PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
VOLUME 50, NUMBER 2, 2004
The Botanical Society of America:
The Society for ALL Plant Biologists
ISSN 0032-0919 - Electronic version ISSN 1537-9752
Combining Breadth with Specialization to Build
a Strong Botany Department...........................38
Botany Program at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens
Developing a Curriculum for the Teaching of Botany....................................................................................42
News from the Society
Botany 2004. Alpine Diversity:
Adapted to the Peaks..............................................................................48
BSA in New Headquarters at
Missouri Botanical Garden........................................................................50
Manager, Department of Botany, California Academy of Sciences .....................................51
Botanist (Research Botanist) Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of
York Botanical Garden: The Rupert Barnaby Award.............................................................52
History Symposium and L.H. Bailey Symposium................................................................53
Monument of Printing and Holistic
BSA Contact Information...........................................................................................................................65
BSA Logo Items........................................................................................................................................68
Plant Science Bulletin 50(2) 2004
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 4475 Castleman
Avenue, St. Louis, MO, 63166-0299 . The yearly subscription rate of $15
is included in the membership dues of the Botanical Society of America,
Inc. Periodical postage paid at Columbus, OH and additional mailing office.
Editor: Marshall D. Sundberg
Department of Biological Sciences
Emporia State University
1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, KS 66801-5707
Telephone: 620-341-5605 Fax: 620-341-5607
Send address changes to:
Botanical Society of America
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166-0299
Editorial Committee for Volume 50
James E. Mickle (2004)
Department of Botany
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7612
Andrew W. Douglas (2005)
Department of Biology
University of Mississippi
University, MS 38677
Douglas W. Darnowski (2006)
Department of Biology
Indiana University Southeast
New Albany, IN 47150
Andrea D. Wolfe (2007)
Department of EEOB
1735 Neil Ave., OSU
Columbus, OH 43210-1293
Samuel Hammer (2008)
College of General Studies
Boston, MA 02215
Have you heard the complaint that "The Business Model" is taking over
academe and the bottom line is student credit hours? The numbers shared
in the last issue do not bode well for many of us if this model continues
to gain favor. Yet, botany programs at several institutions are maintaining
their student numbers as they continue to offer a broad spectrum of coursework
in the plant sciences. As promised in the last issue of Plant Science
Bulletin this number will highlight some of those successful programs
and share some of the ideas they have found useful in strategic planning
and recruiting. Ohio University is a Research University with a long and
distinguished program in botany. The University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
is a comprehensive regional campus with a primary mission in natural resources.
They have very different missions yet both are successful in promoting
botany. Hopefully you will find that some of their ideas and practices
have potential application to strengthen your program.
In addition we have included a paper by Jack Carter adapted from a workshop
he presented three years ago in Santa Rosa, LaPampa, Argentina. Although
written for Argentine botanists his thoughts are equally valid for us.
Jack, now retired from Colorado College, is a long-time member of the Society
who was active in the teaching section and education committee. He is also
Past-president of the National Association of Biology Teachers and a former
Executive Director of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS).
We will continue this series in the next issue with additional invited
contributionsand contributed letters on the topic. If you have ideas or
recommendations about what you have found to be successfully in promoting
botany on your campus, please share them by sending a letter to the editor.
Combining Breadth with Specialization
to Build a Strong Botany Department
With fewer than 30 botany departments left in the U.S., and many biology
departments offering only a few plant courses (Sundberg, 2004), it is critical
that the remaining botany departments not only survive but thrive. In order
to do so, they must develop strong programs at both the graduate and undergraduate
levels. This is a particular challenge for small to mid-sized departments
because it is difficult to maintain both breadth of coursework and nationally
competitive specializations in such departments. To accomplish this goal,
our department at Ohio University has devised a hiring strategy that may
be a useful model for others.
In 2000, our faculty undertook a strategic planning process. Because
of the demographics of our department, over a third of our faculty were
to retire between 2000 and 2005, and the new faculty who would be hired
would determine the direction of the department for years to come. In discussing
our vision for the department, there was a fundamental disagreement about
the desirability of specialization. Some faculty felt that developing a
few focus areas would be highly beneficial to our national reputation,
grant procurement, and ability to attract graduate students, but others
felt that specialization would jeopardize our ability to provide the breadth
of undergraduate training in plant biology that has historically been a
strength of our department.
The solution we devised, which permits us to maintain breadth while
developing specializations, may be a useful strategy for other small to
mid-sized departments. We decided to maintain our historic balance among
faculty qualified to teach courses at three organizational levels (cellular,
organismal, ecological) but to develop a research focus area at each level.
The focus areas we selected are plant cell wall biology, phylogenetic systematics,
and eastern deciduous forest ecology. Each specialization initially centered
on the vigorous research programs of one or several faculty. The largest
group at the time was phylogenetic systematics (5 faculty), but three strategic
hires since 2000 have significantly strengthened the forest ecology and
cell wall biology groups.
By selecting focus areas at widely different organizational levels,
it is possible for a relatively small department (we currently have 12
faculty) to achieve two goals that are sometimes viewed as incompatible:
1) teach the full breadth of plant biology courses needed for strong undergraduate
and master's degree programs; and 2) provide the critical mass of faculty
necessary for effective doctoral training in selected specializations.
For example, the forest ecology group includes faculty who address research
questions in the eastern deciduous forest biome at individual (physiological),
population, community, ecosystem, and landscape levels. These same people
teach introductory plant ecology, advanced courses in community ecology,
population biology, ecosystem ecology, ecophysiology, tropical ecology,
and biostatistics, and an innovative course that teaches the concepts of
forest ecology to non-majors in the context of settlement history and current
The study groups of the phylogenetic systematics faculty include red
algae, cellular slime molds, ferns, lycopsids, seed ferns, conifers, and
angiosperms. These faculty teach introductory courses in plant structure
and development, plant, fungal, and algal diversity, and dendrology, and
advanced courses in vascular plant morphology, anatomy, systematics (the
lab portion of which covers angiosperm taxonomy), molecular systematics,
phycology, mycology, evolution, and paleobotany. The paleobotanical collection
at Ohio University is among the largest in the nation and supports an active
graduate program in this discipline.
The faculty in the cell wall focus area, who also participate in an
interdepartmental graduate program in Molecular and Cellular Biology involving
42 faculty, approach cell wall biology from molecular-genetic, developmental,
and biochemical perspectives. They teach general biology for non-majors,
introductory courses in plant cell biology and physiology, advanced courses
in cell biology, molecular genetics, biotechnology, and developmental physiology,
and a writing course designed for plant biology majors. Finally, a faculty
member who does not belong to any of the focus groups teaches plant genetics,
plant pathology, introductory botany for non-majors, and "Plants and People"
(a large non-majors course that is also taught by members of all three
It should be clear from this list that the breadth of course offerings
in our department is not compromised by our decision to focus recent and
future hires on three research specializations. With 45 majors, we are
among the ten largest undergraduate botany programs in the country. At
the same time, we are increasingly receiving applications from prospective
graduate students who are interested in one of our three targeted specializations.
Highlighting these focus areas on our web site (http://www.plantbio.ohiou.edu
/) helps draw the attention of prospective graduate students who
are specifically interested in cell walls, phylogenetics, or forest ecology.
Our faculty generally have 30-35 graduate students in their labs any given
Overlaying the focus group organization is a second, informal network
of inter-group collaborations, which increase the range of faculty and
student research. For example, Sarah Wyatt (a developmental biologist),
Harvey Ballard (a systematist), and Glenn Matlack (a forest ecologist)
are collaborating on a project using microsatellite markers to examine
the process of invasion by three exotic plant species. Another project
(Wyatt, Ballard, and Theresa Culley [Univ. of Cincinnati]) uses microsatellite
markers in violets for pansy cultivar development and to evaluate the bioremediation
potential in some heavy-metal tolerant species. Wyatt and Brian McCarthy
(forest ecologist) are using a genomics approach to search for blight-resistance
genes in American Chestnuts. Ballard and Wyatt are exploring the molecular
genetic mechanism that regulates the mixed breeding system in violets.
Wyatt, Ballard, and Kim Brown (forest ecologist) are collaborating on a
study of ecological speciation in Hawaiian violets. Most of these projects
involve both graduate students and undergraduate researchers. All undergraduates
majoring in our department either conduct independent research or participate
in an internship outside the university.
An unusual component of the department's course offerings is Global
Studies in Plant Biology. This program was initially developed by Harvey
Ballard and Morgan Vis, but it has been expanded to involve Kim Brown and
Glenn Matlack. It incorporates a seminar that introduces a particular geographic
region, an international field course within the focus region, and subsequent
laboratory research on one or more group projects using materials and data
from the field course. The geographic focus changes from year to year,
moving about the world to spotlight different regions and their plant life.
Previous courses have targeted the alpine vegetation of the Bolivian Andes,
the oceanic island communities of the Hawaiian Islands, and the rainforests
of Brazil and French Guiana. Upcoming programs will focus on Thailand,
New Zealand, and China. Global Studies in Plant Biology is one of very
few programs in the country that unite an international study opportunity,
an intensive field course format, field and lab skills training, and student
participation in faculty-led research.
Although the Global Studies Program may help attract majors, our most
effective undergraduate recruiting tool has been our large non-majors courses,
which are taken by many freshmen who have not yet declared a major. These
courses are taught by some of our most engaging and dedicated teachers,
several of whom have won College or University teaching awards in the past
few years. We know from the exit interviews that we conduct with all graduating
seniors that many students decided to major in plant biology after taking
and People" or one of our other general education courses.
In a day and age when legislators and administrators often mistakenly
equate size with viability, small departments have to work extra hard to
demonstrate their quality and national competitiveness. The success of
our program is the result of several factors: a hiring strategy that combines
breadth with specialization; integrative research projects involving a
collaboration of faculty, graduate students, and undergraduates; development
of innovative courses; effective program promotion via the Internet; and
undergraduate recruitment through popular general education classes. Botanical
education is thriving at Ohio University.
Philip D. Cantino, Department of Environmental & Plant Biology,
Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (email@example.com)
Sundberg, Marshall D. 2004. Where is Botany Going? Plant Science
Botany program at the University
of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
The botany program within the biology department of the University of
Wisconsin -Stevens Point (UWSP) is very successful. To some degree the
successes are due to happenstance, good fortune and sometimes arbitrary
decrees of the state and administration. In a few intances the successes
are due to deliberate choices made by the department. In 1996, the department
received a UW System Board of Reagents teaching Excellence Award naming
it the "OUTSTANDING DEPARTMENT IN THE UW SYSTEM". The NSF Doctoral Candidate
Survey, a comprehensive annual survey of doctoral candicates, found UWSP
to have the second largest number of former undergraduate students who
went on to complete a Ph.D. in life science (86 over the 19 years of the
survey) compared to all primarily undergraduate colleges and universities
in its size range (4-year regional comprehensives). Our successes are due
to three major factors: excellent, motivated students; well trained, dedicated
faculty; and good facilities and support. One other secret factor—for over
35 years, the department chair has been a botanist [not the same person].
[Don't let your zoology colleagues read this.]
Our students come from around the nation, but most are from small towns
or rural central Wisconsin and they have a strong work ethic. Several years
ago, UWSP was mandated by the state to reduce enrollments to 8500 from
over 9000 students. At the same time the biology department had an active
recruitment program. The result was that applications went up dramatically
and better students enrolled in our classes. In the introductory classes
the average student ranks 15th in his/her high school graduating class
and a class of 24 or 32 students is likely to have three or more valedictorians
or salutatorians. We have excellent students!
Botanists represent a large part of the faculty [nine of twenty three]
and most major disciplines are represented with courses in; plant taxonomy,
aquatic vascular plant taxonomy, plant anatomy, plant morphology, plant
ecology, plant genetics, paleobotany, mycology, phycology, bryology and
lichenology, agrostology, horticulture, tree physiology, plant physiology,
many many independent studies and general botany. As much as possible in
central Wisconsin, field work is included in courses. The department has
a traditional organismal emphasis.
Two courses deserve special mention. All biology students are required
to take introductory botany [biology 130] , a 5 credit course. The course
is taught by 5 of the botanists, each having 1-4 lab sections [two 2-hour
labs per week per section- no graduate students] and that faculty member
lectures [3 hours per week] to the same sections. The laboratories planned
by the teaching staff and are prepared and coordinated by a full-time professional
(John Hardy) and a continually rotating, but well-trained group of undergraduates.
