Plant Science Bulletin archive
Issue: 1971 v17 No 1 Spring
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
March 1971 Vol. 17 No. 1
Responsibilities of Universities to Provide Trained Botanists for Undergraduate Education William L. Stern 2
Responsibilities of Universities to Provide Trained Botanists for Undergraduate Education*
William L. Stern Department of Botany
That the University has the responsibility to provide trained botanists for undergraduate education, is a valid assertion; first, because the potential in all terms exists there, and second, because there is no other institution with the potential to do the job. With this statement made, I could discharge myself from further obligation to this symposium since in the past few years there has been a plethora of symposia, discussions, workshops, questionnaires, and formal papers on the general subject of educating botany teachers to educate and on the more specific topic of how best this is to be accomplished. I do not want to contribute further to the redundancy of effort, rather, to make a few observations and to point out a neglected area of concern.
In reviewing some of the recent literature resulting from attempts to improve the training of botany graduate students to teach, and while examining early issues of Plant Science Bulletin (e.g., Miller 1955; Cleland 1961), on the one hand I was struck by the inventiveness and imagination of college teachers in devising complicated methods to train graduate students to teach, and on the other hand by the absence, or near absence, of suggestions about who, specifically, will carry out these various training methods. At least in my university, prime recognition in terms of monetary reward and prestige does not go to teachers, rather, to those faculty with a demonstrated capacity for research productivity. (I might say here that my department is not typical in that we do recognize primary involvment in teaching as a worthwhile pursuit.) It is fairly common knowledge that in too many universities, the promulgation of research papers is the keystone of aca- demic advancement, not heavy involvement in teaching programs.
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Let us return then to the several plans proposed to foster increased excellence in college teachers and increased production of these excellent teachers: e.g., the Doctor of Arts degree, the Ph. D. in Science Teaching, Yale's Master of Philosophy degree, intern-extern proposals, and so on. Some of these plans and others have already been activated, but it is probably too soon to evaluate their success and to iron out the wrinkles which will inevitably develop. In all methods for training teachers, some person or persons, in each department or institution, must assume a major responsibility to make the plans go and to work out the operational kinks which develop. Someone must continue to apply his energies and imagination; someone must dedicate himself whole-heartedly, diligently, and probably full-time if he is to undertake the entire responsibility for teacher training in a department. Who?
I do not mean to imply a lack of capable persons, rather, a lack of understanding or appreciation on the parts of some top university administrators of the necessity to recognize that teaching teachers in deparments of botany in colleges and universities is as worthwhile a pursuit as is research, and should be rewarded commensurately. From my recent readings, it does seem to be true that in some institutions this realization has dawned and that in others it is dawning, albeit slowly. However, I submit that in too many institutions the researcher still holds sway over the academic coffers, and the full-time teacher is a begger rooting for the meager monetary rewards which dribble from the edges of the purse.
However meritorious the several plans for teaching teaching assistants to teach, none will work well unless the teacher-trainer is recognized and rewarded for his efforts, rather than penalized for them, as seems to be the case in so many institutions of higher learning. This fact must be brought forcefully to the attention of university administrators. Acceptance of this reality must progress hand-in-hand, or even better, it must precede efforts to improve the training of graduate teaching assistants in the pedagogical process. Botanists whose talents and desires lead them to specialize in university teaching, and in the associated activity of training neophyte botanists for teaching careers, must not be badgered by the necessity to carry on a full-fledged research program in order to achieve academic and monetary equality with researchers.
It should be recognized, even though it is self-evident, that some botanists can best exploit their talents by teaching and others can do so through research. Some few can accomplish both and well. But, I am concerned here with the botanist whose major assignment is to teach under-graduates and who also has, at the same time, a primary responsibility for training teaching assistants in the art of teaching and for planning, developing, and carrying out techniques to do so. He is a valuable link in the educational process; he must be rewarded financially and at the same time, he should enjoy professional and academic prestige on a par with his research oriented colleagues. To do less, is to jeopardize the future of the science itself, both for botanists and for non-botanists.
Before I had received a copy of Donald S. Dean's paper (1970), "In Search of a Way," I circulated my own questionnaire, partly in preparation for this Symposium. Ques-
*Paper presented as part of a symposium, "The development of balanced biology programs in two-year colleges," co-sponsored by the AIRS Office of Biological Education and the Teaching Section, Botanical Society of America, at the 21st Annual AIBS Meeting, Indiana University, August 23-29, 1970.
tionnaires were sent to colleges and universities where I had some personal acquaintanceship with faculty members — this to assure a reasonably good response. I think a summary of some of the responses are pertinent to this discussion. There were only 10 questions, and of the 50 circulars sent, 35 were completed and returned.
In a question designed to determine whether training of teaching assistants was formal (that is, organized into regular classes or workshops) or informal (discussions, apprenticeships, and individual criticism), I found that about half the training was informal and the other half a combination of both formal and informal training. By and large this training took place in the botany departments themselves and there was no association with course work in colleges of education. The training was usually carried out by botany faculty members or by botany faculty and senior teaching assistants. In about one-fifth of the cases, this training was a "one shot" effort. It was only carried on when new teaching assistants first arrived at the university and it was not continued into subsequent semesters. In well over half the cases, though, some kind of training was said to be continuous throughout the career of the teaching assistant. In a few instances, there was no training whatsoever given to teaching assistants! In most cases, newly arrived teaching assistants were required to present them-selves before a class during their first semester, sometimes in association with an experienced teaching assistant or faculty member, and sometimes alone.
When asked to give an opinion about whether proper training and counseling in their departments were being given in teaching methods, testing, and evaluation, to help students in their work as graduate teaching assistants, about half of the respondents replied affirmatively. How-ever, when asked this same question, but with respect to training for a lifetime career of university or college teaching, over 70 percent of the respondents answered negatively!
