PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
September 1977 Volume 23 No. 3
Botany at Miami University. Charles Heimsch 26
Of Botanical Things Past. Lawrence J. Crockett 28
Possible Trip to China, May 1978 29
Plant Permits and Endangered Species 30
Meetings, Conferences, Courses 30
Botanical Potpourri 30
Deaths of Members 30
Professional Opportunities 31
Report of the Editor of the American Journal of Botany 31
Annual Report of the Business Manager of the American Journal of Botany 32
Physiology and Yield Improvement. M. G. R. Cannel/ and F. T. Last (eds.) 32
Advances in Aquatic Mycology. E. B. Gareth-Jones 32
of Plants. Second Edition. P. H. Raven, R. F. Evert and H. Curtis 33
Botany. W. H. Lewis and M. P. F. Elvin-Lewis 33
Evolution. V. Grant 33
Barley Genetics III. 34
Vascular Plants of the Nevada Test Site and South-Central Nevada. J. C. Beatley 34
Atlas of the Japanese Flora. II. Y. Horikawa 34
Tundra Ecosystems. Part 1. Plants & Microorganisms. F. E. Weilgolaski (ed.) 34
The Science of Genetics. Third Edition. G. W. Burns. 35
Seeds and Fruits of Eastern Canada and Northeastern United States. F. S. Montgomery 35
Atlas of United States Trees. Volumes 2 & 3. L. A. Viereck and E. L. Little,
Jr. 36 An Introduction to the Botany of Tropical Crops. Second
Edition. L. S. Cobley and W. M. Steele 36
Scotia Boletes. D. W. Grund and K. A Harrison 36
Introductory Botany at Miami University
Miami University, Oxford, Ohio
initial experience with a new pattern of introductory botany courses at Miami
University was presented in an earlier report (Heimsch, 1973). This pattern
was formulated in response to a change in the general curricular requirement
which applied to all students in the university. The essence of this change
was a reduction in the amount of credits in science required and the modification
of most courses which represented full year sequences in favor of single quarter
units. Under the new scheme students were able to satisfy the science requirement
of 9 credit hours with courses in a single department or in two or three different
ones. It might be noted that students in the college of Arts and Sciences
were required to earn 6 additional credits in science courses.
the earlier report the experience with the new curriculum was considered only
for the initial 2-year period. It seems desirable to present information for
the subsequent 3-year period and, in addition, for the year just completed
in which the academic calendar has been changed from a quarter to a semester
major change affected with the new curriculum, offered first in 1971-72, was
to supplant the full-year survey course dedicated primarily to non-majors
with seven quarter courses in different botanical areas as introductory experiences.
These courses were as follows:
Biology—Principles as exemplified by structure and function in seed
Plant Kingdom—Principles through a survey approach emphasizing environmental
adaptation, re-production and evolution.
Man and Environment—Current environmental problems in relation to elementary
principles of plant ecology.
and Civilization—Man's social and economic development; history, exploration,
food and other uses, and future demands.
and Shrubs—Identification of native and introduced woody plants.
Flora—Identification of spring-flowering components of local flora.
of North America—Considers various aspects of the major types of North
addition, a 2-quarter General Botany course recommended for majors was retained.
It was a more intensive version of the Plant Biology course which involved
a greater total amount of class time.
essence of this program of introductory courses has been continued with the
adoption of a semester calendar for the university. Some changes were necessary,
however, because of the reduced opportunity for offerings with no increase
in teaching staff, and the impact of the calendar (early semester) on seasonal
courses, particularly Spring Flora. These changes involved the elimination
of the Plant Biology course and combining the essentials of the Plant Kingdom
and Spring Flora courses in a new offering en-titled Natural History of Plants.
Also the General Botany sequence was changed to a one-semester, 4-credit offering.
enrollments in these courses over a 6-year period are given in Table 1. Never
were all of them given during the same term. Spring Flora and Trees and Shrubs
were seasonal, being offered only in the Spring and Fall, respectively. Staff
limitations because of priorities for other courses also restricted offerings.
In general, the maximum offering was provided in the Fall quarter when programs
for the entire year were set for most students. Certain courses offered during
the other terms, though, attracted students as well as in the Fall, but this
was somewhat dependent on the number of sections able to be offered. As a
matter of interest, University enrollment in 1971-72 was 13,131, and in 1976-77
it was 14,752.
course that attracted the most students clearly was Plants, Man and Environment,
but this was offered most frequently and with the most sections. Considering
the fewer number of sections for the course Vegetation of North America, it
may be said to have "drawn" nearly as well. Decisions on the number of sections
to be offered at one time were based primarily on previous experience, but
adjustments were effected on the basis of demand as reflected in pre-registration
data. Available staff within the
of reasonable teaching loads had to be considered. Registration for Plants
and Civilization, offered only in a single section, has also been at a high
level. With these three courses there is no question that the appeal can be
attributed at least in part to the fact that they did not include a laboratory.
of the other courses included laboratory experience, so it is clear that the
requirement for laboratory work does not turn all students away. Plant Biology,
Trees and Shrubs, and Spring Flora were solely elective courses, and most
of class time was devoted to laboratory experience. The last two of the above
courses presented a special case. Over and above the fact that they offered
experiences in identification, the fact that class time was spent in the field
(on the campus and nearby areas) in a combined lecture-laboratory experience
presumably held appeal in itself. The classes in these courses were individual
section with a maximum of 30 students.
enrollment in the two-quarter General Botany course (Bot. 101, 102) may be
considered to have held very well considering the alternative courses that
were available. The core of students in the course was comprised of prospective
majors and other science students, but the enrollments suggest that a considerable
body of other students elected this more general experience rather than that
of the topical courses. Encouraging was the enrollment in the trailer sequence
begun in the Winter quarter of 1972-73. The fact that enrollment dropped in
the second part of the sequence begun in both the Fall and Winter is likely
attributable to a variety of factors.
adoption of a semester calendar in the University has not been completely
favorable to the program of introductory courses in the department. The courses
offered in the quarter calendar which were continued as semester offerings
generally drew as well or even better among the students. Other than the reduced
opportunity for course offering by one-third, the greatest impact of the semester
calendar concerned the Spring Flora course. If there was some special appeal
of the prospects of spending class time among the flowers of the field at
that time of the year, the enrollment of the course reflected it inasmuch
as nearly 300 students in 10 sections were taught during the last year of
the quarter calendar. In the new calendar it was clear that less than half
of the second semester would offer suitable weather for field classes, thus
Spring Flora and Plant Kingdom were combined with the objective of continuing
the primary elements of each. The initial offering attracted far less than
the previous enrollment in the Spring Flora course, but it was not a complete
disappointment. During the past year an alternative course retaining the title
Spring Flora has been approved. This course aims to spend the first half of
the second semester on topics such as flower structure and function, evolution,
classification, and pollination and seed dispersal with reduced laboratory
time, then during the second half of the semester class time will be increased
and weather should permit most of it to be spent in the field. This course
will be offered during 1977-78 and some basis for students preference should
be gained. Contrastingly, the limited experience with the Plant Kingdom included
in the Natural History of Plants is ideal for students in some programs. Therefore,
there would likely be reluctance to withdraw it in favor of the revised Spring
Flora, if this latter drew a heavy enrollment. A possible alternative would
be to offer both with student credit restricted to only one of them.
can hardly be questioned that the program of offering topical courses as alternatives
to the conventional general survey introductory course has been successful.
