A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

VOLUME 30, NUMBER 1, February, 1984

Department of Botany
Ohio State University
1735 Neil Avenue
Columbus, OH 43210
(614) 422-8952

Editorial Board
Roy H. Saigo - University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire, WI 54701
John H. Thomas - Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305
Anitra Thorhaug - Florida International University, Key Biscayne, FL 33199

The Plant Science Bulletin is published six times a year, February, April, June, August, October, and December, at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210. Subscriptions $10.00/yr. Change of address should be sent to Editor. Second class postage paid at Columbus, OH.



The Botanical Society of Americas Annual Meetings, August 6-10, 1984 at Colorado State University, Fort Collins will feature a variety of symposia and workshops as listed below! Contributed paper sessions, for which abstracts are due to Section secretaries by February 6, will also be held.

Title     Organizer
Development Plant Genetics  Michael Christianson
Evolution and Systematics of the Orchidaceae Alec Pridegion and Vicki Funk
Changing Concepts of Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility Steven Seavey
Molecular Evidence and Plant Phylogeny Les Gottlieb
Vegetation Remote Sensing: Landsat And Beyond Barett Rock and Alan Orr
Biology of Dwarf Mistletoes (Arceuthobium) Frank Hawksworth
Germ Plasm Resources-Conservation and Utilization W. Hardy Eshbaugh
Economic Phytochemical Products Robert P. Adams
Labile Sexuality in Plants Mark Schlessman
Evolution of the Hamamelidae  David Dilcher and Michael Zavada

Species Concepts in Bryophytes: Traditional And Innovative Approaches

Norton Miller
Current Status of Systematically Complex Chris Haufler
Ferns and Fern Allies: The Genus Polystichum Interspecific Competition in Plant Communities James Grace and Roy Turkington
Entering the Botanical Discipline Elizabeth M. Lord
A clearing Technique for the Study of Vascular Plant Tissues in Whole Structures and Thick Sections John M. Herr, Jr.
Control of Impatiens Pollen Germination, Tube Growth and Cytoplasmic Streaming by Media Components, Metabolic Inhibitors and Pollutants David T. Webb and David E. Bilderback
Vegetation Remote Sensing Barrett N. Rock and Vera Komarkova
The Use of Sterological Analytical Techniques  Wayne Pagerberg, Randy Moore and James Mauseth



The Botanical Society of America in 1983 awarded Certificates of Merit to fifteen outstanding graduating seniors majoring in Botany, based upon recommendations by faculty members. Awardees and sponsors are:

Moira A. Courtney, by Ann M. Hirsch, Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02181

Ann Marie De Bolt, by Sherman J. Preece, Department of Botany, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812

Sara Deeghan, by Ann M. Hirsch, Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02181

Michael J. DeVit, by Robert L. Burgess, Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, State University of New York, Syracuse, NY 13210

Cheryl Doneskey, by Asa C. Thoresen, Biology Department, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI 49104

Deborah Fischlin, by W. F. Grant, Department of Plant Science, MacDonald Campus of McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H9X 1C0

Margaret Gawienowski, by Ann M. Hirsch, Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02181

Paul Daniel Loomis, by Nicholas C. Maravolo, Department of Biology, Lawrence University, Appleton, WI 54912

Marghi McKeon, by Marshall D. Sundberg, Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI 54701

Scott L. Miles, by Sherman J. Preece, Department of Botany, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812

David M. Rizzo, by Gilbert S. Trelawny, Department of Biology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807

Michael R. Sackschewsky, by Jane H. Bock, Environmental, Population and Organismic Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309

Ruth A. Schmidt, by Ann M. Hirsch, Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02181

Virginia Walker, by Ann M. Hirsch, Department of Biological Sciences, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02181

Keith M. Witherup, by Thomas W. Gaither, Biology Department, Slippery Rock State College, Slippery Rock, PA 16057

Nels R. Lersten, Treasurer, For the Membership and Appraisal Committee


The Botanical Society of America requests nominations for the Young Botanist Recognition Program for 1984. The Society sponsors this program to offer individual recognition to outstanding senior undergraduates in the plant sciences and to encourage their participation in the Botanical Society of America. Awards to successful nominees are in the form of Certificates of Recognition, signed by the President of the Society, and forwarded to the chairperson of the candidates department for presentation.