Based upon the responses to some of the questions, it would seem to me that efforts must be made, at some point or points in the career of a graduate teaching assistant, to present some organized instruction, including teaching techniques (I do not necessarily mean formal classes or training in professional Education), testing methods, and evaluation of test results and to continue this instruction at least informally throughout the careers of teaching assistants. It would also seem apparent, that new teaching assistants should be given at least one semester of "on the job training" in association with a faculty member or experienced teaching assistant before being "turned loose" on his own. Various other means have been set forth for carrying out these and other facets of training in recent papers by Potter (1970), Univ. of New Mexico, Dean (1970), AIBS, Somers (1970), Univ. of Delaware, Koen (1970), Univ. of Michigan and by others. Most of these plans remain to be tested.
Although associations with "Education courses" are anathema to many botanists, and as one of them recently put it to me—" `Methodology' and `Professional Education' have damn near ruined American education, I deplore the current attempts to formalize, along `Professional Education' lines, the individual training of prospective college teachers! Those so trained (or worried about getting such training) are invariably second rate people"—I would not be above incorporating into botany departments a "professional" course aimed at instruction in teaching methods and including techniques of testing and evaluation of tests. I should say, parenthetically, that in my reading of committee and symposium reports on the training of college teachers of botany, I saw no outstanding effort to "subvert" college botany teaching by relegating such instruction to colleges producing degrees in Education. Let my correspondent continue to remain vigilant, nevertheless!
Regardless of the several plans, simple and elaborate, forwarded to improve the quality of teaching in college botany and to improve the quality of college botany teachers, I would still assert vigorously that a close personal association between superior faculty teachers and teaching assistants is the sine qua non of effective teacher training. It is doubtful if worthwhile results in teacher training in botany at the college level could result without a deep mutual concern between the participants in the process. Donald Dean stated this well when he wrote that there is no special technique for teacher training, rather a method which, " . . . brings together a concerned mentor and a concerned student ... " is really at the base of the process. This is certainly not a new concept; rather, it is time-honored, simple, eminently workable, and deserves to be restated again and again. It is only within the con-fines of the University where mentor and student can achieve this desirable relationship and it is the responsibility of the University to enable that achievement to take place, and moreover, to provide a stimulating and encouraging atmosphere for the development of teachers in botany and for the teaching of botany.
Cleland, R. E. 1961. Supply and demand in relation to the Ph. D. Plant Sci. Bull. 7(1): 1 - 3.
Dean, D. S. 1970. In search of a way. Durham, New Hampshire Conference on Preservice Preparation of College Biology Teachers. CUEBS. pp. 12.
Koen, F. M. 1970. On becoming a college teacher. Durham, New Hampshire Conference on Preservice Preparation of College Biology Teachers. GUEBS. pp. 7.
Miller, R. H. 1955. The organization of general botany courses in the United States and Canada. Plant Sci. Bull. 1(3): 1-4.
Potter, L. D. 1970. A model program for the orientation of new teaching assistants. Working Group B. Berkeley Conference on Preservice Preparation of College Biology Teachers. CUEBS Memo. No. 70-11: 43 - 46.
Somers, G. F. 1970. Making a teaching experience a learning experience. Working Group A. Durham, New Hampshire Conference on Preservice Preparation of College Biology Teachers. CUEBS. pp. 2.
Fusarium Research Center
Paul E. Nelson
Department of Plant Pathology
The Pennsylvania State University, University Park
For many years plant pathologists have been concerned about species of Fusarium because they are among the most important and widespread pathogens of food crops in the world. The genus Fusarium warrants a concentrated research effort in view of the major problems posed by this group of plant pathogens to modern agriculture. Since Fusarium spp. are involved in several major disease problems, it is necessary to devote considerable research effort to their study. By action of Dr. R. E. Larson, Dean of the
tl°Expanded versions of the discussions by Dean, Koen, Potter, and Somers have recently been incorporated in the publication: Preservice preparation of college biology teachers: A search for a better way, by Donald S. Dean, and published by the Commission on Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences, Publication No. 24, November 1970, 122 pp. The booklet is available, free-of-charge, from the Commission of 3900 Wisconsin Avenue, N. W., Washington, D. C. 20016.
College of Agriculture, the Fusarium Research Center has been established in the Department of Plant Pathology to deal with state, national and international problems posed by Fusarium spp. The Center is under the direction of Dr. Paul E. Nelson, Professor of Plant Pathology and Dr. T. A. Toussoun, Adjunct Associate Professor of Plant Pathology and President, Institute for Fungus Research.
Both Drs. Toussoun and Nelson received their advanced degrees from the Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Berkeley, long known for its research on Fusarium. Dr. Toussoun continued on the staff at Berkeley, working with Dr. W. C. Snyder on a variety of problems dealing with Fusarium, until 1968 when he founded the Institute for Fungus Research in San Francisco. His major research interests are in Fusarium biology, the ecology of soil inhabiting fungi and the relationships of soil environment to fungus root diseases. He has published numerous papers on these subjects and is a member of the International Executive Committee on Fusarium Research Workers. Dr. Nelson went to Cornell University, after graduation, to work on diseases of ornamental plants and in particular the vascular wilts caused by fusaria. In 1965 he joined the Department of Plant Pathology, The Pennsylvania State University to continue work on diseases of ornamental plants. He has in addition, initiated work on Fusarium diseases of corn and turf grasses. His major research interests are the epidemiology of Fusarium diseases and the pathological anatomy of Fusarium infected plants. Recently Toussoun and Nelson co-authored "A pictorial guide to the identification of Fusarium species" and are currently working on a monograph of Fusarium roseum.
At present the Center serves as a resource nucleus of fusaria by providing the expertise in their identification and methods of culture. Current projects in the Center are listed below.
blight of turf grasses in cooperation with Dr. H.
Cole, Jr., The Pennsylvania State University.
Dr. R. K. Horst, Cornel University and Dr. L. W.
Burgess, University of Melbourne, Australia.
In the laboratories of the Center a collection of more than 2600 cultures of Fusarium species from the United States and the world is maintained. The major portion of this collection is presently composed of more than 1500 isolates of F. roseum since this is one of the main areas of interest at present. In addition, sizeable collections of F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. moniliforme, F. tricinctum, and other species are maintained and are constantly being added to. The Center is willing to provide cultures for other workers interested in fusaria and will also provide the identification of Fusarium cultures for interested workers.