Course enrollment has been sustained in general from year to year, and the
total number of students in the entire year at this level in the program has
been increased dramatically. Clearly this program has demanded increased teaching
service by the faculty. This demand has been met in part by the increased
use of graduate assistants and teaching fellows particularly in the laboratory
courses (including those emphasizing identification and field experience).
The students have performed creditably, even outstandingly, and the experience
they have gained has been of great value.
formulating the array of topical courses, one of the objectives was to provide
a choice of subjects for the student, particularly the non-major. An unexpected
con-sequence of the program has been that a significant number of students
with an initial experience in one or more of the topical courses have elected
botany as their major. In 1971-72 there were 119 registered majors in the
department, while in 1976-77 there were 181 majors. Formulation of departmental
programs for these students have posed some problems, but they have not been
insurmountable. A respectable major program need not be stereotyped, and students
who have utilized the topical courses for their introductory experiences have
generally met the challenges of the core of required advanced courses.
experience with the semester calendar will be required to determine if the
success of the program can be continued. If evaluations are to be made on
the basis of student enrollment, it must be recognized that with a reduction
of course offering possibilities by one-third, an obvious concomitant of a
change from a quarter to semester calendar, an equivalent reduction in total
students for the year should be expected. The initial experience with the
semester calendar does not deviate markedly from what should have been expected.
Perhaps with adjustments which experience will dictate as desirable, semester
enrollments will be increased.
presenting this review of our experience with a "different" pattern of introductory
botany courses, enrollment figures have been emphasized as a criteria of effectiveness.
Enrollments reflect certain factors relating to popularity, tradition, trends
of the time, etc. Not all of these would apply to an uninitiated freshman,
and upperclass students often are influenced by the experiences of their peers
in selecting courses. It is gratifying that in 1975-76 there was a total of
1254 upperclass students among the total of 2551 registrations for the year
in these courses.
important is the question of whether the array of topical courses as alternatives
to the classical introductory survey of the discipline is educationally sound.
In practice this resolves itself as an experience in-depth within a narrow
sector of the discipline as against a limited sampling of many sectors. Obviously
some students prefer one, some the other. In view of the fact that students
differ greatly in goals, personal commitments, attitudes and preferences,
alternate options in any subject are seemingly valid. Standards and professional
pride arc in no way sacrificed if a meaningful experience in identification
for a student leads to an awareness and application of diversity among plants.
One feature of a meaningful curricular program advocated by many educators
is a degree of freedom of choice among courses. The program of introductory
courses that has been discussed is of this character and has proven to be
beneficial to the overall departmental effort.
claim is made that the program is unique, even though it may be. When formulated,
it was developed with-out design or pattern relating to programs known to
exist elsewhere. Courses comparable to some of the topical
are known to be offered elsewhere, but we are not aware of any program with
the variety of introductory courses that we have developed at Miami University.
Successful course patterns for a department in one institution may well be
unsuitable in another. The success we have enjoyed may be attributable in
large measure to back-ground circumstances at Miami. Although identification
of the critical factors is uncertain, the results of our total experience
are presented for the meaning they may have for departments in other institutions.
C. 1973. Teaching and introductory courses. Plant Sci. Bull. 19: 50-52.
Botanical Things Past
The City College of New York
Botanical Society of America has had a long and proud heritage as the national
botanical organization, and it is hoped that, during this time of stress and
strain in the Halls of Science, knowing more about our noble past will help
to unify us. Nations, groups and individuals are all seeking their roots;
if a botanist can't find hers or his, who, pray tell, may?
history, not just the history of scientific societies, but history in its
broadest sense, there have been voices that cried, "The time is not yet ripe!"
In 1893, just prior to the formation of our Society, there were voices crying
"The time is not yet ripe!"—voices raised vigorously against the time's
ripeness for the foundation of a national botanical society. Time has proved
they were wrong.
Botanical Society of America was an outgrowth of the Botanical Club of the
A. A. A. S. On 22 August, 1892, while meeting with the A. A. A. S. in Rochester,
New York, they adopted the following resolution:
a Committee of nine members be appointed by the Chairman to consider the formation
of an American Botanical Society, after obtaining the views of the Botanists
of America on the proposition, and report thereon at the next meeting of the
Club." (l )
year later, to the very day, the report of that Committee was read to the
Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S., meeting at the University of Wisconsin
at Madison. The great Liberty Hyde Bailey chaired that meeting and, therefore,
presented the report of the Committee he headed. The majority report that
he presented to that gathering was that all attempts to establish a national
botanical society outside the A. A. A. S. should be ABANDONED! Voices were
crying, "The time is not yet ripe!"
may have been THE majority report, but, fortunately for American botany, as
it turned out, there were dissidents. One was Professor F. Lamson-Scribner,
who felt that a national botanical society might be formed but had no plan
to offer. Another botanist was wiser: he had a plan. The dissident was Professor
Charles Reid Barnes, then Professor of Plant Physiology at the University
of Wisconsin, the campus at which the meetings were in session. Perhaps, having
the meetings on his own campus gave him courage! Charles Reid Barnes vigorously
op-posed the majority opinion and submitted the following minority report
to the Botanical Club of the A. A. A. S.: (2)
a member of the committee appointed last year to report on the feasibility
of forming an American botanical society I find myself unable to agree with
the majority in reporting that such organization through the initiative of
the Botanical Club is not feasible at present. Another member of the committee
also dissents from the majority report, viz., Prof. F. Lamson-Scribner; but
I am not able to say whether he would approve of the plan which I suggest,
as I have had no opportunity of submitting the same to him.
the time the plan was broached for the formation of a national botanical society
I was not in favor of it, believing that the time was not yet ripe for such
an organization. On thinking over the matter during the year past I have become
convinced not only that the time is opportune, but that the Botanical Club,
an open association of the loosest possible organization. can establish a
restricted society without friction, and with great benefit to the science
therefore submit the following suggestions in lieu of the majority report.
the Botanical Club approves the formation of an American botanical society
whose membership shall be restricted to those who have published worthy
work and are actively engaged in botanical investigation.
to this end the Botanical Club proceed to elect ten men 1_!] who beyond
all questions should belong to a society so restricted.
these ten be directed to select fifteen additional members who in their
judgment fall well within the limits suggested.
the twenty-five persons so chosen be invited to become the charter members
of the botanical society, to proceed to organize the same, and to provide
for the election of additional members by such methods and on such terms
(not incompatible with the intent of recommendation(l ) as they see fit.
happily for us today, the majority opinion was rejected and the minority report
adopted by two thirds of the members of the Club! Before this vote a "lengthy
discussion" occurred by those present; this included Elizabeth Gertrude Britton,
wife of Nathaniel Lord Britton, then Director of the New York Botanical Garden.