The course is quite traditional [and yes, we still teach life cycles].
A majority of our students arrive at UWSP planning to be marine biologists,
medical doctors or zoo veternarians. Seldom do we get incoming freshmen
indicating that they want to be plant physiologists or plant taxonomists.
The introductory botany class convinces many that there is another biological
world that they had not previously considered.
The second "course" is "ïndependent research" which can cover just
about anything a student and faculty member can dream up from describing
the cell structure of a fossil Ginkgo seed at the SEM level or determining
how pathogenic fungi enter roots of potatoes, to collecting identifying
and preparing herbarium specimens of mosses from Guatemala. Many of these
projects are part of or are related to individual faculty members' own
research. These are where many of our students get their first glimpse
of the excitement (and frustration) of research. Many students continue
these studies as graduate work [elsewhere- we have no graduate program].
Several independent studies have been published. Needless to say [but we'll
say it anyway], these studies are very time consuming for faculty. However,
the time is well spent. Besides, they are fun and undergraduates often
don't know enough to know what can and cannot be done, sometimes with startling
success. The university has a program that provides small undergraduate
research grants and the College of Letters and Science has an Undergraduate
Enrichment Initiative that funds faculty work involving undergraduates.
The UEI program has provided biology faculty and their student researchers
with ca. $45,000 per year for nearly a decade. Undergraduate independent
research is a strong component of our student successes.
The physical plant for the department is somewhat crowded, but well
equipped. We have TEM and SEM facilities (available to faculty and students
with training), adequate green house space, a large herbarium, a paleontolgy
collection, a modern molecular biology facility including an automated
DNA sequencer, a common equipment facility with ultra- and refrigerated
centrifuges, PCR, electrophoresis, shaker, and microscopy facilities. Plus
the department has sought substantial funds from the college, university,
and UW system for teaching lab modernization (over $100,000/year for over
a decade). All our teaching labs are equiped with high-quality stereo and
compound student microscopes as well as internet-linked computers, DVD/CD/Laser
disc players, and video camera backs on all instructor scopes for class-wide
viewing via LCD projects or TV monitors. We also have a great support crew
in the stockroom, greenhouse, lab prep areas and office staff [people who
never get the credit they deserve].
Botany is growing at UWSP. Our faculty positions seem secure, the faculty
are devoted mentors and productive scholars, and the students are enthusiastic
and hard-working. More and more of our students indicate an interest in
plant-related fields and our department is becoming know as one of the
only places in the state (especially outside of Madison) to pursue quality
John Curtis (emeritis professor) and Bob Bell (chair), Department of
Biology, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI.
Developing a Curriculum for
the Teaching of Botany
As a precursor and introduction to this topic I wish to review with
you the role and limits of Science as a Way of Knowing. An outstanding
scholar and personal friend, the late Professor John A. Moore, of the University
of California, Riverside, developed these ideas into a series of publications
that started in 1984. Some of you may have studied this series of publications
by the same title. Professor Moore, with the assistance of a wide range
of scholars in the biological sciences, produced these documents in order
to assist us in making the distinctions between science and other ways
of knowing. For example, on our campuses we have generally divided learning
among the sciences, social sciences and humanities. John wanted to make
the case for science without detracting from the social sciences and humanities.
He felt it was imperative that we, as scientists, make clear to society
the types of questions that science can attempt to answer and the
types of questions science cannot answer. As an outgrowth of the work by
Professor Moore we have identified three areas that must be addressed with
our students if they are to better understand the boundaries of the scientific
enterprise. 1.) The Nature of Biological Knowledge. 2) Processes of
the Scientific Enterprise. 3.) Values of the Scientific Enterprise.
Within the realm of biological knowledge students must understand that
our knowledge is tentative, public, empirical, replicable and historic.
Among those characteristics of the processes of science we must include:
observing, classifying and inferring. Also, we must include hypotheses
formulation, the design of experiments, the collection and interpretation
of data, proposing explanations and communicating our findings. And then
we must teach our students that knowledge has value, that questioning is
essential, that data are fundamental, that verification is required, and
to respect the logic of scientific findings. Ask yourself if you feel we
are teaching the nature, processes and values of science to our students.
In the United States we have determined that we are not reaching these
objectives in our sciences courses.
The Role of Education in the Plant Sciences.
Because I have devoted so much of my adult life to the study of botany
and plant geography, I am well aware of the multitude of connections that
exists between the floras of North America and South America. Botanists,
zoologists and geologists on this continent, in Central America and South
America probably understand better than any other group of people what
has taken place in the deep history of planet earth. The scientific information
they have produced brings these continents very close together. Discoveries
in plate tectonics and continental drift have taught us that our continents
have only recently moved apart and that we must work closely together in
solving the many important scientific problems related to the history of
At the same time, when considering the many ways in which humankind
is so rapidly destroying planet earth, what we teach our students about
the earth and biologic sciences in our schools and universities in the
next half century, will determine the future of all life on this planet.
Our role as teachers, as well as research scholars, is more important today
than it has ever been in the history of our species.
Because there are so many Homo sapiens spreading to every corner
of the earth, seven billion of us, we have come to recognize that the next
major extinction will probably be triggered by too many of us. As we exploit
and destroy the skies above, our air and water supply, and the millions
of other organisms that make their home with us on this planet, we biologists
recognize that humankind is destroying this environment that allows all
species to persist.
What we teach future generations about living systems has never been
more important than it is today. We have an obligation to bring biological
knowledge to all citizens. Our major objective as teachers of the plant
sciences must be to produce the botanically literate society. What
must the botanically literate person know and be able to do?
I will present some background information that has resulted from nearly
40 years of developing, studying, and evaluating curriculum materials by
the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS). Through years of experience
the BSCS has developed methods and procedures for the production of curriculum
materials in the life sciences. These materials have greatly improved biological
literacy for those students who have been exposed to them in the United
States and in many countries around the world. I have taken the liberty
of translating the BSCS methods and message for the biological sciences
(Developing Biological Literacy: A Guide to Developing Secondary and
Post-secondary Biology Curricula) into what I see as the similar objectives
for teaching the plant sciences. I have done this because I feel strongly
that how and what we teach about the earth's flora and the local flora,
through our field and laboratory activities and in our classrooms, will
never be more important than it is today.
A Short History of Botany in the U.S. - Strengths and Failures.
I would like to digress for a few minutes and present a short history
of the teaching of botany in the United States. The state of the plant
sciences in the United States is today not good. The place of botany
has slipped from a very powerful position among the sciences in the last
half-century. Since approximately 1940 or World War II the plant sciences
have practically disappeared as a nationally studied science in the United
Consequently the average citizen in the U.S. knows little or nothing
about the science of botany, the place of plants in the future of planet
earth, and the importance of plants in their daily lives other than for
food and perhaps fiber. Most people cannot provide either a common or scientific
name for the plants growing in their own yard, let alone describe the flora
of the ecosystem or life zone in which they live. Most students complete
elementary science, middle and high school biology, and their first course
in college biology without ever becoming involved in a serious and challenging
problem-solving experience using plant materials. Our students and their
parents suffer from what has recently been described in the literature
as "plant blindness."
The United States has done what I consider an extremely poor job of
continuing to conduct quality research in most areas of the plant sciences
in our major universities. The funding for basic research in organismal
botany, as a percentage of the total national research budget, has been
greatly reduced over the past 40 years. It is actually less than 6% of
what is was in 1960. Another helpful comparison is to examine the division
of funds for research between the National Institutes of Health, the National
Science Foundation and private companies. In the year 2000 NIH received
60% or $18 billion of the total research budget, with the remainder, 18%
or $3.2 billion, coming from private industry. Keep in mind that only a
small portion of the NSF total budget of $4 billion is devoted to the study
of ecology and evolution in the natural sciences.
Research scientists in botany today have little or nothing to do with
reaching the large society. The federal budget for research through the
granting agencies and the university financial structure, has been designed
so that today research scholars would be foolish to take time from their
research to become involved in teaching quality courses in botany for undergraduate
students and teachers. In fact, today much of the undergraduate teaching
is done by teaching assistants or part-time faculty.
As departments of botany elected or were forced to become a part of
large biology departments, the number of positions in botany has continued
to be eliminated. At the same time fewer and fewer students complete courses
in the plant sciences.
As a part of a frustrating series of events, the teaching of the plant
sciences has practically been eliminated from school textbooks and the
curriculum. As a result of what has taken place in higher education, new
teachers coming out of our universities and colleges are very poorly trained
in basic botany, and most teachers give the impression that they have little
interest in including plants as a major portion of the curriculum. The
study of human biology, including genetics as applied to humankind and
microorganisms, has literally crowded all other organisms out of the biology
curriculum. Science educators in both the secondary schools and universities
are failing to teach students the nature and role of plants in their lives.
I should also add that plant scientists have failed at reaching out
to the larger society. Because we see ourselves as scientists, and often
only as scientists, we have overlooked and dismissed our responsibilities
to education the total society concerning the place of plants in all our
lives and in the survival of all living systems.
Aspects of Plants in the Lives of All Humankind.
It is unfortunate that the teaching of the life sciences has followed
this path towards the elimination of plants from the curriculum. Obviously
plants, animals and microorganisms have a great deal in common. The world
is biologic and we cannot make sense out of the living planet without making
the connections among all living organisms. It appears to me this problem
has resulted from our religious, educational, and society history, and
from our appointing ourselves to dominion over all other living organisms.
We did this without fully understanding and recognizing that the blue-green
algae and phytoplankton contribute far more to the future of planet earth
than all the mammals combined. Only if and when Homo sapiens learn
that we are just one of the millions of organisms on planet earth, will
we start to correct this mistaken image of ourselves. We have trouble recognizing
that we hold no special place on earth, beyond being the most destructive
species to ever evolve on the planet. Humankind only continues to persist
at the expense of all those other organisms, and those natural resources
provided for us by planet earth. Once we recognize these principles of
life on this planet, we will start to make those changes in our behaviors
that must take place if our species and many others are to survive.
Plants surround us and are a very real part of our survival as a species, yet
most people have a blind spot concerning the native flora right where they live.
In fact two botanist /biology educators in the U.S. have proposed a study addressing
the question of why Americans are so interested in animals, yet blind to plants
that surround them. They are calling this phenomenon "Plant Blindness."
They have defined plant blindness as: the inability to see or notice the plants
in one's own environment as leading to: (a) The inability to recognize the importance
of plants in the biosphere, and in human affairs; (b) the inability to appreciate
the aesthetic and unique biological features of the life forms belonging to
the plant kingdom; and (c) the misguided, anthropocentric ranking of plants
as inferior to animals, leading to the erroneous conclusion that plants are
unworthy of human consideration (Wandersee, J.H. and Schussler, E.E., 1993,
A model of plant blindness.). We will in the not too distant future see
what the outcome of this study will be, but I believe this is all the result
of what we have been taught by our families, in our schools and in our churches.
I would add to this my own assumption or hypothesis, based on almost a half
century of teaching, curriculum study and curriculum development. From the time
educators decided we would construct the curriculum around what the young want
to learn, basically about themselves, rather than what adults and well-educated
people know they must know and understand in order to survive as educated adults
on planet earth, schools moved away from teaching about plants, animals, ecosystems,
and biomes to teaching what I like to call "tip-of-the-nose biology" or "me
and my world." The role of a quality education is to get the human species out
of itself and to realize that there are many more organisms out there that must
be conserved and that contribute far more to planet earth than Homo sapiens
ever could or ever will.
For all practical purposes, in the U.S. there is no place an individual
can go to become knowledgeable of the floristic world other than the educational
institutions. At the same time these educational institutions have literally
removed the study of plants and natural history from the curriculum.
Based on what I have observed in the United States my suggestion
to this audience [Argentine botanists] is to please maintain botany as
a separate course and a separate science. Plants and animals have many
things in common and we must make the connections among them, but there
are many factors that identify plants as uniquely different. Do not allow
either education or research I the plant sciences to become overshadowed,
crowed out, or eliminated by larger general biology courses or large biology
departments. That was one of our major mistakes as botanists in the U.S.
If you must develop a biology course, construct it around plants, because
without the world's flora very few animals will persist.
What Concepts in Plant Science are of Great Importance to All Members
The study of plants must maintain its uniqueness as part of the science
curriculum at each level from elementary and secondary schools and through
the university. Our students must be taught that although there is a uniqueness
to all living organism, plants hold their own uniqueness from all other
living organisms. Without a thriving world flora, most living species,
including humankind, will finally disappear from the earth.