A major purpose of the Center is to initiate cooperative research projects on fusaria with other interested workers and to work cooperatively with other centers of research on Fusarium throughout the world. In the near future both the facilities and services of the Center will be expanded to provide opportunity for post-doctoral scholars and re-searchers from other parts of the world who may be interested in working at the Center on problems of special interest to them. We invite your comments and inquiries concerning the Center and its program.
If all goes well for your new editor, the Plant Science Bulletin will reach its second decade of publication during his tenure of office. The Bulletin has evolved during these past 15 years from a simple 4 page newsletter into a 12 page multipurpose quarterly publication, and issues now include a useful series of major papers and reports, in addition to news, announcements, obituaries, and book reviews. The late Dr. Harry J. Fuller edited the first number in January, 1955 and he included in his Editorial Platform 10 convictions held by Botanical Society members regarding the purposes of the Bulletin. The first of these is the Bulletin should perform a unifying function among plant scientists, although precisely how this way to be done was not explained. The Bulletin's other functions, such as publication of articles of general interest to plant scientists, personalia, "recent advances" papers, requests for research materials, articles on botanical teaching, and fellowship notices generally have been carried forward over the years.
Editor Fuller identified 4 major problems that faced botanists in those days that may cause the more cynical among us to conclude that `le plus ca change, le plus c'est la mēme chose'. First, he noted that biology courses and biology departments generally have a detrimental effect on the teaching and practice of the plant sciences. The second problem, related to the first, was the apathy and antagonism that some botanists had toward participation in general biology programs. The third problem was the acceptance of mediocre students by some graduate schools, and the fourth was the lack of communication concerning changing conditions and educational problems among botanists.
An examination of the contents of early numbers of the Bulletin reveals articles on biology vs. botany departments, botany course content, causes of dwindling enrollments in traditional botany courses, the role of research in botanical teaching, how to stimulate interest among undergraduates, among others that may have been more helpful to plant scientists at large. Recent articles have dealt with biology vs. botany departments, causes of dwindling enrollments, etc. etc. It would seem that some of our earlier problems are no nearer solution than when the Bulletin began its work.
There is now before the Council of the Botanical Society a proposal to consider promoting the formation of a federation of all the plant sciences in order to help foster the good health of our science. The union would include applied as well as basic branches of botany. Although such an organization may duplicate to some extent the functions of the American Institute of Bioligical Sciences, nevertheless it could aid in performing a unifying function among plant scientists in the same way that AIBS does for biologists. The two organizations could be mutually supportive and not necessarily competitive. It's worth considering if this would help us make progress in solving some of our perennial problems in the plant sciences.
Readers will quickly note that a few changes have been made in the format of the Bulletin. A brief table of con-tents now appears on the front, and we are now mailing "flat" as a "self-mailer" using cover stock for the outside pages. The editor will be interested in learning from the
membership if they approve or not of these changes, and he is particularly interested to know if the Bulletin is delivered in a damaged condition.
Finally, the general invitation is still in force to all members of the Society to submit articles, news items, notices, announcements, and other materials to the Editor for consideration for publication in the Bulletin. He will try to get them in print as soon as possible.
News & Annoucements
1971 Summer Institute in Systematics
The 1971 Summer Institute in Systematics, "Origin and Measurement of Diversity," is being organized by the Smithsonian Institution. The site is the National Museum of Natural History and the dates are June 20- July 9, 1971, inclusive.
Unlike previous Institutes, this one will be more subject-oriented, the speakers emphasizing two primary areas: (1) mechanisms by which organismal diversity is attained, and (2) assessment of diversity by a variety of techniques. Mornings will be devoted to these presentations and to discussions; afternoons will be left open to allow participants to use the National Collections for their individual research projects, which they are encouraged to discuss in special informal sessions.
The Institute is limited to 25 participants who will be given air fare and per diem while in Washington. About 10 of them will be doctoral candidates in their last year or two as students; the remaining 15 selections will be from among applicants who have received doctoral degrees within about the past three years.
Applications may be obtained by sending your name and address to: Dr. R. S. Cowan, Office of Systematics, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 20560.
Mountain Lake Biological Station Program
The University of Virginia announces that eight graduate courses emphasizing field biology will be given at the Mountain Lake Biological Station this summer. A limited number of National Science Foundation scholarships are available for research and study: (1) Pre-doctorate for supervised research, stipend $500; and (2) Post-graduate for training in field biology, stipend $400. Preference is given for studies concerned with the biota of the region. Application blanks for these awards may be secured from the Director, Mountain Lake Biological Station, Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903 and must be submitted before May 1, 1971.
Of special interest to plant scientists are: First Term—June 16 through July 21; Plant Ecology: Dr. Gary L. Miller, Eisenhower College. Second Term — July 23 through August 26; Plant Biosystematics: Dr. C. Ritchie Bell, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Pest Control Strategies for the Future
Symposium on Pest Control Strategies for the Future will be held 14-16 April 1971, Auditorium, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D. C. 20418. For information write: Agricultural Board, Division of Biology and Agriculture.
Rocky Mountain National Park Seminars
The tenth season of the Rocky Mountain National Park Seminars will begin on June 28, 1971. Courses of study offered include Mountain Geology (2 sessions), Mountain Ecology, Alpine Ecology, Bird Ecology, Animal Ecology, Plant Identification, and Conservation Ecology Workshop. The workshop will be held August 2 through August 14 and will conclude the 1971 session.
