the scientific material is well presented for the non-science major and the text succeeds in introducing the student to the various branches of botany.   H. Todd Spencer

University of Vermont

GATES, D. M. and R. B. SCHMERL (eds.) Perspectives of Biophysical Ecology. Springer-Verlag, N.Y. xiii + 609 pp. $34.80.

Biophysical ecology, a subdiscipline of ecology and environmental physiology, draws heavily on physics, chemistry and mathematics to produce dynamic analytical models and methods to help explain the energetic interactions of animals and plants with their environments. This volume, compiled from 32 papers presented at a symposium at the University of Michigan Biological Station on Douglas Lake in August 1973, is a summary of the current state of the art.

The book is divided into 6 parts: Analytical models of plants, Extreme climate and plant productivity, Water transport and environmental control of diffusion, Theoretical models of animals, Observation of animal body temperatures and Energy-transfer studies of animals. Approximately equal treatment is given to plants and animals from both an analytical and theoretical modeling perspective. Part V, animal body temperatures, is the only section that does not relate directly to the biophysical approach so rigorously adhered to in the rest of the volume. The 5 papers comprising this section deal more properly with environmental physiplogy, but the papers are quite novel in their approach and content, and there is enough overlap between the fields to make their inclusion worthwhile.

Part 1 is preceded by an introduction by David Gates. These pages should go a long way toward allaying some of the apprehensions many biologists may have concerning a field such as biophysical ecology that leans heavily on physics and chemistry. In 28 pages Gates gives a concise, readable account of the growth of the field during the past 15 years and discusses the basic theoretical framework upon which the rest of the volume is built. Each subsequent section is prefaced by a brief introduction that explains the importance and timeliness of each of the papers. Many of the papers have previously been published elsewhere and modified only slightly for inclusion in this volume, but this should not dissuade the interested reader from purchasing the book. This volume marks the first and probably the last time that the entire field of biophysical ecology can be discussed coherently in a single volume. The references alone, actually encompassing all literature relevant to the field, make the purchase worthwhile.

Richard C. Rosen University of Vermont

WHITTINGHAM, C. P. The Mechanism of Photosynthesis. American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc., New York. 1974. 125 pp. $13.50 cloth, $5.95 paper.

A book on photosynthesis written by an expert of Dr. Whittingham's stature is certainly welcome, the more so since the author's organization of the subject matter as well as his style and presentation are generally good. Inaccuracies and cases of less-than-felicitous expression are few and far between. However, criticism against the book is possible in at least three areas:

A) There is an underemphasis on the historical development of photosynthesis research. Engelmann, Warburg and CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) all get short shrift. B) The index is so short as to be arbitrary, i.e., rather useless. We looked in vain for such items as "flashing-light studies", "ribulose diphosphate carboxylase", "glyoxylic acid", the names of Ingenhousz, Priestley and Vinogradsky, etc. C) In view of the rapid development in the field, it is strange that only 5 of the 149 references are from 1970, two from 1971, and none from 1972 or 1973. Totally lacking are references to experiments by Ogren, Bowes and Hageman who have made an excellent case for the idea that ribulose diphosphate carboxylase is competitively inhibited by 0= and may act as an oxygenise, producing phosphoglycolate as well as 3-phosphoglyceric acid. Also lacking is a discussion of the fascinating work by Bjorkman and coworkers on the ecological implications of the C4-dicarboxylic acid type of photosynthesis and the physiological and biochemical analysis of hybrids between C3 and C4-plants. This book is much more obsolete than was necessary. However, it still is so good that we are looking forward to a new, truly up-to-date edition.

B. J. D. Meeuse

University of Washington

BLACKALL, W. E. and B. J. GRIEVE. How to Know Western Australian Wildflowers, Parts 1, I1, and III. University of Western Australia Press, Perth, Western Australia. cxviii + 595 pp. $14.80.

Anyone who has botanized in Australia can appreciate the monumental task of writing a key to the flora of the temperate region of Western Australia. This task was started by W. E. Blackall and finished by B. J. Grieve, with the publication of Part I in 1954, Part II in 1956, and Part III in 1965; Part IV is now in press and revision of Part I is now in progress. Parts I, II, and III have been reprinted "without amendments or revision" in a one volume paperback edition. This edition, published without the color plates from the original three parts, remains essentially three separate sections bound into one volume without any attempt at integration.

There is a single key to all of the families of pteridophytes and spermatophytes in Western Australia, and keys to the genera and species within each family. Line drawings illustrate many of the key characteristics. Generic or species descriptions are not included. The glossary from the first three publications has been reprinted. Separate indexes to the three parts are included; the author and general distribution of each species is given in the indexes to Parts II and III, but not for Part I. A valuable addition in this printing is a list of name changes and other corrigenda. This list is not complete, and could have been more conveniently arranged.