Such scientific concepts as plant reproduction, genetics, development,
ecology and evolution must be taught uniquely as they relate to plants.
The concepts of photosynthesis, meiosis, mitosis, the sporophyte-gametophye
relationship and ecosystems should be taught using living plants materials.
The study of humankind is simply not adequate to a quality science education
for the new century.
Examples of the inquiry process must be taught in a botany course using
plants as the model organism. Skills required to study plants, including
quantification, mechanical skills involving computers and laboratory and
field equipment, as well as the skills of describing and understanding
variation in plants should be retained as a basic part of the botany program.
The place of plants in our lives must be taught to people of all ages.
These values include conservation of the world's flora, the study of biodiversity,
monitoring the world's flora, and those problems related to the loss of
plant species. Equally important is the study of the spread of introduced
species, exotic species and weeds over the planet.
May we now consider several of the basic aspect of curriculum development
that must be included if we are to produce a quality science education
in the plants sciences?
Curriculum Themes in Studying Botany
The botanists reading this article are responsible for the future of
botanical education. You have the power to improve the knowledge, skills
and values of the public towards the place of plants in their lives. You
can and must establish control of the curriculum for the teaching of botany
in the elementary and secondary schools and the university. Please take
this responsibility seriously.
These curriculum themes are each important in their own way if the people
are to develop an understanding and appreciation for the science of botany.
They are important as a part of science education, as a part of conservation
and survival, as a part of the national economy, and as an ethical and
esthetic aspect of life.
I present these themes, which are unique to biology, in order that you
might keep them in mind as you develop a sound curriculum in botany.
Curriculum Themes in Studying Botany
Understanding that Science is a Process
Identifying the Unifying Principles of Botany
Describing the Content of the Plant Sciences
Describing the Personal Aspects of Botany
Describing the Social Aspects of Botany
Describing the Economic Aspects of Plants
Describing the Ethical Aspects of Botany
Identifying Appropriate Technologies
Describing the History of Botanical Knowledge
Unifying Principles of Botany
What are the unifying principles that hold botany together? These principles
identify the characteristics and structure of living systems. Consequently
these are the major principles that all students must understand at the
end of a basic botany course. No botany course is complete if we have not
taught these concepts very well. They form the basic structure for the
study, teaching and learning of the life sciences. We have not done our
job as teachers if we have not taught each of these unifying principles,
and if we have not taught the way in which these principles are interrelated.
Unifying Principles of Botany
Evolution: Patterns & Products of Change
(Living systems change though
time. Evolution has produced diverse systems over the earth.)
Ecology: Interactions & Interdependence
(Living systems interact
with their environment and are interdependent with other systems)
Genetic Continuity & Reproduction
(Living systems are related
to other generations by their genetic materials)
Growth, Development, & Differentiation
(Living systems grow, develop
and differentiate based on a genetic plan that is influenced by the environment.)
Energy, Matter & Organization
(Living systems are complex,
and require energy to maintain their organization.)
Maintenance & Dynamic Equilibrium
(Living systems maintain
a relative stable internal environment through their regulatory mechanisms
Understanding that Science is a Process
The process of science is the active process of what we scientists do
as we produce and update our knowledge of the natural world. We must never
allow our students to think of science as a fixed body of knowledge. Too
often our students are given the impression that science is a textbook
full of information that will never change. Our textbooks can only describe
the "tentative" body of knowledge about plants at any particular time.
Keep in mind that a textbook is out of date the day after it is published
and within three to five years it must be revised.
What I have outlined on this page are some of the separate aspects of
doing science. Certainly we will seldom do each of these steps in this
order. At the same time we should involve our students in as many of these
steps as possible as they complete our courses, so that they may come to
understand the process of science. Also, the experiments we ask students
to design and conduct must be appropriate to their educational level (high
school vs. beginning college vs. graduate research).
Identifying difference in objects or discrepant events is the first
step in recognizing the need or possibility for scientific study. Comparing
two objects as we search for similarities and differences is very basic
to good science. All of these terms are not compatible: Forming a hypothesis
is the asking of a question that can be studied. Predicting an outcome
does not necessarily require a scientific study, but it should entail the
examination of experience or scientific information that is available.
If the students have all conducted a similar investigation it is extremely
valuable for them to compare their results with those of the other students.
At the same time describing the results of the experiment, proposing explanations
and writing the results must be part of learning the process of science.
The Study of Botany is an Active Process (Students Must be Taught
the Process of Science)
Observing, Questioning & Comparing
Forming Hypotheses (Predicting Outcomes)
Designing & Conducting Experiments
Collecting & Organizing Data
Analyzing Data & Relating Ideas
Communicating Explanations & Applying Knowledge
Learning & Teaching Strategies
This is the area where superior teachers have an opportunity to bring their
creativity to their students. The question we must ask ourselves is: How can
I improve the quality of learning for my students? The strategies included here
have potential for improving our ability to reach our students. We do know that
different students learn thought different activities. (I know my center of
learning takes place in the field and through conducting activities rather than
reading a textbook or listening to a lecture). Ask yourself how you learn best.
Our job is to provide as many of these learning strategies as we can for our
students. My experiences through my work with BSCS and in my own teaching have
taught me that the more of these strategies we can provide, the more interesting
and exciting our classrooms will become and the greater the learning experiences
for our students.
Learning & Teaching Strategies
Conduct Field Activities
Conduct Laboratory Activities
Conduct Inquiry & Problem Solving Activities
Participate in Discussions & Debates
Conduct a Personal Experiment
Cooperate in a Learning Activity
Read, Write, Speak & Explain
Interact with Aspects of Technology & Computers
In this paper I have attempted to develop a summary of what I consider
to be some of the most important factors botanists may wish to consider
in the development of a plant science program. Most of the themes, principles,
and strategies are obviously important to teaching all of the life sciences..
But I have here directed these ideas specifically to the development of
a curriculum in botany.
I hope I have made my position clear: the most important and threatened
group of organisms on planet earth are the green plants. Their survival
is basic to the continued survival of practically all other life forms.
At the same time, over the past half century this group of organisms has
been almost eliminated from the life science curriculum in schools and
universities. Only you, the community of botanists, can maintain and strengthen
the teaching and learning of plant sciences.
-American Institute of Biological Sciences. 2001. A Review of Biological
Instructional Materials for Secondary Schools. AIS, 1444 Eye St. NW,
Suite 200, Washington DC 20005. USA 72pp.
-American Society of Zoologists. 1984. Science as a Way of Knowing -
Evolutionary Biology (Vol. I) Reprint from American Zoologist, 24:421-534.
_____. 1985. Science as a Way of Knowing - Human Ecology (Vol. II).
Reprint from American Zoologist, 25: 377-641.
_____. 1986. Science as a Way of Knowing - Genetics (Vol. III). Reprint
from American Zoologist, 26: 1-165.
_____. 1987. Science as a Way of Knowing - Developmental Biology (Vol.
IV). Reprint from American Zoologist, 27:415-732.
_____. 1988. Science as a Way of Knowing - Form and Function (Vol. V).
Reprint from American Zoologist, 28:449-808.
- Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. 1999. Biological Perspectives.
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 607 pp.
_____. 1997. Biology: A Human Approach. Kendall/Hunt Publishing
Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 701 pp.
_____. 2001. Biology: An Ecological Approach. (Ninth Edition).
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque, Iowa. 774 pp.
______. 1993. Developing Biological Literacy. BSCS, Colorado
Springs, CO. 128 pp.
______. Fall, 2001. The Natural Selection, Special Evolution
Issue. BSCS Colorado Springs, CO. 48 pp.
_____. Spring, 2001. The Natural Selection. BSCS, Colorado Springs,
-Botanical Society of America. 1995. Botany for the Next Millennium.
Botanical Society of America, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210-1293.
- Eldredge, Niles, Ed. 1992. Systematics, Ecology and the Biodiversity
Crisis. Columbia University Press, New York. 220 pp.
-Marbach-Ad, Gili and Lark A. Claassen. 2001. Improving Students' Questions
in Inquiry Labs. The American Biology Teacher, 63: 410-419.
-McPheerson, Guy R. 2001. Teaching and Learning the Scientific Method.
The American Biology Teacher, 63: 242-245.
-Uno, Gordon, Richard Storey and Randy Moore. 2001. Principles of
Botany. McGraw- Hill, New York. 552 pp.
-Wandersee, J.H. and E.E. Schussler. 2001. Toward a Theory of Plant
Blindness. Plant Science Bulletin, 47:2-9
Jack L. Carter. From a workshop: Developing a Curriculum for the Teaching
of Botany, presented at XXVIII Jornadas Argentinas de Botanica, October
21-25, 2001, Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina.
News from the Society
Adapted to the Peaks
July 31-August 5, 2004
Snowbird Resort, Salt Lake City, Utah
The annual Botany Conference brings together a broad spectrum of researchers,
professors, educators and motivated students, all focused on what's new
and vibrant in the diverse field of plant biology. Botany 2004 promises
to be the most successful in the series. This is the annual conference
of four leading professional societies, including the Botanical Society
of America, the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, the American
Society of Plant Taxonomists, and the American Fern Society.
An anticipated 800 participants will present over 600 scientific contributions
including 14 symposia, papers, posters, and special lectures. A full slate
of field trips and scientific workshops and social events will round out
Botany 2004 is being held at the Snowbird Resort, near Salt Lake City,
Utah. Nestled in the Watsach Mountains, it is a setting surrounded by unsurpassed
natural beauty and botanical interest. An Exhibit Hall will be located
in the Event Center Tent, which will be the center of social activities
including conference-wide breaks and poster session for the meeting.
Saturday, July 31, will feature the 3rd Educational and Outreach Forum.
This successful component of the Botany conference is designed to draw
an audience of educators and researchers involved in the teaching of biology
and plant science on many levels, from kindergarten through college. The
day will include a range of interesting discussion-type sessions, a keynote
lecture by Dr. Eugenie Scott, Director, National Center for Science Education
and conclude with a reception, which will give attendees the opportunity
to discuss and network in a social setting. Sunday, August 1, will be an
active day of scientific workshops, and fieldtrips. Sunday evening will
open the scientific meeting with the conference-wide Plenary Lecture. The
Plenary speaker, Dr. Rita Cowell, will bring the perspective of the immediate
past Director of the National Science Foundation to excite and challenge
Monday morning, August 2, kicks off the scientific sessions and special
symposia. Tuesday afternoon, August 3, will feature a conference-wide Poster
Session, with an expected 200 posters featuring current research and recent
topics. Scientific Sessions will conclude on Wednesday August 4. Participating
Societies will also hold social events and meetings through out the week.
The Snowbird Resort and Conference Center was chosen for the site of
Botany 2004 for the unique botanical interests of the area, and also for
the destination. Plan to include this meeting in your family vacation plans
for this summer. Botany 2004 will be a family-friendly conference, with
10 exciting local tours planned, Camp Snowbird for kids, an evening of
free Stargazing, and to begin the week - Snowbird's 17th Annual Jazz and
Housing has also been arranged to accommodate families with condo-style
housing that sleeps up to six, and are complete with a kitchen!
Student Financial Support
As we work to make Botany 2004 an exceptional Annual Meeting we offer
some ideas to help defray your costs:
Serve as a Student Projectionist
Students who work up to 10 hours (2-3 sessions) as a projectionist
can have their early student registration fees refunded. Experience with
35mm slide, overhead and LCD projectors is desirable, but not necessary.
In return for successfully serving as a projectionist for all assigned
sessions during the meeting, the early student registration fee equivalent
will be refunded. Fee waivers are not granted. Student projectionists must
register for the meeting and pay the registration fees.
If you are interested in serving as a student projectionist, please
fill out the "Application to Serve as a Student Audio-Visual Projectionist,"
and submit your application by June 26, 2004.
Apply for the Minority Undergraduate Participation Grant
Apply for Student Travel Grants (Information coming Soon)
Deep Gene Research Coordination Network
MORPH Research Coordination Network
Share A Room
Several options for housing will be available for Botany 2004 attendees.
Choices range from traditional hotel rooms to condo style rooms which will
sleep 6 and are complete with kitchen facilities. Complete information
is available in the Conference Registration Book.
Need a Roommate....Check out our Roommate Matching Service.