They began to ballot (without nomination) for ten members of the new society,
but, apparently, the voting was not completed until the afternoon session(3).
Did difficulties arise or was it just too near lunch time when the balloting
chosen, the Committee of Ten was directed to select an additional fifteen
members. These twenty-five botanists were then invited to become Charter Members
of the new national botanical society, the name for which
not yet been decided upon. Not all those noted botanists accepted membership
in the new national botanical society. Only those who accepted will be listed
Joseph Charles, Professor of Vegetable Physiology and Plant Pathology, Purdue
George Francis, Professor of Botany, Cornell University.
Liberty Hyde, Professor of Horticulture, Cornell University.
Charles Reid, Professor of Plant Physiology, University of Wisconsin.
Charles Edwin, Professor of Botany, The University of Nebraska (He always
wanted the included.)
Nathaniel Lord, Director of the New York Botanical Garden.
Elizabeth* Gertrude, Bronx Park, New York.
John Merle, Professor of Botany, University of Chicago.
Frederick Vernon, Chief Botanist, U. S. D. A.
Edward Lee, Professor of Botany, Catholic University, Washington, D.C.
Bryon David, Professor of Botany, Rutgers College.
Charles Arthur, Instructor in Geology, Columbia University.
Conway, Professor of Botany, University of Minnesota.
Benjamin Lincoln, Curator of the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University.
Charles Sprague, Director of the Arnold Arboretum.
John Pennell, 505 Park Avenue, Baltimore, Md.
Roland, Assistant Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard University.
William, Director of the Missouri Botanical Garden.
William Powell, Director Philadelphia Museums.
Lucien Marcus. Professor of Botany, Columbia University.
Elizabeth Gertrude Britton was the first woman member of the society.
close with the recommendation that the Council of the Botanical Society of
America, Inc., take under its consideration the printing, in the American
Journal of Botany, each year, in its August issue, a photograph of Professor
Charles Reid Barnes. Might not a Charles Reid Barnes Award be made each year
at our national meetings?
anyone may be thought of as a "founder" of the Botanical Society of America,
it is he. He dared to cry, "The time IS ripe!"
Gazette, 17: 289. 1892. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 19: 294. 1892.
Gazette, 18: 347-48. 1893. A reprint of this was issued by the Botanical
Gazette as Publication # 1 of the Society.
Gazette, 18: 368. 1893. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, 20: 373. 1893.
Trip to China, May 1978
Botanical Society of America has been asked to organize a delegation to visit
botanical institutions in the People's Republic of China for approximately
three weeks in 1978, probably in May, and to host a delegation from the People's
Republic in the United States, also in 1978. Each delegation is to consist
of ten members. Applications are solicited from members of the Botanical Society
of America and other interested botanists and should include: 1) a brief curriculum
vitae and list of five representative recent publications, 2) an analysis
of the reasons why, on the basis of established contacts or similar research
pro-grams, a visit to the People's Republic of China would be especially valuable
in promoting scientific interchange.
delegation will be headed by Professor Arthur W. Galston of Yale University,
Chairman of the Botanical Society of America's Committee on Interchange with
the People's Republic of China and selections of the primary delegation and
alternates will be made by a committee consisting of him, Dr. Anitra L. Thorhaug,
University of Miami, and Dr. Peter H. Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden. This
committee will also seek funds for the trip to China and for the return visit
of the Chinese delegation to the United States. Suggestions about institutions
to be visited or the itinerary in general will also be welcome, as will indications
of willingness to host the Chinese delegation on its return visit to the United
States, tentatively scheduled for October 1978. The delegation will be as
diversified as possible within the framework of interest of the Botanical
Society of America and for this reason sectional nominations of delegates
will also be sought and will be weighed heavily in the selection of the primary
and alternate lists. Application materials and inquiries must be received
prior to 15 October 1977 and should be directed to: Chinese Exchange Visits,
c/o Dr. Peter H. Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue,
St. Louis, Mo. 63110.
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
Richard M. Klein, Editor
Department of Botany
University of Vermont
Burlington, Vt. 05401
Donald Kaplan, University of California, Berkeley
September 1977 Volume Tewnty-three Number
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc., Dr.Rirchie Bell, Department of Botany, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 26514.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Society
can be obtained for $4.00 per year. Orders plus checks payable to "Botanical
Society of America, Inc." should be sent directly to the Treasurer of the Society.
Manuscripts for the Plant Science Bulletin should be submitted to
the editor. The Bulletin welcomes announcements, notes, notices and
items of general interest to members of the Botanical Society and to the botanical
community at large. No charge for inclusion of notices is made. Material submitted
must be typed, double-spaced and in duplicate. Copy should follow the style
of recent issues of the Bulletin.
Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University
Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of Vermont,
Burlington, VT 05401. Second class postage paid at Burlington, VT.
Permits and Endangered Species
TWO SYSTEMS OF PLANT PERMIT REGULATIONS issued by
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are now in effect. For activities involving
export, and in certain cases import, of named plant taxa in some 46 families,
regulations for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora (and the list of taxa) were published in the February
22, 1977 Federal Register 42(35, IV): 10461-10488. An application suggestions
leaflet (C-1) is also available.
activities involving export, import, and interstate commerce of plants to
be listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, regulations appeared in
the June 24, 1977 Federal Register 42(122, II): 32373-32381. An application
aid leaflet is in preparation. Although no plants are yet listed under the
Act, herbaria can apply under both regulations now.
obtain copies of the two final regulations and apply for permits contact:
Federal Wildlife Permit Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington,
D.C. 20240; telephone 202/634-1496.
of the import and export regulations for terrestrial plants, under both the
Trade Convention and the Act, is the responsibility of the Department of Agri-culture.
Address inquiries to: Regulatory Services Support Staff, Plant Protection
and Quarantine. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, 635 Federal Bldg., Hyattsville, Md. 20782; telephone 301/436-8247.
