PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
VOLUME 42, NUMBER 2, SUMMER 1996
The Botanical Society of America: The Society for ALL Plant Biologists
Table of Contents
News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees
Annual Meeting, August 4-8, 1996 30
to Seattle! 30
for AIBS Meeting in Seattle 30
on Botanical Society Committees: BSA Wants You! 31
Symposia for the 1996 Annual Meeting 31
Section Symposium, 5 August 1996 32
Botany Section Symposium, 5 August 1996 32
Section 1994 Symposium Published 32 Other News
Society for Mesoamerican Biology and Conservation 33
Biodiversity Forum 34
Announces Web Site 34 Commentary
in Durango Need AJB 35 Announcements
Hill Boke 1913-1996 37
Conferences, Meetings 38
Logo Items Available from the Business Office 64
Volume 42, Number 2: Summer 1996 ISSN 0032-0919
Editor: Joe Leverich
Saint Louis University
3507 Laclede Ave., Saint Louis MO 63103-2010
Telephone: (314) 977-3903
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees
Society of America Annual Meeting
August 4-8, 1996, Seattle, Washington
Welcome to Seattle!
offer greetings on behalf of the community of University of Washington plant
scientists. The University will host the 47th Annual Meeting of the American
Institute of Biological Sciences, August 4 to August 8. I sincerely hope that
you can attend. August is the finest month in Seattle. The chance of rain
is slight, and temperatures should get into the 80s. In addition to the many
botanical and scenic wonders (e.g., Mt. Rainier, the Olympic Peninsula, fern-
and moss-rich forests, the Washington Park Arboretum and Japanese Garden,
etc.), Seattle offers many historic, performing arts and sight-seeing opportunities.
The waterfront includes the justly famous Pike Place Market and a world-class
aquarium. Art galleries, an underground tour, and the Klondike Museum characterize
Pioneer Square and the International District provides varied Asian dining
and shopping. The Seattle Mariners will play at the Kingdome. Visitors to
Seattle often ignore the distinctive neighborhoods that contribute to the
livability of the Emerald City. Queen Anne Hill, Ballard, Fremont, Wallingford,
Green Lake (Seattle's World Class Zoo), and Madison Park are all near the
University District. So, come the AIBS meetings and be sure to plan time before
or after the meetings to explore Seattle.
—Roger del Moral, BSA local representative
Deadlines for AIBS Meeting in Seattle
the AIBS meeting this August in Seattle the Botanical Society will meet along
with a number of other societies. In addition to the full agenda of the BSA
Annual Meeting, there are a number of workshops, field trips, social events,
and sightseeing excursions scheduled.
wishing to reduce the cost of attending this meeting can apply to work as
anaudio-visual projectionist or registration clerkl"go-fer" and receive a
registration fee refund for 12 hours service.
deadlines remain for the upcoming meeting this August in Seattle:
June Workshop form due.
trip form due.
event and Tours form due. Projectionisdclerk/go-fer application due. 5 July Campus
housing reservation due.
Tower Hotel reservations due.
July Registration cancellations due in writing at AIBS. No refunds after this
registration information, contact AIBS, 1313 Dolley Madison Blvd., Suite 402,
McLean VA 22101; Telephone (703) 790-1745; Fax (703) 790-2672; Email firstname.lastname@example.org
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave.,
Columbus, OH 43210
The yearly subscription rate of $15 is included in the membership dues of
the Botanical Society
of America, Inc. Second class postage paid at Columbus, OH and additional
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to
Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293
614/292-3519 email: KHISER@MAGNUS.ACS.OHIO-STATE.EDU
Vacancies on Botanical Society Committees: BSA Wants You!
exist on several BSA committees for the 1996-97 year, and interested members
(if not a member, then join and serve) are sought to help in the functioning
and growth of our Society. If you are interested in becoming a member of one
of these committees, please contact Dan Crawford, Department of Plant Biology,
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1293 (phone 614-292-2725 fax 614-292-6345
e-mail email@example.com) by July 1, 1996. This is a way
to become actively involved in the Society and to help shape its future.
with vacancies include: Conservation, Darbaker Prize, Education, Election,
Esau Award, Financial Advisory, Membership and Appraisal, Merit Award, Mosely
Award, Committee on Committees.
of the committees are given under Article X of the By-Laws in the Membership
Directory and Handbook.
Dan Crawford, President-Elect
BSA Symposia for the 1996 Annual Meeting
for the Next Millennium - The Challenges Developmental and Structural Section:
Morphology and Evolution of Flowers: A Tribute to the Work of Shirley Tucker
Section (cosponsored by Genetics Section):
Hybridization and the Ecological Impact of Escaped Transgenes
Development and Conservation of Botanical Resources
and Physical Mapping of Plant Chromosomes
Section (cosponsored by Systematics):
Use of 18S rRNA Sequence in Plant Phylogeny
Section (cosponsored by Teaching Section):
Advances in Mycology for Undergraduate Botany Teachers
Section (cosponsored by Systematics): Use of Global Morphological Characters
in Green Plant Phylogeny and Evolution
Adaptations in Ferns
Section and AIBS:
the Information Highway: Biology Teaching and Research on the World Wide Web
Search for Tenure: Relative Importance of Teaching and Research
|PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
|Editorial Committee for Volume 42
|Robert E. Wyatt (1996)
Institute of Ecology
University of Georgia
Athens GA 30602
James D. Mauseth (1997)
Dept. of Botany
University of Texas
Austin TX 78713
Allison A. Snow (1998)
Dept. of Plant Biology
Ohio State University
Columbus OH 43210
|Nickolas M. Waser (1999)
Dept. of Biology
University of California
Riverside CA 92521
|P. Mick Richardson (2000)
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis MO 63166
Ecological Section Symposium 6 August 1996
symposium entitled "Wild-Crop Hybridization and the Ecological Impact of Escaped
Transgenes" will be sponsored by the Ecological Section oftheBotanical Society
and the USDA.The symposium organizers are Dr. Allison Snow (Ohio State University)
and Dr. Timothy Spira (Clemson University)
The purpose of this symposium is to bring together botanists who study wild-crop
hybridization and the evolutionary ecology of weeds. Gene flow from crops
to free-living relatives is an unexplored but potentially important mechanism
by which weedy species can acquire beneficial traits. For many crop species,
little is known about the ability to cross spontaneously with related taxa,
but genetic markers such as allozymes and RAPDs can be used to provide unambiguous
evidence for crop-wild gene flow and introgression. Recent studies suggest
that transgenes will "escape" in a similar manner to other crop genes, thereby
introducing traits such as strong resistance to disease, insects, frost damage,
and herbicides into wild gene pools. A widely acknowledged risk associated
with transgenic crops is the possibility that hybridization with weedy relatives
(or naturalization of the crop itselt) will cause novel, fitness-related transgenes
to result in the rapid evolution of more invasive weeds. Methods for addressing
this issue and related topics will be discussed.
Allison Snow Ohio State University
Economic Botany Section Symposium 5 August, 1996
Economic Botany Section of the Botanical Society of America (BSA) will sponsor
a symposium entitled "Economic Botany: Sus-tainable Development and Conservation
of Botanical Resources" at this years AIBS meetings. The meetings will take
place from August 4-8 in Seattle, Washington and the symposium will be help
Monday afternoon, August 5. Speakers include:
Bradley C. Sustainable use of Neotropical plant re-sources, what does it mean?
Elaine York and Todd L. Capson. Ethnobotany of the Gosiute Indians of the
Bruce F, F. Santana M., J. Cevallos E. and E. Munoz M. Conserving biological
diversity through sustainable development in the Sierra de Manantlan Biosphere
A. R. Rarity - cultivated plants and their wild progenitors.
Lentz, David and Hans T. Beck. Intellectual property rights: benefits and concerns
Marles, Robin J., Natalie Spence, Christine Clavelle, Donna Burns, and Leslie
Monteleone. Boreal forest ethnobotany and sustainable development.
Turner, Nancy J. and Mary Thomas. Incorporating traditional knowledge into
modem conservation programs: Examples from north-western North America.
Economic Botany Section will also be sponsoring two addition-al events at
AIBS that may be of interest to economic botanists. Monday evening August
5 at 8:00 pm, Dr. Hugh H. Iltis, from the University of Wisconsin, will present
a special lecture entitled "New Wine in an Old Bottle: The Catastrophic Sexual
Translocation Theory of the Origin of Maize." This is sure to be an exciting
presentation on a most interesting topic.
the following day, Tuesday, August 6, the Economic Botany Section business
meeting will be held as a special luncheon. An election will be held to replace
Torn Mione of Central Connecticut University, as president. Sir Ghillean Prance,
Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, will present a lecture entitled
"Economic Botany: The View from Kew" as part of the Section luncheon meeting.
S. Miller Missouri Botanical Garden
1994 Symposium Published
Pteridological Section has announce the publication of Use of Molecular Data
in Evolutionary Studies of Pteridophytes," Proceedings of a Symposium Held
August 9. 1994, at the 45th Annual Meeting of The American Institute of Biological
Sciences, Knoxville, Tennessee, in a special issue of the American Fern Journal
(vol. 85, no. 4). The syposium was jointly sponsored by the American Fern
Society and the Pteridological Section. The symposium organizer was Paul G.
Wolf, Utah State University. The procccedings include the following articles:
Paul G. Wolf
Phylogenetic Hypotheses for Ferns Alan R. Smith
Sequence Data in Phylogeny Reconstruction: An Overview of Techniques and Analyses
Tom A. Ranker
Phylogeny Based on rbcL Nucleotide Sequences Mitsuyasu Hasebe, Paul G. Wolf,
Kathleen M. Pryer, Kunihiko Ueda, Motomi Ito, Ryosuke Sano, Gerald J. Gastony,
Jun Yokoyama, James R. Manhart, Noriaki Murakami, Edmund H. Crane, Christopher
H. Haufler, and Warren D. Hauk
Chloroplast 16S rDNA Sequences and Phylogenetic Relationships of Fern Allies
and Ferns James R. Manhart Insights into Fern Evolution from Mapping Chloroplast
Linda A. Raubeson and Diana B. Stein
Relationships of Extant Pteridophytes Based on Evidence from Morphology and
rbcL Sequences Kathleen M. Pryer, Alan R. Smith, and Judith E. Skog
of the Vittariaceae: Convergent Simplification Leads to a Polyphyletic Vittaria
Edmund H. Crane, Donald R. Farrar, and Jonathan F. Wendel
Analyses of rbcL and Nuclear Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences in Dennstaedtiaceae
Paul G. Wolf
Relationships of Papuasian Cyatheaceae to New World Tree Ferns David S. Conant,
Linda A. Raubeson, Deborah K. Attwood, and Diana B. Stein
and Generic Circumscriptions of Cheilanthoid Ferns (Pteridaceae: Cheilanthoideae)
Inferred from rbcL Nucleotide Sequences Gerald J. Gastony and David R. Rollo
Sequences Provide Phylogenetic Insights among Sister Species of the Fern Genus
Polypodium Christopher H. Haufler and Tom A. Ranker
Molecular Assessment of Relationships among Cryptic Species of Botrychium
Subgenus Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae) Warren D. Hauk
copies of this 300+ page issue are available from the American Fern Society,
Back Issues Curator, Ecology III, R.D. 1, Berwick PA 18603, for US$20.00 postpaid.
George Yatskievych Missouri Botanical Garden
New Society formed for Mesoamerican Biology and Conservation
Mesoamerican Society for Biology and Conservation was formed on 14 January
1996, at Lake Yojoa, Honduras, by a group of biologists from five countries
and numerous branches of the biological sciences. The new society will serve
biologists and conservationists throughout Central America and southern Mexico,
by publishing a news bulletin Mesoamericana, and by sponsoring annual congresses
in Mesoamerica. The official name is "Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biologia
y la Conservaciōn." Persons interested in the society, as members or
potential officers, are invited to become founding members, subscribe to the
bulletin, and attend the first general meeting of the membership in Tegucigalpa
in June 1996. Institutions are also invited to help found the society, the
first ever of its kind in Mesoamerica.
Members will receive the quarterly Mesoamericana, which will include news in
Spanish and English of current projects, meetings, and literature, as well as
biographical sketches on founding members, and short, non-technical articles
of general use to biologists working in Mesoamerica. The Society initially intends
to publish technical articles in proceedings of annual symposia or congresses.
The first issue of Mesoamericana will be published in June 1996. For more information
about the bulletin, contact its editor, Carlos Rene Ramirez Sosa, 4a. Avenida
Sur #1, Apopa, San Salvador, El Salvador (Tel: (503) 336-0152; email: firstname.lastname@example.org).
The cost of basic membership is $20 for 1996 (includes 3 issues of Mesoamericana).
One can become a founding member for $50. Institutions can become founders for
$200, which includes a subscription to the bulletin. Founding members and founding
institutions will be acknowledged in the bulletin. Founding member-ships will
be available only through the end of 1996. Donations larger than $200 are welcome,
and donors will be recognized in print as benefactors. Membership fees or other
donations may be sent to Oliver Komar, Department of Zoology, Ohio Wesleyan
University, Delaware OH 43015 (Telephone (614) 369-0175; email email@example.com).
Checks should be made out to "Mesoamerican Society for Biology and Conservation"
or "Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biologia y la Conservacion."
Mesoamerican residents have lower member-ship costs, and can contact directly
one of the acting secretaries, Silvia C. Chalukidn, at Departmento de Recursos
Naturales y Conservaciōn Biolōgica, Escuela Agricola Panamericana,
Apartado 93, Tegucigalpa, Honduras (Telephone (504) 76-6140; fax (504) 76-6234;
email firstname.lastname@example.org or
members are encouraged to attend the first meeting at the Universidad Nacional
Autōnoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, tentatively planned for 21-22 June
1996, at which the Society's membership will approve its statutes and elect
a board of officers and trustees. The meeting includes a one-day symposium
on Mesoamerican biology, with invited papers and an open poster session. Anyone
interested in attending the meeting and symposium may contact the society's
acting president Gerardo Borjas. Licenciado Borjas is the local organizing
committee chair and scientific program chair for the June meeting. He may
be reached at Apartado 30-357, Toncontin, Tegucigalpa M.D.C., Honduras (telephone!
fax (504) 33-9576). Information on local lodging arrangements and registration
also will be available from Oliver Komar at the address given below.
more information, contact Oliver Komar, Department of Zoology, Ohio Wesleyan
University, Delaware OH 43015. Telephone (614) 369-0175 Email email@example.com
Oliver Komar, Ohio Wesleyan University
The Biodiversity Forum
Biodiversity Forum is a new non-profit organization that seeks to advance
the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity at the international
level. The Biodiversity Forum is committed to encouraging cooperation among
governments, international organizations, and the private sector in developing
methods to advance this goal. The Forum consists of experts in biological
science, international policy, and environmental law who closely monitor and
participate in the activities of international fora related to biological
diversity. Summaries and analysis of recent events in such fora are presented
in a quarterly newsletter available at no charge. For more information visit
The Biodiversity Forum web site at http://www.worldcorp.comlbiodiversity/
or write to: Jay Gruner, Executive Director, The Biodiversity Forum, 8000
Towers Crescent Drive, Suite 1350, Vienna, Va. 22182. Phone: (703) 847-3686
or Fax: (703) 760-7899.
David Zippin, The University of Texas
Green Plant Phylogeny Research Coordination Group (GPPRCG) Announces World
Wide Web Site
The Green Plant Phylogeny Research Coordination Group (GPPRCG) is pleased to
announce a World Wide Web site at: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/bryolab/greenplantpage.html
website will provide the framework from which the GPPRCG will keep the scientific
community informed of its mission, upcoming meetings and events, related websites,
and most important, data matrices of interest to anyone concerned with research
involving the phylogenetic relationships of green plants. It will continue
to be under construction, so stop in frequently to check progress and contribute
your own information.
GPPRCG, set up in September 1994, is sponsored by a grant from the DOE/NSF/USDA
Joint Program on Collaborative Research in Plant Biology; the PIs are M.A.
Buchheim, University of Tulsa, R. L. Chapman, Louisiana State University,
and B.D. Mishler, University of California at Berkeley. The aim of the group
is to initiate and facilitate interaction among independent research groups
worldwide that are interested in green plant phylogeny. This initiative is
based on the insight that further progress in this area of research could
greatly benefit from a major collaborative effort to coordinate data collection
by establishing exemplars (selected key taxa) and suggesting characters to
be studied foreach. Therefore, the specific objectives of the GPPRCG are:
1) coordinate data gathering, addressing both taxon and character sampling,
2) establish and manage morphological, molecular, and other relevant data
bases, which will be made available to researchers, teachers, and students,
3) stimulate creative approaches to investigating green plant phylogeny ,
including novel approaches to data analysis and the handling of large data
sets, and 4) encourage collaborative research.