For additional information, check the BSA conference website:
BSA in New Headquarters
at Missouri Botanical Garden
Greetings from the BSA staff team in Missouri and Ohio. Wanda and I
have settled into what we hope is our final home here in St. Louis. We
now reside at 4475 Castleman Avenue, one block west of the Missouri Botanical
Garden. Johanne remains in Columbus, Ohio and will run the conference functions
of the BSA from there. We extend a big thanks to Dr. Peter Raven and the
MBG staff for their assistance in providing an excellent home and for their
ongoing support. We look forward to working with the people of the MBG,
and other such organizations, as we begin to develop programs in support
of our mission.
Wanda and Bill at work in new offices
On behalf of the BSA, I'd like to ask members for your assistance as
we move forward with the development of programs. Tasks and roles will
vary but largely support educational programs, peer review of educational
materials for the BSA web site and/or in writing material for the web.
In response to your contributions, we will be pleased to write letters
of recognition for your service to science, education and to the public
in general. In most instances you'll also receive credit for contributions
on the BSA web site.
We are looking to add services you find useful as benefits to your membership
in the BSA. Please send in your ideas, as they are most appreciated.
As you'll be aware in 2003 we added access to the entire run of the
Journal of Botany as one such option. In line with the request
for assistance mentioned above, we are working to ensure all materials
produced by members are searchable on the BSA website (and thus the web
in general). Over the coming month we'll add the full run of AJB abstracts
1914-2004 with links back to the full text articles.
We are also in the process of placing the entire run of Plant
Science Bulletin on the web. What a fantastic look back in time.
It's interesting to see how things evolve and how some never change.
Significant changes were made to the system supporting abstract submissions
for the Botany conferences. For most people the process worked well and
the benefits were obvious. For some it was a real pain! Thank you for your
patience and my apology for any inconvenience to the latter group. I'm
pleased to say we found the bug that caused the problems.
We hope to see as many of you as possible out in Utah this summer. We
are all looking forward to a great Botany 2004.
Bill, Wanda, and Johanne.
With reference to the article in P.S.B. about the Selby botanical Gardens
spirit collection, I have to make the following observations and suggestion:
1) the percentage of denatured alcohol is not stated although one can guess
it from the added water; 2) the preservative, that appears to be based
on that used at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Hew, the co-called "Key Cocktail."
Is worthless, or almost so, for anatomical studies. Preservation of the
actual cells and tissues is so poor as to render them "mush," as I have
found from using specimens from the Key collection. Why not use a "good"
preservative that would suit the purposes of taxonomists as well as plant
anatomists? I recommend a mixture containing 70% ethanol (9 parts), commercial
formalin (0.5 parts), and glacial acetic acid (0.5 parts). I suspect the
Selby preservative is cheaper than the one I suggest, hence its use, but
this is not a valid reason where science is concerned. Bill Stern, Research
Associate, National Tropical Botanical Garden, 4013 South Douglas Road,
Coconut Grove, Florida 33133.
Wayne Manning 1899-2004
Long-time BSA member Bucknell University Professor of Botany emeritus
Eyer Manning passed away Sunday, February 8, 2004 at the age of 104. Wayne
was born on April 12, 1899, received his BS from Oberlin College in 1920
and his Ph.D. on the floral anatomy of the Juglandaceae from Cornell in
1926. He taught at Cornell for 1 year and at the University of Illinois,
Urbana for 1 year before joining the Smith College faculty from 1928-1941.
Wayne worked in a Defense Plant during WW II and subsequently joined the
Bucknell University faculty in 1945. He retired from Bucknell in 1968.
His research and over 40 publications on the Juglandaceae remain as seminal
works on the floral anatomy and taxonomy of this family.
Warren G. Abrahamson, Ph.D. David Burpee Professor of Plant Genetics,
Department of Biology
Bucknell University Lewisburg, PA 17837
Collections Manager, Department
of Botany, California Academy of Sciences
The Department of Botany is seeking a Collections Manager responsible
for supervising all aspects of development, maintenance, operation, and
use of the herbarium (CAS and DS). Position will begin January 1, 2005.
Duties include: maintenance and organization of departmental collections,
supervision and training of curatorial assistants and volunteers, assistance
in developing (may involve programming) and maintaining computer database
records related to the collection, management of all incoming and outgoing
specimens from the herbarium, correspondence with other institutions concerning
specimen transactions, overseeing the preparation, identification, and
integration of new specimens into the collection, pest management, assisting
with the preparation of grant proposals, assisting with preparation of
annual staff evaluations, assisting in educational and outreach activities,
recording herbarium activity and usage and maintaining statistics on collection
composition for inclusion in annual report, conducting departmental tours,
possible participation in field expeditions with the goal of generating
research quality collections, participation in special projects when necessary.
A minimum of a Masters degree in botany or biology, experience working
with the maintenance of systematic botanical collections, and demonstrated
knowledge of taxonomic botany; good computer knowledge is desired. To apply,
please send a letter of interest, resume, and names and contact information
for three references to California Academy of Sciences, Human Resources
Department #CollMgr1, 875 Howard Street, San Francisco, CA 94103. Application
deadline is July 31, 2004. The California Academy of Sciences is an Equal
Opportunity Employer committed to diversity.
Systematic Botanist (Research Botanist)
National Museum of Natural History
The Department of Botany seeks TWO outstanding systematic botanists
for full-time research positions, initially as a four-year term appointment,
but upon satisfactory performance during that period, eligible for conversion
to permanent status. Candidates with an established and recognized research
program on a large or important plant group such as pteridophytes, Fabaceae,
Euphorbiaceae, Melastomataceae, or Rubiaceae may be given preference. Successful
candidates should have demonstrated expertise that emphasizes innovative
as well as conventional application of the systematic collections of the
United States National Herbarium, utilizing modern methods based on comparative
morphology and augmented by other methodological tools including molecular
phylogenetics. The position will be filled at the GS12/13 level (salary
range of $60,638 to $93,742 commensurate with experience). In addition
to a proven record of scientific achievement in the research specialty,
applicants are expected to have expertise and interest in additional fields,
such as biogeography, biodiversity and conservation, enthnobotany, floristics,
informatics, or theoretical systematics. Applicants must have demonstrated
ability to establish an externally funded research program, and to conduct
active botanical fieldwork. See announcement number 04AD-1065 at http://www.mnh.si.edu/rc/positions/for
further details for the application for this position.
The Department of Botany, North Carolina State University, invites applications
for an Assistant Professor position in the area of Phytochemistry/Secondary
Plant Metabolism. The individual is expected to develop a productive, extramurally
funded research program that enhances and complements existing programs
in the Department, College, and University. We are seeking an individual
who will establish an innovative research program using modern approaches
to study phytochemistry or secondary plant metabolism and who can teach
related graduate and undergraduate courses. Relevant research areas may
include (but are not limited to) characterizing new and useful plant metabolites
and defining key secondary plant product pathways and their regulatory
processes. This position is a 12 month, tenure-track position with responsibilities
divided between research (50%) and teaching (50%).
Candidates must have a Ph.D. degree in plant biology, phytochemistry,
pharmacognosy, biochemistry or a related discipline, a record of peer-reviewed
publications and scholarly accomplishments commensurate with experience.
Postdoctoral experience is preferred. Applicants should send a CV, copies
of graduate transcripts, statement of research and teaching interests,
and a list of three references to: Wendy F. Boss, Chair of the Phytochemist
Search Committee, Department of Botany, Box 7612, North Carolina State
University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7612. Applications received prior to July
1, 2004 will be assured of full consideration.
North Carolina State University is an Equal Opportunity and Affirmative
Action Employer. Individuals with disabilities desiring accommodations
in the application process should contact Carol Apperson, Botany Department,
(919) 513-3809. NC State welcomes all persons without regard to sexual
THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN
Institute of Systematic Botany
200th Street and Southern Blvd., Bronx, New York
THE RUPERT BARNEBY AWARD
The New York Botanical Garden is pleased to announce that Karen Redden,
currently a graduate student in the Department of Biological Sciences,
George Washington University, Washington, D.C., is the recipients of the
Barneby Award for the year 2004. Ms. Redden will be studying the systematics
of a diverse group of legumes centered around Dicymbe, paloue, paloveopsis,
Heterostemon, and Elizabetha that are concentrated in the Guiana
The New York Botanical Garden now invites applications for the Rupert
Barneby Award for the year 2005. The award of US $1,000.00 is to assist
researchers to visit The New York Botanical Garden to study the rich collection
of Leguminosae. Anyone interested in applying for the award should submit
their curriculum vitae, a detailed letter describing the project for which
the award is sought, and the names of 2-3 referees. Travel to the NYBG
should be planned for sometime in the year 2005. The application should
be addressed to Dr. James L. Luteyn, Institute of Systematic Botany, The
New York Botanical Garden, 200th Street and Kazimiroff Blvd.,
Bronx, NY 10458-5126, USA and received no later than December 1, 2004.
Announcement of the recipient will be made by December 15th.
Anyone interested in making a contribution to THE RUPERT BARNEBY
FUND IN LEGUME SYSTEMATICS, which supports this award, may send their
check, payable to The New York Botanical Garden, to Dr. Luteyn
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings
Agricultural History Symposium And L. H. Bailey Symposium
September 9-11, 2004
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
in conjunction with the Centennial of the College
of Agriculture and Life Sciences
Call for Papers
One hundred years ago, in 1904, Liberty Hyde Bailey and New York State
farmers convinced the State Legislature to support a College of Agriculture
at Cornell University, a largely private institution that had been established
in 1865 as New York's land-grant institution. Since then the New York State
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences has gone on to achieve worldwide
fame and recognition.
As part of the College's centennial celebration, a symposium will be
held in Ithaca in September 2004. Its organizers seek historical papers
on the subjects including state support of higher education in agriculture;
Cornell University and agriculture; New York State and agriculture; achievements
of alumni, faculty, and staff of CALS, the Green Revolution, and other
agricultural institutions internationally; and related topics in the history
of the agricultural sciences (horticulture, soils, entomology, animal science,
The deadline for the submission of abstracts for papers and sessions
is May 15, 2004. Proposals or any inquiries should be sent to Prof. Margaret
W. Rossiter, Department of Science and Technology Studies, 331 Rockefeller
Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA 14853 or e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org
L. H. Bailey Symposium
AGRICULTURAL HISTORY SYMPOSIUM _in conjunction with the Centennial
of Cornell's College of Agriculture (will include the L. H. Bailey Symposium)
Organizer: Margaret W. Rossiter, The Marie Underhill Noll Professor
of the History of Science, Cornell University
Venue: Cornell University
Dates: Thursday thru Saturday, September 9-11, 2004,
Co-sponsored by The History of Agriculture Society; the L.H. Bailey
Hortorium, Department of Plant Biology & the Department of Plant Breeding
Symposium: Liberty Hyde Bailey, a legacy of "Scientific Outreach."
Organized by Lee B. Kass, Visiting Professor of Botany, L. H. Bailey
Hortorium, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University
Date: Friday, September 10, 2004
Venue: Kroch Archives, Cornell University
Co-sponsored by the Historical Section of the Botanical Society of
America; the L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Department of Plant Biology & the
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics.
L. H. Bailey, Dean of the New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell
University from 1903 to 1913, established many scientific programs with
a public dimension. Bailey led the public mission of the Land Grant Universities.
Examples of his vision for scientific outreach may be viewed from founding
departments in Nature Study, Horticulture, Plant Breeding and the L. H.
Bailey Hortorium. All having faculty or staff with appointments devoted
to extension and public service.