SYMPOSIUM ON SEED PROTEIN IMPROVEMENT IN CEREALS AND GRAIN LEGUMES will be
held under the auspices of the FAO of the United Nations at Neuherberg FRG
on September 4-8, 1978. Contact John H. Kane, United States Energy Research
and Development Administration. Washington, D.C. 20545.
MEETING OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY with the Crop Science Society
of America and the Soil Science Society of America will be held in Los Angeles
on November 13-18, 1977.
SYMPOSIUM ON THE USE OF ISOTOPES AND RADIATION IN RESEARCH ON SOIL-PLANT RELATIONSHIPS
will be held under the auspices of FAO and the International Atomic Energy
Agency in Colombo, Sri Lanka on December 11-15, 1978. Contact John H. Kane,
United States Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington,
THE ORGANIZATION FOR TROPICAL STUDIES is currently offering its 15th consecutive
year of graduate courses in tropical science in Central America. Courses of
8 weeks duration will be given in January, February and March 1978. The courses
are field-oriented, at the graduate level and require that the student undertake
research projects. Closing dates for applicants is 31 October 1977. Additional
information can be obtained from: Organization for Tropical Studies, P.O. Box
DM, Duke Station, Durham, N.C. 27706.
Corvallis, Oregon Environmental Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency has published a 72-page report on "Susceptibility of Woody
Plants to Sulfur Dioxide and Photochemical Oxidants.
classic textbook of A. J. Eames, "Morphology of Vascular Plants" has been
reprinted by R. E. Krieger Co., 645 New York Ave., Huntington, N.Y. 11743.
most recent manuals in the Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United
States, coordinated by the College of Marine Studies, University of Deleware,
Lewes, DE 19958 include Tardigrada, Scyphozoa, harpacticocoid Copepoda and
1(3) of the new journal Systematic Botany includes the proceedings of a symposium
on "Plant Population Biology at the Crossroads."
of the AIBS document, "Public Responsibilities Issues for Biology, What's
New. What's Needed" are avail-able from Dr. Robert Krauss, College of Science,
Oregon State University, Corvallis, Or. 97331.
cassic textbook of Hill, Popp and Grove, "Botany" has been reprinted by R.
E. Krieger Co., Huntington, N.Y. 11743.
Irving W. Knobloch, Department of Botany & Plant Pathology, Michigan State
University. East Lansing is compiling biographies of all plant collectors
in Northern Mexico. If you have collected there and have not been contacted,
please send him your complete name (no initials), your business address, date
and place of birth, the states in which you collected, the years in which
you collected, the herbaria where deposited and any other pertinent data.
WEATHERWAX, Professor Emeritis of Botany at Indiana University died 18 October
V. BROWN, Professor of Botany at the University of Texas, Austin died 16 May
1977. A memorial fund has been established to assist graduate student research.
A. KALMBACHER, Taxonomist emeritis of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden died 9 June
GRANICK, Professor at The Rockefeller University, died 22 April 1977.
I. FENNELL, Mycologist at the Northern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department
of Agri-culture, died 20 July 1977. Deductable contributions for a memorial
in her name may be sent to Dr. Jack W. Powers, Vice President of Program Support,
Re-search Corp. 405 Lexington Ave, New York, N.Y. 10017.
PLANT PHYSIOLOGIST is being sought by the Department of Botany, University
of California, Davis. The applicant will teach and do research on the mechanism
of photosynthesis, emphasizing aspects of the light re-action or photosynthetic
electron transport. For detailed information, contact: Dr. Richard H. Falk,
Department of Botany, University of California, Davis CA 95616.
Cooperative College Register, 621 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314 has been
re-established as a communications link and matching service for positions
and position-seekers for higher education.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN MARINE BOTANY is being sought at Duke University Marine
Laboratory. Research utilizing marine facilities is anticipated with specific
research area (physiology, ecology, systematics, etc.) and plants to be studied
(phytoplankton, seaweeds, fungi, bacteria, vascular plants) open. A strong
research program and a contribution to the teaching and graduate training
programs is expected. Starting either January or September 1978. Send curriculum
vitae, graduate and undergraduate transcripts and 3 letters of recommendation
to: Dr. R. B. Searles, Chairman, Search Committee, Department of Botany, Duke
University, Durham, N.C. 27706.
PLANT PHYSIOLOGIST/ WEED SCIENTIST is being sought by the Department of Botany,
University of California, Davis at the Assistant Professor level. The major
thrust of the research program should involve the mechanism of absorption
of herbicides and naturally-occurring molecules by roots and germinating seeds
and can include translocation of such molecules from roots and the influence
of edaphic and biotic factors on these processes. Teaching will include an
upper division undergraduate plant physiology or weed science course, a seminar
and the direction of graduate student research. The Ph.D. is required. Applicants
should submit a curriculum vitae, list of publications, reprints, transcripts,
a resume of research and teaching goals and should request three letters of
recommendation to be sent to Dr. Floyd M. Ashton, Chairperson of the Search
Committee, Department of Botany, University of California, Davis, CA 95616
before 1 November 1977.
PALEOBOTANIST is being sought by the Department of Botany, University of California,
Davis at the assistant or associate professor level. A Ph.D. is required as
is a strong background in geology. Teaching includes one or more courses in
paleobotany, the candidate may also be involved in general botany or biology
and should be interested in graduate student supervision. Applicants should
submit a curriculum vitae, transcripts, lists of publications and reprints,
resume of teaching and research goals and request that 3 letters of recommendation
be sent to Dr. John M. Tucker, Department of Botany, University of California,
Davis, CA 95616 by 15 November 1977.
WILLARD PAYNE, formerly director of the Division of Biological Sciences at
the University of Florida has been named Director of the Cary Arboretum, the
environmental and plant science center of the New York Botanical Garden.
ICHIRO FUKUDA of the Toyko Woman's Christian University, is spending a sabbatical
year at McGill University as Visiting Professor at the Genetics Laboratory
of the MacDonald campus working with DR. WILLIAM F. GRANT.
WILLIAM C. STEERE, President Emeritis of the New York Botanical Garden received
the G. Miles Conrad Award of the BioSciences Information Service at the annual
banquet of Biosis on June 10, 1977.
S. B. HENDRICKS received one of the 1976 Finsen Medals.
RICHARD A. HOWARD, Director of the Arnold Arboretum was awarded an honorary
D.Sc. at the commencement exercises of Framingham State College.
ROY A. MECKLENBURG, Professor of Horticulture at Michigan State University
has been appointed as President of the Chicago Horticultural Society.
HENRY CLAY BUTCHER IV, formerly at Brookhaven National Laboratory, has been
appointed as Professor of Biology at Loyola College in Maryland.