Nominations, with appropriate documentation, should be sent to Dr. Nels R. Lersten, Department of Botany, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, to be received by April 6, 1984.


University of Pennsylvania Receives Major Grant for Plant Science Institute:
The University of Pennsylvania has received a $1-million grant from the Rohm and Haas Company for its new multi-million-dollar Plant Science Institute. The Institute will do basic biological research in areas that are expected to result in profound scientific advance and in considerable commercial technological spin-offs. The money will be used to attract and support a leading figure in plant biology as director to develop the Institutes training and research program. Ground breaking on the $5.7-million Plant Science Institute facility itself is expected


in early Spring. Advances in plant science research are expected to have many practical results, including improved crops, said Professor Stephen Roth, chairman of Penns biology department. In addition to raising $5.7 million, including a $1-million contribution from the Seeley G. Mudd Fund for the Plant Science Institute facility, the University has already spent $6 million on the renovation of its existing biology facilities and has nearly doubled the size of its biology faculty.

Ecological Section Award:
The Ecological Section of the Botanical Society of America is again sponsoring an award for the best student paper presented at the Annual Meeting. Persons wishing additional information about the award should contact: Dr. Katherine L. Gross, Department of Botany, The Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210. The deadline for submission of the papers for consideration is March 1.

Proposed International Botanical Society:
Serious damage to the botanical status of the earth has been caused due to population explosion, urbanization, and industrialization. Alarming consequences for nature and mankind are awaiting unless all-out efforts are made to improve the situation. In this respect, botanists and lovers of trees, all over the world, may join hands to form an INTERNATIONAL BOTANICAL SOCIETY, and urge, convince and guide different countries for the implementation of comprehensive projects for the preservation and betterment of the botanical condition of every country, and of the earth in general. Well planned exchange programs of useful trees and plants among different countries may also be initiated by the Society. Useful Botanical Spots in micro-scale to large-scale may be created extensively, scattered throughout every country. Thus the botanical treasure of the earth would be systematically enhanced and distributed. For further information contact: Alok Sanyal, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, 8/1, Badur Bagan Lane, Calcutta 700 009, India.

AJB Issues for Sale: Michael T. Postek, 15 Selfridge Rd., Bedford, MA 01730, has issues from 1973 through 1983 for sale upon request.


(All positions are by affirmative action/equal opportunity employers.)

Molecular Botanist at Rutgers:
The Department of Botany at Rutgers University in Newark invites applications from candidates with postdoctoral experience and strong research interests in plant molecular biology for a tenure-track (assistant professor) position available September 1984. Duties will include development of an independent, innovative research program in basic plant molecular biology, preferably with application to horticulture. Participation in the undergraduate and graduate teaching program will also be required. Curriculum vitae, summary of research interests and at least three letters from qualified individuals should be sent before March 15, 1984 to: Dr. Robert F. Davis, Chairperson, Department of Botany, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102.

Assistant Professorship at SUNY Buffalo:
The Department of Biological Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY, invites applications for an Assistant Professor tenure track position available September 1984. Candidates will be expected to contribute to departmental research programs which currently exist in the following areas: Developmental Biology; Genetics & Molecular Biology; Comparative, Cell & Endocrine Physiology; and Ecology. Two to three years of postdoctoral research and ability for successful classroom teaching are also required. Successful candidates will be expected to demonstrate experience in a productive research program and be able to describe in detail plans for future innovative research. Send a curriculum vitae, including a statement of research background and teaching experience, and at least three letters of reference to: Dr. Darrell Doyle, Chairman, Dept. of Biological Sciences, 109 Cooke Hall, State University of New York at Buffalo, Amherst, NY 14260. Deadline is Feb. 18, 1984.

Agricultural Research at USDA Peoria:
The Northern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Peoria, IL, is seeking skilled and imaginative scientists to expand our basic research program on plant biochemistry. The research will focus on the dynamics and mechanism of partitioning carbon and nitrogen into the biosynthetic pathways that result in protein, lipid, and polysaccharide during corn seed development and maturation. Positions are open for individuals with a Ph.D. (or equivalent) in plant physiology, plant biochemistry, and plant pathology. Salary is based on qualifications and experience, GS-11/12, $25,366 to $30,402. U.S. citizenship is required. Send curriculum vitae to: Dr. C. G. Crawford, Northern Regional Research Center, USDA, ARS, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604.