This symposium is an outcome of the symposium on "Scientific Outreach
for the Next Millennium" and the Public Outreach Lecture presented at Botany
2000 in Portland, Oregon. The symposium was sponsored by the ASPT/ABLS/AFS/BSA
Teaching Section and members of all attending societies were invited to
**Speakers and titles as of March 15, 2004
Morning session: 10:30-12:00AM
Liberty Hyde Bailey, a legacy of "Scientific Outreach" I
Short introduction (5min.): L. H. Bailey's contribution to Scientific
Lee B. Kass, Cornell University
Liberty Hyde Bailey and "Things of the Garden"
Robert Dirig, Assistant Curator, L. H. Bailey Hortorium
Herbarium, Cornell University
L. H. Bailey and "the friends of things that grow": A Vision for Cornell
Donald A. Rakow, The Elizabeth Newman Wilds Director,
Planting Natives: Americanism in Landscape Gardening, 1830-1930
Philip J. Pauly, Professor of History, Rutgers University
Liberty Hyde Bailey and the Nature Study Idea
Sally Gregory Kohlstedt, Professor of History of
Science, University of Minnesota
Afternoon Session 1:30-3:00 PM
Liberty Hyde Bailey, a legacy of "Scientific Outreach" II
Rousing the People on the Land: Liberty Hyde Bailey's Vision of Cooperative
Extension's Civic Mission and Work
Scott Peters, Assistant Professor of Education,
Students as Targets of Scientific Outreach at Cornell's Plant Breeding
Barbara Kimmelman, Professor of History, Philadelphia
Horticulture: An Academic Calling
George Good, Department of Horticulture, Cornell
The L. H. Bailey Hortorium: Resources for Taxonomy of Cultivated &
Kevin Nixon, Curator, L. H. Bailey Hortorium, Department
of Plant Biology, Cornell University
Closing Remarks (10 min): TBA
The L. H. Bailey Symposium will be sponsored by the BSA Historical Section
and is an outcome of the symposium on "Scientific Outreach for the Next
Millennium" and the Public Outreach Lecture presented at Botany 2000 in
5th International Walnut
Sorrento (Naples) Italy
November 9th-13th, 2004
The 5th International Walnut Symposium is organized by two
Conveners with different backgrounds: one related to fruit culture, the
other to agro-forestry. This is an unusual choice, but well accepted by
ISHS because for the first time, all aspects of the walnut plant will be
considered during the symposium.
The 5th International Walnut Symposium aims to be a very important opportunity
to compare different and various experiences, improve the knowledge and
stimulate new objectives under "the walnut crown." To achieve this objective,
scientific and technical contributions on walnut for fruit, wood, and other
productions will be presented and discussed in different scientific sections.
The scientific sections and technical visits are organized in order
to create a connection between the scientific, technical, and use communities;
information about basic and applied research and the economical aspects
will be presented and discussed, taking in mind the sustainable utilization
of the valuable resource, walnut.
For additional information see: www.walnut2004.sistemacongressi.com
Monument of Printing and Holistic
Jacob Bigelow, American Medical Botany, Boston, 1817-1820. With
60 full-page plates, this is one of the first color-printed books published
in the United States, and an important record of the early pharmacological
use of plants in New England. Bigelow's knowledge, both as a field botanist
and as a physician, influenced American medical practice for an entire
generation. Commentary by Philip Weimerskirch; includes searchable text
transcription. $30. http://www.octavo.com/collections/projects/bgwamb/index.html
In this issue:
Concise Encyclopedia of Temporate Tree Fruit.
Bargher, T.A. and S. SIngha, - Maximilian Weigend.............................................56
Horticulture as Therapy, Principles and Practice.
Simson, Sharon P. and Martha C. Straus (eds)
- Joanne Sharpe...............................................................................................................................................................................56
Hypericum: the genus Hypericum.
Ernst, Edzard (ed) - Dorothea Bedigian.......................................................................................57
Maya Medicine: Traditional Healing in Yucatan.
Kunow, M.A. - Nancy Murray and David Johnson..............................................58
Oregano: the genera Origanum and Lippia.
Kintzios, Spiridon E. (ed) - Dorothea Bedigian.............................................................59
Vetiveria: the genus Vetiveria.
Maffei, Massimo (ed) - Zulma E. Rugolo de Agrasar..........................................................................61
Garden of Invention: The Stories of Garden Inventors
& Their Innovations. Drower, George
- Steven Carroll.................................................................................................................................................................................62
Fire Blight: The Foundation of Phytobacteriology.
Griffith, Clay S., Turner B. Sutton, and Paul D. Peterson (eds)
- Marshall Sundberg...........................................................................................................................................................................63
Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms of the World.
Hall, I.R., S. L. Stephenson, P.R. Buchanan, W. Yun and A.L.J. Cole.
- Michelle A. Briggs............................................................................................................................................................................64
A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and
Climbers of Myanmar. Kress, W.J., R.A. DeFilipps, E. Farr, and
- David Johnson..................................................................................................................................................................................65
Concise Encyclopdedia of Temperate Tree
Fruit, Baugher, T.A. & Singha, S. 2003 387 pp. ISBN 1-560022-940-3.
The Haworth Press, Binghampton, NY 13904-1580. The "Concise Encyclopdedia
of Temperate Tree Fruit" gives an insight into various aspects of the
cultivation of temperate tree fruit. It is not, however, an encyclopedia.
The structure of the book is a series of 42 chapters in alphabetical order,
from Anatomy and Taxonomy, over Carbohydrate Partitioning and Plant Growth
to Water Relations and Wildlife. Unfortunately this sequence apparently
enforced some grossly erroneous chapter headings. For instance, there is
not the slightest hint of anatomy in the first chapter titled "anatomy,"
just a little bit of morphology. More serious is that the morphology presented
can be pointless, because many features illustrated do not occur in any
of the fruit trees discussed, and incorrect. For instance, the authors
seem to be unaware of the differences between a berry and a drupe and between
solitary flowers and racemes.
The first chapter gives a list of temperate tree fruit species including:
apples, pears, quinces, peaches, almonds, apricots, plums, cherries, figs,
mulberries, northern pawpaws and persimmons. However, in the following
chapters nearly all data presented are on apples or pears, with a smattering
of data on stone fruit. This clearly reflects the relative economic importance
of these crops, but it turns the concise encyclopedia of temperate fruit
trees into a concise encyclopedia of apples and pears. Also, the discussion
of cultivars and production processes are almost exlusively restricted
to fruit production in the US. The illustrations are of variable quality
and there are not as many figures or photos as one would want. For instance,
in the chapter on "Diseases" high-quality photographs would be clearly
desirable, but the chapter contains only four photographs and these are
not particularly helpful.
All in all, the book contains some interesting data, but the title should
definitly be changed so as to reflect its real contents, along the lines
of "some aspects of the cultivation of apples and pears in North America
in alphabetical order". Maximilian Weigend, Freie Universität Berlin.
Horticulture as Therapy, Principles and
Practice. Sharon P. Simson and Martha C. Straus (Editors).
Haworth Press, Inc. 1998 (softcover edition, 2003). ISBN 1-56022-859-8.
478 pages. Horticultural therapy is a relatively new
field which, according the editors, has apparently been developing rapidly
in the past twenty-five years. It is defined as "a treatment modality
that uses plants and plant products to improve the social, cognitive, physical,
psychological, and general health and well-being of its participants."
It is a textbook organized to allow the reader to become qualified as a
horticultural therapist. It was clear from the beginning that reading
many sections of this book required considerably more background in health
and social services than possess, so I asked a friend of mine who is a
master gardener with a nursing background to read and comment on the sections
that interested her. She read it all and assures me that the medical
aspects are all respectable and up-to-date and the concepts inspiring,
though somewhat repetitive. She indicated that there was sufficient information
for someone with her background to know how and where to go for the training
and certification she would need to enter any of the vocational, social
or therapeutic programs in this field.
Because botanists are often asked why we study plants, the information
in the chapter about the special connections between plants and humans
is of interest. As early as the days of ancient Egypt, walks in gardens
were prescribed as peaceful and non-threatening activities for the mentally
disturbed. Chapter headings on special populations that would benefit
from horticultural therapy include stroke, spinal cord and physical disabilities,
brain injury, developmental disabilities, mental illness, children and
youth, older persons, substance abuse and offender rehabilitation.
Each of these chapters identifies the client population, treatment issues,
recommended therapies and case studies.
Horticultural therapy is about very structured activities designed to
reach very specific goals. For example, for substance abuse rehabilitation,
clients are instructed in how to propagate plants for a commercial greenhouse.
The are shown the various methods of taking cuttings, how to plant, fertilize
and water and then re-pot them as they grow larger. Ordinarily, the simple
objective for these activities is the production of numerous saleable plants,
but in a therapeutic context the goals are to identify and learn to deal
with compulsive behaviors (overwatering plants), to realize that new beginnings
start from very small steps (new roots from tiny cuttings) and that a suitable
environment (larger pot) supports growth. The book abounds in proposed
activities with plants designed to treat various conditions and there is
an emphasis on research and professional evaluation of treatment outcomes
One chapter dealt with botanical gardens and the multiple potential
roles they play in the horticultural therapy field including everything
from making plant material available and running programs on-site to having
qualified staff who conduct off-site therapy training programs. Case
studies from three botanical gardens and profiles of four professionals
illustrated how horticultural therapy is actually done.
The edition I have reviewed is the "softcover edition published 2003".
The hardcover edition was published in 1998, and in checking the bibliographies
of each of the independently written chapters, I found very few references
that were dated beyond 1995. In a field developing as rapidly as
this one, there must be many more current references and more innovative
programs than those that are as venerable and well established as the Chicago
Botanic Garden, for example. Although commendably comprehensive in its
coverage, methodologies must be advancing rapidly as well and staying current
with new treatment protocols would seem to warrant the effort needed to
produce an updated edition.
There is much here that would interest someone in social services or
in horticulture. However, other than serving as the basis for an independent
project for a particularly interested student, the book really offers very
little of real botanical interest. However, I did find it interesting
to know that such a field exists. Joanne Sharpe, Coastal Maine Botanical
Gardens, Boothbay ME 04537 (with input from Jan Bailey-Bruch, Master Gardener,
Norway ME 04268).
Hypericum: the genus Hypericum.
Ernst, Edzard (Ed.) 2003. ISBN 0-415 366954-1 (Cloth US$120.00) 241 pp.
Taylor & Francis, 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001.
St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) is one of the best-selling
herbal medicines worldwide, often prescribed as a natural antidepressant.
In the US alone, the annual sales exceed US$200 million. It is therefore
understandable that research into all aspects of St John's wort continues
to be intense. This source provides a summary of our current knowledge:
it covers botany, cultivation, manufacturing, standardization, quality
control, biochemistry, pharmacology and clinical application.
According to Editor Ernst, a physician, many questions remain unanswered:
Which are the pharmacologically active compounds? What is the best method
for standardisation of Hypericum products? Is St John's wort effective
for severe depression or for any other condition for which trial data are
scarce? What are its mechanisms of action? What are the long-term effects
and risks? Should St John's wort products be marketed as dietary supplements
or as drugs? How does it compare with synthetic drugs for the same indication?
He suggests that "the data imply that investments into research can be
well worth it [ . . .] and this volume is a significant landmark on the
way this research has taken us."
Hypericum botany as presented by Norman Robson, "is a genus of
about 450 species of trees, shrubs and herbs that occur in all temperate
parts of the world. Most species can be recognized by opposite simple entire
exstipulate leaves containing translucent and often black or red glandular
secretions, [ . . .] free petals, fascicles of stamens and seeds lacking
endosperm." Artist's diagrams illustrate fine details in the stem lines,
variation in marginal contour and glandularity of sepals, venation and
glandularity of petals, floral whorls and placentation in ovaries, and
patterns of capsule vesicles. He derives the name as "given by the ancient
Greeks to a plant that they hung above their religious figures to ward
off evil spirits." "The earliest use of the name that has been traced so
far is in the 2nd c. BC by Nikander (Alexipharmaca V, line 603):
`And take a double 12-grain dose of myrrh, or a fresh draught of horminium,
or pounded mountain hypericum or branches of hyssop.' Dioscorides, Galen
and Pliny mentioned the name.
Hypericum has been associated with pharmacy and folklore for
many centuries. The power to ward off evil spirits was especially important
at times when such spirits were believed to be most abundant, e.g. on Halloween
and Misdummer's Eve (23 June) when Hypericum was picked to decorate
religious images. The pagan feast celebrated on Misdummer's Day was eventually
Christianized and dedicated to St John the Baptist, whose birthday was
the 24th of June, and the plant used on that day became St John's
St John's wort has been used for its medical properties throughout the
ages. It is currently recommended in plant therapy for its antiviral and
antidepressive properties. Antidepressants represent a huge market, thus
providing the impetus for expanding Hypericum perforatum cultivation.
An unidentified fungal disease has infected H. perforatum fields
since 1995. Most of the 20 hectares of St John's wort planted in Switzerland
are grown organically. The normal harvest has been thwarted by disease.
The dieback can destroy this perennial crop in the first year of cultivation.
Since organic farming does not allow the use of fungicides, cultures were
irretrievably lost. Gaudin et al present data identifying Colletotrichum
gloeosporioides as the cause of St John's wort dieback in Switzerland
and breeding for a tolerant variety. Kegler reports on a virus causing
vein yellowing and necrotic leaf spots of St John's wort.