Instructors will be Dr. Richard G. Beidleman, professor of biology and department chairman at Colorado College, Colorado Springs; Dr. William G. Gambill, Jr., Director, Denver Botanic Gardens, Denver, Colorado; Dr. Spenser W. Havlick, assistant professor of resource planning and conservation at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Dr. Robert B. Johnson, professor of geology and depai tinent chairman at Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Dr. John W. Marr, professor of biology at University of Colorado, Boulder; Dr. James A. Swan, lecturer in resource planning and conservation at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Dr. Gustav A. Swanson, Head of the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Dr. Joseph L. Weitz, professor of geology at Colorado State University, Fort Collins; and Dr. Beatrice E. Willard, ecologist and President of Thorne Ecological Foundation, Boulder, Colorado.
The seminars are held in Rocky Mountain National Park, and consist primarily of field trips in the Park — an area "designed" for the study of ecology. Laboratory work and lectures are also included. Accommodations are available in Estes Park; Rocky Mountain National Park has several campgrounds. It is possible to receive credit for the seminars from the University of Colorado Extension Division if desired. Anyone wishing further information is asked to write Tom C. Thomas, Executive Secretary, Rocky Mountain Nature Association, Estes Park, Colorado 80517.
International Symposium on Shrubs
An International Symposium on Useful Shrubs of the world's dry lands will be held on the campus of Utah State University at Logan, Utah, July 12-17, 1971. The purpose of this symposium will be to bring together interested people from all parts of the world for a thorough review of what is presently known about shrubs. Invited speakers representing every significant dry land region on earth will treat the following major divisions of the subject in depth: Continental aspects of shrub distribution, utilization and potentials; Present and possible uses of shrubs; Genetic potential: Synecology; Physiology of shrubs; Nutritive quality; Regeneration; The future of shrubs in arid lands.
A proceedings of the Symposium will be published. Interested persons should write for future information or to make reservations to: Dr. C. M. McKell, Head, Dept. of Range Science, College of Natural Resources, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84321, U. S. A.
University of Oklahoma Biological Station Program
The 1971 Summer Session at the University of Oklahoma Biological Station at Lake Texoma will be from June 5 until July 31. The available courses will include: Animal Behavior - Dr. Charles Carpenter, University of Oklahoma; Natural History of the Vertebrates - Dr. Ho-ward McCarley, Austin College; Host Parasite Relations - Dr. Horace Bailey, Colorado State University, Reproduc-
tive Biology of the Flowering Plants - Dr. James Estes, University of Oklahoma; Microbial Ecology - Dr. John Lancaster, University of Oklahoma. In addition to the above courses and independent research projects for pre-college, undergraduate, and postdoctoral students, the Biological Station will also conduct a summer institute in Systems Ecology. This institute will be available for college teachers to learn and participate in the systems analysis of an aquatic ecosystem. The Institute will be directed by Dr. Paul Risser, Oklahoma University, and the Systems Analysis will be conducted by Dr. Bernard Patten, University of Georgia. Other instructors who will participate in the Systems Ecology Institute are: Dr. Clark Hubbes, University of Texas, Dr. Loran Hill, University of Oklahoma, Dr. Andrew Robertson, University of Oklahoma, Dr. Carl Prophet, Emporia State College and Dr. Bennett Clark, University of Oklahoma. The Institute will also include a series of seminar speakers: Dr. Frank Blair, University of Texas, Dr. Eugene Odum, University of Georgia, Mr. Sam Bledsoe, Colorado State University, Dr. Amos Eddy, University of Oklahoma, and Dr. Orie Loucks, University of Wisconsin.
Further information and application forms for all the Biological Station programs may be obtained by writing: Dr. Paul G. Risser, Department of Botany and Micro-biology, 770 Van Vleet Oval, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma 73069.
The Edmonton Meeting
A summary of the sessions planned for the Edmonton meeting, June 20-24, 1971, co-sponsored by the Canadian Botanical Association and A.I.B.S. at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, has been prepared by the Program Director Dr. S. N. Postlethwait of Purdue University. Advance registration forms and housing information were sent to all members along with the last issue of the BULLETIN. Botanical Society Council meetings will be held on Sunday, June 20 beginning at 9:00 A.M. The Plenary Session will be Monday morning, June 21, with the theme Our Northern Plants: Their Importance in the World's Resources. In the afternoon symposia have been arranged for the ecology section and for the history of botany sections. Contributed papers sessions for the various sections begin on Monday afternoon. The ecology section and general section will hold breakfasts on Tuesday morning, June 22, and the pteridological and phytochemical sections will have symposia. Contributed paper sessions will be held for phycology, ecology, paleobotany, general, developmental, and systematic sections. In the afternoon symposia have been arranged for the physiology-developmental sections on flowering, and for the phycology ecstion on northern algae. Contributed sessions are scheduled for the systematic, paleobotanical, ecology, phycology and teaching sections. On Tuesday evening the banquets for the American Society of Plant Taxonomists and Phycological Society will be held.
A symposium on aspects of northern botany and one on meristems is planned for Wednesday morning, June 23, and contributed paper sessions are scheduled for the phytochemical, paleobotany, developmental, and systematic sections. In the afternoon symposia will be held in the phytochemical, general, and microbiological sections, as well as the continuation of the morning symposia. A social hour will be followed by the banquet for all botanists in the evening.
Symposia on undergraduate botany teaching, systematics, and fern taxonomy are planned for Thursday morning, June 24, and contributed paper sessions in phycology, physiology, phytochemical, general, and developmental sections are scheduled. Symposia for the afternoon include one on controlled environment, on microbiology, on fungi, as well as continuation of the morning symposia. Contributed papers in physiology, phytochemistry, and phycology are also scheduled for the afternoon.
Field trips are available before, during, and after the meeting to a variety of areas of botanical interest.
Advanced Seminar in Tropical Botany
The University of Miami with the cooperation of Fair-child Tropical Garden and the U. S. Plant Introduction Station will offer an Advanced Seminar in Tropical Botany June 14-July 30, 1971. The faculty will be Dr. William L. Stem (morphology and anatomy), Dr. George H. M. Lawrence (taxonomy), Dr. Howard J. Teas (physiology), and Dr. Wallace E. Manis (plant propagation).
Eight semester hours of credit may be obtained from the University of Miami and participant support is avail-able from the National Science Foundation.