GPPRCG workshops have already been held, with seven more scheduled through
1999. Each workshop has a different focus (the summary of the first workshop
is currently posted on the website; the others will follow), and the meeting
sites will alternate between major North American scientific conferences and
other venues. Although the workshops themselves must re-main small because
of budgetary and logistic constraints, wide participation in the GPPRCG and
coordination of research activity can be achieved through the website. Data
availability tables for exemplar taxa will soon pro-vide a readily accessible
and up-to-date summary of the current knowledge of phylogenetically important
plants. These tables will also highlight shortcomings or gaps in the data
and thereby provide a guide to researchers.
purpose of the GPPRCG is to encourage coordination of research activity, but
not to direct it; therefore, the group will not allocate discreet tasks to
individuals or labs, nor fund research projects All re-searchers interested
in plant phylogeny are encouraged to participate freely and equally by contributing
results to the data availability tables. Since only independently published
data will end up in the final matrix, each investigator will get credit for
his or her own research. Contributors to the matrix will be invited to participate
in an edited publication that will attempt a complete and well-supported high-level
phylogenetic analysis of green plants. This publication will take the form
of a book which will include multiauthored chapters, along with the data matrix
in electronic form (with all contributors acknowledged). This work is scheduled
for completion in time for presentation at the 1999 International Botanical
Congress in St. Louis. Interested individuals are encouraged to investigate
the GPPRCG website and contact the PIs: M.A. Buchheim (Buchheimma @Centum.utulsa.edu),
R.L. Chapman (BTRuss@unixl.sncc.lsu.edu), and B.D. Mishler (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Russell Chapman, Louisiana State University
Fossil Flora of Russia and Adjacent States: Two Volumes Available
the efforts of many prominant members of the paleobotanical community, a comprehensive
survey of the fossil flora of Russia and adjacent states (2 volumes) has become
available. These volumes present fossils from remains of leaves, fruits, seed,
and wood, and describe over 40 genera in the Ulmaceae. Moraceae, Cannabaceae,
Urticaceae, Fagaceae, and Betulaceae (Volume 2, A Takhtajan, ed.), as well
as each of 133 species of the Leitneriaceae, Myricaceae, and Juglandaceae
(Volume 3, Lev Budantsev, ed.). Both volumes are in Russian.
volumes have become available through the efforts of David Ditcher (Florida
Museum of Natural
and other members of the paleobotanical community. Professor Dilcher urges
that the availability of these volumes be brought to the attention of libraries
and researchers. These volumes can be obtained from Dilcher for US$98.00 each
(plus shipping and handling, US$7 domestic, US$10 overseas), at Florida Museaum
of Natural History, University of Florida, P.O. Box 117800, Gainesville FL
32611-7800. Telephone (352) 392-1721. Fax (352) 392-2539. E-mail: email@example.com
Center for Field Research Invites Proposals for Field Grants
Center for Field Research invites proposals for 1997 field grants awarded
by its affiliate Earthwatch. Earthwatch is an international, non-profit organization
dedicated to sponsoring research and promoting public education in the sciences
and humanities. Information about Earthwatch field grants is available on
The Center's World Wide Web site (http:llgaia.earthwatch.org/WW Wl cfr.html)
or you can contact: Dr. Andy Hudson, Director, The Center for Field Research,
680 Mt. Auburn Street, Watertown. MA 02172. Telephone: (617) 926-8200 0 FAX:
(617)926-8532oe-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or Sean Doolan, Science Officer,
Earthwatch Europe, Belsyre Court. 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6HU, United
Kingdom. Telephone: (865) 311 600 o FAX: (865) 311 383 o e-mail: email@example.com.
Botanists in Durango Need AJB
was sorry to see the BSA membership fee hike this year (although I well understand
the need to raise fees), and I can no longer afford to maintain my member-ship,
after more than 8 years in BSA. I very much enjoyed the benefits of BSA membership,
but it now costs me more than 2 week's salary as a professor and research
scientist at a third world university.
your journal, American Journal of Botany, and bulletin, Plant Science Bulletin,
have been great references for us, and we hope to be able to obtain used back
issues of editions from this year and upcoming years. If any of your members
would like to donate used copies ofAJB to our institution, I can assure you
that they will be put to good use here. It is extremely difficult to ' obtain
good quality botanical literature here in Durango, and we gladly accept any
material we can obtain at relatively low cost.
Jeffrey R. Bacon
Area de Ecologia Forestal
Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango
Durango, Dgo, Mexico C.P. 34000
1997-98 Fulbright Awards for U.S. Faculty and Professionals
Oppportunities for lecturing or advanced research in over 135 countries are
available to college and university faculty and professionals outside academe.
U.S. citizenship and the Ph.D. or comparable professional qualifications required.
For lecturing, university or college teaching experience is expected. Foreign
language skills are needed for some countries, but most lecturing assignments
are in English.
deadline for lecturing or research grants for 1997-98 is August 1, 1996. Other
deadlines are in place for special programs: distinguished Fulbright chairs
in Western Europe and Canada (May 1) and Fulbright seminars for international
education and academic administrators (November 1).
the USIA Fulbright Senior Scholar Program, Council for International Exchange
of Scholars, 3007 Tilden Street, N.W., Suite 5M, Box GNEWS, Washington, D.C.
20008-3009. Telephone: (202) 686-7877. Web Page (on-line materials): http:llwww.cies.orgl
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (requests for mailing of application material
BSA Member Greenfield Honored for 50 years at Rutgers
S. Greenfield was honored at a festive dinner celebrating his fifty years
of "outstanding teaching and contributions to Rutgers University" at Newark,
on March 28, 1996. Although he retired in 1984, he has continued to teach
one course on a voluntary basis as Professor Emeritus of Botany. Dr. Greenfield
founded the botany department at the Newark Campus of Rutgers, and at its
peak it had one of the largest undergraduate pro-grams in the United States,
with 200 majors in botany.
played a major role in the design of a new campus at Newark, its buildings,
laboratories and green-houses, and landscaping with a great variety of trees
and shrubs. He has been honored a number of times before for his exceptional
service, and he has now endowed a graduate fellowship in botany at Rutgers-Newark.
member of the Botanical Society of America since 1937, he was chairman of
the Committee to Study the Role of Botany in American Colleges and Universities,
which issued a very comprehensive report in 1952. As outcomes of this study,
he was the principal founder of Plant Science Bulletin and of the Committee
on Education of the BSA.
note: Dr. Greenfield was theauthor of "The Challange to Botanists," the very
first article to appear in Plant Science Bulletin (vol 1, no. 1, January 1955).
Provo Shrub Lab Geneticist Wins Forest Service Distinguished Scientist Award
E. Durant McArthur, project leader at the Intermountain Research Station's
Shrub Sciences Laboratory in Provo, Utah, was presented the USDA Forest Service's
highest research award by Forest Service Chief Jack Ward Thomas in Washington,
D.C. at a April 16, 1996 awards ceremony.
won the Distinguished Scientist Award for both his personal productivity in
the science of genetics and evolution, and for his leadership of the research
at the Forest Service laboratory located on the edge of the Brigham Young
University campus. The team of researchers there are investigating shrubland
he began his Forest Service career 24 years ago, McArthur has averaged over
10 scientific publication per year. The diversity of scientific journals and
other outlets that have published his research illustrates the broad range
of his scientific accomplishments. Some research highlights include work on
cytogeography, hybridization, and hybrid zones ofArtemisia and delineation
of breeding systems of western North American shrub species. Some of the most
important of McArthur's work is in restoring wildland productivity including
big game winter range.
McArthur received an A.S. degree from Dixie College (1963) and hold B.S. (1965),
M.S. (1967), and Ph.D. (1970, plant genetics) degrees from the University
of Utah. He was a postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Leeds
in Agricultural Botany from 1970-1971. He has been adjunct professor of botany
and range science at Brigham Young University since 1976. Dr. McArthur has
been chair of the Shrub Research Consortium since 1983 and a key organizer
of the ten wildland shrub symposia sponsored by the Consortium. He has been
president of the Intermountain Consortium for Arid Land Research since its
inception in 1991. Dr. McArthur has been a member of the Botanical Society
of America since 1967.
Sherwin Carlquist Receives Lifetime Achievement Award
Sherwin Carlquist, internationally recognized for his many and continuing
contributions to botany, in particular in the field of plant anatomy, was
presented with a Lifetime Achievement Award by the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden.
The award was presented at a banquet in conjunction with the Garden's Symposium
on "Plant Evolution and Conservation on Islands - A Global Perspective."
has devoted his career to the study of comparative anatomy and the evolution
of conducting tissues in plants. He also pioneered the study of island floras
and faunas by providing new insights into dispersal and reproductive biology.
The Santa Barbara resident earned undergraduate and graduate degrees at the
University of California, Berkeley, and he did postdoctoral study at Harvard
University. He received three National Science Foundation fellowships during
his graduate and postdoctoral years.
member of the faculty at the Claremont Graduate School for more than 35 years,
Carlquist served as professor of botany from 1961-92, and he was professor
of biology at Pomona College during the same period. A plant anatomist at
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden from 1984-92, Carlquist participates in a
course at UC Santa Barbara on his favorite subject, island biology.
pioneering research has produced numerous awards, including the Gleason Prize
of the New York Botanical Garden; career award from the Botanical Society
of America; the Allerton Medal of the National Tropical Botanical Garden;
and the A sa Gray Award from the American Society of Plant Taxonomists. In
addition to his other accomplishments, The Botanic Garden honored Carlquist
for his innovative leadership and mentoring through teaching and research
to many students in the field of plant morphology and anatomy.
NORMAN HILL BOKE 1913-1996
Botanical Society member and former Editor of the American Journal of Botany,
Norman Hill Boke passed away in February 1996. Norman Boke received an undergraduate
degree from the University of South Dakota (1934). He received his master's
degree from the University of Oklahoma (1936) before going to the University
of California at Berkeley for his Ph.D. in Botany (1939) under the supervision
of AS. Foster.
Boke taught at the University of New Mexico and Johns Hopkins University before
returning to the University of Oklahoma in 1945, where he spent the remainder
of his career. His most noteworthy research contributions to the field of
structural botany concerned the development and interpretation of the cactus
gynoecium. He taught plant anatomy and vascular plant morphology at the University
of Oklahoma. He was a clear and demanding teacher.
contributions to botany were not only in structural botany, but also included
the training of many students in the science and art of biological microscopy
through his remarkably comprehensive course, "Optical Methods in Biology."
Norman was also an excellent field botanist who enjoyed teaching a spring
flora course at the University of Oklahoma and introducing many others to
the flora of Mexico with which he was intimately familiar.
Boke served as Editor-in-Chief of the American Journal of Botany 1970-1975.
Dr. Boke received many honors including membership in Phi Beta Kappa and receipt
of a Guggenheim Memorial Fellow-ship. The University of Oklahoma honored him
by making him a George Lynn Cross Research Professor in 1965. Four plants
have been named after Norman Boke, including Normanbokea pseudopectinata (Backeberg)
Kladiwa et FR. Buxbaum comb. nov. Dr. Boke is survived by his wife and a daughter.
— David D. Cass Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta,
Edmonton, and Scott Russell, Department of Botany, University of Oklahoma.
The Botanical Society has been notified that the following members have passed
Mildred E. Mathias of the Department of Biology, University of California,
Los Angeles, a member since 1927.
Botany of Alpine New Mexico August 11-18, 1996
primarily in the field, the workshop will focus on adaptations to physical
factors and species interactions that are characteristic of alpine tundra,
subalpine conifer forests and meadows. It carries one semester credit hour
and is open to anyone interested in the natural history of the Southwest.
SMU's Fort Burgwin, a reconstructed frontier cavalry fort, is an interdisciplinary
re-search and teaching facility located at an elevation of 7,400 feet in the
Sangre de Cristo Range above Taos, New Mexico. Cost of $570 includes tuition,
housing, and fees. Instructor: Roger Sanders, SMU Adj. Prof. &Res. Assoc.,
Botanical Research Inst. Texas, Fort Worth. For more details and applications
call (214) 768-3657.
Assistant Extension Citrus and Avocado Management Specialist and Assistant
Plant Physiologist, University of California, Riverside
Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside,
announces a position available October 1, 1996. The position is an 11-month,
academic career-track, Assistant Extension Specialist (70%) and Assistant
Plant Physiologist (30%) appointment in the Agricultural Experiment Station.
Applied and basic research on the horticulture of citrus and avocado with
some emphasis on soil/water/rhizosphere management. The appointee is expected
to provide leadership, coordination, and subject matter knowledge through
state-wide research and education activities for the benefit of the California
citrus and avocado industries. A Ph.D. degree in plant physiology or a closely
related discipline is required. The position requires a broad knowledge of
horticulture or one of the other plant sciences and expertise in one or more
of the following areas: mineral nutritionlfertility management; irrigation
management; root function and health; water and/or salinity stress; tree crops.
Skills in oral, written, and visual communication are essential. Send letter
of application, curriculum vitae, statement of research interest, and transcripts,
and arrange to have at least three confidential letters of reference sent
to: Dr. A. E. Hall, Chair, Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University
of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0124. (Phone: 909-787-4413; Fax: 909-787-4437;
e-mail: email@example.com). The application dead-line is July 31, 1996.
The University of California is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings
NAFBW - XlVth Meeting 16-20 June 1996
The XIVth Meeting of the North American Forest Biology Workshop will be held
from 16-20 June, 1996, at Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The
theme will be "Forest Management Impacts on Ecosystem Processes." Contact: Ms.
Dominique Houde, Agora Communication. 2600 boul. Laurier (#2680), Sainte-Foy
(Qc) G1V 4M6. Tel. (418) 658-6755. FAX. (418) 658-8850. Voluntary workshops,
contact: Pierre Bernier, CFS. Tel. (418) 648-4524. More information at WWW site:
1996 International Conference Society for Ecological Restoration 20-22 June
Society for Ecological Restoration will hold its 1996 International Conference
June 20-22, 1996 at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. The theme
of this year's conference is Restoration in the Urban/Rural Context, which
will be examined through presentations of scientific and case studies. Conference
highlights include speakers, poster session displays and accompanying guild
session. Pre- and post-conference fields trips will explore actual restoration
projects in the New York/New Jersey/Pennsylvania area. For additional information,
please contact SER '96 Conference Center, 144 Blake Hall - Red Oak Lane, Rutgers
- The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903-0231, tel. (908)
932-2917. e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
In Vitro Biology 22-26 June 1996
1996 World Congress on In Vitro Biology carries the title "Biotechnology:
From Fundamental Concepts to Reality." It is scheduled to meet at the San
Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, June 22-26, 1996. The abstract
deadline is January 12,1996. For further information, contact meeting coordinator
Tiffany McMillan, tel. 410-992-0946, fax 410-992-0949.
Canadian Botanical Association 23-27 June 1996
Edward Island: Conservation in Action" will be the topic of the 1996 Annual
meeting of the Canadian Botanical Association, held at the University of Prince
Edward Island in Atlantic Canada, June 23-27. The organizing committee welcomes
submissions from the following fields of research in plant science: ecology,
mycology, systematics and phytogeography, structure and development. The annual
conference symposium is entitled: Biodiversity and Conservation in Canada.
Other conference activities include: workshop on the pre-review process by
the editor in chief of the Canadian Journal of Botany, and a demonstration
on scanning electron microscopy digital imaging. Social events include: lobster
dinner, harbour cruise, deep sea fishing, and canoeing. Field trips to dune
systems and offshore islands have also been scheduled. The Association extends
a special invitation to BSA members. The basic registration fee is approx.
$120 US for regular participants and $50US for students and includes a full
year membership in the Canadian Botanical Association. For more information
contact: CBA'96 c/o department of Biology, University of Prince Edward Island,
550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI, CIA 4P3, Canada. Tel. 902-566-0974
Fax. 902-566-0740 E-mail CBA96@upei.ca
Seventh International Symposium on Pollination 23-28 June 1996
Seventh International Symposium on Pollination will be held in Lethbridge,
Alberta, Canada from 23-28 June, 1996. The general theme will be "Pollination:
From Theory to Practice." For additional information, contact Ken W. Richards,
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000,
Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada TlJ 4B 1, or Richards@abrslc.agr.ca
IOPC-V 30 June - 5 July 1996
Fifth International Organization of Paleobotany Conference (IOPC-V) will take
place on the campus of the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB),
Santa Barbara, California, USA, from 30 June through 5 July 1996. The theme
of the conference is floristic evolution and biogeographic interchange through
geologic time. The program will include eight morning symposia and four afternoons
of contributed papers and posters, followed by two optional 7-day field trips.
The first circular, containing a detailed description and registration information,
is available from Bruce H. Tiffney, Department of Geological Sciences, University
of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106. Fax: 805-893-2314, e-mail: email@example.com.
Extant and Fossil Charophytes 7-13 July 1996
The 2nd International Symposium on extant and fossil Charophytes (Charales)
at Madison, Wisconsin, will cover a wide scope of topics dealing with extant
and fossil forms and fossil/extant relationships; a session will be devoted
to the evolutionary position and taxonomic status of the Charophyta. For more
information, please contact Dr. Linda Graham (Department of Botany, University
of Wisconsin - Madison, 430 Lincoln Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1381, fax
608-262-7509, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org)
or Dr. Monique Feist (Colloque Charophytes, Laboratoirc de Paleobotanique, UM2,
34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France, fax 33.67.04.20.32, e-mail email@example.com).
Biothechnology and Natural Products 27-31 July 1996
The 37th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (ASP) will
he held in Santa Cruz CA from July 27 - 31, 1996. The primary theme of this
meeting will be "Biotechnology and Natural Products." Six symposia will feature
an outstanding group of scientists in this field. In addition to the plenary
sessions, a large number of contributed oral and poster sessions will be scheduled,
which will cover a broad spectrum of current research in the field of natural
products. A unique feature of the ASP meeting, the Young Investigator's Symposium,
will feature promising researchers within the first few years of their first
independent possitions. For additional information, contact Roy K. Okuda, Department
of Chemistry, San Jose. State University, San Jose CA 95192-0101 USA, e-mail
Sixth International Symposium On Vaccinium Culture 12-17 August 1996
Vaccinium Symposium is to begin at the University of Maine on August 12. There
will be field tours of Maine wild blueberry activities on August 12 and 13.
On August 14 and 15 we will have oral and poster presentations and discussion
sessions. The Symposium will conclude with a field tour of Massachusetts cranberry
research, production and the Ocean Spray Processing Plant on August 16 and
Final registration forms, a complete program, tour and lodging details will
be sent by March 15, but only to those who return the preliminary application
form to the conveners. Symposium Costs The registration fee for the symposium
will be approximately 320 US$ for ISHS members and 350 US$ for non-members.