It is essential that a book about a medicinal plant that treats depression
should devote significant place to various aspects of its chemistry and
pharmacology. Many authors contributed their findings to this account.
Gaedcke addresses the important issues of manufacturing, standardisation
and characterisation, and Cellárová discusses culture and
biotechnology. Hölzl and Peterson introduce the chemical constituents
of Hypericum spp.: hypericin, hyperforin, xanthones, tannins and
proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, anthraquinone derivatives, terpenes
and n-alkanes/n-alkanols. Michelitsch et al review the analysis
of hypericins and hyperforin in herbal medicinal products. Despite intensive
research efforts, it has not yet been possible to identify all the active
components of St John's wort extract, a statement that could also have
been written two decades ago. Seidler-Lozykowska reports on secondary metabolites
content of Hypericum sp. in different stages and plant parts. Meier
reviews manufacturing and quality control aspects of herbal medicinal products
of St John's wort. This chapter is well illustrated with color photographs
of the blooms as well as chromatograms of pharmaceutically relevant constituents.
Dias addresses the potential of in vitro cultures of Hypericum
perforatum and H. androsaemum to produce interesting pharmaceutical
compounds. Ernst and Izzo examine the clinical pharmacology of Hypericum
perforatum, with case reports of possible interactions between St John's
wort and prescribed drugs. Court communicates the work of Kyung-Tae Lee's
group in Seoul about hypericin as potential anti-tumour agent. Kumar, Singh
and Bhattacharya present neuropsychopharmacological studies on Indian Hypericum
Stevenson and Editor Ernst have the last word in their final chapter,
the treatment of depression. Imprecise diagnostic criteria and short time
frames were two criticisms leveled at reports of early trials. Methodological
issues are reviewed and revised. Weighing up the existing evidence of the
benefits and risks of Hypericum, they conclude that "when
taken without concomitant medication, the herb is an effective and well-tolerated
treatment for mild to moderate depression. It may be similarly effective
as conventional antidepressants with the possible advantage of superior
Hypericum does not represent a risk-free
therapy and its efficacy in the long term has not been established. Further
evidence is required to define more precisely the potential role of Hypericum
the treatment of depression."
Hypericum is another recent title in the series: Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles, having the series editor's stated
intent "to bring together information which is currently scattered through
an ever increasing number of journals. Each volume gives an in-depth look
at one plant genus, about which an area specialist has assembled information
ranging from the production of the plant to market trends and quality control."
This volume's chapters are well referenced and will do much to inform health
care professionals, biochemists and botanists about the potential of this
genus. An eight-page index assists readers to locate subjects of interest.
- Dorothea Bedigian, Washington University and Missouri Botanical Garden,
Maya Medicine: Traditional Healing in Yucatán.
Kunow, M. A., 2003. ISBN 0-8263-2864-4. Albuquerque: University of New
Mexico Press. . Many ethnobotany books disappoint. Long on tabloid headlines
to draw in readers, they are often short on careful data collection and
analysis. Maya Medicine is a pleasant and useful departure from that mold.
Readable, concise, and never overreaching the data at hand, this book has
value for present and future students of Maya culture and botany.
The book focuses on present-day curing practices and practitioners in
the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. It is based on the author's six
visits to the Yucatán, where she worked in the town of Pisté
near the Chichén Itzá Maya archeological site. The author
interviewed local healers and recorded data concerning Maya concepts of
illness, training in healing arts, and healing practices. She made voucher
collections of all plants she found to be used, and the vouchers are deposited
in the Tulane University Herbarium. The book also provides a careful comparison
of current (1990's) uses with those documented in Roys's (1931) The Ethno-Botany
of the Maya.
Roughly half of the book is devoted to narrative description of healing
practices. Documenting the use and identification of plant materials occupies
the remainder of the book and is provided in the form of tables, descriptions,
and illustrations. A series of tables presents side-by-side comparisons
of the author's results with those recorded by Roys, giving nice documentation
of the historical continuity (or lack of it) for various plant uses and
healing practices. The author's own illustrations of selected species are
novel for an ethnobotanical work, and are an example to be encouraged.
These allow the reader to check at least some identifications of interest
without resorting to examination of the voucher specimens. The illustration
of Acacia collinsii Safford, for example, does not show the curved
thorns stated by Safford (1923) to be diagnostic of this species and thus
perhaps this identification could be re-checked.
The plant catalog, found in Appendix A of the book, contains a wealth
of information that informs the text. Entries are alphabetical by Latin
species name, but Spanish and Maya names are also listed. Brief field notes
concerning the plant are given, followed by a description of how a medicine
is prepared and then administered. The latter is a valuable aspect of the
book, because such "recipes" handed down by oral tradition are often changed
or lost over time.
This work does not try to address the global or regional context for
the uses of the plants in the catalog. For example, Cymbopogon citratus
(Nees) Stapf, which would be known to many readers as lemon grass and for
its use in Thai and Indian cooking, is given only its Spanish name (zacate
limón) and stated to be "known as `fever-grass' in the West Indies.
In Brazil it is dried and used to scent clothing in closets or trunks."
In other words, its origin and long history of use in tropical Asia are
not mentioned. Documenting the extent to which healers are using indigenous
versus non-indigenous plants would give the reader a host of additional
information about local botany and cultural conditions.
The Index to Plants by Families is a handy summary and worthwhile feature,
allowing a family-level comparison with medicinal uses of plants in other
regions, for example temperate North America (cf. Moerman 1997). The only
errors occur in the classification of Leguminosae into papilionoid and
non-papilionoid groups. (Here's how the entry should be: Papilionoideae:
Apoplanesia, Dalea, Diphysa, Erythrina, Indigofera, Lonchocarpus, Phaseolus,
Piscidia; non-papilionoids: Acacia, Calliandra, Leucaena, Mimosa
(Mimosoideae), and Bauhinia, Caesalpinia, Cassia (Caesalpinioideae))
Additional errors, in the spelling of Latin names and author names,
are few and mostly minor; the only serious one, possibly done at the editorial
level, was to make the spelling of Bourreria (Boraginaceae) the
same as that of Borreria (Rubiaceae); in this day and age of search-and-replace,
it's not surprising that this "correction" is consistently made throughout
the book. None of the errors, however, diminishes the contributions of
this otherwise fine work.- Nancy Murray and David Johnson, Department of
Botany-Microbiology, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, OH 43015
Moerman, D. E. 1997. Poisoned apples and honeysuckles: the medicinal
plants of Native America. In L. Romanucci-Ross, D. E. Moerman, & L.
R. Tancredi, eds., The anthropology of medicine: from culture to method.
Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Roys, R. 1931. The ethno-botany of the Maya. Middle American Research
Institute, Publication 2. New Orleans: Tulane University.
Safford, W. E. 1923. Ant acacias and acacia ants of Mexico and Central
America. Smithsonian Report for 1921: 381-394 (Publication 2692). Washington:
U. S. Government Printing Office.
Oregano: the genera Origanum and Lippia.
Kintzios, Spiridon E. (Ed.) 2002. ISBN 0-415-364-943-6 (Cloth US$115.00)
277 pp. Taylor & Francis, 29 West 35th Street, New York,
NY 10001. From his passionate introductory chapter christened `Profile
of the multifaceted prince of the herbs,' Editor Kintzios leads readers
through a captivating portrayal of oregano. Borrowing from Kintzios' words,
this volume "offer[s] an updated and analytic review on the currently available
technical knowledge and market information of the world's commercially
most valued spice - oregano." Kintzios addresses "aspects of practical
significance for the crop's industrialization - optimizing germplasm selection
and utilization, novel cultivation methods and product processing, blending
and uses in different countries, along with other market-related issues
never included in previous reviews."
The book's core is its second and third chapters. `Structural Features
of Origanum sp.' by Bosabalides, presents a new synthesis about
glands of various types. Glandular hairs are "more complicated from the
anatomical, ultrastructural and functional point of view. They biosynthesize
and secrete substances like essential oils, resins, gums, slimes, nectar,"
and their patterns of variation are used in taxonomy. The chapter is enriched
with electron micrographs of the structures and diagrams of the morphogenisis
of these glands. Chapter three, `Taxonomy and Chemistry of Origanum'conveys
the crop's basis for human use. Ietswaart revised the genus
(1980), but at that time chemical data were too sparse to be useful in
taxonomic classification. Skoula and Harborne present the chemical data
that were amassed in the meantime. Distribution maps of each section of
the genus and species present an excellent visual introduction to their
spread. According to Ietswaart's taxonomic revision, there exist 49 Origanum
taxa within 10 sections. Very complex in their taxonomy,
biotypes vary with respect to the content of essential oil in the aerial
parts of the plant or essential oil composition. There is exceptional natural
chemical polymorphism within the genus Origanum
with respect to
A subsequent chapter by Baser describes in more detail the biological
activities of Turkish Origanum species, and all too briefly, folk
use of oregano including home distillations of kekik water, for which demand
is growing. The `Chemistry of the genus Lippia (Verbenaceae)' by
Catalan and de Lampasona also places emphasis upon essential oils. "The
most outstanding feature of the genus Lippia is the perplexing difference
observed in the essential oil composition reported for the same species
collected at different places. It is also worth noting that the oils obtained
from the same plant stock remain chemically constant in successive crops.
As the biosynthesis of mono- and sesquiterpenoids is enzymatically controlled,
these facts indicate that the genus possesses a rich genetic diversity."
`Cultivation of oregano' by Makri indicates that it seems to be undemanding,
due in part to the "repellent or inhibitory action of their aromatic oils.
When grown on a commercial scale however, certain diseases and insect pests
do cause damage under some conditions." "Literature searches have found
at least 61 species of 17 genera belonging to six families mentioned under
the name oregano. The family Lamiaceae is considered to be the most important
group containing the genus Origanum that provides the source of
well-known oregano spices - Turkish and Greek types." The selection of
new cultivars in Hungary avoids the disadvantages of exploiting oregano
directly from the wild. There, oregano is cultivated on light, dry and
well-drained soils, which are somewhat alkaline. Propagation can be done
vegetatively by separation of roots, or by seed.
The cultivation of marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) has a long
historical tradition in the eastern parts of Germany, and has been cultivated
in the area around Aschersleben for over 100 years. Marjoram is cultivated
mainly after potatoes or legumes, and it comes in the crop rotation before
wheat or barley. Oregano has been used in the Anatolian region of
Turkey since ancient times, and there are 23 species reported to be indigenous
to Turkey. Records date its use back to the 7th c. BC. The crop
is used as a spice and medicine. There has been a marked increase in area
devoted to cultivation of oregano in the last few years, and Turkey is
one of the leading exporters in the world. The US imports roughly 50% of
Due to its multipurpose use as kitchen herb in the food and flavor industry,
the demand for oregano has grown tremendously within recent years. Most
of the oregano from Origanum spp. is still gathered from the wild,
exceeding 10,000 Tons crude material per year. Since oregano shows high
biodiversity especially regarding phytochemical characters, questions arise
as to which cultivar is grown for which purpose, based on specifications
that also need to be defined.
Baricevic and Bartol examine the biological/pharmacological activity
of the Origanum genus, a daunting enterprise. They introduce their
essay with the indication that the name `hyssop' (the Greek form of the
Hebrew word `ezov'), called `za'atar' in Arabic, was first mentioned in
the Bible (Exodus 12:22 description of the Passover ritual) and has curative
value in hypoglycaemic treatments. It also demonstrates antifungal and
antimicrobial potential, analgesic, antiinflammatory and antispasmodic,
insecticidal, nematocidal and molluscicidal activity.
The monograph closes with a short chapter about the `Biotechnology of
Oregano' by Editor Kintzios that reviews explant sources, explant disinfection,
culture media and conditions, morphogenesis in vitro, organogenesis
and micropropagation, and somatic embryogenesis. It concludes with the
opinion that the use of tissue culture for the production of essential
oil components is not yet feasible from a commercial point of view.
Bartol and Baricevic used all the data they retrieved during their literature
searches about oregano's biological/pharmacological activity that were
presented in an earlier chapter, and employed those records to great advantage,
making another new and major contribution, several giant steps beyond their
exhaustive report of biological activity. For the book's final chapter
they offer an undertaking that provides a valuable service, `Bibliometric
analysis of agricultural and biomedical bibliographic databases with regard
to medicinal plants in the genera Origanum and Lippia in
the period 1981-1998.' Scrutinizing the sources of their information, they
point out a phenomenon that with proliferation of databases, and the expense
involved, many users, especially those involved with interdisciplinary
sciences already experience "retrieval anxiety or frustration."