For application forms write to: Dr. Howard J. Teas, coordinator, Advanced Seminar in Tropical Botany, Biology Department, P. O. Box 9118, Coral Gables, Florida.
Minutes of the Business Meeting,
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana
August 2,5, 1970
President: Richard C. Starr, Indiana University
Vice President: Charles Heimsch, Miami University, Ohio Member of the Editorial Board: Ernest A. Ball, University of California, Irvine
The Treasurer, Secretary, and Program Director all continue in their respective offices for 1971.
She also reported that the Council had decided that the GUIDE TO GRADUATE STUDY IN PLANT SCIENCES 1968 should be reissued with up-to-date information, the new edition to be ready by the fall of 1971. All departments included in the present GUIDE would be contacted, but anyone in, or knowing of, departments not included but which should be added to the new GUIDE should give the name of the department and administrative officer to the Secretary.
November-December issue was already in press. When voluntary page charges had been instituted a few years ago, the page number limitation had been dropped. Dr. Boke reported that some problems had been encountered relative to this and that the Editorial Board was meeting to see if they could set some sort of reasonable guidelines for him to follow in setting limits if the author was unable to meet page charges and in regulating the proportion of a paper which might be in the form of tables or illustrations. A question concerning the quality of half-tone reproduction in the Journal was raised from the floor. Drs. Boke and Crockett replied to this: the paper and engraver are essentially the best available; the unsatisfactory quality in some numbers of the Journal arises in the printing process. Strong complaints improve the quality for an issue or two, but it then slips back. Dr. Crockett will again explore the possibility of changing printers, but there are not many who will take on a job the size of this one and also supply the other services that the Society gets from Monumental Printing Co.
The Treasurer, Dr. Delevoryas, reported that the Internal Revenue Service will probably be reviewing the status of the Society at some date in the near future. It seems highly probable that income from advertisements and institutional subscriptions to the Journal may well be subject to income tax. If and when this occurs, it will have a strong effect on Journal finances as tax levels are high.
President Constance's expression of the appreciation of the Society for Dr. Hecht's excellent editorship was received with applause.
The question was raised from the floor about the possibility of elimination of abstract publication. Dr. Postlethwait answered that this question had been discussed by the Council and that for the present abstracts would continue to be published in a supplement of the American Journal of Botany. He presented a plea that all those submitting abstracts should check and carefully follow the format of abstracts in this year's Journal supplement to reduce the amount of work required in publishing the abstracts.
"The Botanical Society wishes to express its gratitude to the administrative officers of Indiana University, to the staff of the American Institute of Biological Sciences and its local representative, Dr. L. S. McClung, and to our local representative, Dr. Paul G. Mahlberg, for their work in planning for the excel-lent arrangements and facilities provided for the 1970 meetings." The resolution was seconded and passed unanimously.
The meeting was adjourned at 1:55 PM.
Barbara F. Palser, Secretary
BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, INC.
PRESIDENT: *Richard C. Starr Department of Botany Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana 47401
VICE-PRESIDENT: *Charles Heimsch Department of Botany Miami University
Oxford, Ohio 45056
SECRETARY: *Barbara F. Palser (1970-1974)
Department of Botany Rutgers University New Brunswick,
New Jersey 08903
TREASURER: *Theodore Delevoryas (1968-1972)
Department of Biology Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
PROGRAM DIRECTOR: *Samuel N. Postlethwait (1970-1972)
Department of Biological Sciences
Purdue University Lafayette, Indiana 47907
EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: (1969-1971)
Harold C. Bold Department of Botany University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712
Harlan P. Banks (1970-1972)
Division of Biological Sciences
214 Plant Science Building Cornell University
Ithaca, New York 14850
Ernest A. Ball
Department of Organismic Biology
University of California Irvine, California 92664
EDITOR, *Norman H. Boke
JOURNAL OF BOTANY: Department of Plant Sciences
University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma 73069
EDITOR, *Robert W. Long PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN: (1971-1975)
Dept. of Botany and
University of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33620
BUSINESS MANAGER, 'Lawrence J. Crockett
AMERICAN The City College
JOURNAL OF BOTANY University of the City of New York
Convent Avenue &
New York, New York 10031
SECTIONAL OFFICERS AND COUNCIL MEMBERS
PAST PRESIDENT, 1970: 'Lincoln Constance Department of Botany University of California Berkeley, California 94704
PAST PRESIDENT, 1969: 'Harlan P. Banks Division of Biological
214 Plant Science Building Cornell University
Ithaca, New York 14850
PAST PRESIDENT, 1968: *Arthur W. Galston Department of Biology Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
Chairman (1968-1971) : °Ian M. Sussex
Department of Biology Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
Vice-Chairman (1968-1971) : Richard M. Klein
Department of Botany
University of Vermont
Burlington, Vermont 05401 Secretary (1971-1973 ) : Don E. Fosket
Bio. Labs, 16 Divinity Ave. Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts
02138 Representative to AJB Knut J. Norstog
Editorial Board (1971-1973) : Department of Biological Sciences
Northern Illinois University DeKalb, Illinois 60115
Chairman (1971) : Charles H. Uhl Division of Biological Sciences
Plant Science Building Cornell University
Ithaca, New York 14850
Vice-Chairman (1971) : Donald R. Kaplan Department of Botany University of California Berkeley, California 94720
Secretary-Treasurer *Albert S. Rouffa
(1971-1973) : Department of Biological Sciences
University of Illinois
Chicago Circle, Box 4348 Chicago, Illinois 60680
Representative to AJB Ray F. Evert
Editorial Board (1969-1971) : Department of Biology University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin 53706
Chairman (1971-1972) : Emanuel D. Rudolph Dept. of Botany and
Plant Pathology Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210
Vice-Chairman (1971-1972) : Jerry W. Stannard Department of History University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas 66044
Secretary (1971-1973) : °Ronald L. Stuckey Department of Biology Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210
Chairman (1971) : jack D. Rogers
Department of Plant
Pullman, Washington 99163
Vice-Chairman (1971) : George C. Carroll Department of Biology University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403
Secretary (1970-1972) : John E. Peterson Department of Botany University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri 65201
Representative to the Council *Annette Hervey (1970-1972) : New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458
Representative to the AJB Clark T. Rogerson
Editorial Board (1970-1972) : New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458
Chairman (1970) : Charles N. Miller, Jr. Department of Botany University of Montana Missoula, Montana 59801
Secretary-Treasurer 'John W. Hall
(1968-1971) : Department of Botany University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota
Secretary (1970-1971) : 'Philip W. Cook Department of Botany University of Vermont Burlintgon, Vermont 05401
Representative to AJB George F. Papenfuss
Editorial Board (indefinite) : Department of Botany University of California Berkeley, California 94720
Program Director (1971); Harold C. Bold Department of Botany University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712
Chairman ( ]971-1973): °Graeme P. Berlyn School of Forestry Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut
Representative to AJB
Editorial Board (indefinite) : Arthur W. Galston Department of Biology Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut
Chairman (1971) : 'Joseph Arditti
Department of Organismic Biology
University of California Irvine, California 92664 Vice-Chairman (1971): Bert G. Brehm
Department of Biology Reed College
Portland, Oregon 97202
Secretary-Treasurer Richard L. Mansell
(1971-1972): Dept. of Botany and Bacteriology
University of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33620
Representative to AJB Tom J. Mabry
Editorial Board (1971-1972): Department of Botany University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712
Chairman (1971) : John T. Mickel
New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458
Secretary (1971) : "Richard A. White Department of Botany Duke University
Durham, North Carolina 27706
Chairman (1970-1971) : 'John II. Beaman
Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology
Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan 48823
Persons marked with an ( °) are members of the Council. The Council also includes the officers of the Society except those elected to the Editorial Committee.