Evolutionary Ecologist at Iowa State:
An Assistant or Associate Professor tenure-track position for a Plant Evolutionary or Population Ecologist is available at Iowa State University. This is a research and


teaching position. Candidates should have research accomplishments in population genetics of natural plant populations or the evolutionary implications of ecological phenomena. The position is viewed as an interface between ecology and taxonomy and is important to both programs. Development of a strong research program is expected. The appointee will teach an undergraduate course in biological evolution, a graduate course in plant population biology, and/or other appropriate courses. Postdoctoral research and previous teaching experience is preferred. Send curriculum vitae, statement of research interests, graduate transcripts, and 3 letters of recommendation to: Ronald C. Coolbaugh, Chairman, Department of Botany, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, by February 15, 1984 or until the position is filled.

Structural Assistant Professor at Michigan State:
The Department of Botany and Plant Pathology has a tenure-track Assistant Professorship available for a candidate with preferably with postdoctoral experience. The individual is to develop an active research program in developmental plant biology, exploring structure-function relationships in plants at any level of organization, including molecular, and teaching plant morphology and plant anatomy. Qualified individuals should submit: (a) a letter in which the qualifications, interests and aspirations of the candidate which are related to this position; (b) a detailed curriculum vitae; (c) transcripts of academic records; (d) copies/reprints of recent professional publications; and (e) three letters of recommendation to: Dr. Peter G. Murphy, Chairman of Search Committee, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 49924-131 by March 1, 1984.

Plant Physiologist at Central Arkansas:
The University of Central Arkansas is seeking a Ph.D. tenure track assistant professor starting August 15, 1984 to teach plant physiology, botany, general biology. The research area is open, but they prefer using lower plants. Applications should include vitae, three letters of recommendation, and statement of teaching philosophy. Send to: Dr. Donald Culwell, Search Committee Chairman, Department of Biology, University of Central Arkansas, Conway, AR 72032 by March 1, 1984.

Biologist at California State Polytechnic:
The Biological Sciences Department at California State Polytechnic University is seeking a tenure-track Assistant or Associate Professor. Experience and demonstrated excellence in teaching and research in the field of Population Genetics and Biometrics will be required. Salary range is $20,886-$28,884. Letters of inquiry, resume, and three letters of reference should be addressed to: Chairman, Population Geneticist Search Committee, Biological Sciences Department, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91786, by February 17, 1984.

Graduate Assistantships at Iowa State:
The Botany Department, Iowa State University, has assistantships in plant science open for fall, 1984. Most involve teaching. Write to: C. E. LaMotte, Graduate Studies Committee, Botany Dept., Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, or call toll-free 1-800-262-3810 (from Iowa) or 1-800-247-3965 (from elsewhere in U.S.) and ask for ext. 3522.

Graduate and Postdoctoral Fellowships at Research Triangle Universities:
Duke University, North Carolina State University at Raleigh, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill together with the North Carolina Biotechnology Center have formed a Consortium to advance studies in plant molecular biology. With support from CIBA-GEIGY, R. J. Reynolds Industries, and the Biotechnology Center, the Consortium will provide graduate and postdoctoral fellowships in 1984 for study and research in plant molecular biology at the three Triangle universities. Each fellow will be based at one of the institutions, but will participate in activities involving faculty and students at all three institutions.

The graduate student stipend is $8,000 plus tuition, with an allowance for supplies and travel. The award is renewable for up to three years. The postdoctoral stipend is $21,500 with an allowance for supplies and travel, renewable for up to two years.

Candidates should apply directly to the departments of their choice for admission and postdoctoral positions. Applications for a fellowship or inquiries about the program should be sent to the Biotechnology Center by February 15, 1984 and should include curriculum vitae, a summary of research interests, and the departments (graduate students) or faculty members (postdoctoral fellows) to whom you have applied. Applicants also should have three letters of reference and undergraduate and graduate transcripts sent to the North Carolina Biotechnology Center, Box 12235, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, 914/549-0671.


Dr. Samuel Wood Geiser, Professor Emeritus of Biology at Southern Methodist University died on August 28, 1983. The better part of his scholarly work was devoted to the investigation of the activities of early naturalists of the South and Southwest.