The authors assessed all of the databases they consulted to examine
scatter, and ranked the information retrieved from available resources.
They compared AGRICOLA, AGRIS, CAB Abstracts, Food Science and Technology
Abstracts, EMBASE, BIOBASE, and MEDLINE. Then they filtered multiple occurrences
of references. The results of their analysis show that CAB abstracts, followed
by AGRIS serve as the databases with the highest number of records on both
genera. Among agricultural databases CAB accounted for some 39% of single
and 24% of all occurrences, implying that if CAB were not consulted, just
three quarters of pertinent references would be retrieved. They also ranked
the journals that contained these articles, so readers can view which journals
contain the most applicable data.
The authors' discussion points out a significant reality, "Monographs
on specific life sciences related topics frequently forego certain aspects
of methodology. [ . . .] It is usually not customary for scientists to
explain how bibliographic data were obtained. It is thus not possible to
assess if most relevant sources were consulted at all."
This point matters a great deal, particularly in instances where one
author is biased against another scientist whom he may view as a rival.
He may refuse to cite published work that he is aware of, but does not
want to credit, in order to achieve personal gain, and an unearned favorable
reputation. It is equally problematic in cases where an author invited
to prepare a review article for a revised 2nd edition is apathetic
and does not search out related new publications, but merely relies on
his own previously published account and old files. Certainly most readers
are unlikely to be aware of the fine distinctions, but would simply put
confidence in a `new' review, believing that having consulted such an `authoritative'
source, they can be safe assuming that further published work about the
subject does not exist.
Oregano is one recent title in the series: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
- Industrial Profiles, having the series editor's stated intent "to bring
together information which is currently scattered through an ever increasing
number of journals. Each volume gives an in-depth look at one plant genus,
about which an area specialist has assembled information ranging from the
production of the plant to market trends and quality control." This book
scores high, with in-depth, scholarly writing, is well referenced, contains
supportive illustrations and maps, a thorough 9-page index, and could be
helpful to growers, food scientists, chemists and health care professionals.
It is an exemplary edited work that is very successful because all authors
were committed to making comprehensive contributions. Aside from occasional
typographical slips, and this reviewer's personal wish for more information
about the ethnobotany of the taxa, Oregano is a commendable monograph about
an important herb and remedy. - Dorothea Bedigian, Washington University
and Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
Vetiveria. The genus Vetiveria. Maffei,
Massimo (Ed.). 2002. Taylor & Francis, London and New York,
pp. 191. The presentation of the book is of excellent quality, having hard
cover, good print and paper, and numerous illustrations and photographs.
As well it provides complete information about Vetiveria, a grass
genus with great economic significance in the obtaining of essential oils.
It is composed of nine chapters to which twelve authors have contributed.
Each chapter is signed by the authors and it includes the corresponding
bibliography. Chapter 1, Introduction to the genus Vetiveria, details
its systematic position, the morphological and reproductive characteristics,
as well as the species and varieties of this genus. A treatment of V.
zizanioides is included,
with its countless common names, giving
details about its habitat, cultivation conditions, distribution, diseases,
essential oils production and other uses. Chapter 2 Anatomy, Biochemistry
and Physiology, presents a detailed analysis of the leaf anatomy and
ultrastructure and the anatomy of the root. It is profusely illustrated
with excellent pictures. A complete consideration of the biochemical determination
of the photosynthetic mechanisms is provided. Chapter 3 Collection,
Harvesting, Processing, Alternative Uses and Production of Essential Oil
provides a detailed review of their cultivation, and production of essential
oil; other uses are illustrated, such as forage and the manufacture of
products from their leaves and aromatic roots. Oil extraction and distillation
techniques from the roots are also included. In Chapter 4 Chemical Constituents
and Essential Oil Biogenesis in Vetiveria zizanioides, the chemical
composition of the vetiver oils belonging to four sesquiterpenes groups
and a chronological analysis of previous studies is detailed. Chapter 5
Ethnopharmacology and Pharmacological Properties of Vetiveria zizanioides,
includes data about the pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties. The
following chapters: 6 Vetiver Grass Technology, 7 Biotechnology,
8 Economic Importance, Market Trends Industrial and Needs, and Environmental
Importance, cover all the aspects related with the cultivation, uses
and productivity. Finally in chapter 9, Beyond the Vetiver Hedge,
the author summarizes the qualities of Vetiveria zizanioides from
the point of view of their sustainability. The text is complemented with
a very complete index that includes all the terms referred to in the different
chapters. This study of the genus constitutes volume 20 of the series "Medicinal
and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles", Edited by Dr. Roland Hardman.
Zulma E. Rugolo de Agrasar, Instituto de Botanica Darwinion, Argentina.
"sheets" and "halyards" aren't often heard drifting across our row crops.
Garden of Invention: The Stories of Garden Inventors
& their Innovations. George Drower. The Lyons Press, Guilford,
Connecticut, 2003. 292 pages. The history of gardening is rich and full
of surprises. In Garden of Invention, George Drower escorts us through
some of gardening history's lesser-known stories, touching on topics ranging
from tools of the trade to philosophical movements. First published in
the U.K. by Sutton Publishing as Gardeners, Gurus, & Grubs,
it was revised and released last year in the U.S.
Drower's book, which is nicely illustrated with historical drawings,
woodcuts, maps, and photos, begins with an account of that garden standard,
the wheelbarrow, which he traces to 2nd-century B.C. China.
The author describes all manner of wheeled carts, but also wondrous Chinese
"sail barrows," an 18th-century drawing of which shows a junk-rigged
barrow ready for action. The vocabulary of gardening is technical and arcane,
but words like Closer to home is the story of the Concord grape, carefully
selected and bred for by Concord, Massachusetts, resident Ephraim Wales
Bull. Bull finally marketed his grapes after winning first prize in 1853
from the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. Even so, it is not Bull's
grape juice and jam that we buy today, but Welch's, for it was Thomas Welch
who went on to successfully market unfermented grape juice, and later other
products. How Bull felt about this is perhaps best expressed in his epitaph:
"He sowed—and others reaped."
Although Garden of Invention emphasizes England's role in gardening
history, readers do get samples of New World contributions. This they see,
for example, through a brief (unnecessary?) account of the oft-repeated
story of the tomato; in an interesting account of the history of New York
City's—and Frederick Law Olmsted's—Central Park; and in profiles of several
influential American botanists and gardeners. Even so, there are some curious
omissions. Why include Robert B. Thomas, founder of what is now The
Old Farmer's Almanac, but not J. I. Rodale? Why Robert Prince, but
not Thomas Jefferson?
Despite some curious selections, as well as some unevenness in the writing
and depth of coverage, the material is almost always interesting. Who knew
that the future royal gardener, John Tradescant, not only had no sense
of smell, but also introduced the abacus to England from Russia? Or that
W. Atlee Burpee started out selling chickens and livestock, with seeds
offered so customers could grow their own feed? Trivia perhaps, but also
fodder for thought while thinning seedlings and pulling weeds.
The true impact of a book may best be measured in how it changes the
reader. Though I am not laying plans to sail-rig my wheelbarrow, my reading
did make me yearn to run out to my gardens in hopes of inventing or fabricating
something useful, this from someone who is fortunate to occasionally hit
a nail with a hammer, and I've already started greenhouse cucumbers in
order to give George Stephenson's straight, glass cucumber tubes a try.
I've even started reading Sir Arthur Holt's 1916 translation of Theophrastus's
Enquiry into Plants, discussed in Drower's book. For though as I write
this I am surrounded by spring seed catalogs, there is still prime reading
time left before the soil warms … and you might consider using some of
that time for reading Garden of Invention. - Steven B. Carroll,
Division of Science,Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501.
Fire Blight: The Foundation of Phytobacteriology.
Griffith, Clay S., Turner B. Sutton, and Paul D. Peterson (eds). 2003.
ISBN 0-89054-309-7. (Paper US$55.00) 144 pp. The American Phytopathological
Society Press, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121-2097. We all know
the story of Pasteur and Koch and how they discovered the bacterial origin
of many human diseases, but how many of us know that at about the same
time, American botanists were discovering that fire blight of pome fruits
and rosaceous ornamentals was also caused by a bacterium? This brief history
describes the origin of phytobacteriology and three key players whose investigations
of fire blight helped to establish a new field of plant science.
Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is indigenous
to North America and co-evolved with such rosaceous species as hawthorne,
mountain ash and wild Malus species. With the introduction of susceptible
European apple and pear cultivars during the colonial period the situation
changed dramatically. Whole orchards appeared to be "blasted by lightning,"
seemingly overnight. By the mid-1800's the blight had spread as far as
Indiana and Ohio and there were numerous theories to explain the disease.
The stage was set for Thomas Burrill, a young botanist at the Illinois
Industrial University (University of Illinois) to identify "oscillating
corpuscles" in the "mucilaginous fluid" in the bark of infected trees.
In the first paper reproduced in this volume Burrill identified these corpuscles
as bacteria and suggested that the same bacteria were the causal agents
of blight in both apples and pears. The second paper reproduced includes
the series of inoculation experiments performed by Burrill in 1880 on some
69 pear, apple, and quince trees in the university orchards.
Joseph Arthur, trained at Iowa State University, became the first botanist
on the staff of the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station
at Geneva, New York. For obvious reasons he became interested in fire blight
and in 1884 repeated Burrill's experiments on some of the New York varieties.
In the first paper reproduced in this volume he elaborated on Burrill's
procedures by using pure cultures of the bacteria and by demonstrating
that cell-free filtrated could not transmit the disease. In the second
paper he reviewed contemporary understanding of the disease and went on
to demonstrate movement of the bacteria in the sap and suggested that transmission
was through cracks and injury during branch and flower bud break and possibly
via insects. He also elucidated the mechanism explaining the long-observed
phenomenon that over-pruning made trees more susceptible to the blight.
The third member of the triumverate, Merton Waite, was a student of
Burill's at Illinois and took a position as the first Plant Pathologist
at the USDA station in Beltsville, MD. Four short papers are reproduced.
His main contribution to the biology of the disease was to demonstrate
that bees were the primary vector of the disease and that floral nectarines
were an important point of entry for the bacteria. From a practical viewpoint
his recommendations for cultural cleanliness, including timely removal
of all diseased parts from affected trees, disinfecting pruning shears
between cuts, and quarantining stock from diseased orchards, became the
main cultural recommendations to contain the spread of the disease in orchards.
The editors of this short work provide concise and readable reviews
of the significant contributions of these three pioneers of plant pathology
in addition to selecting and reproducing salient articles and reports to
illustrate the seminal works. Once again we have an example of plant scientists
at the cutting edge of exciting discoveries in biology _ only to be overshadowed
in history by non-botanical contemporaries. This book should be required
reading for all teaching botanists. _ Marshall D. Sundberg, Department
of Biological Sciences, Emporia State University.
Ever notice that Verbena hastata rarely
possesses the hastate leaves for which it is so named?
Adaptively, these leaves have no obvious
The evolutionary moral of the story?
"He who hastates is lost."
- Don Les
Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms of the World.
I. R. Hall, S. L. Stephenson, P. R. Buchanan, W. Yun and A. L. J. Cole.
2003. ISBN 0-88192-586-1(cloth US$39.95) 371pp Timber Press, Portland,
Oregon. The authors claim "…mushrooms are among the most fascinating and
beautiful inhabitants of the natural world". Now, I admit that I'm a botanist
because of my deep appreciation for the plant kingdom. But after reading
this book and admiring the stunning photographs, I can see the authors'
Given my teaching background, I always ask one question first: Would
it make a good text book for an upper level course? No, unless the course
is centered on mushroom cultivation. The introduction contains some very
basic information about mycology aimed at a general audience. The authors
mention general mushroom characteristics, and their role in food and medicine.
The book does not cover the nutritional value of mushrooms (e.g. protein
and mineral content) that would juxtapose nicely against the coverage of
both the poisonous and cultivation aspects of the book. The Introduction
instead focuses the reader's attention on topics to be covered in the book
- - collecting wild mushrooms and the mushroom market.