Secretary (1968-1971) : Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. The Herbaria,
22 Divinity Avenue Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts
Representative to AJB Donald A. Levin
Editorial Board (1970-1972) : Department of Biology Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
Chairman (1971) : O. J. Eigsti
Department of Biology Chicago State College 6800 South Stewart Chicago, Illinois 60621
Vice-Chairman (1971) : Sanford S. Tepfer Department of Biology University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403
Secretary (1971-1973): °Elwood B. Ehrle AIBS Office of Biol. Education
1717 Mass. Ave., N. W. Washington, D. C. 20036
Representative AJB Robert W. Hoshaw
Editorial Board (1969-1973) : Botanical Labs Agricultural Sciences Building
University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721
NORTHEASTERN SECTION: Chairman (1971):
Secretary-Treasurer °Robert K. Zuck
( 1969-1971) : Department of Botany Drew University
Madison, New Jersey 07940
Chairman (1971) : C. H. Miller
Department of Biological Sciences
University of California Santa Barbara, California 93106
Vice-Chairman (1971) : II. Wedherg
Department of Botany San Diego State College San Diego, California
Secretary-Treasurer °Joseph Arditti
(1971-1973): Department of Organismic Biology
University of California Irvine, California 92664
AAAS Council Representative: Harry D. Thiers Department of Biology San Francisco State College San Francisco, California
Chairman (1969-1971) : Robert W. Long
Dept. of Botany and Bacteriology
University of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33620
Secretary-Treasurer °Dorothy Crandall Bliss
(1967-1971) : Department of Biology Randolph-Macon Woman's College
Lynchburg, Virginia 24504
Dr. George H. Conant, 1896 - 1970
George H. Conant was born at Ripon, Wisconsin, on June 6, 1896. His boyhood interests included anything associated with nature, and he developed a special interest in plants and plant microtechnique while attending the Ripon Public Schools. Much of his time was spent identifying and learning about the flora of the Ripon area. He attended Ripon College where he worked as a teaching assistant in botany and did his early work in the making of prepared slides. The years 1918-19 were spent as a field clerk in the U. S. Army during World War I, but he returned to Ripon College where he received his bachelor's degree in 1920.
Post graduate work earned him a master's degree from the University of Wisconsin in 1923. While working on this degree he had the opportunity to try and to perfect many slide-making techniques. He was observed in this work by Dr. Gilbert Smith who suggested a career in commercial microtechnique. The years 1924-26 were spent as director of the microscope slide department of General Biological Supply House in Chicago.
He then returned to Madison where he earned his Ph.D. in plant pathology in 1926, His formal education completed, he took a position as assistant professor of botany at the University of Pennsylvania from 1927 to 1929. During those years he continued making slides for use in his classes. Recognizing the need for a source of consistently good prepared botany slides for higher education, he left teaching and returned to his home town where he founded Triarch Botanical Products.
Triarch had a shaky beginning during the depression, but as the economy stabilized, sales increased. By the 1940's Dr. Conant had perfected his now famous quadruple staining technique, and the demand for his slides had grown to the point where he found it necessary to give up the preserved plant part of the business. In 1951 a zoology slide department was added under the guidance of Dr. Carl W. Hagquist, and the name of the firm was changed to Triarch Products.
Dr. Conant was forced into retirement in 1955 by Parkinson's disease. His son, Paul L. Conant, took over full management of the business in 1959, but Dr. Conant continued to aid the business with his counsel. The business grew rapidly with the increase in student enrollment and government aid to education during the late 1950's and early 1960's. In 1961 the business was incorporated, and in 1965 a new 12,000 square foot brick laboratory was constructed. In December, 1966, Dr. Conant's physical condition became such that he was hospitalized, and he remained hospitalized until his death on May 15, 1970.
Dr. Conan't life was one of service. He served his community as a member of the Congregational church, the Ripon School Board, the American Legion, and at different times both Rotary and Kiwanis. He founded Triarch as a service to biologists, and was a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Phytopathological Society, the Mycological Society of America, the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the Botanical Society of America, the American Institute of Biological Sciences, the Biological Stain Commission, the Torrey Botanical Club, the Wisconsin Academy of Arts, Letters, and Sciences, and the Society of the Sigma Xi.