T. T. KOZLOWSKI, A. J. Riker Professor of Forestry at the University of Wisconsin,
Madison has been appointed director of the Biotron.
Report of the
Editor of the
American Journal of Botany
the period 1 July 1976—30 June 1977, 209 manuscripts were received.
To date, 93 have been published, 71 are in the editorial process, 19 have
been accepted but not yet sent to press, 24 were rejected and 3 were with-drawn.
has been made in reducing the time between submission and publication by
increasing the length of issues and by the publication of an occasional
issue of 23-25 articles.
the past six months, the average time for regular-type manuscripts was 5 months
and for short communications was 4 months, after acceptance of revised manuscripts.
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS have been published and others are in review or in
press. These can be incorporated into certain issues without delay in
publication of regular articles.
SPECIAL PAPERS have been published and one is in press. The Editorial
Board believes such papers enliven the Journal and we will continue to
publish an occasional Special Paper. Any member may submit a manuscript
and ask that it be considered for inclusion as a Special Paper and the
Editorial Board may also solicit such manuscripts. A Special Paper could
be 1) a review article of limited scope and general interest, 2) evaluation
and critique of research evidence on a controversial subject,
recent advances in a specialized research area, 4) over-view of major research
contributions to plant science. Heretofore, the Editor has selected articles
for this category from submitted papers. Members of the Editorial Board would
act as reviewers in some instances and would make final selections. Special
papers should be the same length as regular articles.
I would like to express my continuing sincere appreciation to all reviewers.
I am impressed with their cooperation and dedication. Without their assistance,
the editorial tasks would be virtually impossible to accomplish.
Annual Report of the Business Manager of the American Journal of
presented here are summary figures and do not accurately represent profit
or loss. Accounting is kept on a cash-flow basis, not on a net-worth basis.
abbreviated summary for volume 60 (1973) to volume 63 (1976) is presented
No. pages published
No. copies printed
Cost per copy
Total Receipts ($000)
include subscriptions, back issues, advertizing, page charges, interest
and dividends plus miscellaneous. Interest and dividends include reserve
funds in savings and loan associations, shares in common stocks, funds,
include operation of the office of the business manager, office of the
editor plus printing, mailing, engraving of the Journal plus expenses
for pay-roll taxes, insurance, abstracts and reprints.
expenses rose about 16% from 1975 to 1976 due largely to our publishing
26% more pages in 1976. Postage increased 22% from $9,700 to $11,800.
Total income increased only 3% from 1975 to 1976.
M. G. R. AND F. T. LAST (eds.). Tree Physiology and Yield Imrpovement. Academic
Press, London. (U.S. Edition: Academic Press, New York). 1976. 567 pp., illust.
book is a compendium primarily of review papers presented at a conference
on physiological genetics and forest tree yield held near Edinburgh, Scotland,
1975, under the auspices of I.U.F.R.O. Conference objectives were to examine
physiological and morphological characteristics limiting wood yield, the underlying
inherent differences in forest tree yield and heritability of characteristics
that may be exploited by breeding. Papers presented emphasized physiology
rather than genetics as there have been few heritability studies on physiological
attributes of trees. The papers are divided into 6 groups; carbon-fixation
efficiency, shoot and cambial growth, water stress, frost hardiness, mineral
nutrition, and problems concerning use of physiological selection criteria.
Specific topics dealt with are photosynthesis and growth models and various
factors affecting photosynthesis including enzymatic criteria and carbon fixation
efficiency. Tree and stand form was examined from the standpoint of genetic
differences in canopy characteristics, tree forms and the environmental conditions
and mechanisms influencing them, inherent differences in shoot growth, photo-periodic
response, shoot and leaf development and bud break. The role of plant hormones
in regulating shoot elongation, diameter growth and crown form, leaf-cambium
relations and the relation of leaf cell dimensions and tracheid diameters
on potential wood production were also explored.
prospect of making selections among trees based on water relationships has
potential in yield improvement. Breeding for drought resistance is explored
and the physical parameters for drought resistance examined. Oxygen trans-port
and oxygen deficiency on wet sites is also discussed. Frost hardiness as an
adaptation factor to consider in tree selection and various aspects of this
physiological phenomenon are reviewed. Two papers deal with the role of tree
nutrition as a genetic trait. The role of mycorrhizae in nutrient uptake and
the implications for compatible genetic matchings between mycorrhizal fungi
and tree host were examined. This particular aspect of yield improvement looks
promising and will hopefully be receiving more research emphasis.
papers are presented concerning the problem of physiological selection criteria.
These papers address competition as a factor influencing yield improvement,
maternal effects on early performance of tree progenies, and other variations
in morphological and physiological characteristics of trees that have implications
for tree improvement. In discussing physiological problems many of the papers
use as an example the particular species the authors have studied. Most of
the papers have extensive bibliographies leading a person interested in the
topic to a wealth of current scientific knowledge. Readers of this book should
find it a useful reference. The book should also prove valuable for courses
in advanced physiology and genetics.
R. Hannah University of Vermont
E. B. (ed.). Recent Advances in Aquatic Mycology. Elek Science, London. 1976.
749 pp., illust. £ 21.00.
editor of this volume, a noted British mycologist, gives two aims for the
book: To bring together current reviews of topics devoted to aquatic fungi;
to update the 1961 volume of Johnson and Sparrow (Fungi in Oceans and Estuaries).
Both are successful.
book consists of 27 papers divided into four sections, two on marine fungi—Ascomycetes,
Fungi Imperfecti and Basidiomycetes and Lower Fungi—and two on freshwater
fungi—Ascomycetes, Fungi Imperfecti and Basidiomycetes and Lower Fungi.
Topics within each section are sufficiently varied so that a wide range of
interests and specialties are reviewed, from ultrastructure and physiology
to fungi in cooling towers or sewage. One chap-ter lists films on aquatic
fungi available in Europe, Canada, and the U.S.
chapters are replete with data presented as extensive tables, graphs, and
photographs. The style of writing of the individual chapters is concise and
to the point; evaluation of data is presented to a limited extent.
reference will be of interest and value to the specialist in aquatic mycology
and related fields and to those who wish to maintain a broad botanical library.
It belongs in undergraduate and graduate libraries for obvious reasons; it
could be used also to enhance the base of microbiology courses which usually
contain precious little on microorganisms other than bacteria. Considering
the falling rate of exchange of the pound, the high quality of reproduction
and large size of this volume, this book is less expensive than many one-third
T. Klein St. Michael's College
PETER H., RAY F. EVERT AND HELENA CURTIS. Biology of Plants (2nd ed.). Worth
Publishers, Inc., N.Y. 1976. xv + 685 pp., illust.
of the challenges of teaching an introductory course is sometimes to give
you just the right amount of information to tantalize the better students
without completely losing the poorer ones. And so it must be for the authors
of textbooks used in such courses. Raven, Evert and Curtis have succeeded
in meeting this challenge; their Biology of Plants adequately covers the body
of knowledge generally recognized as Botany, yet resists the temptation to
style of writing is easy to comprehend, which is in part a reflection of Ms.