Exact cost will depend on the number of participants and sponsor contributions.
The fee will include one copy of the symposium proceedings in Acta
for registered participants. This fee will also cover the bus tours and banquets.
Titles of contributed oral presentations or posters must be submitted by February
1, 1996. An abstract of the poster or paper (maximum: 200 words) must be mailed,
faxed or Emailed by March 15, 1996. Deadline for receipt of papers and final
registration forms by the symposium conveners is May 15, 1996. To receive
more information on the Symposium, mail, fax or Email the following information
to the conveners: David E. Yarborough and John M. Smagula, University of Maine,
5722 Deering Hall, Orono, Maine, 04469-5722 USA, Fax: (207) 581-2941 or (207)
581-2999, Phone: (207) 581-2923 or (207) 581-2925, Email Davey@umce.umext.maine.edu
Natural Science Collections Symposium 20-24 August 1996
Geological Conservation Unit and the Department of Earth Sciences of the University
of Cambridge are organizing the Second International Symposium and World Congress
on the Preservation of Natural History Collections to occur August 20-24,
1996 at St. Johns College, Cambridge, U.K. The theme will be "Natural Science
Collections - A Resource for the Future"
second Congress will continue the work of the first Congress by bringing leading
figures in industry, research, education and natural science museums together
to discuss future developments and a joint cooperative approach towards the
challenges presented by the preservation of natural science collections, and
to look at the practical aspects of putting the strategics in place. The Congress
is co-sponsored by several collections support organizations, including the
Association of Systematics Collections and the Society for the Preservation
of Natural History Collections.
more information, please contact: Chris Collins, Natural Sciences Congress
'96, Geological conservation Unit, Department of Earth Sciences, Downing Street,
Cambridge, CB 2 3EQ, United Kingdom, tel: (0223) 62522, fax: (0223) 60779.
34th Systematics Symposium at MEG 4-5 October 1996
year's Systematics Symposium at the Missour Botanical Garden has been organized
by George Schatz and Bette Loiselle. The topic is "New Tools for Investigating
Biodiversity." The symposium will be held on Friday and Saturday October 4th
and 5th. Further details will be posted on the Garden's Web Page (http://
www.mobot.org) as they are received. You will be able to register by e-mail
but it will still be necessary for you to mail in your check or credit card
information (do not send your credit card information by e-mail).
symposium notice will also be mailed. If you wish to add your name to the
symposium mailing list, send the information to Systematics Symposium, Missouri
Botanical Garden, PO Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299.
format will follow the traditional one to which many of us have become accustomed.
There will be a social mixer on the Friday from 7:30-9:00 p.m. The seven presented
papers will be on the Saturday, beginning at 8:30 a.m., with the final paper
at 8:00 p.m. after the symposium dinner. For more information, contact P.
Mick Richardson, Missouri Botanical Garden (ri ch ards @ mobot. org).
2nd Crop Science Congress 17-23 November 1996
second International Crop Science Congress (ICSC) is scheduled 17 to 23 Nov.
1996 at the Hotel Ashok, Chanakyapuri, in New Delhi, India. In-creasing population
and declining assets of natural re-sources constitute a major challenge to
global food security. This concern has led congress organizers to choose the
theme: Crop Productivity and Sustainability: Shaping the Future. Three categories
of presentations at the congress will be plenary, symposia, and posters. In
addition, working groups will deliberate on topics of specific interests for
framing policy documents. Popular lectures will also be organized on some
evenings. Registration is US$300 by 1 June 1996, $400 thereafter. Accompanying
members cost $100 each, as does a student registration without proceedings.
For more information contact: Prof. S.K. Sinha, Secretary-General, 2nd ICSC,
National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
New Delhi - 110 012, INDIA, Fax No.: 91-11-5753678, Telephone Nos.: 91-11-5753677
International Conference on Plants and Environmental Pollution 26-30 November
International Conference on Plants and Environmental Pollution is being organized
by the Inter-national Society of Environmental Biologists and the National
Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India. The conference will include
a number of sessions and lectures from 26 to 30 Novemebr, 1996. For further
information, please contact Dr. K. J. Ahmad, Organising Secretery ICPEP-96,
National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow - 226 001
(India). Tel. 91 (0522) 271031-35 ext. 209/221. Fax: 91 (1522) 282881; 282849.
Temperature Stress in Plants 26-31 January 1997
Gordon Conference on Temperature Stress in Plants will be held at the Colony
Harbortown Hotel, Ventura, California, from January 26-31, 1997. The conference
will focus on metabolism at low temperature, temperature sensing and signal
transduction, stress proteins, membranes, vernalization, climate change, plant
biotechnology and crop production in stressful environments. The organizers
are Donald Ort, chair, and Charles Guy, vice chair. For additional information,
contact Gordon Re-search Conferences, University of Rhode Island, P.O. Box
984, West Kingston, RI 02892-0984; telephone 401-783-7644, fax 401-783-4011,
13th Symposium Morphology, Anatomy and Systematics 6-11 April 1997
symposium will be held in Leuven, Belgium at the University of Leuven from
April 6-11, 1997, entitled "13th Symposium Morphology, Anatomy and Systematics."
Further information can be obtained from the Symposium Secretariat, Laboratory
of Plant Systematics, Botanical Institute, KU Leuven, Kardinaal Mercierlaan
92, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium) - Telephone: (**32)16 321545; Fax: (**32)16 321979.
In this Issue:
42 Collecting Plant Genetic Diversity. Technical Guidelines. Guarino, L.;
V.R. Rao and R. Reid, eds. (1995) — Luiz Carvaiho
42 Biogenic Trace Gases: Measuring Emissions from Soil and Water. P.A. Matson
and R.C. Harriss, eds. (1995) — Jonathan Frye
44 Forest Canopies M.D. Lowman and N.M. Nadkarni, eds. (1995) — John
p. 45 Genecology and Ecogeographic Races Kruckeberg, Arthur R., Richard B.
Walker and Alan E. Leviton, eds. (1995) — David Ackerly
46 Sonoran Desert Plants: An Ecological Atlas R. M. Turner, J. E. Bowers,
and T. L. Burgess. (1995) - Jochen
48 Species Diversity in Space and Time. M.L. Rosenzweig. (1995) — M.H.H.
Stevens, D.F. Raikow, M.R. Servedio, R.J. Collins, T.L. Schumann, A.N. Tipper,
and W.P. Carson
50 Terrestrial Orchids from Seed to Mycotrophic Plant Hanne N. Rasmussen.
(1995) — Robert Ernst
50 Tropical Forests: Management and Ecology A. E. Lugo and C. Lowe, Editors.
(1995) — Aaron M. Ellison
51 Ethnobotany. Evolution of a Discipline. Richard Evans Schultes & Sid
von Reis, eds. (1995) — Ronald A. Balsamo
52 Plants and Their Names - A Concise Dictionary Roger Hyam and Richard Pankhurst
(1995) — Shane Latimer
52 Botany in India: History and Progress, Vol. I and Vol. II Johri, B. M.,
ed. (1994) — Satish K. Srivastava
54 The Book of Rhododendrons. Marianna Kneller (1995) — David R. Hershey
55 Wisterias: A Comprehensive Guide. Peter Valder (1995) — David R.
55 Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Plant Reproduction. R. J. Scott and A.
D. Stead, eds. (1994) — Darlene Southworth
p. 56 DNA Fingerprinting in Plants and Fungi. Weising, K., H. Nybom, K. Wolff
and W. Meyer (1994) - Matthew B. Hamilton
57 Mycorrhiza. Structure, Function, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. Ajit
Varma and Bertold Hock, eds. (1995) — Samuel Hammer
p. 58 Modern Methods of Plant Analysis Vol. 15: Alkaloids H.F. Linskens and
J.F. Jackson, eds. (1994) - Timothy Morton
59 Flora De Manantlān. J. Antonio Vazquez G., Ramōn Cuevas G., Theodore
S. Cochran, Hugh H. Iltis, Francisco J. Santana M., and Luis Guzman H. (1995)
— B. L. Turner
60 Manual of Grasses. Rick Darke, Ed. (1994) — Gregory P. Cheplick
61 Only in Arkansas, A Study of the Endemic Plants and Animals of the State.
H. W. Robison and R. T. Allen (1995) — Jerry M. Baskin
Plant Genetic Diversity. Technical Guidelines. Guarino, L.; V.R. Rao and R.
Reid, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-85198-964-0 (Cloth US$120), 748 pp. CAB International,
Wallingford, Oxon. Ox 8DE, UK. — Plant genetic diversity is a key component
of any agricultural production system. As a consequence of the activities
of breeders in developing crop varieties, how-ever, biodiversity is replaced
by uniformity, just when the need for diversity is required in the other side.
To cope with these opposing forces and needs, the continued collection of
plant genetic diversity collecting is fully justified and needed. Therefore
this book is welcome not only in this context, but also in overall concerns
book was born out of the "need for an overall guideline to be followed" if
one is to collect plant genetic resources. Theoretical principles and background,
compiled information and requirements needed for planning collecting missions,
technical tips and advice, case study experiences from National programs as
well as particular crop species are organized in the 39 chapters of this book.
complexity of the subject is set in the first three chapters, two from the
co-sponsors (IBPGR, FAO, UNEP and IUCN) and another from one of the editors
(L. Guarino) which give a summary of the book. The main weakness of this section,
especially for the novice, is a missing point on how to use the guidelines
addressed in the following section.
section dealing with the planning of the collecting mission has 14 chapters
with specific theoretical background and resource information. The Chapters
by A.H.D. Brown and D.R. Marshall (Ch. 5), R. von Bothmer and O. Seberg (Ch.
6), and E.A. Frison and G.V .H. Jackson (Ch. 17), are the most important for
those concerned with the conservation and utilization of gcrmplasm resources.
These papers outline important considerations and provide valuable procedures
for sampling genetic diversity. The pitfalls of sampling populations for different
proposes are discussed and the authors demonstrate how an overall sampling
guideline can be adapted for different situations in the execution of the
field work. Unfortunately, many of these recommendations always seemed to
me to be underused in the past and in practice.
A common dilemma for the collector in the execution of the field work is the
trade-off between collecting germplasm and collecting data. Of course both have
the same importance, and deciding on this is up to the collector and on the
immediate purpose of the collecting. The section of the book dealing with the
field work has 10 chapters. They provide the reader with good guidelines of
how to search for, sample, document, transport and store different plant materials.
Alternative approaches for sampling in vitro and pollen material are discussed
where standard procedure is problematic. However, limited experience in manipulating
samples and subsequent propagation of the material will be a serious drawback
to using these techniques for most of the collectors.
for organization, documentation, reporting and information storage are discussed
in the section of "back to base". These guidelines closely follow the standard
requirements of IBPGR (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute). It
is very important that these guidelines be followed, especially in relation
to the storage of information in a computer database.
most vexing question faced by the gennplasm collector is to put sampling theory
into practice, especially in collecting wild species. It is clear from the
chapters in the sections dealing with "case-studies" that lack of precise
information on previous collecting missions and basic taxonomy comprise the
major draw-backs to planing and carrying out a collecting mission.
book is a detailed account of collecting procedures for most of the needs
for germplasm conservation and utilization. One can only hope that the book
is made available for all involved in conservation biology specially for those
in countries of most needs. — Luiz J.C.B. Carvalho, CENARGEN (Brazilian
National Research Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology)/EMBRAPA
(Brazilian National Research Enterprise)
Trace Gases: Measuring Emissions from Soil and Water. P.A. Matson and R.C.
Harriss, eds. 1995. ISBN 0-632-03641-9 (paper, US$49.95) Blackwell Science
Ltd., Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 OEL. — This book is the newest member of
the Methods in Ecology Series. The series aims "to provide ecologists with
concise and authoritative books that will guide them in choosing and applying
an appropriate methodology to their problem." In particular, this book tackles
the complexities of measuring or estimating trace gas concentrations, their
production and transport rates, and their global distributions and budgets.
In a logically organized sequence of 1 1 chapters, the editors and 20 other
contributing authors delve into the difficulties inherent in such an interdisciplinary
field. To truly understand biogcnic trace gas emissions one must be either
simultaneously a micro-biologist, a soil scientist, a botanist, an hydrologist,
an atmospheric scientist, a computer modeler, and an "instrumentalist" capable
of reliable measurements of invisible compounds at part-per-trillion concentrations,
or one must be willing to collaborate knowledgeably with others who have complementary
areas of expertise. This book performs a valuable service both to specialists
in each of
fields mentioned above, and to those seeking to be better educated collaborators.
introductory chapter by the editors argues persuasively that no single method
is appropriate to all scales or purposes, and that there is great value in
studies that compare and combine multiple approaches to measuring both trace
gas fluxes and the ecological processes that control them. The need for versatility
in a researcher's approach to data collection and analysis has been matched
recently by the advances in measurement hardware and computer software. Staying
abreast of these advances would be difficult or impossible were it not the
sort of timely review articles which this volume attempts to provide. After
reading this collection from cover to cover I realize how many novel techniques
and subtle but important variations on established techniques were unfamiliar
to me, but which I now feel prepared to evaluate as I choose appropriate methodologies.
My mental toolbox has been considerably enlarged by the experience.
2-11 deal with techniques, applications, processes and theories related to
biogenic trace gases: specifically; enclosure based measurements, ex-change
across the air-water interface, ebullition and plant transport, micrometeorological
techniques, standard analytical methods, measurement of chemically reactive
trace gases at ambient concentrations, spectroscopic instrumentation, use
of isotopes and tracers, microbial processes, and spatial extrapolation of
process models. For such a diverse collection of topics and authors, these
chapters exhibited considerable uniformity of quality, depth, and sophistication,
treading carefully the fine line between sufficient detail and rigor as to
be thorough, helpful, and authoritative without crossing over into the realm
of inaccessible jargon. This consistency in tone and quality is a reflection
of the skill of the editors as well as that of the other authors.
with the consistent strengths of the chapters are two consistent weaknesses.
The first is that, of the hundreds of references cited, less than a handful
were published in 1994 or 1995. When a book presents the cutting edge of innovation
in a rapidly evolving field, a two-year lag between writing and distribution
is nearly too long. This book does present a substantial amount of innovation,
but also includes relatively time-less reference material on the fundamentals
of measurement, extrapolation, and biogenesis, and so the question of immediacy
is somewhat buffered. Whether the delay was an artefact of the authors, the
editors, or the printers I cannot say, but I would urge them to work diligently
to bring future volumes of the series to press in a more timely manner. The
second weakness has to do with the applicability of the information contained
in the volume. A wide variety of instrumentation was described in some detail.
Some of the instruments are obviously prototypes under development in research
laboratories. Others are referred to as commercially available, but no list
of manufacturers is provided. It is good to know that tunable diode laser
absorption spectroscopy can be used for the continuous determination of carbon
monoxide and is commercially available, but it would be better to have the
names and addresses of several manufacturers. Model numbers would likely be
out of date by the time of publication, but a majority of the manufacturers
should still be in business.
a work of this length one expects a certain number of typographical errors.
This volume had fewer than I expected, and only two that might cause confusion:
p230 "GC with flame photometric detection (GC-FID)" should read "(GC-FPD)"
; and p361 "No production" should read "NO production." The handful of other
errors I noticed were even more minor, and the first of them did not appear
until p226. Altogether, the editors are to be commended for the quality and
attention to detail readily apparent in their work.
would suggest that future volumes in the Methods in Ecology Series consider
including a table of contents at the beginning of each chapter. Such tables
provide a helpful orientation to the scope and organization of the chapter
at a glance, and aid in quickly relocating specific passages when the work
is later consulted.
conclusion, this volume does an excellent job of helping ecologists choose
appropriate methodologies from among techniques which are currently available
and analytical methods which will be available in the near future. It does
an adequate to good job of guiding ecologists in the application of the method(s)
of choice. I recommend it heartily for graduate students through professionals
with interests in atmospheric trace gases, global climate change, or interdisciplinary
approaches in the environmental sciences. —Jonathan Frye, McPherson
College, McPherson , Kansas
Canopies M.D. Lowman and N.M. Nadkarni, eds. 1995. 624 pp. ISBN 0-12-457650-8
(US$69.95, cloth). Academic Press. — As an ecologist interested in forest
canopies primarily as dynamic physical components of trees involved in assimilation
and support, I was surprised but pleased to discover that "Forest Canopies"
is more a book about the biology and ecology of organ-isms that make forest
canopies their homes. Thus, a more accurate title may have been "The Ecology
of Forest Canopies". However, it is because of its broad coverage that I recommend
this book for anyone interested in or actively studying any aspect of canopy
book comprises 24 chapters arranged into four parts: the structure and function
of tree canopies, organisms in tree canopies, processes in tree canopies and
human impacts on canopy research. The writing is uniformly good, the editing
is flawless, and the text is well supported by excellent graphs, line drawings
and tables. Six of the chapters also include black-and-white photo-graphs,
well-chosen to illustrate things that are difficult to convey with words,
such as the diversity of epiphytic growth forms. The scope and tenor of articles
vary widely, ranging from encyclopedic (e.g. Rhoades' chap-ter on nonvascular
epiphytes and Coxson & Nadkarni's chapter on the ecosystem-level roles
of epiphytes) to brief essay (e.g. Perry's chapter promoting his Aerial Tram/
Center for Canopy Exploration). The book also includes an index with both
subject and species entries. However, because the species entries are not
exhaustive, their use-fulness is diminished.
first part consists of four varied chapters. Moffett & Lowman provide
an interesting, non-technical summary of techniques for accessing the upper
canopy, ranging from free-climbing to single-rope techniques to canopy booms
and dirigibles. (Issues of access are also discussed in a later chapter by
Munn & Loiselle, whose creative suggestions include using satellites to
track large birds fitted with transmitters and visually tracking smaller birds
using ultra-light aircraft.) Halle, a pioneer in the field of plant architectural
analysis, provides a terse summary of architectural approaches to characterizing
trees. However, the bulk of this section is made up of two chapters on the
micrometeorology of forest canopies. In the first of these, Fitzjarrald &
Moore convincingly argue that understanding the mechanisms of heat and mass
exchange within canopies as well as between canopies and the atmosphere can
be vital to understanding basic biological processes (such as the dispersal
of propagules) of canopy plants and fungi. The chapter by Parker on the structure
and microclimate of forest canopies is particularly readable and includes
an extensive, thorough list of interesting references that ranges far beyond
twelve chapters that comprise the section on organisms in tree canopies vary
widely in scope and approach, but almost unanimously point out how little
we know about the organisms that utilize the upper canopy, how important it
is to use sound, standardized and repeat- able sampling techniques in order
to allow comparative work to be done, and how the three-dimensionality of
forest canopies (or perhaps more accurately the magnitude of the third dimension)
introduces difficulties into both the generation and statistical analysis
of data from forest canopies. Munn & Loiselle make clear the dearth of
basic knowledge about the ecology of canopies by pointing out that "when one
considers that birds are the best known of tropical organisms, [the] ignorance
of the biology and adaptations of canopy birds is sobering, and suggests how
profoundly ignorant we are of most canopy biology for all other... organisms."