It is in memory of George H. Conant that Triarch continues to serve the biological community.
Dr. James Canright, the chairman of the Arizona State University Department of Botany and Microbiology, has been named visiting professor of botany at National Taiwan University in Taipei. He will conduct collaborative research on the palynology of some lower Miocene lignites in Taipei County.
The ASU professor, whose six-month stay will extend from Feb. 1 through Aug. 31, is one of several visiting researchers engaged in the U. S.-China Cooperative Science Program.
The effort, funded by the National Science Foundation and the Republic of China, is directed at spurring co-operation between scientists, engineers, scholars, and re-search institutes in the two countries.
Dr. Stefan Surzycki joined the faculty of the Department of Botany, University of Iowa, in September. Dr. Surzychi was formerly a research associate and Cabot Fellow in the biological laboratories of Harvard University. He will teach in the Life Science course and in the inter-departmental Genetics Program at The University of Iowa. Dr. Surzychi is interested in genetics at the molecular level and works primarily with genetic factors in chloroplasts and mitochondria in the cells of Chlamydomonas.
ARNOTT, H. T. and F. G. E. PAUTARD. Calcification in
Plants, p. 375-446. In Biological Calcification: Cellular
and Molecular Aspects, H. Schraer, editor. Appleton-
Century-Crofts, New York, New York, 1970. $24.00. Drs. Arnott and Pautard have made a very useful contribution toward a better understanding of the role of calcium in plant metabolism and physiology for those not working in the field. The authors point out that calcium plays three general roles in plants. These are metabolic, structural (cell wall), and as crystalline deposits. The suggest that crystalline deposits may be a form of stored calcium and not just waste products. Many of these de-posits are in the vacuole and there is increasing evidence that the vacuole plays a vital role in cell metabolism. The main thrust of their presentation (30 pp.) concerns the location, function. and ultrastructure of calcium oxalate in plant cells. Calcium carbonate receives less attention (17 rm.), and lack of information necessitates only brief mention of other forms of calcium in plant cells. Serious attention is paid to information about crystal formation as related to environmental and ontogenetic factors. Results of several techniques, from polarizing microscopy to X-ray diffraction, are presented and well illustrated as points about crystal genesis and structure are made. Most of the electron micrographs have not been published before and very elegantly show crystals of several types of plant cells. In summary, this article is a welcome addition to present knowledge of plant cell structure and function because this material is new and well presented.
L. K. Shumway
MARTIN, G. W. and C. T. ALEXOPOULOS. The Myxo-
mycetes. Illustrated by Ruth McVaugh Allen. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City. 1969. ix + 561 pp. $30.00.
The late G. N. Lewis—whose valence dots have sprinkled the formulae of covalent compounds for over a half century—once defined physical chemistry as the study of all things which are interesting. This brash statement exposes a gap in the great chemist's knowledge, for he obviously did not know the Myxomycetes. Lewis may be posthumously excused, for until after World War II, neither did most other scientists including biologists. Their acquaintance was limited to the textbook illustrations and sad little pickled or dry specimens of Stemonitis which were passed on through successive years of freshman botany classes. But now the Myxomycetes have become important research objects for all fields of biology ranging from physical chemistry of protoplasm (earliest) to genetics (latest). As more and more species are brought under cultivation and experimental control, the Myxomycetes need an authoritative modern and comprehensive treatmnt, and they have received it in The Myxomycetes by G. W. Martin and C. J. Alexopoulos.
This complete monograph published on the very last day of 1969 and according to the publisher's announcement, "including all species described up to 1967," actually had its beginnings in 1892-93 when Thomas Huston Mc-Bride published his "Myxomycetes of Eastern Iowa" and his "Nicaraguan Myxomycetes" in volume 2 of the Bulletin of the Laboratory of Natural History of Iowa. By 1899 these two little monographs had expanded into the first edition of North American Slime-Moulds (Macmillan) and the author's surname had expanded from McBride to Macbride. In 1922 a revised and enlarged edition appeared. In 1934 Macbride was joined by G. W. Martin as authors of Macbride and Martin The Myxomycetes which had as subtitle: "A descriptive list of the known species with special reference to those occurring in North America." Macbride did not live to see the publication of The Myxomycetes. In 1949 Martin against narrowed the field to North America with his "Myxomycetes" as part of North American Flora.
Martin's formal monograph treatment—without illustrations, introduction, or descriptive material other than taxonomic—was a departure from the tradition. The present volume has returned to the expansive introduction and worldwide treatment and thus may be considered the direct descendant of the 1934 Macbride and Martin Myxomycetes. Besides an unknown and overlapping Iowan continuity of 78 years in the authorship, there is also a continuity of expression, for Macbride in 1892 (describing Micheli's  contribution to the understanding of the group) states: "But Micheli's light was too strong for his generation. As Fries one hundred years later quaintly says: `immortalis Micheli tam claram Iucem accendit. . .' " ("Myxomycetes of Eastern Iowa," p. 106). In 1969 Martin and Alexopoulous quaintly say "But Micheli's light was too strong for his generation. As Fries, writing a century later, says `immortalis Micheli. . .' " (p. 17).
Seriously, this is a work of immense scholarship, to be compared only with Lister's Monograph of the Mycetozoa which went through three editions from 1894 to 1925. As Lister's work grew out of the collection in the British Museum, The Myxomycetes in its several generations grew out of the collection of the University of Iowa. Like any such large undertaking, The Myxomycetes has its good points and its faults.
The introduction distils into twenty-seven pages the essentials of the morphology, life cycles, cytology, physiology, and natural history of the Myxomycetes. It is a condensed version of Gray and Alexopoulos Biology of the Myxomycetes (Ronald Press, 1968) ; but while being condensed, it is by no means dehydrated and it makes easy and informative reading. The bibliography of the introduction is carefully selected with a nice balance between importance and inclusiveness.