Curtis' earlier efforts in writing for the introductory student. Key words
are both underscored and italicized and often defined on the spot as well
as in the excellent glossary. The abundant photographs and diagrams not only
enhance the explanations offered in the text but should prove a boon to the
harassed laboratory instructor with an overly large class. Unfortunately,
some label lines blend with the background of the black and white photographs
so as to make them unclear. Otherwise the editing of the book is excellent
and errors are minimal.
I first looked at the table of contents, it seemed to be an awkward arrangement
of topics, because it differs so from my present text, but after having read
the book in its entirety, I find it refreshingly different. Several con-current
themes carry the topics logically from chapter to chapter, with evolution
being a strong unifying theme throughout. In this way the review of the plant
kingdom, for instance, is an integrated part of the text instead of having
the appearance that it was added, just in case some-one would want to use
the text for a two-semester course. The use of this book just might rejuvenate
even my tired old lectures!
D. Scott Northwest Missouri State University
WALTER H. AND MEMORY P. F. ELVINLEWIS. Medical Botany. Plants Affecting Man's
Health. John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. 1977. 515 pp., illust. $27.50.
of herbalist medicine have long awaited an authoritative book that interprets
traditional folklore and herbal information in the light of modern clinical
data on drugs and their source plants. Professionals have perhaps been apprehensive
of such a book, expecting it to be a dangerous tool in the hands of an inexpert
and adventure-some public. "Medical Botany" is the controversial realization
of both these expectations.
first section of the book effectively outlines the kinds of plant poisons
and reviews the diverse kinds of injurious plants. Included are notes on the
chemical structure of poisons and the physiology of poisoning. The second
edition of the book comprises the structure and virtues of the known remedial
plants. Review of modern, clinical data and commentary on the physiology of
remedial action amplify the traditional recitation of virtues from herbals
and Indian lore. The last section of the book covers the psychoactive plants.
Such drugs as stimulants, hallucinogens, and depressants are discussed thoroughly
from an informative cultural outlook. The book is provided with useful appendices,
including a classification of the plant kingdom, a bibliography, and a glossary.
Botany" succeeds in bringing a much needed modern, clinical outlook to the
traditional folklore of herbal medicine. Although the descriptions of plants
included are useless for those eager to identify usable plants in the wild,
the book should prove to be a valuable guide to the pertinent chemical compounds
of plants—in the hands of botanists and physicians. The volume is especially
helpful to botantists advising physicians on poisonous plants.
Barrington University of Vermont
VERNE. Organismic Evolution. W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco. 1977.
418 pp., illust.
Grant has written a logical, readable, extensively documented survey of the
evolutionary process Beginning with the basics of population genetics, including
such microevolutionary processes as allele repacements under varying conditions
of selective force and population size, the book gradually widens in scope
to present the con-temporary understanding of the mechanisms of speciation
and macroevolution. It is satisfying to see discussions of the latter processes
presented in conjunction with the former, for too often macroevolution is
glibly propounded with little regard for the underying processes. Next is
a consideration of the evolution of humans, with emphasis on our phylogenetic
and ecological background, pertinent selective forces and trends which shaped
the human organ-ism, and the interplay between organic and cultural evolution
that has made man what he is.
pauses often to discuss various contemporary disagreements (such as the meaning
and implications of orthogenesis and the relative roles of selection and drift)
in a fair manner, but rarely fails to point out his own opinion and his reasons
for holding it. Thus one reads not an undigested review of the field, but
evolution as Grant perceives it, with wide latitude for skepticism and disagreement
by the reader.
book is replete with illustrations, examples and explanation of hypotheses
and experiments, so that the reader gains a tangible grasp of the modes of
inquiry as well as the concepts they produce. Grant assumes a general biological
background on the part of the reader, including an understanding of basic
Mendelian genetics. Thus the book is appropriate as a text for a course in
evolution for college students, as an ancillary text for other courses, or
as personal reading for anyone desiring an understanding of how the process
of evolution is understood today and what questions are being asked by students
in the field.
I. Davis University of Vermont
Genetics III. Proceedings of the Third International Genetics Symposium, Garching
(Germany). 1975. 849 pp.
thick volume contains 135 scientific papers presented at the symposium, each
by a different author or authors. Some of the topics covered are Biochemical
Gentics, Mutation Induction, Chromosome Engineering, Breeding Techniques,
Physiology of Kernel Yield, Selection Theory and Application. Most of the
contributions are intended for specialists, but the opening address by the
late G. A. Wiebe and the short closing speech by G. Fischbeck are of general
interest to geneticists and plant breeders. Two points are emphasized. 1.
The value of more sophisticated techniques as applied to breeding problems,
and 2. the need for obtaining, maintaining a broad genetics base for breeding,
consisting of a large gene pool.
University of California
JANICE C. Vascular Plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada.
Technical In-formation Center, Office of Technical Information, Energy Research
and Development Administration, Springfield, Va. 1976. 308 pp. Available as
TID-26881, $9.75 (foreign $12.15) from National Technical In-formation Service,
U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Spring-field, Va. 22161.
Beatley's book, in large measure, represents information previously presented
in a series of publications over a period of 16 years, during her association
with the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology at the University
of California, Los Angeles. The availability of this information now, in a
single text, plus new, included data, makes this book a valued reference.
the first part of the volume the author characterizes the physical features
and vegetation types as they occur over the more than 1,300 square miles of
the Nevada Test Site. This large, government-controlled area within southern
Nevada is geographically oriented so as to include portions of two Southwestern
deserts. Thus, vegetation is classified and described as Mojave, transition
or Great Basin, with an analysis of associations within each of these regions.
The treatment is effective, logical and well documented. Twenty-five pages
of black and white photographs follow, providing visual aspects of many of
the vegetation categories de-scribed.
second, and major, portion of the book is devoted to an annotated checklist
of vascular plants. The value of this section is greatly enhanced by the inclusion
of taxa occurring beyond the Test Site boundaries (the Test Site comprising
only one-fifth of the total 8,000 square mile area represented). The list
of 1,093 entries incorporates the latest nomenclatural changes and, for the
traditionally taxonomically complex groups, reflects the interpretations of
a whole, the book must be rated as an important contribution to the knowledge
of Southwestern botany. Three main features combine to make it so: the careful
work of the author, as reflected throughout the volume; the focus upon the
botany of an uniquely interesting and largely inaccessible desert area; and
the contribution it makes toward the eventual compilation of a flora for all
of Southern Nevada, an area not presently treated in any current text.