Erwin (on arthropods in general) and Tobin (on ants in particular) point out
that a major problem in assessing the diversity of invertebrates in the canopy
is in identifying the large numbers of individuals that can be collected relatively
quickly by various "knock-down" collecting methods. The chapters on the distribution
and ecology of hemiepiphytes (Williams-Linera & Lawton), epiphytes (Benzing,
Rhoades), and mites that live on leafblades (Walter & O'Dowd) illustrate
plainly the difficulties of designing sampling schemes when the goal is to
generate data that elucidate habitat preferences and patterns of colonization,
growth and succession of organisms that use 3-dimensional habitats. Along
similar lines, Reagan (working with Anolis lizards) and Malcolm (working with
small mammals) illustrate how poorly-suited most canopy-access techniques
are for studying the home ranges, foraging activity and fine-scale vertical
and horizontal stratification of small and mobile vertebrates. In contrast,
larger mammals apparently offer fewer obstacles to study: Emmons' article
on "the reciprocal issues of (1) the characters that [nonflying] mammals have
for canopy life and (2) the characters the canopy has for mammal life" is
well-crafted and provides a wealth of comparative ecological data in a strongly
next four chapters provide a well-balanced overview of processes in tree canopies.
In a short chapter, Holbrook & Lund provide an accessible introduction
into the photosynthetic properties of entire canopies and the problems of
scaling from leaf to canopy. Their discussion about processes that affect
carbon gain contrasts nicely with Lowman's engagingly-written chapter on herbivory
as a canopy process. After showing that the magnitude of leaf loss to herbivory
can vary greatly depending on whether it is determined using "snap-shot" or
long-term techniques, she provides some possible protocols for sampling. However,
she also acknowledges that "for most studies that are situated in remote sites,
techniques that are more rapid and time-efficient must be developed." Rather
than suggesting that new techniques are necessary, Murawski, in her chapter
on reproductive biology and genetics, argues that modern genetic techniques
will he useful in determining the genetic structure of populations of tropical
trees. Because many of these species typically occur at very low population
densities, she concludes that "more emphasis should be focused on the consequences
of rarity [and of selective logging] on
maintenance of species and genetic diversity." The concluding chapter of this
section of the book examines the ecological roles of epiphytes in nutrient
cycles. This article by Coxson & Nadkarni is notable not only for its
thoroughness and its strong ecosystem approach, but also because of how well
it complements Rhoades' exhaustive survey of the distribution and abundance
of nonvascular epiphytes. Coxson & Nadkarni show that epiphytes may play
many roles in ecosystems, serving for example as significant buffers of carbon
and terrestrially- and atmospherically-derived nutrients.
final section of the book allegedly deals with human impacts on canopy research,
but actually describes human activities in forest canopies and provides justifications
for the conservation of forests. Bennett provides an interesting catalogue
of ethnobotanical and economic uses of "host-dependent plants" (epiphytes
and lianas). Ingrid & Lowman emphasize that in order to fully characterize
floras and effectively implement conservation strategies, both ground- and
canopy-based collection techniques should be employed, and more thorough ecological
information should be provided with the samples. Finally, in his five-page
essay, Perry notes that in order for ecotourism to contribute effectively
to conservation efforts, it will be necessary to minimize human impacts on
conserved areas and engage the interest of local people, then goes on to pitch
his Aerial Tram and Center for Canopy Exploration.
and Nadkarni note in their concluding chapter that "one goal of assembling
this book was to allow readers to evaluate the `state of the art' of canopy
science. Research accomplishments, gaps in our knowledge, . . . and avenues
for future investigations are now evident." "Forest Canopies" accomplishes
this goal quite successfully, and will contribute to the development of canopy
science as a field with its abundance of suggestions for future research that
will not only fill in major gaps of understanding, but supply a generation
of graduate students with thesis topics as well! For example, Munn & Loiselle
(birds), Benzing (vascular epiphytes), and Lowman (herbivory) provide lists
of unanswered questions, and the other contributors regularly end paragraphs
by pointing out what needs to be done next.
In his preface to the book, Thomas Lovejoy rightly contends that "there is
no better evidence than canopy biology that the age of exploration is not over."
This book will provide an excellent introduction to canopy biology for those
just embarking on their explorations, and will provide rich and rewarding contexts
for those who have already discovered land among the branches.
Postscript: A major thesis of the editors of "Forest Canopies" is that the
field of canopy science needs to be made more standardized in terms of sampling
schemes so that comparative work can be done and so that data can be shared
and utilized by people asking different sorts of questions. Ultimately, this
means increasing communication among canopy researchers, both before and after
publication of results. For example, in the mid-1980s "it came as a great surprise
[to the two editors of this volume that they had independently] developed the
same techniques for using slingshots and ropes to conduct ecologically replicated
sampling throughout tropical tree canopies. . . . If only we could have networked
via E-mail, then perhaps we could have been making exciting intercontinental
comparative studies of epiphytes and herbivores!" To this end, the International
Canopy Net-work (ICAN) was formed in 1994. ICAN publishes both a directory of
members and a quarterly newsletter, and maintains both a WWW site (http://esnet.edu/ican)
and an E-mail bulletin board for discussion of canopy research. It remains to
he seen if these sites fulfill the stated goal of increasing communication among
canopy researchers, especially given the ironies that the E-mail addresses of
the contributors were not included in the book, and that only 8 of the 31 contributing
authors were subscribed to the bulletin board at the time this review was written.
— John M. Kasmer, Department of Biology, University of Michigan
and Ecogeographic Races Kruckeberg, Arthur R., Richard B. Walker and Alan
eds. 1995. ISBN 0-934394-10-5 (cloth US$28.95), 285 pp. Pacific Division,
American Association for the Advancement of Science, California Academy
of Sciences, San Francisco CA 94118
papers in this volume originate from the 73rd Annual Meeting of the Pacific
Division of the AAAS, held to commemorate the 100th birthday of Gōte
Turesson. Turesson (1892-1970) conducted pioneering work in plant ecology
and experimental systematics, and is well-known as the founder of the field
of genecology and the ecotype concept. Turesson had both intellectual and
personal ties to developments in plant ecology in the Western United States.
He received his undergraduate degree in botany from the University of Washington,
where he conducted his first researches. His studies of population differentiation
in plant species, based on extensive field observations and common garden
experiments in his native Sweden, paralleled the early work of
and H. M. Hall in Colorado. These laid the foundation for the famous investigations
by J. Clausen and colleagues at the experimental taxonomy unit at the
Institute of Washington, and in 1934 Turesson returned to the United States
to attend the Institute's annual meeting.
fourteen essays that make up this book include several historical notes and
a series of research and review papers addressing aspects of ecogeographic
variation. Readers with an historical bent will enjoy the first four essays
on Turesson' s life and work, in particular the personal recollections of
Lewis and Stebbins. Mtlntzing's memorial published after his death, along
with a complete bibliography of his work, is also reprinted here. Chambers
examines Turesson's contributions to plant taxonomy, and the influence of
his experimental studies of ecotypes on the understanding of species as biological
entities. Continued research in this area led to a shift in focus from the
typological concept of the ecotype to the more continuous notion of ecotypic
variation. The study of population differentiation within species became a
central focus of population biology, and the concepts of genecology lost their
pivotal role in systematics. The remainder of the papers in this book reflect
this shift, as they focus on patterns of ecogeographic variation within species,
and the underlying ecological and evolutionary processes that facilitate or
mitigate genetic differentiation among populations. The broad range of research
topics reflects the widespread influence of Turesson's work on contemporary
population biology. The result, however, is a rather eclectic collection,
providing "a broad picture of current applications of genecology in a range
of plants and animals." These include essays on differentiation in butterflies
(Shapiro, Singer et al.), ecotypic variation on serpentine soils (Kruckeberg),
the reproductive cycles of cereal rusts (Mac Key), the genetics of floral
morphology (Svensson), and the territorial songs of Galapagos finches (Bowman).
a plant ecologist, three papers stood out in this book. Baker's "Aspects of
genecology in weeds" is a characteristically wide-ranging and idiosyncratic
essay. He reviews numerous studies documenting the presence or absence of
ecotypic variation, and uses each one to illustrate a more general point,
such as the influence of `general purpose genotypes', breeding system, orhybridization.
Platenkamp and Shaw examine the limits to adaptive differentiation, setting
the problem of population differentiation in the context of current quantitative
genetic theory. And lastly, Andersson presents a synthesis of his recent studies
on geographical differentiation in Crepis tectorurn. He has utilized a broad
range of methods, both old and new, to address past and current patterns of
selection in this species. These include the study of plasticity and population
differentiation in experimental gardens, phenotypic selection analysis, and
phylogenetic analysis of the relationship among populations. This paper is
a model of a new generation of experimental genecology. It is also the most
fitting tribute to Turesson, whose most important work as well as Andersson's
studies were both carried out at the University of Lund.
book is well-edited and securely bound. It has a slightly old-fashioned feel
- no glossy photos and shiny paper - but the price is hard to beat for a cloth
edition. "Genecology and Ecogeographic Races" pays tribute to a pioneering
researcher whose influence pervades modern population biology. The editors
have not attempted to review the state of research in this broadly defined
field. But the selective reader will be rewarded, whether by the recollections
of those who knew Turesson or by some of the modern incarnations of his ideas
in the context of contemporary population biology. — David Ackerly,
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University
Desert Plants: An Ecological Atlas R. M. Turner, J. E. Bowers, and T. L. Burgess.
1995. ISBN 0-8165-1532-8, 504 pp. (cloth US$70). The University of Arizona
Press, 1230 N. Park Ave., Suite 102, Tucson, AZ 85719-4140 —This book
is a major update of the atlas by Hastings, J. R., R. M. Turner, and D. K.
Warren. (1972. An atlas of some plant distributions in the Sonoran Desert.
The University of Arizona Institute of Atmospheric Physics.). The atlas has
changed from a collection of 238 distribution maps to a collection of 339
species monographs plus distribution maps plus 67 pages of references. The
new reference list alone is probably reason enough for any plant ecologist
who has worked in the southwestern deserts to rush out to their favorite bookstore
and get this book.
of us who have any interested in Sonoran Desert plants would probably open
this book somewhere in the middle to see whether our favorite plants are included.
If your favorite plants happen to be annuals or perennial grasses you are
out of luck If your interest is in woody plants and succulents, you will probably
find what you are looking for. (Only one perennial grass, Meal-aphis rigida,
made it into this collection, an appropriate choice, as it has been argued
that this species is functionally more similar to a shrub than to other bunchgrasses.)
I looked for my current favorite plant, Ambrosia dumosa, I was rewarded by
a species mono-graph two pages long; a map of the distribution by state; a
dot map of the distribution in the Sonoran Desert; and an "elevational profile"-
a graph depicting the distribution by altitude versus latitude. The monograph
was impressive: information from 46 references was included, giving the scientific
name, authority, and synonym, two common names, a description of the plant,
summaries of its taxonomy, habitat, biogeography and vegetational history,
reproductive ecology, phenology, physiology, community ecology, life cycle,
herbivores, horticulture, and mycorrhizal association. The information was
highly condensed but very well structured. Having compiled information for
a similar species monograph during three years of literature search, I was
impressed by the completeness of the information and happy to be able CO add
another ten references to my personal reference database.
is to be expected, not all species are treated in so much detail, but all
species accounts include at least a description and a short characterization
of habitat and distribution. All have distribution maps and elevational profiles.
Each map shows the distribution within the Sonoran and, to some degree, the
Mojave Desert and their periphery; an additional map shows the continental
distribution by state. The distribution data are based on personal collections
and observations by the authors, as well as by other individuals, agencies,
and specimens from six major herbaria. Because of the somewhat uneven coverage,
maps such as that for Larrea tridentate show some rather peculiar blank spots
in the distribution, as well as linear patterns along major highways, and
anyone who has worked in the desert could easily fill in additional observations.
However, this should be no major handicap for the usefulness of these maps.
from this minor shortcoming, the maps have all the advantages of dot grid
maps over range area maps. It is easy to determine from these maps, whether
a species is common or sporadic in any given larger area. A disadvantage of
the chosen map format is that it is difficult to identify specific locations
on the map because the only geographical markers included are the coastline,
state borders, and a few settlements. It would have been helpful to include
major rivers and higher elevation con-tour lines. The contour map that is
included in the introduction is so hard to read that it is not very helpful.
The earlier version of this book by Hastings et al. had overlay maps of major
rivers, settlements and roads, which are unfortunately not included in this
course, one could argue about the choice of species included in this collection.
It reflects, as the authors state, apart from a list of the undisputed dominants
of the region, largely the interests of the authors. One may wonder about
the absence of halophytes such as Suaeda and Allenrolfea, and marvel at the
inclusion of some thornscrub species that are mainly found outside the Sonoran
Desert Region, but, after all, the line had to be drawn somewhere (one can
always hope for future editions). I found only one major error in a species
account that was probably caused by the necessity to condense information
from a scientific paper to one sentence. On page 258, it is stated that extracts
from living roots of Larrea tridentata were found to inhibit root growth of
Larrea, as well as Ambrosia dumosa, when it was one of the main points of
the cited study by Mahal] and Callaway (1991) to introduce a new method that
went beyond the standard use of root extracts to determine allelopathic activities
browsing this book for a while, most readers would probably eventually turn
to the introduction. Unfortunately, they will find it mostly a disappointment.
It is only seven pages long and describes mainly the methods used for data
collection and map preparations. It includes a very brief discussion of the
climates of the Sonoran Desert Region, but no map of climatic regimes. It
does include maps that show the number of observations (plant collections
and sightings), the number of species, and the number of woody legume species
in one-degree grid cells in the Sonoran Desert Region. Also included is a
graph that shows that the number of species recorded is an almost linear function
of the number of observations below about 2000 observations per grid cell.
Because only 13 out of 111 grid cells mapped exceed 2000 observations, the
data obviously can not be used at this time for a geographical biodiversity
analysis without correcting for number of observations.
is stated in the introduction that one objective of this collection of distributional
data was to discover the fundamental climatic regimes of characteristic Sonoran
Desert species. As no maps of climatic regimes are included, it is difficult
to see whether this objective was fulfilled. Granted, climates of this region
are extremely difficult to characterize because there are few weather stations
and the variability of the desert climate makes the usefulness of even long-term
records somewhat dubious. However, the inclusion of a few climatic maps would
be an immense improvement in future editions.
authors state that this book is the reference they wished for when they began
working in the Sonoran Desert and they deserve abundant praise and thanks
for generously sharing their database and huge collection of references with
those of us who are now beginning to work in this area. Every ecologist who
works in this region will want to have a copy of this book in their lab or
at least in the library. Others, who have spent a lifetime exploring the ecology
of other regions, should take a look at this book and ask themselves whether
they could not turn their experience and databases into similar books or even
make distribution maps and reference databases available on the internet.
Lastly, one would wish that such databases would become the basis for organized
efforts to map the flora of entire regions and include additional observations
and collections from many researchers. If there is something to be learnt
from this book it is that sharing your knowledge is a good thing.— H.
Jochen Schenk, University of California Santa Barbara
Diversity in Space and Time. M.L. Rosenzweig. 1995. ISBN 0-521-49952-6 (paper
US$27.95) 0-521-49618-7 (cloth US$74.95) 436 pp. Cambridge University Press,
40 West 20th Street, New York NY 10011. — Rosenzweig dedicates "Species
diversity in space and time" to the memory of Robert H. MacArthur with a reference
from Ovid. Translated, it reads, "`Here lies Phaeton, driver of his father's
chariot. If he did not handle it, at least he fell in a great enterprise."'