Biogeography of Central America:
The first call for papers for a symposium on the Biogeography of Central America to be held in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico 29-31 October 1984 is made. Sessions will be on plant, animal, and human geography and also on diseases, vectors, and cultivars, and selected proceedings will be published. Persons wishing to give papers (in Spanish or English) and those wishing to attend please ask for a form to be returned by March 1, 1984, from: Professor Arthur L. Welden, Department of Biology, Dinwiddie Hall, Room 210, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA. 70118.

Symposium on Tropical Ecology:
The 7th International Symposium on Tropical Ecology will be held March 11, 1984 in Lagos, Nigeria. Information is available from: Dr. A. Edwards, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.

Symposium on the Biosphere:
The Miami International Symposium on the Biosphere, will be held on April 16, 1984. For information write to: Ms. Grace Mayfield, Clean Energy Research Institute, University of Miami, P.O. Box 248294, Coral Gables, FL 33124.

Systematics Symposium:
The Seventh Annual Spring Systematics Symposium on Evolution of Behavior” will be held on May 12, 1984 in the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. A wide range of topics will be considered. For further information write: Dr. Matthew H. Nitecki, Department of Geology, Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Rd. and Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605.

Prairie Conference:
The 9th North American Prairie Conference will be held July 29 through August 1, 1984 in Moorhead, Minnesota, with The Prairie: Past, Present, and Future” as its theme. For further information contact: Tri-College University, 306 Ceres Hall, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, 701/237-8170.

Bicarbonate Utilization Workshop:
An international workshop on Bicarbonate Utilization by Photosynthetic Organisms will be held at the Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, California, August 18-22, 1984. (This workshop follows immediately after the annual meetings of the American Society of Plant Physiologists, being held in Davis, August 12-17. 1984.) Keynote speakers will present a general perspective in current knowledge. Round-table discussions will be held in conjunction with each session. Posters will also be used to broaden the program. For further details contact: Dr. William J. Lucas, Department of Botany, University of California, Davis, CA 956161. 916/752-1092.

Plant Improvement Symposium:
The 16th Stadler Genetics Symposium will be held in Columbia, Missouri the week of March 19, 1984. The Symposium will focus on gene manipulation in plant improvement through 25 presentations by internationally recognized plant scientists. Contributed posters are welcome. For registration information please contact: Dr. J. P. Gustafson, 08 Curtis Hall, Department of Agronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, 314/882-7318.

Wetlands Conference:
The 2nd International Wetlands Conference will be held in Trebon, Czechoslovakia June 13-23, 1984. The meeting is sponsored by the INTECO Wetlands Working Group, SCOPE, UNESCO/MAB, and the Institute of Botany, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. The preliminary program includes symposia on: 1) wetland soil and microclimate diagnosis, 2) wetland plant adaptations and their change in wetland functioning, 3) wetland inventory and their change in response to management, 4) presentation of SCOPE symposia on “Ecosystem dynamics in continental wetlands and shallow waters.”

There will also be contributed paper sessions. For more information and a preliminary application form, contact either Dr. Dennis Whigham, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Box 28, Edgewater, MD 21037, or Dr. Jan Kvet, Institute of Botany, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 379 82 Trebon, Czechoslovakia.

Soybean Research Conference:
The World Soybean Research Conference III will be held at Iowa State University, Ames, on August 12-17, 1984. To receive further information contact: Dr. Walter R. Fehr, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.


Janzen, Daniel H., ed. Costa Rican Natural History. University of Chicago Press, 5801 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, 1983. xi + 816 p., illus. ISBN 0-226-393321; 0226-393348 paper. $50.00; $30.00 paper. (A comprehensive introduction to the complex tropical


Natural world by 175 contributors that treats exploration and biotic history, climate, soils, agriculture, plants, reptiles and amphibians, mammals, birds, and insects and gives current understandings which are constantly increasing.)

Lewis, Chris Biological Ruels. The Institute of Biologys Studies in Biology No. 153. Edward Arnold, 300 North Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21201, 1983. 59 p. ISBN 0-7131-2864-X paper, $8.95. (An introduction to biomass use, production, and economics that should be useful to students at various levels of understanding.)