University of Nevada
YOSHIWO. Atlas of the Japanese Flora II: An Introduction of Plant Sociology
of East Asia. Bakken Co., Ltd., Tokyo. 1976. 3 pp. + 362 maps + I-XII (Indices).
35,000 yen (cloth, boxed).
elegant oversized book, Volume II follows essentially the same format as Volume
I. All pages are de-voted to Spermatophytes while the preceding publication
included some Pteridophytes and Bryophytes. The first 8 illustrated pages
are devoted to 3 families of Gymnosperms; the next 195 to 59 families of Archichlamydeae;
the next 148 to 25 families of Monochlamydeae; and the last 11 to 25 families
of Monocots. A total of 362 taxa are represented. A short discussion of methods
is found on page 8. Each page contains the scientific name of the taxon, of
each common synonym, and of the family. The common and family names appear
in Japanese "Katakana" and in Roman letters. The life form (modified from
Braun-Blanquet and Ellenberg) and general distribution are given. The illustrations
consist of an aerial neap of Japan and neighboring regions with dots, each
representing a "geoquadrat" (10 minutes in latitude and 15 minutes in longitude),
to indicate locations of the taxon. In addition there are 2 other diagrams
indicating elevational distributions: one between meridians 120° and
146° across Japan, and the other between parallels 24° and 46°
as one moves from north to south.
diagrams illustrating elevational distributions are very interesting. This
volume will be extremely useful to phytogeographers, plant sociologists, and
ecologists who wish to make comparisons of life forms, habitats, etc., between
vicariads of Japan and other regions.
J. Sharp University of Tennessee
F. E. (ed.). Fennoscandian Tundra Ecosystems; Part 1. Plant and Microorganisms.
Ecological Studies, Vol. 16. Springer-Verlag, N.Y. 1975. 366 pp., illust.
studies of northern European tundra ecosystems add another geographical link
to our understanding of an important circumpolar biome. F. E. Wielgolaski
has assembled thirty-nine papers on the function and organization of tundra
ecosystem in Norway, Finland and Sweden. As Part 1 (Plant and Microorganisms),
this volume deals mainly with site decriptions, abiotic variables, primary
production, decomposition and nutrient cycling. The Table of Contents for
Part 2 (Animals and Systems Analysis) is given in the beginning of this volume.
Both Parts 1 and 2 represent research funded through the International Biological
Programs (IBP) in Norway, Finland and Sweden. Therefore, a large amount of
information on Fennoscandian tundra ecosystems is here made available in English
for comparison with similar IBP tundra studies in Canada, the United States,
Russia and Great Britain. The authors of most of the papers presented here
make some effort to compare their results with those of workers in the United
States and Canada.
an abstract and ambiguous term, `tundra' includes a multitude of ecosystems.
Recognition of this variation is treated effectively in these Fennoscandian
studies. Here, tundra is broadly defined as approximating areas with mean
annual air temperatures below 0° C. In Norway, Finland and Sweden this
definition includes all alpine zones (low, mid and high) as well as the subalpine
birch zone and even subarctic woodands of pine and birch. Hence the presence
of tree-form plants in the vegetation does not preclude its classification
as tundra. Arctic tundra is found in northern
but these studies do not include this type. At least twelve different tundra
ecosystems were studied intensively. However, most of the studies reported
here were conducted on six types at Hardangervidda, Norway; dry meadow, wet
meadow, lichen heath, willow thicket, birch forest and snow bed. In addition,
intensive ecosystem analyses were carried out in a pine forest, three birch
forests and a low alpine heath at Kevo, Finland and in a bog at Stordalen,
Sweden. This vegetational heterogeneity in alpine study areas, associated
with variations in snow cover, drainage and elevation, presents problems to
intensive IBP projects which usually center around one 'representative' ecosystem
(i.e., Wet Meadow at Barrow, Alaska). Measurements of productivity and decomposition
across the Fennoscandian gradient of tundra variation is a herculean task
which has been well accomplished in the present volume.
one of the important goals of the IBP is to obtain an understanding and estimate
of productivity for whole tundra landscapes. In separate studies at Hardangervidda,
Norway, the tundra vegetation was classified and mapped and the productivity
of some of the map units was determined. However, these studies were not synthesized
here into an overall estimate of landscape productivity.
diversity of ecosystems and sites studied, together with the wide range of
topics and organisms covered in this volume do not leave the reader with an
overview of the functioning of Fennoscandian tundra systems. Not all the papers
contrbiute to such an understanding: a paper on plant colonization of glacial
morraines is interesting but out of place and another on the effects of grazing
might be more appropriately placed in Part 2. A number of papers deal with
the physiology of moss or lichen species which grow at the study sites. These
arc concerned more with the physiological adaptations of individual species
to the tundra environment than with the functioning of the whole system. However,
the detailed consideration of cryptogams and their contribution to production
diverse papers are pulled together and integrated to some extent by an introductory
chapter to each section and an initial site description which presents a long
table giving most of the climatic, soil, vegetational and productivity data
for each site. The fact that F. E. Wiclgolaski is the main or co-author of
at least one-fourth of the papers also lends continuity. Each of the papers
in this volume deals with actual results in a concise and succinct way. Long
descriptions of methods and philosophical approach are avoided and the data
is presented in well-organized tables and graphs. Unfortunately there are
few pictures aside from about 12 photographs of the study sites in the first
The Center for Northern Studies
GEORGE W. The Science of Genetics. An Introduction to Heredity. 3rd Edition.
Macmillan Publishing Co., N.Y. 1976. $13.95.
introductory genetics text is well suited for the motivated student with better
than average intellect. The introductory chapter is superb; it provides a
stimulating glimpse of the field by discussing organisms of experimental interest,
methods of investigation, and specializations within genetics. Chapters on
probability and statistics pro-vide information prerequisite to mastery of
classical genetics (the introductory student, often at the sophomore level,
should appreciate these discussions). Sections of the book dealing with classical
and population genetics are liberally infused with refreshingly different
illustrations of genetic phenomena. Examples with historical significance
have been retained. Each chapter lists a substantial number of questions with
answers provided in the appendices. The frequent use of references provides
students with a convenient introduction into the literature and stresses the
experimental nature of genetics. Appendices include descriptions of the life
cycles of selected organisms of significance to genetic investigation. Unfortunately
the diagrams accompanying these descriptions, although neatly reproluced,
are pedestrian and unstimulating. Illustrations and photographs throughout
the remainder of the book, how-ever, are of good to excellent quality, providing
useful amplification of topics. The addition of color could be a stimulating
addition to this and many other genetics books.