The University of Western Australia Press should he commended for reprinting How to Know Western Australian Wildflowers, Parts 1, II, and 111. No other work is available that covers as much as the original three parts, or as much as this reprint edition. This book is an essential volume for field work in Western Australia or for herbarium identification of Western Australian plants.

Larry DeBuhr Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden


RICE, ELROY L. Allelopathy. Academic Press New York, San Francisco, London. 1974. 353 pages. $25.00.

One of the nicest tasks in one's professional duties is to review a good book on an important subject by a highly respected colleague. The book on allelopathy by Elroy L. Rice is definitely such an occasion. The book, published in the monograph series Physiological Ecology edited by T. T. Kozlowski, covers the subject matter in 353 pages. From the allocation of space and effort it is clear that the author's main concern is to establish the fact that allelopathy is an important phenomenon in nature, the reality and importance of which is much disputed among ecologists.

The strongest emphasis in Rice's treatment concerns the processes by which the excretions from various plant portions or material influence soil microorganisms in the rhizosphere of other plants which in turn affect the plants with which they grow. The bibliography section covers 26 pages and extracts the world literature.

The book is well printed with 51 figures and 64 tables. While the tables are clear, uniformly arranged, and pleasingly printed, the figures are rather uneven, Most graphs have apparently been adopted from their previous sources without general redrawing. This has led to a conglomerate of lines and letter sizes, insufficient or in-convenient lettering, and a general unevenness. The photographic documentation is convincing where it appears, but should be extended to cover important cases in agriculture and horticulture.

The book is sure to become required reading in physiological ecology. It should give an important stimulation to the field of allelopathy research.

Helmut H. Lieth University of North Carolina

DUNCAN, WILBUR H. and LEONARD E. FOOTE. Wildflowers of the Southeastern United States. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, Ga. 1975. 296 pp. 485 photographs. $12.00.

Wildflowers of the Southeastern United States is not only a work of convenient and usable size, but it is also very reasonably priced. The region covers those states including, and south and southeast of, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, Arkansas, and Louisiana.

The book has a Foreword by Jimmy Carter, then Governor of Georgia, a lucid introduction that gives the work's purpose and scope, nature of the flora of the region, and helpful suggestions for the identification of plants. The Introduction has a section that enumerates plants with unusual characteristics, a guide to species groups, and, of particular value for the user, an illustrated section on the structure of flowering plants. A note on the need for conservation, explanatory comments regarding the photographs and text, and an abbreviated Glossary conclude the introductory matter.

The main body of the work has 485 colored photo-graphs of as many species with succinct, clearly written descriptions of each. The authors include only annual or perennial herbs. Discussions following the description of each species make it possible for the reader to identify 515 additional species. The distribution and flowering season is given for each entity, and pertinent synonymy is included. Following the text is a comprehensive Index of scientific and vernacular names used in the text. A check reveals that all traditional families are represented by at least one photograph.

The format of this production is tastefully designed. The color production of the plates is as good as, and in some instances even better than, those to be found in similar published works. It is a beautiful field guide and a ready reference for nature lovers, gardeners, and amateur or professional botanists.

Donovan S. Correll Fairchild Tropical Garden

HARTMANN, H. T. and D. E. KESTER. Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices. Third edition. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1975. 662 pp. $17.25.

The art of plant propagation has been practiced for centuries but only recently has serious attention been de-voted to the science. In this third edition, Hartmann and Kester do an outstanding job in bringing together the science and the art. They have organized nineteen chapters into five parts. The subject matter covered is extremely broad, from basic plant science to techniques employed in various methods of propagation. General aspects of re-production, morphology, nutrition and growing and propagating structures are covered in Part I. Part 11 deals with sexual reproduction, stressing development of fruits, seeds and spores, production of genetically pure seed, and techniques employed in seed production and propagation by seeds. Asexual propagation is stressed in Part III. After reviewing the anatomical and physiological basis of propagation. the authors stress the theory and practice of propagation by cuttings, grafting, budding, layering, and by use of specialized structures, e.g., bulbs, corms, and tubers. Aseptic culture of tissues and organs in plant propagation in Part IV has been considerably expanded reflecting the significant advancement in the field. Part V summarizes specific procedures in the propagation of important fruit and nut species, ornamental trees, shrubs, woody vines and selected annuals and herbaceous perennials used for ornamental purposes. This section is sufficiently complete to serve as a manual.

Although this book deals with the theory and practice of plant propagation, the theory or principles are confined to one chapter with the practice detailed in a subsequent chapter. Each chapter is followed by an extensive list of references and a list of suggested readings. The text is well organized, clearly written and easy to follow. The book is extremely well illustrated and contributes significantly to an understanding of the techniques. Many photographs, unfortunately, are of questionable quality. I find no serious omissions, although perhaps a greater emphasis could have been placed on the role of viruses on incompatibility of woody plants. Because of its breadth, its treatment of principles, and in depth description of methods of propagation, this text should find wide acceptance by students, teachers, researchers and practicing horticulturists and botanists.