Rosenzweig has steered the chariot well, but, at times, has given us a rough
ride. This book clearly reflects MacArthur's work, and also that of MacArthur's
mentor, G. E. Hutchinson. Rosenzweig continues to refine the question originally
posed by Hutchinson in "Homage to Santa Rosalia." Throughout this sweeping
and far ranging book, Rosenzweig addresses one question: What determines a
particular number of species? This book was a monumental task, and, as we
read it, we found that it both inspired and, occasionally, annoyed us.
read "Species diversity" as part of a graduate seminar in which the expertise
of the participants varied from mathematics and modeling to evolutionary biology
and ecology. Each of us in turn led discussions on one or more of the chapters,
and as part of the preparation, read several of the relevant references. Because
Rosenzweig envisioned that this book would target graduate students, and because
of our cumulative background, our review reflects opinions of what Rosenzweig
hoped would be his primary audience.
scope of the book is quite broad, but remains focused on one topic throughout,
specifically, patterns and causes of species diversity. While the book focuses
on the species-area relationship, it also includes relationships between species
diversity and latitudinal gradients, habitat variety, disturbance, productivity,
seismic activity, polyploidy, evolutionary and ecological time, body size
and several food web characteristics. He spends the first fifth of the book
describing all of the observed patterns in a sequence, with no discussion
of the underlying mechanisms. He then spends the last four fifths discussing
the mechanisms that he believes to be the most promising explanations of each
of the separate patterns. Because the selected patterns are so diverse, his
discussions of the mechanisms necessarily include brief chapters on speciation,
extinction, niche breadth, and dynamical model systems. The information in
these chapters is not exhaustive, but evidently was selected toward understanding
the patterns presented in the first 90 pages. Many of us found the separation
of pattern and mechanism frustrating and it made the comprehension of his
explanations more difficult. At times, he seemed compelled to reiterate patterns
prior to explaining them, perhaps because 100 pages or more separated the
initial description of the pattern and it's hypothesized mechanism.
strengths of this book, which lie with Rosenzweig's novel contributions, emerge
in the discussions of mechanisms. His greatest contribution, the analysis
of species-area curves across a large range of spatial scales, is instructive
and insightful. He is thorough in both his description of the pattern and
in his discussion of factors underlying the relationship. For instance, he
presents an excellent discussion of the effect of sample size on species-area
curves and the use of rarefaction techniques. Rosenzweig expands the earlier
ideas of Terborgh and his own work in presenting a significant and convincing
argument on the importance of area, alone, in promoting speciation and therefore
diversity. His species-area analyses culminate in a single figure (also printed
on the book jacket) which summarizes many of the major ideas in the book.
He presents hypothesized causative factors (numbers of individuals, number
of habitats, lower extinction rates, increased immigration and speciation
rates) methodically and concisely. This is the focus of the book, and is clearly
the strongest part. Many will protest the descriptive approach to ecology
characterized by species-area curves. Rosenzweig, however, uses species-area
relationships in an attempt to understand large scale and global patterns
of diversity, which are difficult or impossible to test experimentally.
important contribution is his under-standing of the interaction between scale
and habitat heterogeneity. He hypothesizes that at large spatiotemporal scales,
habitat heterogeneity is unrelated to species diversity, while at smaller
scales, habitat heterogeneity is an important determinant of species diversity.
An earlier publication contained this material, but he covers it more thoroughly
and with greater conviction. Rosenzweig also introduces interesting analysis
techniques throughout the book, such as the use of graph theory to test for
competition between bird species, the patch occupancy model of Caswell and
Cohen, and the use of Markov chains to produce maximum likelihood estimates
of extinction and immigration rates from census data.
the preface, Rosenzweig hints that this book is a first draft that was "abandoned
to the printer." He also alludes to the tremendous amount of work required
to make writing seem conversational, unstudied, and clear. Such a conversational
style may appeal to those of us tired of dense, dry text. In many instances,
his simple and direct language makes his ideas very clear. Rosenzweig states,
"I want to be exposed. I want you to argue about and improve my conclusions.
I don't want you to wonder what they are." He generally succeeds. For instance,
he defines the intermediate disturbance hypothesis in a single simple sentence
that said no more and no less than is needed. In other cases his offhand language
leads to ambiguity. For instance, he uses "rich" and "richness" to mean, at
different times, soil fertility, productivity, and the number of species in
an assemblage. In all cases, his style is provocative; it engaged us and prompted
us to read the associated primary literature. This alone warrants a recommendation
of the book.
of the most frustrating aspects of the book were Rosenzweig's continuous tendency
to make unsubstantiated assertions. He repeatedly describes phenom-
ena as examples to support his hypotheses, but does not provide references
for those examples. This is neither acceptable in peer review literature, nor
is it helpful to students, either as an example of good writing or as a review
of important literature. This was made more frustrating by his tendency, at
times, to interpret the background literature in an unexpected manner. For instance,
Rosenzweig states that omnivory is more rare in nature than would be expected,
and that this is because omnivory tends to destabilize food webs, citing Pimm
and Lawton (1978). He does not mention, however, that they also found that some
food webs with omnivory were among the most stable, and that Pimm (1991) later
decided that omnivory is generally common in nature. Another example occurs
in the next chapter, where, in presenting evidence for sympatric speciation,
Rosenzweig repeatedly states that new species have been created in the lab.
The studies he cites, however, do not make that lofty claim, having produced
only partial isolation of lab populations (e.g., Rice 1985). In his summaries
of these studies, Rosenzweig did not present enough of the results to allow
the reader to discover the inaccuracy of his interpretation.
Because Rosezweig states clearly that the primary purpose of this book is to
function as a historical account of species diversity, we feel obligated to
address this particular goal. It does not, as he intends, present today's students
with all of, "...the story of species diversity in the voices that so delighted
ecology"; it presents the voices that apparently delighted Rosenzweig. While
this is a laudable goal for someone with the depth and breadth of knowledge
of Rosenzweig, it is misleading to refer to the book as, "... a little map..."
of diversity research of the 1960s and 1970s. This book is analogous to another
recent book on species diversity (Huston 1994) in that its strength is founded
on the vision of a single author.
Some groups will not be happy with this book. Biologists whose primary background
is in evolution are likely to find the book particularly unsatisfying. Rosenzweig
writes an entire book on species diversity and entire chapter on speciation
without once defining a "species" or even mentioning that there is considerable
controversy over what a species is. There are also several areas where the book
would benefit from a phylogenetic perspective. There is no mention of phylogenetic
branching patterns (i.e., the relative size of clades) and their mechanisms
or discussions of patterns at a taxonomic level higher than species. He includes
a small section entitled key adaptations, a highly controversial subject, which
does not actually address this subject, but addresses phenotypic versatility
instead. In his explanations of paleobiological patterns, he mentions and then
dismisses Evolutionary Stable Strategy, and he confuses random variability with
chaos. There is a dated quality about some of the material that is not intended
be historical. Population geneticists may not be happy with his outdated discussion
of optimization theory; Rosenzweig never presents the possibility that a species
may not be at its evolutionary optimum. If this were truly a historical account,
this would be understandable. Because, however, Rosenzweig seeks to propose
new insights, his occasionally dated references do not always do justice to
the current state of the science. Plant ecologists will find little of their
work cited. This apparently reflects Rosenzweig's view of plant ecology as a
poor cousin to animal ecology, though he does not seem to have a grasp of the
important literature. For instance, in discussing the effects of resource heterogeneity
on plants, he is not sufficiently articulate for the reader to distinguish between
the theories of Grime and those of Tilman.
The value of this book reflects the expertise and perspective of Michael Rosenzweig,
and overall, he is to be congratulated. The topics are quite diverse, he presents
several hypotheses that are worthy of greater exploration, and his writing style
is active, direct, and conversational. He also presents perspectives that are,
in turn, one-sided, ambiguous, and occasionally outdated. As a result, we recommend
this book with several caveats. We cannot recommend this book as a road map
to a former era, as a font of wisdom for students, or an encyclopedic or unbiased
source of information. If you study the determinants of species diversity, however,
read this book. It covers a tremendous breadth of material and thus gives a
fine starting place to begin to answer the question, "Why are there this many
species here?" — M.H.H. Stevens, D.F. Raikow, M.R. Servedio, R.J. Collins,
T.L. Schumann, A.N. Tipper, Long, Z.T., and W.P. Carson, University of Pittsburgh
M.A. 1994. Biological Diversity: The coexistence of species on changing landscapes.
Cambridge University Press, Great Britain.
S.L. 1991. The Balance of Nature? Ecological issues in the conservation of
species and communities. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
S.L. and J.H. Lawton. 1978. On feeding on more than one trophic level. Nature
W.R. 1985. Disruptive selection on habitat preference and the evolution of
reproductive isolation: an exploratory experiment. Evolution 39:645-656.
Terrestrial Orchids from Seed to Mycotrophic Plant Hanne N. Rasmussen. 1995.
ISBN 0-521-45165-5 (cloth US$64.95) 444 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W.
20th St., New York NY 10011-4211. — This book comprises an excellent treatment
of terrestrial orchids of the Northern Hemisphere. The author has contributed
considerably to understanding relating to environmental factors affecting germination
and development of temperate terrestrial orchids in vitro and in vivo. A substantial
portion of the book is devoted to discussion of the literature on the subject
of symbiotic and asymbiotic propagation of these plants. This includes a number
of previously unpublished data from research by the author and others. Most
of these show statistical treatment. Parallels are drawn from the much more
extensive literature on the seed germination and development of epiphytic orchids.
It also contains useful summaries on fertilization, optimum excision and maturity
of these terrestrials, following pollination. There are data on time of germination
based on observations when these terrestrial seedlings have emerged in the wild.
Symbiotic germination of these orchids include effects of seed sterilization
and cold stratification. Other chapters treat fungi isolations and identity
and physiological properties of orchid endophytes, as well as orchid regulatory
effects due to their phytoalexins. A chapter on the life history of these terrestrials
denotes the time span of plant emergence above ground, first flowering and half-life.
These chapters include many excellent photomacrographs and micrographs. A most
useful section of the book (122 pp.) is devoted to detailed description of 36
genera of Northern Hemisphere terrestrial orchids in alphabetic order. These
descriptions include life history, endophytes, seed storage and survival, germination
in culture, and status of cultivation. Appendices deal with formulas of nutrient
substrates cited in the text, orchid genera and their synonyms and fungi. The
book can be recommended to all those working and/or interested in terrestrial
orchids of the Northern Hemisphere. — Robert Ernst, Develop-mental and
Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine
Forests: Management and Ecology A. E. Lugo and C. Lowe, Editors. 1995. xiv
+ 461 pp. ISBN 0-387-94320-X (cloth, US $ 98.00). Springer-Verlag New York,
P. O. Box 19386, Newark, NJ 07195-9386. —The goal of the editors and
contributors to this volume, the 112th in Springer-Verlag's Ecological Studies
series, is to illustrate the relevance of ecological research to tropical
forest management. While linkages between research and management of tropical
forests should be self- evident, the numerous papers in this book illustrate
that these linkages are of uneven strength, and that much more interaction
between ecologists and foresters is needed if tropical forests are to weather
the storms brought on by intensive human activities.
papers in this volume were all presented at the 50th anniversary symposium
of the USDA Forest Service's Institute of Tropical Forestry in Puerto Rico
(now known as the International Institute of Tropical Forestry [IITF]). These
papers are grouped into four sections: an introduction and problem statement
(3 chapters); an overview of long-tern research in Puerto Rican forests (7
chapters); a section laying out areas for research in need of increased focus
in tropical forests in general (4 chapters); and a general agenda for future
research (3 chapters). This symposium was held in 1989, but due to the intervention
of Hurricane Hugo and the Gulf War, both of which put unexpected demands on
the two editors, publication was delayed until last year. The impact of this
delayed publication is more apparent in the more synthetic chapters that form
the last two sections of the book than in the opening papers that focus on
long-term (and pre-Hurricane Hugo) reesearch at the Luquillo Experimental
Forest (LEF) in Puerto Rico.
Lugo sets the tone for the volume in his introductory chapter, `Tropical forests:
their future and our future'. He clearly presents both worst-case and best-case
scenarios for the world's tropical forests, and lays out a balanced approach
for long-term successful management of tropical forests. Lugo is generally
optimistic about the prospects for effective management of the world's tropical
forests, and this optimism is reflected in Frank Wadsworth's paean to the
accomplishments of the IITF during the last half-century. The other introductory
chapter, by J. P. Lanly on the status of tropical forests, largely has been
superseded by the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) 1995 publication:
Forest Resources Assessment 1990 - Tropical Countries (unfortunately already
out of print).
accomplishments of the IITF are the result of a sustained level of careful
long-term research on population and ecosystem dynamics of the forests in
Puerto Rico. These studies are summarized in the second and largest section
of the book. While the bulk of research attention has focused on the tabonuco
(Dacryodes excelsa), palm (Prestoea montana), and cloud forests of the LEF
(summarized in chapters by Lugo & Scatena; Weaver; Lugo, Bokkestijn &
Scatena; McCormick; Taylor, Silander, Waide & Pfeiffer), the dry forests
and forest plantations have not been neglected (chapters by Murphy, Lugo,
Murphy & Nepstad; and Francis, respectively). The papers on the LEF projects
provide the base-line from which recovery of this forest following the passage
of Hurricane Hugo will be assessed. As such, they are an invaluable historical
record of the ecology of this forest. The synthesis of research on the Guānica
dry forest is simlarly vaulable; This 4,000 ha stand on Puerto Rico's southwest
coast represents about 4% of the original extent of dry forest on the
island, and is one of only two subtropical dry forests protected within Biosphere
Re-serves. The analysis of forest plantations in Puerto Rico, however, is
less satisfying. The emphasis is principally on exotic timber species, and
no analysis of the relative merits of using exotic vs. native species is attempted.
seven chapters in the final two sections of the book generally are unsatisfying,
and, with one exception, don't really address the section topics. Within the
section on `Research areas that require increased focus in the tropics', Ernesto
Medina discusses the interface between physiological ecology of trees and
foerst management; Peter Grubb reviews mineral nutrition in rain forests;
John Terborgh rehashes large mammal and bird diversity in neotropical forests
and reiterates the 'key-stone plant resource' hypothesis; and Howard Odum
attempts to lay out a scheme for placing tropical forest systems within a
`human economy'. The chapters by Medina, Grubb, and Terborgh reflect the state-of-thescience
in 1989, but a lot has happened since then that is not contained in these
chapters. It is unfortunate that there was apparently no opportunity to update
these chapters before publication. Odum runs through twelve `minimodels' of
tropical forest systems and their inter-faces with human economic systems
to illustrate changing patterns of forest use and suggest policy recommendations
for sustainable forest management and economic development. Odum uses the
EMERGY currency (energy of one kind required directly and inderectly to produce
a product) in all of his models. The absence of data with which to test his
models, and the leaps of faith required of the reader to accept the main messages
that are otherwise buried in jargon make this chapter the least accessible
in the volume. Despite the fact that these four chapters are supposed to indicate
research areas in need of increased research focus, it's not apparent from
any of these chapters why these areas need increased attention.
final section is meant to provide directions for future research in tropical
forests. Only the closing chapter by Stephen Hubbell provides such direction,
however. Hubbell lays out a convincing research agenda that could broadly
link ecological research and forest management in tropical forests. As with
the earlier chapters, however, it would be useful to know which of these agenda
items have been addressed in the last 7 years. The chapters by T. C. Whitmore,
and Arturo G6mez-Pompa & David Brainbridge focus more on encouraging scientists
to be conservation advocates and less on re-search. While this is a laudable
goal (and is discussed and debated at length in the pages of the journal Conservation
Biology), it is hardly a `direction for future research in tropical forests'.
this volume is a mixed bag. It is most useful as a historical chronical of
the IITF and a pre-Hurricane Hugo synthesis of research and dynamics in the
LEF. As an agenda for future research and management in tropical forests,
however, it reflects more the 'arrogance of humanism' ("a supreme faith in
human reason - its ability to confront and solve the many problems that humans
face, its ability to rearrange both the world of nature and the affiars of
men and women so that human life will prosper": Ehrenfeld ) than the
humility needed to conserve and manage tropical forests in the face of vast
uncertainty (Ludwig, Hilborn, and Walters. 1993). — Aaron M. Ellison,
Department of Biological Sciences, Mount Holyoke College.
D. 1981. The arrogance of humanism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
D., R. Hilborn, and C. J. Walters. 1993. Uncertainty, resource exploitation
and conservation: lessons from history. Science 260: 17-18; 36.
Evolution of a Discipline. Richard Evans Schultes & Siri von Reis, eds.
1995. ISBN 0-931146-28-3 (cloth US$49.95) 414 pp. Dioscorides Press, The Haseltine
Building, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204, USA.—This
book is a series of compendiums covering various aspects of ethnobotany or
plant and human interactions. The number of papers in this field have increased
exponentially over the last 20 years and encompass many aspects of life science
including botany, agronomy, pharmacology, psychology, anthropology, sociology,
as well as such fields as history, geography, politics, and religion. The
36 articles presented are mostly original contributions. Several of the articles
present new data while others review current literature within their specific
discipline. Authors of the various papers provide a global perspective hailing
from 14 countries. Many of the most recognizable names in the field are present.
book is divided into 10 chapters or parts covering a broad spectrum of scientific
and academic skill. Each part is prefaced by an overview of 1-3 pages defining
the particular discipline and its relationship to the field of ethnobotany.
The first part is entitled "General Ethnobotany" and is a series of 5 articles
that attempt to define the field in lieu of the avalanche of studies being
reported. It becomes very clear that ethnobotany is in a period of rapid evolution.
Ethnobotanists are increasingly working within many disciplines and fields
of study to conduct their research. It is also apparent that inhabitants of
the tropics (where most ethnobotanical studies are conducted) are becoming
an inherent and essential part of the research both from the translation of
knowledge of native species and environs, to helping to shape long range ethical,
commercial, and political policy.
topics covered include such diverse disciplines as ethnobotanical conservation
(3), education (2), geography (7), sociology (1 ), history (3) and archeology
(2), ethnopharmacology (10), and contributions to general botany, crop improvement
and ecology (3). The articles are well written and edited, and for the most
part very informative. This book is a must for scholars in this field. It
is a gold mine for literature references on almost every aspect of ethnobotany.