are, however, features that recommend the book less highly. Index and glossary,
extremely important to students, are weak. Far more index entries refer to
authors than to subjects (reasonable until the paucity of subject entries
is noted). Subject headings are rarely subdivided for efficient use. The chapter
on regulation of gene expression would most certainly need supplementation
as it is out of date; although it considers histones, it omits discussions
of important molecular constituents (e.g., heterogeneous nuclear RNA, poly-A,
non-histone chromosomal proteins) and concepts (e.g., posttranslational modification
of polypeptides, maturation and transport of transcript). Also, the addition
of diagramatic 'descriptions explaining experimental techniques in molecular
genetics would supplement the present approach and benefit students (most
of whom have had only rudimentary exposure to chemistry, biochemistry or physics
at the time they enroll in introductory genetics). Another instance of deficiency
concerns macromolecular structure and nemy within the chromosome, as well
as reiterated and unique DNA sequences. As with any text, individual instructors
will have to evaluate for themselves whether the level of precision and discrimination
between hypothesis and fact are acceptable. On the whole I feel that this
book ranks highly as an introductory text to classical and population genetics
and somewhat lower in molecular genetics.
C. Ullrich University of Vermont
F. H. Seeds and Fruits of Plants of Eastern Canada and Northeastern United
States. University of Toronto Press, Toronto and Buffalo. 1977. 232 pp. $25.00.
distinctive characteristics of seeds are well known to plant scientists. Until
now, however, there has been no good book which allows the identification
of a large number of seeds (including seeds that are technically fruits) of
native and introduced species. Professor Montgomery's book is a welcome reference.
keys are based on the length/width ratios along with a chart of characteristic
shapes and are simple to use. When they don't work there are more than 1,100
excellent black and white photographs to help. The illustrations are of exceptionally
good quality considering the problems of obtaining clear photographic details
of 3-dimensional objects.
book should be in every library and laboratory where taxonomic work is involved.
Wildlife specialists will be especially pleased as it will facilitate the
difficult task of identifying the seeds from the crops of birds and the
of animals. In addition to being a useful reference, the artful photographs
display the wonderful array of sizes, shapes, seed coat sculptures and textures
displayed among the flowering plants.
book is an odd size, 10" deep and 7" high which lies open on a table but may
cause problems on the book-shelf. Also, if the genera and species in the keys
contained page numbers referring to the text and illustrations, it would save
the extra step of referring to the index each time a seed was keyed out.
W. Vogebnann University of Vermont
LESLIE A. AND ELBERT L. LITTLE, JR. Atlas of United States Trees. Alaska Trees
and Common Shrubs. Volume 2. United States Government Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. 1975. 19 pp. text, 82 pp. maps $3.10.
ELBERT L., JR. Atlas of United States Trees. Minor Western Hardwoods. Volume
3. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1976. 13 pp.
text, 210 pp. maps. $9.10.
two volumes are part of what will become a five-volume Atlas of Trees and
Shrubs of the Continental United States and Alaska. Volume I, "Conifers and
Important Hardwoods", was the first of the series. To be completed at a later
date are Volume 4, "Minor Eastern Hardwoods", and Volume 5, "Florida Trees".
2 contains maps showing the natural ranges of 82 native woody species found
in Alaska. The range of each species is shown clearly by brown lines and dots
on a black and white base map of the state at a scale of 1:10,000,000. Within
the range, locality records are designated by brown circles. Similar brown
circles designate areas outside of the main range where the species is known
to exist in restricted populations. Also included in Volume 2 are 23 general
maps providing information on climate and geography.
3 contains 8 by 11 inch maps of 210 tree species found in the west that were
not included in Volume I. All species are represented on a base map of the
Western United States by brown shading at a scale of 1:10,000,000. A base
map of North America is added for those species whose range extends into Mexico
or Canada. Small populations outside of the main range are shown by small
brown circles, and an X indicates where one of these populations has recently
objectives of the series to show accurately where each woody species can be
found have been well fulfilled. The maps show where each species can be found
for study, collection of seed, or for identification. Although the Atlas is
primarily of interest to foresters, the series should also prove valuable
in areas such as ecology and land use planning.
Vogelmann University of Vermont
COBLEY, L. S. AND W. M. STEELE. An Introduction to the Botany of Tropical Crops.
2nd Edition. Long-man, London. 1977. 371 pp. illust. $12.50 (paper).
a large percentage of the world's people are living in tropical lands, their
basic food plants are of more than casual interest to plant scientists living
in more temperate climates. Interest-provoking photographs of these plants,
information on their preparation for use, their nutritional value, and their
storability and palatability can provide the student with an appreciation
of the problems of survival in lands whose histories are being written in
today's newspapers. The first edition of this book was revised primarily by
W. M. Steele who added a good deal of classical floral and fruit morphology,
information rarely obtain-able in most texts. Unfortunately, the utility of
the book is limited by the apparent assumption that the audience would be
familiar with the plants. Neatly executed line drawings of floral morphology
do not provide the North American reader with any idea of what the mangosteen,
the guava, or nutmeg and mace look like as growing plants. Many photographs
are muddy. I found very little information that is not in Shery's "Plants
M. Klein University of Vermont
DARRYL W. AND KENNETH A. HARRISON. Nova Scotian Boletes. J. Cramer, FL-9490,
Vaduz, Germany. 1976. DM 60. (Available from Lubrecht & Cramer, 152 Mountainside
Drive, Randolph, N. J. 07801). 283 pp., 68 plates. $19.50.
relatively recent surge in popularity of wild mush-rooms has brought about
a need for new treatments based on modern taxonomic concepts of the North
American species. Many boletes are edible, but the difficulty of identifying
the species has deterred many from collecting and studying them. Several regional
treatments have appeared in the last decade. To these can now be added this
work on the boletes of Nova Scotia. The authors adopted the approach of collecting,
taking detailed notes on habitat, size, color, odor, taste of fresh material,
and then following with detailed microscopic and microchemical studies on
the voucher specimens. They provide detailed descriptions, line drawings of
microscopic structures and black-on-white photographs of some 80 species of
the common species of Nova Scotia. A synoptic key and a dichotomous key are
provided to aid identification. Their taxonomy is conservative; ten genera
are recognized: Boletus (38 species), Boletellus (2 species), Boletinellus
(1 species), Fuscoboletinus (5 species), Gyroporus (2 species), Leccinum (4
species), Pulveroboletus (1 species), Strobilomyces (2 species), Suillus (17
species), and Tylopilus (8 species). Informative introductory information
on methods of collecting and subsequent study, and on morphology and terminology
Clark T. Rogerson The New York Botanical Garden
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY UNIVERSITY
OF VERMONT BURLINGTON, VERMONT 05401