Martin J. Bukovac Michigan State University

STANLEY, R. G. and H. F. LINSKENS. Pollen. Springer-Verlag, New York. 1974. 307 pp. $24.60.

Pollen means many things to many people. Stanley and Linskens were well aware of the broad spectrum of interest when they set out to cover the subject.

A Biology section of 3 chapters introduces pollen development, wall formation, dehiscence, size and distribution. Background information is given on the life history of pollen and pollen terminology. In the 4 chapters de-voted to Management they cover collection and uses of pollen, storage, tests for viability, and the nutritive role


of pollen to the commercially-important honey bee. About half of the book (9 chapters) focuses on pollen Biochemistry, examining carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, enzymes and cofactors, nucleic acids, pollen pigments, and growth regulators. Allergic response of man to pollen is included here. This book makes a substantial effort to introduce the reader to the many facets of pollen biology. Approximately 1500 references are cited and, for convenience, the page number of the author citation is cross-listed in the bibliography.

The style and format are excellent. The authors have succeeded admirably in distilling a very large body of information into digestible summaries. Occasionally, how-ever, this terseness leads to overgeneralizations. Occasional spelling and typographical errors are encountered, but seldom do they confuse the issue.

Donald E. Stone Duke University

DYSON, ROBERT D. Essentials of Cell Biology. Allyn and Bacon Inc., Boston, London and Sydney. 1975. pp. x + 467. $16.95.

Essentials of Cell Biology is not the first of its kind, but it is one of the better books. Most titles in cellular biology published over the years have had advanced students in mind. In the preface, Dyson states that his book presents ". . . a unified description of cellular structure and function at the introductory level...." Portions transferred from the author's earlier book are well chosen for an introductory course and the book has many selections which are completely rewritten. Each of the ten chapters has a summary of contents, a study guide and a list of references to encourage further reading. Questions in the study guide will stimulate the reader's intellectual curiosity and are themselves refreshing and thought-provoking. Each chapter is logically divided into sections to help the instructor pick and choose topics to fit class needs without disrupting the orderly sequence of materials.

An introductory course on cell biology attracts students with many professional interests which makes most books on cell biology unsuitable for presentation in one or two semesters. What makes this text distinctive and probably preferable is its own particular and all-inclusive choices of topics. This book has something for every interest in the field. The student, whatever his professional goals, could well develop a permanent interest in the study of cellular activities.

S. K. Ballal Tennessee Technical College


MILLER, ROBERT H. Root Anatomy and Morphology, A Guide to the Literature. Archon Books. 1974. $11.50.

One of the least exploited botanical techniques is bibliography; this in spite of botany's quickening accretion of new titles. Miller's guide to the literature of root morphology and anatomy is important not only for its role in its prescribed field, but also for consideration as a practical form of botanical literature. Miller has not attempted exhaustively to supply titles for the nineteenth century; he provides 303 citations in his chronological author list. This is supplemented with 17 selected references which provide pathways into relevant nineteenth century literature. He includes 2672 titles in his chronological author list of literature after 1900. Titles in languages of Eastern Europe have been translated into English.

Three more lists include cross referenced indices to families and genera. A list of periodical titles serves as an ensemble of sources in which to search for pertinent literature and as a translation of unfamiliar abbreviations in the citations of the chronological author list.

Miller has included mycorrhizae and parasitic haustoria in roots, but has excluded nodule formation and root pathology. This bibliography is well edited and excellently printed at low cost. It will be a valuable tool for experienced practitioners and newcomers with relevant interests in the plant sciences. Although it may be partly necessity and partly habit, slighting the literature of the nineteenth century is, perhaps, a detrimental prejudice. Do contemporary botanists know what they have left in front?

Robert A. Claus
105 North Lancaster Street
Mount Prospect, Illinois

DOWNS, R. J. Controlled Environments for Plant Re-search. Columbia University Press, N.Y. 175 pp. illust., indexed. 1975. $12.00.

Many commercial or in-house-constructed, controlled-environment systems work poorly when they work at all. Botanists angrily spit out the pejorative "engineers!" and try to salvage their experiments with elaborate statistics. Dr. Downs, a leader in the Southeastern Plant Environment Laboratories at Duke and North Carolina State, tells those of us who use, design or buy such units, what's wrong with them, what to do to make them into effective research tools, and how to buy them. The book is clear, very well written and is the best statement on the multiple problems inherent to controlled environment systems that has appeared. Don't consider buying or designing a growth chamber without being able to wave this book under the engineer's nose.

R. M. Klein

University of Vermont

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