I do feel, however, that it is written at a level that may not be appropriate
for most undergraduate courses. It will certainly prove useful to graduate
students and researchers in ethnobotany and
scholars with an interest in this field. One comes away with the impression
that ethnobotany is rapidly expanding in all directions. It would be difficult
to escape the conclusion that the future of this field will be highly dependent
on interdisciplinary collaboration. Overall, the editors did a splendid job
in presenting the breadth and depth of this exciting field.— Ronald
A. Balsamo, Chatham College, Pittsburgh
and Their Names - A Concise Dictionary Roger Hyam and Richard Pankhurst. 1995.
ISBN 0-19-866189-4 (cloth US$29.95) 545 pp. Oxford University Press, 200 Madison
Ave, New York NY 10016 — Plants And Their Names is the new plant dictionary
written by Roger Hyam and Richard Pankhurst of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh
and recently published by Oxford University Press. The book boasts "16,000
of the more commonly occurring scientific and vernacular names." The book
also contains a brief introduction explaining basic plant taxonomy and a rudimentary
glossary. The book does not, however, contain pronunciation guides for plant
I used a combination of two books for referencing plant names, their meanings,
and origins: Coombes's Dictionary of Plant Names (1985, Timber Press) which
is primarily a guide for pronunciation, and The Plant-Book , the exhaustive
technical dictionary of the higher plants by D.J. Mabberly (1993, Cambridge
University Press). 1 used these two books as a comparative basis by which
to review Plants And Their Names.
randomly picked plant names from The Plant-Book and then looked-up a few of
my favorites as I came across them in any of the three books. Some of the
taxa I used for comparison included Euphorbia, the Trigoniaceae, Buxus, Trillium,
Kalmia, Magnolia, Bensoniella, Piper, and Viscum. In every instance, Plants
And Their Names presented a much more detailed, lengthy and interesting text
than The Dictionary Of Plant Names. In several instances, The Dictionary Of
Plant Names did not provide an entry for rarer genera. The fact that Plants
And Their Names has 338 more pages than The Dictionary Of Plant Names (207
pages) is one obvious reason for the discrepancy between the two volumes.
And Their Names definitely does not contain the detailed technical information
of The Plant-Book nor does it contain a pronunciation guide one might expect
to find in a dictionary (though botanical pronunciation does seem open to
debate among professionals). I have found, however, that the notes on etymology
and medicinal and industrial applications makes Plants And Their Names more
of a pleasure to simply thumb through than either of the other two books.
It is for this reason that I think Plants And Their Names should be popular
among the wider audience of people interested in plants, as well as a valuable
addition to the library of the more serious botanist. — Shane Latimer.
in India: History and Progress, Vol. I Johri, B. M., ed. 1994 ISBN 1-886106-04-5
(cloth US$85.00) 521 pp. and Botany in India: History and Progress, Vol. II
Johri, B. M., ed. 1994 ISBN 1-886106-05-3 (cloth US$80.00) 480 pp. Science
Publishers, 52 LaBombard Road North, Lebanon, NH 03766. —The Hindu myth
of Brahma, the Creator, emerging from a lotus flower exemplifies India's ancient
tradition of recognizing plants as a source of human life. The use of medicinal
plants is well documented in the Rigveda and Ayurveda, written about 6,500
years ago, and the utilitarian value of many plants was known to people living
on the Indian subcontinent as early as 4,500 years ago. Although a systematic
survey of plants in India was done in 400 B.C., the development of modern
botanical practices were begun by Europeans in the 15th century mainly for
the economic exploitation of plants. Hortus Malabaricus, in l2 volumes and
794 plates, was published by the Dutch Governor of Malabar, Heinrich van Rheede
tot Drakenstein, an amateur botanist, and used by Linnaeus as the basis of
naming many Indian plants. Koenig, a pupil of Linnaeus, went to India in 1768
and introduced the Binomial System of Nomenclature. Botany in India reviews
the history and progress of botany in India during the past 100 years with
only passing references to ancient episodes such as mentioned above. The progress
of botany in India has been reviewed previously for various periods, viz.,
for the periods 1910-1935, 1939-1950, until 1962, and 1963-1972.
main purpose of these two volumes is to bring the botanical achievements of
Indian botanists to the attention of the younger generation of teachers and
students in India. The volumes are divided in 39 chapters (24 in Volume I
and 15 in Volume II) written by specialists in various fields. Maintaining
a uniform standard in such compilations is always difficult, but the editor
has successfully kept an interesting style throughout the book. Each volume
begins with photographs of the twenty-two botanists of India, including two
British botanists, to whom the book is dedicated.
chapters of both volumes are grouped under the following major themes for
this review: plant science history (chapter 1), plant exploration (2), medicinal
plants (3), plant diseases and their causes (4-7), lower plants (8-12 and
21-24), fungi and plant diseases (13-19), lichens (20), gymnosperms (26-27),
angiosperms (27-31), genetics, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology
(32-37), ecology (38), and paleobotany (39).
first two chapters tell a fascinating story of plant science history and plant
exploration in India which began when Bhikshu Atreya asked Jivaka, in 400
BC, to collect, identify and describe all the plants growing within 36 miles
of the University of Taxila. In the 19th century, Europeans enthusiastically
collected plants in India as amateur botanists. J. D. Hooker's Flora of British
India (7 volumes; 1872-1897) is based on these collections. Today the Botanical
Survey of India has nine regional centers that generate numerous publications.
Three follows the use of plants in India for medicinal and other utilitarian
purposes beginning 2,500 - 3,000 years ago when the Indian physician, Charak,
described medicinal applications of about 350 plants. Several medicines have
been developed from plants which were in common use among country folks at
that time. India started cultivating plants for medicinal purposes in the
19th century. Quinine, used for curing malaria, is extracted from Cinchona
that was introduced into plantations in India. Since pharmaceutical manufacturers
now generally synthesize medicines in developed countries, the cultivation
of medicinal plants is now in decline. However, India is developing research
in the traditional Ayurvedic and Unani medical systems which use plant parts
in preparing medicines.
development of plant pathology in India is rather recent. The progress made
in India in the study of mollecutes, viruses and bacteria, and the various
diseases caused by them, are discussed in detail. Algal research in India
has been largely confined to the study of the morphology and taxonomy of freshwater
algae with almost no research on Pyrrophyta which generally includes unicellular
research on fungi was initiated at the beginning of the 20th century after
earlier isolated studies. Most of such work is still limited to taxonomy.
The infection "Madura foot" or Maduromycosis, caused by the fungus Madurella
naycetomi, was named in 1874 after Madurai in South India where a British
medical officer first identified the infection in people who did not wear
shoes. In the 1930s, Berberis was identified as an alternate host for black
wheat rust. Plant galls, localized outgrowths of various host organs in which
host cells are stimulated to excessive growth by parasites, are economically
useful as the tannic acid from galls is used in making permanent inks. The
United States Treasury and the Bank of England use oak galls in ink formulae
to prevent forgery.
study of lichens is about 50 years old in India and has generally been limited
to taxonomy. It has been observed that while some lichens die due to atmospheric
pollution, others flourish in similar environments. The study of lower plant
groups in India was started in the latter part of the 19th century by Europeans
who collected, described and cataloged taxa. After India's independence in
1947, various centers for plant study were instituted and the study of plants
accelerated with the reorganization of the Botanical Survey of India. the
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, and the University Grants Commission.
Forest Research Institute was established in 1904 to tap forest resources
in India and has contributed immensely to plant research. Gymnosperms occupy
a great part of montane India and are prized as sources of timber, resin,
essential oils, and paper pulp. The first two chapters of the second volume
review studies done in India on morphology, systematics, reproductive biology,
and morphogenesis of gymnosperms.
chapters are devoted to various aspects of angiosperms. Since the first paper
on floral morphology, an important part of angiosperm taxonomy, appeared in
1933, several research centers have been active in such angiosperm research.
Research on angiosperm embryology, begun in the early 1920s in Bangalore and
Allahabad, progressed under Professor P. Maheshwari, founder of the School
of Embryology, University of Delhi, in 1949. In 1950, studies began on pollen
physiology and pollen-pistil interaction in order to exploit the full reproductive
potential of economically important plants. Studies on pollen morphology (palynology)
in India began in the 1950s and proliferated in numerous research centers
in the 1960s. Pollen of several floras have been described. A coordinated
national program on aeropalynology commenced in 1979. Cytological research
began in the late 1920s and the first chromosome count in India was made in
cotton in 1929. The advent of squashing and hydroxyquinoline treatment techniques
spurred research in cytology and cytogenetics in the 1950s. Research on genetics
of wild and cultivated plants has proliferated recently. Genetic diversity
and its role in the improvement of cereals, pulses and oil seeds is reviewed
in a separate chapter.
The progress in the study of physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology
during the past 100 years in India is reviewed in six chapters (32-37). J. C.
Bose, primarily a physicist, pioneered research in plant physiology in the first
three decades of the 19th century. He founded the Bose Research Institute in
Calcutta in 1917 and spent his life at this institute exploring plant physiology.
Research in plant biochemistry was developed in the Indian Institute of Science
founded in Bangalore in 1911. Scientists of the Imperial (now Indian) Agricultural
Research Institute (founded in Bihar in 1905 and moved to New Delhi in 1936)
developed significant research in the fields of plant water relation and crop
yield, nitrogen metabolism, photoperiodism, and plant biochemistry. Research
on genome organization in angiosperms has been sporadic and is still in its
infancy. The significance of plant tissue culture was realized in India in the
mid-1950s. The National Facility for Plant Tissue Culture Repository was established
at the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources of the Indian Agricultural
Research Institute. When in vitro culture of plant tissues and organs was started
during the 1950s, attention was focused on production of secondary plant metabolites
due to the demand for natural products for pharmaceuticals. Although the roots
of ecology and conservation lie in ancient Indian literature, the field of ecology
in India started to develop in the second decade of the 19th century, made rapid
progress in the late 1940s, and grew rapidly in the 1970s. Modern ecological
practices in India were largely founded by F. R. Bharucha, R. Misra and G. S.
Puri in the 1950s. Misra and Puri founded the International Society for Tropical
Ecology and the journal Tropical Ecology was first published in 1960. The main
problems facing Indian ecologists today are the loss of
diversity, degradation of ecosystems, and global change due to industrialization.
Ecosystem analyses and modelling, conservation and evolutionary ecology, restoration
ecology, ecology of global change, and ecological economics are the main areas
of future research and training.
research started in India with the establishment of the Geological Survey
of India in 1847. Birbal Sahni undertook paleobotanical research with great
vigor when he joined Lucknow University in 1921. In 1946, he founded the institute
now known as the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow, which is
the main center in India for research on paleobotany and palynology.
India, botanical studies progressed in two phases. First, botanical collection
and description of floras was conducted fervently during the British rule.
The second phase commenced after India's independence with the establishment
of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and other research institutions.
volumes are devoid of figures, charts, and illustrations. Most chapters have
an interesting style of narrating the progress in their respective field.
Synoptic biographies of the botanists portrayed in the volumes would have
been interesting for both teachers and students. Errors and omissions are
few and the editor deserves congratulations on assuming such an extensive
task and completing it so admirably. All libraries should have a copy of these
volumes available in their reference section. — Satish K. Srivastava
(Geology, U.S.C) 3054 Blandford Drive Rowland Heights, California
Book of Rhododendrons. Marianna Kneller.
ISBN 0-88192-322-2 (Cloth US $45) 160 pp. Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Ave.,
Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204 — This 25 by 34 cm volume contains 55
single-page and nine double-page colorplates by Kneller, who is an award winning
artist-in-residence at Exbury Gardens. Rhododendron enthusiast, Lionel de
Rothschild, created Exbury Gardens and many notable rhododendron hybrids.
page of text that accompanies all but two of the single plates is by one of
over 50 rhododendron experts or enthusiasts, including rhododendron book authors
Peter Cox, Roy Lancaster, David Leach, and Harold Greer. Each essay describes
the illustrated subsection, section, or subgenus typically giving details
of the plant's discovery, cultivation, and native habitat and sometimes including
the author's personal experiences with the plant. One annoying aspect is that
some authors talk mainly about other species rather than about the one illustrated.
Brief biographies of each contributor are included at the end of the volume
along with an extensive list of parks and gardens with rhododendron collections,
rhododendron society addresses, a partial rhododendron species list, glossary,
bibliography, and index.
book seems to try to appeal to both rhododendron experts, who would be interested
in the taxonomic details and meticulous botanical illustrations, and average
gardeners, who would need the glossary and appreciate the list of rhododendron
gardens and society addresses. Both audiences should appreciate the engaging
text by experts who know the plants and often relate personal experiences.
Major Thomas Spring-Smyth de-scribes his birthday encounter with R. campan
Mat-um and grazing yaks in an alpine meadow in East Nepal. Novices and experts
alike can appreciate the color plates but novices may be confused by the emphasis
on the complex taxonomy. The book sometimes confuses itself. The foliage of
R. exirnium is illustrated in one plate and discussed on page 22, yet R. exinaium
in the index refers the reader to R. falconeri ssp. eximiurn. The index has
some major omissions. For example, it does not refer to color plates of R.
ponticum on page 2 and R. crassum on page 7.
plates are divided into three parts based on Rhododendron subgenera: 1. subgenus
Hymenanthes, 2. subgenus Rhododendron, and 3. several subgenera of the azalea-type
rhododendrons. Each of the three parts begins with a page of line drawings
of flowers. Each color plate shows the entire 8-month growing cycle including
a flower bud, blooming shoot, dissected flower, expanding leaves, and fruit.
Lowercase letters label the various parts. There are also ten species illustrated
by small line drawings, each with a brief description by the author. Most
color plates contain one species but five show two or three species. Unfortunately,
plates with more than one species do not indicate which is which. Also, the
scale of the plates is not made clear. The automatic assumption is that the
flowering shoot is life size. However, the last page raises doubt by indicating
that the original paintings were either 55 by 38 or 39 by 38 cm.
nine, double-page plates each show the nonflowering shoots of three to six
species and are bound together after the third part. A page and a half of
text briefly describes the great diversity of rhododendron leaf morphology
illustrated on the double plates. Each species' subgenus, section, series,
and subseries is given in the text for the single plates, but these details
are not provided for the double plates. However, the double prints have the
species names on the plate, while the single prints do not. Having the species
name on the print would be especially desirable if the prints are eventually
framed. The single plates are designed for framing because they lack page
numbers. The double prints have page numbers and would be difficult to frame.
Unfortunately, the single prints are slightly below the 28 by 36 cm of standard
frames sold in the U.S. which would make framing more difficult. — David
R. Hershey, Biology/Horticulture Department, Prince George's Community College,
A Comprehensive Guide. Peter Valder. 1995. ISBN 0-88192-318-4 (Cloth US $32.95)
160 pp. Timber Press, 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland OR 97204 —
Billed as the first book exclusively devoted to wisterias in a European language,
this volume was written by an Australian soil scientist and horticulturist
with 40 years experience growing wisterias. The first two chapters provide
an introduction to wisteria classification, identification, life cycle, and
morphology. Line drawings provide a clear key to structures of leaf, flower,
raceme, and seed. The bulk of the book is then devoted to three chapters each
examining one of the three main groups of wisteria species, American, Chinese,
and Japanese. All species and cultivars are thoroughly de-scribed and illustrated
with wisteria cultivars of hybrid or unknown provenance in a separate chapter.
Although not in the genus Wisteria, a chapter is devoted to several species
of the so-called summer wisterias (Millettia species) because of their similar
morphology. A chapter on cultivation provides details on propagation, pruning,
production of new cultivars, and pests and diseases. The final chapter gives
the author's choice of the top ten wisteria cultivars and the best cultivars
for particular uses, such as for pergolas, for walls, for scent, as shrubs,
as standards, for bonsai, for autumn color, and for seed pods. A two-page
glossary, a list of about 100 references, and an index complete the text.
100-plus superb color photos of blooming wisterias are mostly by the author
who visited wisterias on four continents. A nice touch are old black and white
wisteria photos appearing with color photos of the same plant. For example,
a 1914 photo of the famous wisteria at Ushijima, Japan, by Ernest H. Wilson,
is next to a 1991 photo by the author at the same spot. There are also illustrations
of centuries-old wisteria paintings and even Tiffany stained glass wisteria
lamps. The only weakness of the photos is that closeups of individual racemes
and seeds lack an indication of scale in their captions.
major thrust of the book is an attempt to clear up some of the nomenclatural
confusion in the genus. V alder makes a case to reduce the number of species
from the 9 or 10 recognized by horticultural references like Hortus Third
and Wyman's Gardening Encyclopedia to just five. He also attempts to clear
up the widespread confusion in cultivar names, often adopting new cultivar
names in the process.
the notable omissions are a discussion of wisteria cold hardiness, any details
on soil texture, soil pH, and fertilization requirements, and a thorough consideration
of wisteria toxicity. Valder concludes that W. sinensis flowers are not poisonous,
but the AMA Hand-book of Poisonous and Injurious Plants is emphatic that all
parts of the plant are toxic, including the flowers. Another notable omission
from the reference list i s Michael Dirr's Manual of Woody Landscape Plants,
the standard U.S. college text.
text should appeal to botanists and gardeners alike because of its focus on
the taxonomic and horticultural history of wisteria, including quotes on wisteria
by famous botanists such as Robert Fortune and John Lindley. Botanically,
wisterias are notable because the clockwise twining of W. floribunda distinguishs
it from the counterclockwise twining of the other species. Also fascinating
is the wisteria's cultural importance in Japan, where at least seven old wisterias
have been declared National Treasures and are popular tourist at-tractions.