Moss, E. H., Revised by John G. Packer. Flora of Alberta. 2nd ed. University of Toronto Press, 33 East Tupper St., Buffalo, NY 41203, 1983. xiii + 687 p. ISBN 0-8020-2508-0. $45.00. (Thoroughly revised and considerably expanded from the original 1959 edition by E. H. Moss, this Flora of Alberta contains dichotomous keys and short descriptions for 1175 known species of vascular plants, in addition to several new features including a brief description and map of the major vegetation types, short biographical sketches of notable early plant collectors, somatic chromosome numbers for many of the taxa, small dot distribution maps for 1158 native species.) Ronald L. Stuckey, Department of Botany, The Ohio State University.

Nitecki, Matthew, H., ed. Coevolution. The University of Chicago Press, 5801 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, 1983. x + 392 p., illus. ISBN 0-226-58686-3; 0-226-58687-1 paper. $30.00; $17.00 paper. (The papers of a symposium that treat whole communities, small groups of species, two interacting species; and also consider various definitions and interpretations of the meaning of Coevolution.)

Nobel, P. S. Biophysical Plant Physiology and Ecology. W. H. Freeman and Co., Publishers, 41 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10010, 1983. xii + 688 p, over 100 illus. ISBN 0-7167-1447-7. $34.95. (A new book based on the authors 1974 book, but with SI units, more illustrations, more whole plant and ecological applications, and greatly expanded appendices.)

Cowdrewy, Albert E. This Land, This South; An Environmental History. The University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, 1983, xiv + 236 p., illus. ISBN 0-8131-0302-9. $23.00. (A historical survey of the relationships between humans and their natural environment in the South that is scholarly and interesting.)

Dale, J. E. and F. L. Milthorpe, eds. The Growth and Functioning of Leaves. Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th St., New York, NY 10022, 1983. xvi + 540 p., illus. ISBN 0-521-23761-0. $89.50. (Papers that were presented at a symposium held in Sydney in August 1981 that consider: Initiation and early growth; leaf growth and development of function; and the mature leaf and its significance; with a summary and discussion by D. Geiger and F. L. Milthorpe.)

Hull, David L. Darwin and His Critics; The Reception of Darwins Theory of Evolution by the Scientific Community. The University of Chicago Press, 5801 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, 1983. (reprint of 1973 ed.). xii + 473 p. ISBN 0-226-36046-6. paper $15.00. (A reprint of the classical study of how critics in the scientific community reacted to Darwins theory.)

Kaufman, Peter B., T. Lawrence Mellichamp, Janice Gilmn-Lacy and J. Donald LaCroix. Practical Botany. Reston Publishing Co., 11480 Sunset Hills Rd., Reston, VA 22090. 1983. xix + 455 p., illus. ISBN 0-8359-5580-X. $22.95. (A basic textbook emphasizing the uses humans make of flowering plants that includes such topics as soils, natural plant communities, houseplants, home landscaping, pest control, edible wild plants, spices and drug plants, plant crafts, and plant photography in addition to basic structure and function considerations.)

Li, Hui-Lin. Contributions to Botany; Studies in Plant Geography, Phylogeny and Evolution, Ethnobotany and Dendrological and Horticultural Botany. Epoch Publishing Co., P.O. Box 1642, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China, 1983. (iv) + 528 p., illus. $24.50 + $3.00 postage. (Facsimile reprinting of some of the papers of Professor Li spanning 35 years together with a biographical sketch and bibliography in honor of his seventieth birthday.)

Lindsey, Alton A. Naturalist on Watch. Merry Lea Environmental Learning Center, Goshen College, Goshen, IN 46526, 1983. viii + 220 p., illus. ISBN 0-913859-00-1; 0-913859-01-X paper. $11.00 + 50 cents tax for Indians residents; $5.75 + 24 cents tax for paperback. (A fine collection for original nature essays that cover places from Indiana to both polar regions, and topics from the record trees in the Midwest to protective coloration in desert life.)

Saturo, Kurata and Toshiyuki Nakaiki, eds. Illustrations of Pteridophytes of Japan. Vol. 3. Columbia Univ. Press – for Tokyo Univ. Press, 562 W. 113 St., New York, NY 10025. ISBN 0-86008-933-0. $60.00.