An important part of the introduction deals in detail with the collection, notation, and preservation of specimens. The preparation of specimens is a simple matter, requiring neither particular skill nor experience. But preparatory savoir faire seems to be occasionally lacking among botanists. I have seen herbarium specimens of fructifications which have been pressed in envelopes with the aesthetic and informational content about equivalent to that of a collection of pressed birds' eggs.
In the introduction, the authors show an astute regard for difficulties in identifying these highly variable forms by discussing the variations which may be encountered. Anyone intending to classify Myxomycetes should read Section VII of the Introduction, "Use of the Keys" (p. 20).
It would seem then that the naive scholar inspired by the potentialities of Myxomycetes could go panting from the introduction to the taxonomic description in order to relate the specimen in hand to its countrepart in the book. Unfortunately, this is not the case, for the relaxed style of the introduction gives way to a formal treatment in the keys and descriptions of the higher taxa. Like a law tome, the initial keys and descriptions presuppose an extensive knowledge of the discipline and its vocabulary before they can be used. An intermediate volume is necessary for the Myxomycetes (1969) such as the Myxomycetes (1934), the Lister (1925) volume mentioned previously, or the late Robert Hagelstein's Mycetozoa of North America (1944, published by the author). The neonatal myxomycetologist will not be helped with a key character which separates half the five hundred species of endosporous Myxomycetes from the other half by: "lime, when present, secreted in characteristic fashion" (p. 37). However, once past the key to the orders of the subclass Myxogastromycetidae (formerly the Endosporeae or Myxogastres) on page 37, the further search is relatively smooth. Dictydine granules are given as a key character for families of the other Liceales (p. 38), but are undefined until the last family, the Cribariaceae, is reached (p. 73).
The major taxonomic treatment follows that of Martin's arrangement in North American Flora; the light-spored group (Liceales, Echinosteliales, Trichiales) preceding the dark-spored Stemonitales and Physarales. This is the re-verse of the arrangement followed in the other works previously mentioned. There seems to be no pressing reason for preferring one arrangement over the other, nor is one given.
The descriptions of species and genera are detailed, careful, and clear with annotations which should resolve many doubts in the user's mind, or, of equal importance legitimize them. The authors are scrupulous in explaining why they chose to make certain recombinations. Frequently these are corrections of names which violate the Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, but sometimes they express the opinion of the monographers. On the whole, the treatment is judiciously conservative. However, Hymenobolinva, Orcadella, and Kleistoholus are engulfed by Licea (as in Martin's 1944 treatment). The tropical genus of the Myxomycetes, Alwisia, is merged with the pan-climatic Tubifera. The authors' reasoning is usually based on practical points; that certain genera were too hastily erected for the material at hand, or supposedly salient differentiating characters are variable and untrustworthy.
Nevertheless, there are a few startling changes of address for old friends; Hemitrichia vesparium has moved from Hemitrichia to Metatrichia. The formerly monotypic Reticularia has become quite crowded, with R. lycoperdon now sharing the genus with six other species including the former Enteridium rozeanum and E. olivaceum. The genus Enteridium has vanished, being merged with Reticularia (with E. yabeanum going to Lindbladia). The Physaraceae have been untouched; the doubtful genus, Trichamphora, recognized in the 1934 Myxomycetes was already merged with Physarum in Martin's monograph.
While everyone is sure he can make a better arrangement than that in the monograph he is consulting, I must register my distaste for an alphabetical listing of species within the genus. It is easier to determine specimens when descriptions follow the order of the key. Thus, diagnosis of an array of species differing in minute de-tails are grouped together for instant comparison. In the horrendous genus Physarum, it would be nice to have the description of P. lateritium close to that of P. rubiginosum so that the nitty capillitium of the one may be distinguished from the gritty capillitium of the other. Instead, they are separated by 22 pages and 31 specific descriptions.
All illustrations are in colored plates at the end of the book, and while at first blush they seem to have a certain pastel Kate Greenaway charm, closer examination often shows that there is little detail to be closer examined. Colors are often not even approximations, such as the pink peridium of an indisputably ripe Reticularia lycoperdon whose mature fructifications are silvery or leather brown (Plate III). Attempts to render the delicate iridescence of the peridia of some species are unfortunate. The authors state that Lister's illustrations "have never been surpassed in comprehensiveness and in general ac-curacy" (p. 19) and they are not contradicted. Myxomycete iconography, at least for monographs written in English, has never received the loving attention paid to depicting the higher fungi or vascular plants. The litho-graphs of Massee's Monograph of the Myxogastres (1892) convey a Victorian stateliness, and his illustration of Cribraria intricata, rendered in bronze, could dignify the portals of a chancellory. Perhaps the best and most at-tractive illustrations are William Crowder's beautiful paintings (Marvels of Mycetozoa, Natl. Geogr. Mag. 49: 421-
443. 1926) .
The index is to genera and species only, higher taxa and all other matters being excluded. Perhaps the authors thought that most other subjects could be easily searched in the first three dozen pages and they may be right. The volume could have been helped by a glossary.
The taxonomic section has a separate and very comprehensive bibliography of an estimated six hundred selected references besides the complete documentation for each species. This thoughtful separation of taxonomic and general literature lists increases the value of The Myxomycetes which is already the major reference for all aspects of these fascinating organisms. The usefulness of the book is further enhanced by an appendix of doubtful or excluded genera which as the authors state "will, when added to the names included in the index, perhaps help to prevent the reuse of these names for new species, thus creating unnecessary homonyms, without adequate investigation of their availability" (p. 409). Names published too late to be included in the body of the mono-graph are also listed, which in a sense brings the modernity of the book up to 1968.
Academic reviewers are denied the undergraduate privilege of venting their spleen on a dean, and they must work out their frustrations by examining the surface flaws of a monument with a dissecting microscope. The Myxomycetes of Martin and Alexopoulos is a monument and in its essential parts, the cataloging of the known Myxomycetes of the world in critical, comprehensive, and lucid detail, it is unsurpassed and may be for a long time unsurpassable. Typography and the attractive blue and tan binding with gold lettering are a credit to the publishers.
Arthur L. Cohen
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA, FLORIDA 33620