The National Treasure wisteria at Ushijima is estimated to be 1200 years old
and covers 700 square meters of trellis. In 1920 when it covered about half
that area, it was estimated to have 80,000 fragrant racemes, each up to a
meter or more long. One wonders what Washington D.C. might look like today
if Japan had given the U.S. a gift of wisteria instead of cherry trees. —
David R. Hershey, Biology/Horticulture Department, Prince George's Community
College, Largo, MD
and Cellular Aspects of Plant Reproduction. R. J. Scott and A. D. Stead, eds.
1994. ISBN 0-521-45525-1 (cloth) 315pp. Society for Experimental Biology Seminar
Series 55, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK — The articles
in this volume represent an eclectic set of loosely related topics including
five on flower senescence, four on genes in floral morphogenesis, five on
pollen and anthers and one each on ovules and brown algae. The value of an
article to an individual reader will be quite varied. Three are particularly
good reviews: a thoughtful comparison by R. Scott of hypotheses concerning
chemical composition of sporopollenin, a well-organized, highly accessible
summary of gene expression in male gametophyte development by D. Twell, and
an overview of strategies of flower senescence by Stead and Van Doorn, followed
by a second piece by the same two authors.
majority of articles include a brief review followed by an example of recent
results, but without full methods, e.g., floral organogenesis in Petunia (V
an Tunen et al.), Y-chromosome mutants of Melandrium (Barbacar and Negrutiu),
anther-specific glucanases (Scott's group), and ovule cDNA clones (Ferrant,
Van Went, Kries). Other were unnecessarily brief or narrow in scope, e.g.,
pollen physiology (Heslop-Harrisons), self-incompatibility in Papaver (Franklin
et al.), floral morphogenesis in cauliflower (Jordan, Anthony, James). The
coverage is not widely representative of the field. Nearly half the articles
are from the Universities of Leicester and Bir-
with the rest from around the world. Of the 39 authors, 20% are from Birmingham
question the usefulness of such uneven cover-age. Many molecular aspects of
plant reproduction are not included. One might want a copy of a pertinent
individual chapter, but the overview is so incomplete that it has limited
use, e.g., for graduate students looking for interesting projects. Get it
on interlibrary loan. — Darlene Southworth, Department of Biology, Southern
Oregon State College, Ashland
Fingerprinting in Plants and Fungi. Weising, K., H. Nybom, K. Wolff and W.
Meyer. 1994. ISBN 0-8493-8920-8, 322 pp. CRC Press, 2000 Corporate Blvd. NW,
Boca Raton, Florida 3343 1 USA. — The discovery that DNA sequence repeat
families could be utilized to provide genetic markers often variable enough
to identify individual genotypes created broad new possibilities in organismal
biology and forensics. Genetic "fingerprints" had the potential to provide
a direct and accurate means to determine parentage, compare relatedness and
estimate small genetic distances and thereby test hypotheses that had previously
been outside the realm of genetic marker studies. Studies based on DNA fingerprinting
are now common, almost hackneyed, in mammals and birds but highly variable
DNA markers have been slower to arrive in the plant kingdom. The employment
of DNA fingerprinting in plants faces unique methodological hurdles (particularly
DNA extraction) and often requires a distinct set of probes and primers to
detect highly variable repeats. The authors of this book addressed the need
for better technical information with the intention of providing a "benchtop
manual" containing plant and fungi specific DNA fingerprinting techniques
in hopes that plant and fungal genetic research would be stimulated.
authors take a very broad perspective on what constitutes a practical guide
and consider both hybridization based methods (largely multilocus) and polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) methods based on random primer sequences ("RAPiDs") under
the label of DNA fingerprinting. Methods and progress in microsatellite cloning
and PCR amplification are only briefly mentioned. The book begins with a basic
explanation of types of DNA variation and methods used to measure such variation,
a review of features of tandemly repeated DNA sequences, and an elementary
description of PCR. Next is an abbreviated description of equipment and supplies
necessary for molecular genetic studies and a basic description of several
chemical and radiation hazards encountered in the laboratory procedures de-scribed.
The "methodology" section begins after 40 pages of preliminary material and
is the largest (over 100 pages) and most practical section of the volume.
This section includes step-by-step protocols for DNA extraction, agarose gel
electrophoresis and Southern blotting, probe labeling and hybridization, PCR
protocols for arbitrary and simple sequence primers, as well as a section
on the scoring and analysis of DNA fragment patterns. Following the methods
is a section describing "applications" of fingerprinting. This includes examples
of studies that have investigated genetic diversity, relatedness, paternity
or phylogenetics of wild and cultivated plant species. The application section
for fungi is oriented around identi tication of pathogeneic groups and the
population genetics and phylogeny of commercially important groups. The book
closes with a comparison of DNA markers to morphological and allozyme measures
of genetic variation and some thoughts on emerging techniques in DNA typing
and methods to increase the ease and accuracy of DNA fingerprinting. Appendices
pro-vide taxonomic lists to studies where fingerprint markers have been used.
Throughout the book content for plants takes precedence over that for fungi,
with the sections concentrating on fungi being separate and wholly independent.
book contains a great deal of information that is relevant to those developing
or employing finger-print or RAPiD genetic markers in plants and fungi. The
volume is valuable if for no other reason than its service to collect and
describe plant and fungal DNA fingerprinting literature through 1993. The
highly compartmental organization, redundancy and inclusion of too much elementary
descriptive material reduce the book's ability to be a "benchtop" manual.
However, the hook can serve as a reference for investigators presently involved
in the types of studies it describes. The methodology section references a
large number of plant DNA extraction methods, an especially important step
in hybridization-based fingerprinting, and presents step-by-step protocols
for four basic methods. The applications section provides background on what
past studies have accomplished and gives some sense for what types of genetic
analyses fingerprinting has successfully addressed. This review of plant and
fungal fingerprinting studies is the most comprehensive to date. Unfortunately,
the review of past studies lacks any attempt at a synthesis or a taxonomic
organization of successful marker types. The statistical methodology section
was a particularly weak point, providing only a superficial review of numerical
measures and no guidance on appropriate application or pitfalls such as linkage
or the absolute necessity of inheritance studies when using genetic markers
to measure relatedness. The proper analysis of DNA fingerprinting data has
been controversial and requires special attention if results are to be broadly
accepted. The appendices aid in locating fingerprinting studies in taxonomic
groups of interest but could be improved by including probe and primer sequences
and whether variation was among individuals, populations or species.
volume is targeted at those investigators who are new to DNA marker studies
and require a
to all aspects of the process. But here lies the contradiction of the book's
organization and my largest criticism. Several excellent and comprehensive
laboratory manuals in molecular genetics exist that provide depth and breadth
in explanations of basic techniques (e.g. Current Protocols in Molecular Biology,
1993. Ausubel, F.M., R. Brent, R. E. Kingston, D. D. Moore, J. G. Seidman,
J. A. Smith, and K. Struhl. Greene Pub. Associates and Wiley-lnterscience,
New York). The descriptions of basic techniques given in this book are not
thorough enough to provide the background needed by a neophyte but are not
brief enough to be used as a bench reference by an experienced investigator.
The book would be better served by assuming that readers can learn basic techniques
elsewhere. This would free the authors to concentrate on the unique aspects
of plant and fungal fingerprinting, material the book already contains but
that is obscured by too much basic content.
would recommend this book as a reference to those actively involved in plant
or fungal genetics re-search with fingerprints. I would also recommend the
book to those developing fingerprinting methods in plants and fungi because
it will be one source of information that may help in marker development.
It will be of less interest to those not involved in the empirical details
of finger-printing due to the lack of general themes in the review sections,
— Matthew B. Hamilton, Smithsonian Institution, National Zoological
Park, Washington, D. C.
Structure, Function, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. Edited by Ajit Varma
and Bertold Hock. 1995. ISBN 0-387-58525-7 (cloth). Springer-Verlag, New York,
Berlin, Heidelberg. — What's new in mycorrhizae research? The editors
of this volume write that they were encouraged to present the book by "recent
developments" in the field. And there are new developments to report. In genetics,
physiology, systematics and elsewhere, there is much that is new in mycorrhizae
research. But the reader is not encouraged. Do these developments go beyond
technological advances? The book is a compendium of review papers, many of
which were written by scientists working in agricultural laboratories or at
agriculture schools. The authors tend to stress biotechnology rather than
biology. The book is heavy on technical language which is difficult for specialists
and opaque to the general reader. Blanket statements about the "state of the
science" are not borne out by the research that is presented. One author writes:
The taxonomy and systematics of fungi...are entering a new phase...and the
value of traditional taxonomic characters is being questioned.
have heard this hyperbole at dozens of talks. Usually it is posited as a substitute
for solid knowledge of the organisms in question and their characters. I doubt
whether this ejaculation is adequate basis for building a career in science
or even for framing an hypothesis. Another author enlightens us:
has become increasingly clear that the vast, expanding field of molecular
biology will have a major impact on mycorrhizal studies.
whom has it become increasingly clear? Of what clear value to science is something
that is vast and expanding? To me this assertion represents the tail of technology
wagging the dog of mycorrhizal studies.
are good papers here, particularly by workers who have taken a broad view
of mycorrhizal biology. They recognize the significance of the mycorrhizal
symbiosis, and they try to circumscribe its many complexities. But many of
the papers, especially those that focus on more reductionist problems, seem
to ignore a basic fact: the mycorrhizal relationship is a symbiosis involving
a plant and a fungus. This might seem an obvious statement, but it carries
with it wide implications for investigative work. Fungi have peculiar lifestyles
that are not shared by other organisms (for instance Rhizobium bacteria, which
one author calls the "other" major group of mutualistic symbioses involving
land plants. By the way, what about insect-plant relationships?). I pity readers
who, tantalized by titles that promise "new and improved" technology, might
struggle through this hook and never get an adequate handle on what mycorrhizae
of the contributions list little-known associations such as mycorrhizae in
aquatic plants, but the papers are limited because they are basically literature
reviews. Most of the papers highlight a limited number of associations, many
of which are crop plants or fungi that have been traditionally included in
the experimental literature. Pinus, Pisolithus, Pisum. Nothing new here. But
where this book is lackluster in organismic diversity, it is spectacular in
terminology. The editors and the first authors highlight a nomenclatural controversy
over the use of the term VAM (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae) vs. AM (arbuscular
mycorrhizae). Is this the singular burning issue in mycorrhizae research?
If so, let us move on. Abs and mAbs, pAbs and PEGs dominate many pages. I
would have been happier if the authors made themselves understood. By contrast,
a number of more traditional terms pepper the hook. Mycorrhizae are considered
as "organs" in one paper. Elsewhere we read of "resting structures," "fruit
bodies," and "propagules." Perhaps these terms point to the difficulty of
studying and understanding fungi. They point to the painful truth that though
we may find ourselves in an increasingly sophisticated technological environment,
our understanding of the fungal lifestyle remains a crude one.
book has a good bibliography, which we have come to expect in edited volumes
of this sort. The contributed papers are a bit more diverse than I have let
on. Certainly great effort was devoted to preparing a wide reaching work on
up-to-date research on mycorrhizae.
is much to be learned about them. Perhaps a collection of review pieces is
the wrong place to ask for case studies. But case studies might have provided
more flavor than we get in this volume. A few case studies might have provided
a graduate student (or even an undergraduate) a chance to think, "Wow! Mycorrhizae
diagrams, graphs, and photographs in this book are acceptable and in a few
cases striking. The book is printed on annoying shiny paper. You cannot set
the book flat on your table and read it. It must be propped up in order to
avoid the reflective glare that is produced by overhead lighting. Unless we
see another text on mycorrhizae in the near future this one will have to suffice,
but one can hope for a more dynamic, holistic, thoughtful book about mycorrhizae
to replace it. — Samuel Hammer, College of General Studies, Boston University
Methods of Plant Analysis Vol.15: Alkaloids H.F. Linskens and J.F. Jackson,
eds. 1994 ISBN 0-387-52738-9 (cloth US$196) 237 pp. Springer-Verlag, New York
— Alkaloids have long been a focus of attention due to their profound
physiological effects on mammalian systems, but their functional roles in
the plants that produce them have often remained obscure (Robinson, 1991).
Alkaloids provides an over-view of the latest techniques in alkaloid chemistry
that will enhance our ability to fill gaps in that knowledge. Traditionally
it has been possible to identify the presence of a known alkaloid using co-chromatography.
However, because many alkaloids are present at low levels, this has required
considerable amounts of plant material. The present volume shows that it is
possible to structurally characterize alkaloids using less than 5 milligrams
of pure alkaloid and that individual alkaloids may be characterized even from
within complex mixtures. These techniques promise to further our understanding
of biosynthetic pathways, insect detoxification mechanisms and the functional
roles of alkaloids in plants.
focus of the book is on methods: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), High Performance
Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and Gas Chromatography (GC) are covered in considerable
detail and smaller sections are devoted to Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC),
Mass Spectrometry (MS), and extraction. The NMR section is filled with all
the latest acronyms for the acquisition of proton and carbon spectra (COSY,
NOESY, HOHAHA, HETCOR, HMQC, HMBC, COLOC, INADEQUATE, DEPT, TOCSY, SIMBA,
plus combinations), and if any of these methods are in your existing vocabulary
then this book is likely to be of considerable use. If these terms are not
familiar, then you may want to review basic NMR before delving into these
chapters as the editors assume a relatively advanced level of knowledge. A
broader introduction would have been most helpful. Because the NMR techniques
outlined here are powerful, nondestructive, and require only small amounts
of material, it will be well worth the review. I recommend (King & Williams,
1989a; King & Williams, 1989b; Williams & King, 1990a; Williams &
King, 1990b) but there are many books and reviews available on the subject
of NMR in alkaloid analysis.
chromatography has also emerged as a useful tool in alkaloid analysis. GC
has many advantages: it requires less material and is less expensive than
NMR, it can be linked to MS to generate highly specific spectral fragment
patterns, GC has short analysis times (30 minutes or less), and it can readily
separate complex mixtures of most classes of alkaloid without derivatization.
The main drawback is the destructive nature of GC detection. An example of
the power of GC comes from the chapter on detection of alkaloids in environmental
tobacco smoke; there. have been at least 3,875 individual components identified
in tobacco smoke and airborne alkaloids can be detected in parts-per-trillion
levels. This still leaves the problem of figuring out just what it all means
and how to use this wealth of chemical data; the chapter effectively addresses
these problems but does not resolve them.
chapter on electrochemical detection of alkaloids in HPLC highlights recent
advances in this mode of detection which make it superior to more typical
UV or fluorescence detection. In the past, GC suffered from problems of thermal
degradation making HPLC the prominent mode for alkaloid determinations. Recent
improvements in GC have overcome degradation problems but electrochemical
detection coupled with HPLC separation remains a viable system for alkaloids
that can be oxidized or reduced, including aromatic, indole and tropane alkaloids.
book will make an excellent addition to any institutional library but the
treatment is overall of a highly specialized nature taking it out of the range
of many plant biology research programs. I found the writing to be highly
informative but at times overwhelming. The NMR methods described in this book
are not for the faint of heart and for the most part require the aid of a
Ph.D. chemist and sophisticated (and expensive) equipment the likes of which
are to be found only in industry or major research institutions. The GC and
HPLC methods are accessible to most chemical labs. Most chapters are geared
toward solving problems of alkaloid detection and characterization in economically
important plants such as tobacco, but connections to other taxa are regularly
made. The final two chapters are a bit of a stretch and seem almost out of
place with their in depth coverage of transformation of root cultures and
the genetic analysis of Popover alkaloids. The information presented is consistently
well referenced and the book is overall of high quality and well written.
One notable lack is any systematic treatment of solid phase extraction (SPE)
techniques which are highly suited to alkaloids and would be useful
easily and rapidly generating samples of sufficient purity for many analyses.
is the second incarnation of "Modern Methods of Plant Analysis," the original
series being published between 1956 and 1964. The current series (16 volumes)
attempts to bridge the gap between methods which were originally described
in the biochemical, biophysical, and medical literature thus making them accessible
to plant biologists. Each plant species may require some special modification
of the described methods. To facilitate methods development, links to the
original procedures are provided and authors generally describe their methods
critically with hints as to their limitations. This volume serves as a standard
of what can be achieved and should prove an excellent addition to the series.
— Timothy Morton, Entomology, Pennsylvania State University
R. W., & Williams, K. R. (1989a). The fourier transform in chemistry:
Part 1. Nuclear magnetic resonance: Introduction. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation,
R. W., & Williams, K. R. (1989b). The fourier transform in chemistry:
Part 2. Nuclear magnetic resonance: The single pulse experiment. Topics in
Chemical Instrumentation, 66(10), A243-A248.
T. (1991). The Organic Constituents of Higher Plants: Their Chemistry and
Interrelationships (6 ed.). North Amherst, MA: Cordus Press.