Stone, John F. and Wayne O. Illis, eds. Plant Production and Management Under Drought Conditions. Developments in Agricultural and Managed Forest Ecology 12. Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc., P.O. Box 1663, Grand Central Station, New York, NY 10163, 1983. vii + 389 p., illus. ISBN 0-444-42214-5. (Papers that were presented at a symposium in October 1982 in Tulsa, Oklahoma treating: weather modifications; soil, plant and atmosphere effects; plant breeding and genetics; physiology of stress; and remote sensing of plant stress and water use comprise this volume.)


Barbara Bently and Tomas Elias, The Biology of Nectaries, Editors, Columbia University Press, New York, 1983, 259 p., ISBN 0-231-04446-1. $33.50.

Nectaries have been known and studied for a very long time, but only recently have we begun to learn about and really understand the details of their anatomy, physiology and ecological significance. Recent advances in instrumentation and analytical techniques have resulted in much progress in these areas. This volume was conceived at an AIBS symposium in 1977, and the selected contributors are specialists in different areas of botany. The eight papers in this book represent the multidisciplinary nature of the work being done on nectarines. However, the volume of research that has been done in this area is represented only by the list of references at the end of each paper. The essays include ultrastructural studies, nectar production in the tropics, Coevolution of plant-pollinators and the chemistry of floral nectar, the robbing of nectar from flowers by animals other than pollinators, extrafloral nectarines in tropical agriculture, and techniques for studying nectar and nectar production. Although there is no textbook-style topic sequence, every essay contains an abundance of fascinating information which should stimulate any student or botanist who is considering research on nectaries or other parts of the flower. The book has an index to scientific names plus a subject index.
Dr. Herbert Grossman, Penn State University

Griffiths, Anthony J. F., and Fred R. Ganders. Wildflower Genetics, Flight Press, 3630 West Broadway, No. 2., Vancouver, B.C. V6R 2B7, Canada. 1983. 215 p. +35 color plates, $9.95.

The telephone rings . . . one of your neighborhood wildflower lovers is quivering with excitement at the other end of the line. Something unusual has been discovered not mentioned in any of the local floras, and you, as a professional botanist, are expected to explain what is going on and whether or not anyone has noticed anything like it before. Any botanist who reacts with enthusiasm at this kind of query will appreciate this paperback produced by two botanists at the University of British Columbia. Books which successfully bridge the theoretical, experimental world of the modern scientists and the everyday world of the serous layperson are precious. Here is an excellent example, using natural phenomena easily noticed by the average person to introduce genetic principles. It will satisfy the request for “a good book for beginners.

The authors first introduce the reader to basic concepts of inheritance and genetic variation, including research techniques, then proceed to describe an impressive array of natural examples. Among the phenomena dealt with are flower-color mutants, double flowers, growth-form mutants, variegation, polymorphisms of vegetative and reproductive structures, breeding systems and hybridization. In some cases rather complex genetic situations are explained, in others only rough guesses are offered. The distinction between genetic and environmentally induced variation is clearly described. Suggestions for further study are mentioned frequently.

Aiming to satisfy a popular audience is a double-edged sword: what pleases some will be taken as a shortcoming by others, and a popular audience is much more diverse than that expected for technical treatises. It appears that the necessary technical matter is presented as clearly as might be hoped for; one wonders, however, if it will substitute for formal training in genetics, i.e., is it inadequate or superfluous? The regional emphasis of this book will have strong appeal to those familiar with the flora of the Pacific Northwest. Workers elsewhere will have to take inspiration and produce similar works with local examples. One should recognize that even the most serious amateur is still mainly attentive to that which occurs in the immediate vicinity.

The most serious criticism might be that the book lacks specific references to previous experimental work. It would be much more valuable if one could clearly distinguish between original observations (of which there are many) and discussions which are documented in the primary literature. Both authors have published rather extensively on the


topics covered here, and by citing some of their work could have increased the authoritativeness of their observations. Proper documentation would also better serve students who turn to this book for research ideas; it is a particularly rich source of potential thesis or independent research topics.

The success of this book derives mainly from the wealth of natural examples presented and the succinct characterization of their genetic pecularities. Over a hundred are mentioned with a large proportion illustrated by clear line drawings, photographs and other graphics. The color plates are dramatic and well-produced. The books over-all quality of production is excellent. The reasonable price alone should guarantee satisfaction on the part of any person with more than a passing interest in understanding wildflowers. It is especially recommended to the professional botanist who communicates regularly with the general public.
David H. Wagner, Herbarium, University of Oregon, Eugene

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