K. R., & King, R. W. (1990a). The fourier transform in chemistry - NMR:
Part 3. Multiple-pulse experiments. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, 67(4),
K. R., & King, R. W. (1990b). The fourier transform in chemistry -NMR:
Part 4. Two-dimensional methods. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, 67(5),
Flora De Manantlān. J. Antonio Vazquez G., Ramōn Cuevas G., Theodore
S. Cochran, Hugh H. Iltis, Francisco J. Santana M., and Luis Guzman H. 1995.
ISSN 0833-1475 (paper US$45) Sida, Bot. Misc. 13: 1-312. Botanical Research
Institute of Texas, 509 Pecan St., Fort Worth TX 76102. — Manantlān,
Mexico is an impressive massif of the Sierra Madre Occidental overlooking the
Pacific Ocean on its western flanks. It occupies about 140,000 ha (341,000 acres),
forming a localized mountainous carbuncle in the southwesternmost portion of
Jalisco just where it nestles up against the neighboring state of Colima. As
circumscribed by the authors of this text, Sierra Manantlān varies in elevation
from 400 to 2860 meters, encompassing a wide range of climatic variables, which
permits the recognition of eight or more vegetational types, the latter concisely
discussed by Vasquez and Cuevas in an account of the biogeography and plant
communities and neatly illustrated by their Fig. 11, a colored plate showing
the major vegetational types according to their dominants.
course, most workers interested in the biodiversity of tropical and subtropical
America will need no introduction to this extraordinary biological preserve
(it is now formally recognized as la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlān),
for it is renown for harboring a putative ancestor of cultivated corn (maize),
Zea diploperennis, not to mention yet other endemic species occurring on this
"Noah's Ark" of North America. In-deed, the authors reckon the reserve to
contain about 3000 taxa of vascular plants, of which about 30 are restricted
to it, some of the latter (e.g., Magnolia iltisiana) remarkably distinct.
text is a beautiful production and the Botanical Research Institute of Texas
(BRIT) is to be congratulated for its attractive cover and format. This, in
large measure, must reflect the talents of Barney L. Lipscomb, editor of the
journal Sida, and its Botanical Miscellany, of which this is volume 13.
I tip my hat to the editor and his accomplishments, ultimate kudos must go
to the numerous workers and collaborators who gathered the data and put this
in printable form. Six of these are listed on the front cover as editors.
Nevertheless, the blood, guts, muscle and mucilage of this project must go
to the many Mexican nationals involved in the field exploration and data assemblage.
Still, I suspect that the sustaining spirit behind the enterprise has been
Hugh H. Iltis, long time Professor of Botany and now Emeritus at the Univ.
of Wisconsin. I have known this incorrigible creature for over 40 years now
and I know of no one more interwrapt i n environmental sentience: concern
and enthusiasm for things pristine, or in his case rabid biophilia. Off-the-wall
upon occasion Hugh may appear, given the opportunity to hold forth on things
environmental, full of bombast and zealotry, but never doubt his sincerity,
a quality that drives him to care that this little biotic pool of biodiversity,
Sierra Manantlān, might be preserved in perpetuity.
Iltis can be sort of corny in his exuberances. Thus, in his final paragraph
of his "Introduction" to this text (with T.S. Cochran), he reckons that
The better we get to know this biota, the more we shall be able to love it.
And the greater our love, the greater our will to fight for its preservation.
We must strive to be good ancestors to future generations, so that in centuries
to come, Mexican boys and girls, and their American friends as well, will continue
to enjoy the natural beauty of the Mexican landscape, and be empowered with
a sense of wonder by the rich biota that adorns the mountains called Manantlān.
that is what I like best in Hugh: his Kiwanas Club, child-like enthusiasm
that draws us to his many causes, like them or not.
Introductory chapter of this 312 page text, from which I quoted the above,
is in English, the remaining chapters are in Spanish. In spite of the statement
by Iltis and Cochran (p. 11) that "It is fair to say that except
the Valley of Mexico, the Sierra de Manantlān has one of the most thoroughly
explored floras in Mexico", the authors are quick to note that
is a floristic checklist. Listed alphabetically within each family are all
the vascular plant species that have been found growing in the wild in the
Sierra de Manantlān Biosphere Reserve (Fig. 1) and certain contiguous
corridors within its zone of influence ... Each entry gives the scientific
name of the plant and cites one or more voucher specimens and its herbarium
of deposition. Otherwise, little information is given—some common names,
few synonyms, and not habitats. Thus, although not an identification book
nor a vegetation study, this is, nevertheless, a convenient source of distributional
and attitudinal data and should be of great value to anyone interested in
Mexican biodiversity, which is great and wonderful indeed.
the title ("Flora deManantldn") is some-what stretched, but it is really much
more than a flora, thanks to the introductory chapters (92 pp) leading up
to the checklist. This includes many beautiful colored plates of panoramic
scenes and selected plant taxa. And it's true, painfully true, that there
is yet to be published a modern comprehensive flora for a Mexican state or
meaningful subdivision, other than that for the city of Mexico and its immediate
are currently many well-trained Mexican plant systematists who might elevate
the present text into a "true" flora. What's needed is sufficient funding,
private or public, to support such an endeavor. I urge the expenditure. An
enlarged "Flora de Manantlān" might serve as a model for yet other studies
of this nature.
I must confess that I cannot imagine any worker interested in the flora (and
its dependent fauna) of Mexico not wanting to possess this text. It is beautifully
composed, wonderfully edited and put to press with compassion — B.L.
Turner, Department of Botany, University of Texas, Austin
Manual of Grasses. Rick Darke, Editor. 1994. ISBN 0-88192-300-1 (cloth US $39.95),
xlvi + 169pp. Timber Press, Portland, OR 97204 — Despite a title that
implies a general reference book on the grass family, this horticultural volume
actually emphasizes the ornamental grasses that may be of most interest to gardeners
and landscape designers. Although this could imply a rather narrow focus, a
wide variety of grasses are covered along with "grass-like plants" (i.e. sedges,
rushes, and cattails). According to the jacket sleave, this volume is based
on the New Royal Horticultural Society's Dictionary of Gardening and provides
a "fusion of what is current and best in botany and proven and practical in
book begins with a short Preface followed by an introduction that describes
how grasses are enjoying a "renaissance" as gardeners look beyond flower color
to "embrace the subler satisfactions of line, form, texture, and translucency
that are characteristic of the lingering beauty of ornamental grasses." This
section is full of such colorful phrases which may make the topic sound less
Iike science and more like art to basic research botanists. There are a few
misprinted, redundant lines of text here on three pages.
is a chapter on bamboos which have major importance in horticultural design.
This chapter along with the remainder of the book is superbly illustrated
with detailed line drawings. The editor is to be commended for the selection
of botanical artists commissioned for this volume! The bamboo chapter is followed
by a brief description of the plant families covered, a beautifully illustrated
glossary, and a list of "grasses in the garden" categorized under headings
like "foilage colour", "scent", "flowers", "drought tolerant", etc.
remainder of the book (about 75%) consists of entries of specific genera
arranged in alphabetical order. Each entry contains the meaning of the genus
name (eg. Echinochloa comes from two Greek words that collectively mean "hedgehog
grass"), a general description of the characteristics of the genus, tips on
how to cultivate the plants, and an additional description of the characteristics
of selected species in that genus. A climatic zone code indicates the temperature
minima that may be tolerated by the species and thus provides a tool for determining
where the species may best be grown. For many genera, an illustration shows
a representative species of horticultural significance. There are some unexpected
entries (eg. Cenchrus, Buchloe). In addition, although the Preface states
that the manual does not include lawn grasses, there are entries for Lolium
and Festuca (and others) which are both followed by species descriptions of
important turfgrasses (eg. perennial ryegrass and red fescue). The book concludes
with an index of popular names and a five page Bibliography that includes
most of the major books on grass systematics and floras. About half of the
pages in the Bibliography are devoted to bamboos.
handsomely illustrated book will be of the greatest value to students of horticulture
and individuals interested in growing select grasses for ornamental purposes.
Other than the information on cultivation, the volume offers little more information
than that found in any other grass manual (eg. Hitchcock's Manual of the Grasses
of the U.S. , Dover Publ., New York 10014). Unless they need to know
how to cultivate grasses for research purposes, most systematists and ecologists
with a special interest in the Poaceae will probably have minimal use for
this particular manual.—Gregory P. Cheplick, Department of Biology,
The College of Staten Island-City University of New York, Staten Island, New
in Arkansas, A Study of the Endemic Plants and Animals of the State. H. W.
Robison and R. T. Allen. 1995. xii + 121 pp. ISBN 1-55728-326-5 (cloth, US$42.00).
The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville. — Only in Arkansas is
a compilation of what is known about the taxonomy, geographical distribution,
ecology, biology, geological history, and evolutionary relationships of the
plants and animals thought to occur only within the political boundaries of
the state. It is not "A study of the endemic plants and animals of the state"
per se, as this subtitle might suggest.
book consists of 11 chapters, a bibliography of 185 references cited in the
text, and an index of mostly Latin and common names of organisms. Chapter
one discusses some interesting biogeographical patterns that include plant
and animal taxa native to Arkansas (not just the endemics) and ways in which
these patterns may have developed. It even includes a nice, short section
on continental drift. The primary focus of chapter two is on physiographic
regions and the geological history of Arkansas. Each of the 11 endemic plant
taxa is covered in chapter 3, and each of 106 endemic animal taxa in chapters
4-11. Thus, only 8 of the 88 pages devoted specifically to the state's endemic
organisms are about plants.
of the 11 plant taxa is a leafy liverwort (Plagiochila japonica subsp. cilliigera),
and the other 10 (Arenaria muriculata, Carex bicknellii var. opaca, Delphinium
newtonianum, Heuchera villosa var. arkansana, Mespilus canescens, Quercus
shumardii var. acerifolia, Hydrophyllurn brownei, Cardamine angustata var.
ouachitana, Galium arkansanum var. pubiflorum, and Polymnia cossatotensis)
are angiosperms. According to the authors, the bryophyte and four of the flowering
plants are known only from the type locality (but see below). Three of these
endemic taxa only recently were described: Polymnia cossatotensis in 1989;
Mespilus canescens in 1990; and Hydrophyllurn brownei in l 991. The only other
known species of Mespilus is M. germanica of western Asia and southeast Europe
(Phipps, J. B. 1990. Syst. Bot. 15: 26-32; Phipps, J. B. 1991. Syst. Bot.
least one plant systematist has expressed doubt about the taxonomic validity
of two of the varieties, Carex bicknellii var. opaca and Quercus shumardii
var. acerifolia. Robison and Allen say that P. cossatotensis and Q. shumardii
var. acerifolia are known only from the type localities. However, V. Bates
and A. B. Pittman reported P. cossatotensis from one additional site (and
county) in 1991 (A review of the status of Polymnia cossatotensis Pittman
and Bates or the "Cossatot Leafcup," unpublished report submitted to the Arkansas
Natural Heritage Commission, Little Rock, 1 January 1991), and G. P. Johnson
reported Q. shumardii var. acerifolia from two additional sites (and counties)
in 1992 (Castanea 57: 150-151, 1992).
of the 106 thought-to-be endemic animal taxa are invertebrates. More than
50% of these are known only from the type locality. Five of the seven
vertebrates are fishes, and two are amphibians. The invertebrate group with
the largest number of endemic taxa (33) is the millipedes. Crayfishes are
the second largest endemic group; of the 56 taxa in Arkansas, 15 are endemic
to the state.
of the endemic invertebrate taxa be-long to interesting biogeographical patterns;
four examples follow. (1) The myriapod genus Cibularia contains two species:
one is endemic to the Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas, and the other is known
only from central New Mexico. (2) The pseudoscorpion Pseudozaona occidentalis
is endemic to Arkansas. Of the three other species in the genus, one occurs
in Costa Rice, one in Mexico, and one in Kentucky. (3) Two species of the
insect genus Occasjapyx are endemic to Arkansas, and the other four occur
on the U.S. west coast. (4) Helicopsyche limnella, an insect endemic to Arkansas,
belongs to a group that primarily is tropical and subtropical; it is related
most closely to H. mexicana found in Mexico.
in Arkansas is a very attractive and sturdily-bound book. It is well illustrated
with lots of line drawings and (mostly good quality) color photographs. The
authors have done a good, scholarly job of putting the Arkansas endemic taxa
(especially the invertebrates) into a broad geographical-evolutionary perspective.
Thus, the book will be of interest to biologists spatially far removed from
Arkansas. I recommend it for purchase by college and university libraries
and by individuals and institutions (e.g., state chapters of The Nature Conservancy
and state heritage programs) concerned with rare plant and animal taxa.
is not a coffee-table book. — Jerry M. Baskin, University of Kentucky,
you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating
the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February,
15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). Send E-MAIL, call
or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list, be-
they go quickly!—Ed.
= book in review or declined for review ** = book reviewed in this issue
Ecology and Biogeography of Nothofagus Forests Veblen, Thomas T., Robert S.
Hill, & Jennifer Read, eds. 1996. ISBN 0-300-06423-3 (cloth US$75.00)
403 pp. Yale University Press, PO Box 209040, New Haven CT 06520.
Manual of California's Vegetation Types Sawyer, John O. & Todd Keeler-Wolf
1995. ISBN 0-943460-26-3 (paper US$39.00, cloth US$55.00) 471 pp. California
Native Plant Society, 1722 J Street, Suite 17, Sacramento CA 95814
the Destruction and Reassembly of an Island Ecosystem Thornton, Ian 1996.
ISBN 0-674-50568-9 (cloth US$39.95) 346 pp.Harvard University Press, 79 Garden
Street, Cambridge MA 02138.
of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics Leung, Albert
& Steven Foster 1996. ISBN 0-471-50826-8 (cloth US$150.00) 649 pp. John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York NY 10158-0012
Resources of the Tropical Forest: Biodiversity and its Importance to Human
Health Balick, Michael J., Elaine Elisabetsky & Sarah A. Laird, eds. 1996.
ISBN 0-231-10171-6 440pp. (paper US$35.00, cloth US$75.00) Columbia University
Press, 562 West 113th Street, New York NY 10025
People, and Culture: The Science of Ethnobotany Balick, Michael J. & Paul
Alan Cox 1996. ISBN 0-7167-5061-9 (cloth US$ 32.95) 228 pp. W.H. Freeman and
Company Publishers, 41 Madison Avenue, New York NY 10010.
Farmers and the Protection of the Water-sheds: The Experience of Jamaica since
the 1950s Edwards, David T. 1995. ISBN 976-8125-20-9 (paper J$175.00, US$3.00)
100 pp., Canoe Press, The University of the West Indies, 1 A Aqueduct Flats,
Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica, W.I.
and Controlling Nematode Damage on Some Crops Grown in Jamaica Hutton, Dave
George. 1993. ISBN 976-8125-00-4 (paper J$145.00, US$3.00) 40 pp., Canoe Press,
The University of the West Indies, IA Aqueduct Flats, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica,
Nature/Human Nature: The Meaning of Plants in Our Lives Lewis, Charles A.
1996. ISBN 0-252-06510-7 (cloth US$32.95, paper US$14,95) 149 pp., University
of Illinois Press, 1325 South Oak Street, Champaign IL 61820.
Darwin's Letters: A Selection Burkhardt, Frederick, ed. 1996. ISBN 0-521-56212-0
(cloth US$21.95) 272 pp., Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street,
New York NY 10011.
for the Rock Garden Elliott, Jack 1996. ISBN 0-88192-346-X (cloth US$29.95)
160 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527
Plants for the Rock Garden Lowe, Duncan 1996. ISBN 0-88192-345-1 (cloth US$29.95)
160 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527
A Gardener's Guide Turner, Robert 1996. ISBN 0-88192-330-3 (cloth US$29.95)
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Crabapples: The Genus Malus Fiala, John 1995. ISBN 0-88192-292-7 (cloth US$49.95)
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The Complete Guide Goulding, Edwin 1995. ISBN 0-88192-328-1 (cloth US$34.95)
208 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527
Gardener's Guide to Britian Taylor, Patrick 1996. ISBN 0-88192-342-7 (paper
US$19.95) 320 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland
Perennials Rice, Graham 1995. ISBN 0-88192-338-9 (cloth US$27.95) 210 pp.
Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527
A Gardner's Guide Lawson-Hall, Toni & Brian Rothera 1995. ISBN 0-88192-327-3
(cloth US$34.95) 160 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450,
Portland OR 97204-3527
Garden Plants of North America McGary, Jane ed. 1996. ISBN 0-88192-343-5 (cloth
US$49.95) 459 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland
Siberian Iris McEwen, Currier 1996. ISBN 0-88192-329-X (cloth US$39.95) 242
pp.Timber Press, Inc. 133 SW Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527
Impact of Plant Molecular Genetics Sobral, Bruno W. S., ed. 1996. ISBN 0-8176-3802-4
(cloth US$89.50) 348 pp. Birkhduser Boston,675 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge
An Introduction to Phycology Hoek, C. Van Den, D.G. Mann & H.M. Jahns
1995. ISBN (cloth) 0-521-30419-9 (paper) 0-521-31687-1
US$110.00, paper US$39.95) 623 pp. Cam-bridge University Press, 40 West 20th
Street, New York NY 10011-4211
Algorithmic Beauty of Plants Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw & Arstid Lindenmayer
1996. ISBN 0-387-94676-4 (paper US$29.95) 228 pp. Springer-Verlag New York,
Inc., P,O, Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386
of Dendrology, Eighth Ed. Harlow, William M., Ellwood S. Harrar, James W.
Hardin & Fred M. White 1996. ISBN 0-07-026572-0 (paper US$41.25) 534 pp.
McGraw-Hill, College Division, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York NY 10020-1095
Field Guide to the Families and Genera of Woody Plants of Northwest South
America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) with Supplementary Notes on Herbaceous Taxa
Gentry, Alwyn H. 1996. ISBN 0-226-28944-3 (cloth US$75.00, paper US$45.00)
918pp.University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Ave., Chicago IL 60637
Systematics, Second Edition Hillis, David M., Craig Moritz & Barbara K.
Mable, eds. 1996. ISBN 0-87893-282-8 (paper US$49.95) 655 pp. Sinauer Associates,
Inc., 23 Plumtree Road, Sunderland, MA 01375-0407
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