The book is divided into three main sections - - Cultivating Mushrooms,
Collecting Wild Mushrooms and a List of Wild Mushrooms. The Cultivating
Mushrooms section focuses on methods used to grow saprobe mushrooms (about
95% of all cultivated mushrooms) and mycorrhizal mushrooms. I was amazed
to learn that as recently as 1998, the Chinese grew more than half the
mushrooms consumed by the world, which generated more than $1 billion in
export revenue. The authors cover the various techniques involved in cultivating
button mushrooms, shiitakes, oyster mushrooms, straw mushrooms, enokitakes,
and several other mushrooms. The section on cultivating mycorrhizal mushrooms
was most illuminating - - retirement to a truffière sounds lucrative,
as long as the soil, climate, tree species and rainfall are all suitable.
The section on Collecting Wild Mushrooms includes everything from when
and where to look, to how to get a spore print, and it includes a user-friendly,
beginner-level key. The authors do point interested parties towards more
pictorial keys, or keys that are aimed at an audience well-versed in mycological
terminology. The remainder of the chapter is devoted to nine general syndromes
associated with mushroom poisoning and a brief description of the symptoms
involved with each. Again, there are no high-powered biochemical mechanisms
involved in poisoning, just a description of the symptoms.
The List of Wild Mushrooms section contains well over 100 common mushroom
species arranged in the order of the key. Along with describing the species,
descriptions generally include where the mushroom can be found (e.g. North
America, Europe), what other mushrooms it might be confused with, and its
edibility status. The photographs are absolutely beautiful, and will likely
inspire me to brave fall game hunting seasons (decked out in fluorescent
colors, of course) to do some mushroom hunting. The pictures are large,
colorful, and it seems there is at least one on every page. The book also
contains several smaller sections. The majority of these focus on Chinese
names of mushrooms, some addresses (mainly mycological societies), web
sites and a glossary of terms.
In closing, I want to reiterate that this is a book aimed at a general
audience. Serious mycologists won't find anything new here, but it is a
nice incorporation of information for those interested in mushroom cultivation,
wild harvesting, or just appreciating the denizens of the fungal kingdom.
Michelle A. Briggs, Department of Biology, Lycoming College, Williamsport,
BSA Contact Information
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Voice: 614-292-3519 Fax: 614-247-6444
A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs,
and climbers of Myanmar. Kress, W. J., R. A. DeFilipps, E. Farr, &
D. Y. Y. Kyi. 2003. Contributions from the United State National Herbarium
45: 1-590. The latest version of A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs,
and climbers of Myanmar builds upon a foundation of four previous checklists
of similar name to provide a working list of the seed plant diversity of
the country formerly known as Burma. After a short introduction and description
of the geology, climate, and vegetation of the country (compiled by Shirley
L. Maina), the checklist commences with the cultivated Araucaria bidwellii
and proceeds alphabetically family by family through the Gymnosperms, then
the Monocotyledons, and finally the Dicotyledons. Nearly 400 pages and
11,800 species later we arrive at Tribulus terrestris in the Zygophyllaceae,
followed by a short (20 entries) bibliography, alphabetical list of English
and Myanmar common names, list of names of uncertain status, list of new
taxa published in the volume, an index to families, and an index to all
scientific names. The latter will be useful to those looking for Liliaceae
sensu lato, whose species are distributed here across Agavaceae, Alliaceae,
Aloaceae, Anthericaceae, etc. Within families, taxa are arranged alphabetically,
with inclusion of author names, habit, distribution (by state), and common
names. Specialists (listed in the Introduction) have reviewed many families
to assure that the names and distribution information are as accurate as
possible. A selection of color photographs illustrates major ecosystem
types, as well as 20 individual plant species significant in the Myanmar
The work addresses a critical gap in our modern knowledge of the floras
of Asia. For Asian plant systematics, Myanmar is historically significant,
as many species were originally described from the area by Alphonse De
Candolle, Griffith, Hooker and Thomson, Kurz, and others from plants collected
in localities identified only as "Pegu," "Tavoy," and "Tenasserim." In
many cases these descriptions turn out to bear the oldest names for widespread
and important taxa. But Myanmar is significant ecologically and biogeographically
as well: it encompasses snow-capped mountains, desert plains, and lowland
tropical rainforests, and thus distributions of entire floras begin (or
end) within the country. Even a bare-bones list such as this one (there
are no specimen or literature citations to document names or distributions)
helps to define the geographic transition points. How far does the rich
Rhododendron flora of the Himalaya extend into this country? What is the
distribution of SE Asian lowland dipterocarp forests and the largely Malesian
floristic element that accompanies them? Which genera characteristic of
temperate floras are represented? Such questions may be answered by studying
The book will be an important reference for plant biologists in a variety
of disciplines. It provides a previously unavailable context for active
flora projects in neighboring regions, such as the Flora of China and Flora
of Thailand efforts. For ethnobotanists, the index of common names provides
a nomenclature for beginning to understand cultural significance of particular
plant species. A map of parks and wlldlife sanctuaries within the country,
coupled with the distribution data for individual species, gives a glimpse
of possible conservation priorities for the future.
The book should be viewed as a tool to enable biologists to learn more
about the biodiversity and ecology of this region of the world, rather
than as a definitive reference. The authors freely acknowledge the limitations,
and invite participation to improve the existing database, most of it now
available electronically (http:/persoon.si.edu/myanmar) with searchable
databases of family names, scientific species names, and common names.
A helpful feature of the Website, not available in the book, is that species
lists for individual states may be generated by clicking on either a map
or a list of state names.
Given the aim and scope of the work, shortcomings are minor. Despite
the attention of specialists, monographers will still need to examine species
lists with a critical eye: I found that about 15 percent of the 111 species
of Annonaceae, for example, are not listed by their currently accepted
names. A map or list of historical localities relative to the modern-day
political geography would have aided those of us engaged in monographic
studies, and could possibly be added to the Web edition of the list. Indicating
language of origin for common names would also be useful.
The volume is stated to be "free while supplies last," so anyone with
an interest in Asian plant systematics should obtain a copy and use it.
The greatest testament to the value of this checklist will be how quickly
it is rendered out of date by the research on the Myanmar flora it engenders.
- David Johnson, Department of Botany-Microbiology, Ohio Wesleyan University,
Delaware, OH 43015
Why did the conservative professor keep postponing
his lecture on Juncus?
Because he wanted to keep his students in "rush
If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor,
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call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list because
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Advances in Legume Systematics, Part Ten, Higher Level Systematics.
Klitgaard, Bente and Anne Bruneau (eds). 2003. ISBN 1-84246-054-4. (Paper
) 422 pp. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Agaves of Continental North America. Gentry, Howard Scott. 2004.
ISBN 0-8165-2395-9. (Paper US$49.95) 670pp The University of Arizona Press,
355 S. Euclid, Ste., 103. Tucson, AZ 85719.
Agrometeorology: Principles and Applications of Climate Studies in
Agriculture. Mavi, Harpal S. and Graeme J. Tupper. 2004. ISBN 1-56022-972-1
(Cloth, US$59.95) 337pp Food Products Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton,
American Medical Botany (1817-1820). Octavo Edition. Bigelow,
Jacob. 2004. ISBN 1-891788-23-x. (CD US$30.00) Octavo, 134 Linden Street,
Oakland, CA 94607-2538, www.octavo.com
Blueberries, Cranberriews and other Vacciniums. Trehane, Jennifer.
2004. ISBN 0-88192-615-9 (Cloth US$29.95) 272 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133
S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Botanical Latin, 4th ed. Stearn, William T. 2004.
ISBN 0-88192-627-2 (Paper US$29.95) 560 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W.
Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Botanical Watercolors from the Nationaal Herbarium Nederland.
White, James J. and Lugene B. Bruno with essays by Pieter Baas and Erik
A. de Jong. 2004. ISBN 0-913196-77-0 (Paper US$13.00) 64pp. Hunt Institute
for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue,
Pittsburgh, PA, 15213.
Both: A Portrait in Two Parts. Crase, Douglas. 2004. ISBN 0-375-42266-8
(Cloth US$24.00) 303pp. Pantheon Books. 1745 Broadway, New York, NY 10019.
The Color Encyclopedia of Hostas. Grenfell, Diana and Michael
Shadrack. 2004. ISBN 0-88192-618-3 (Cloth US$49.95) 408 pp. Timber Press,
Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Concise Encyclopedia of Plant Pathology. Vidhyasekaran, P. 2004.
ISBN 1-56022-943-8 (Paper US$79.95) 620 pp Food Products Press and The
Haworth Reference Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.
Deep Morphology: Toward a Renaissance of Morphology in Plant Systematics.
Stuessy, Tod F., Veronika Mayer an Elvira Hörandl (eds) 2003. ISBN3-906166-07-4
(Cloth EUR78.00) 326pp. Koeltz Scientific Books, D-61453 Koenigstein, P.O.
Box 1360, Germany.
Encyclopedia of Water Garden Plants. Speichert, Greg and Sue
Speichert. 2004. ISBN 0-88192-625-6 (Cloth US$49.95) 320 pp. Timber Press,
Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527
Enriching the Earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the Transformation
of World Food Production. 2004 ISBN 0-262-69313-5 (Paper $19.95) 360
Pages. The MIT Press, 5 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142-1493.
Ex Situ Plant Conservation: Supporting Species Survival in
the Wild. Gyerrabtm Edward O, Jr., Kayri Havens and Mike Maunder. 2004.
ISBN 1-55963-874-5 (Paper US$40.00) 504 pp. Island Press. 1718 Connecticut
Ave., NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20009.
Flora of North America North of Mexico: Volume 4: Magnoliophyta:
Caryophyllidae, part 1. Flora of North America Editorial Committee.
2004. ISBN 0-19-517389-9 (Cloth US$120.00) 584pp Oxford University Press,
198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016-4314.
Flowering Plant Embryology with Emphasis on Economic Species.
Lersten, Nels R. 2004 ISBN 0-8138-2747-7 (Cloth US$79.99) 212 pp. Blackwell
Publishing, P.O. Box 570, Ames, IA 50010-0570
Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Smith, Nathan, Scott A. Mori,
Andrew Henderson, Dennis Wm. Stevenson, and Scott V. Heald (eds.) 2004.
ISBN 0-691-11694-6 (Cloth US$75.00) 616pp. Princeton University Press,
41 William Street, Princeton, NY 08540/
The Genus Paeonia. Halda, Josef J. and James W. Waddick. 2004.
ISBN 0-88192-612-4 (Cloth US$34.95) 228 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W.
Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527
Identification of Tropical Woody Plants in the Absence of Flowers:
A Field Guide (2nd ed). Keller, Roland. 2003. ISBN 3-7643-6453-X
(Paper EUR58.00) 340 pp. Birkhauser Verlag, Viaduktstrasse 42, CH-4051,
Improvement Strategies of Leguminosae Biotechnology. Jaiwal,
Pawan K. and Rana P. Singh. 2003. ISBN 1-4020-1405-8. (Cloth US$176.00)
411pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V. P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht,
Introduction to California Desert Wildflowers, Revised ed. Munz,
Philip A. 2004. ISBN 0-520-23632-7 (Paper US$16.95) 235pp. University of
California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720.
Introduction to Californai Spring Wildflowers of the Foothills, Valleys,
and Coast. Revised ed. Munz, Philip A. 2004 ISBN 0-520-23634-3 (Paper
US$16.95) 291. University of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley,
Medicinal Plants of the World. Van Wyk, Ben-Erik and Michael
Wink. 2004. ISBN 0-88192-602-7. (Cloth US$39.95) 480 pp. Timber Press,
Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Molecular Genetics and Breeding of Forest Trees. Kumar, Sandeep
and Matthias Fladung.(eds). 2004. ISBN 1-56022-959-4 (Paper, US$59.95)
462pp. Food Products Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.
Molecular Markers, Natural History, and Evolution, 2nd
ed. Avise, John C. 2004. ISBN 0-87893-041-8 (Paper US$59.95). Sinauer
Associates, Inc., 23 Plumtree Road, Sunderland, MA 01375-0407.
Molecular Plant Pathology. Dickinson, M. 2003. ISBN 1-85996-044-8
(paper US$47.95) 244 pp. BIOS Scientific Publishers, 29 West 35th
Street, New York, NY. 10001-2299.
Native Trees for North American Landscapes. Sternberg, Guy with
Jim Wilson. 2004. ISBN 0-88192-607-8 (Cloth US$59.95) 552 pp Timber Press,
Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Natural Enemies: An Introduction to Biological Control. Hajek,
Ann. 2004. ISBN 0-521-65385-1 (Paper US$50.00) 378 pp. Cambridge University
Press, 40 West 20th Street., New York, NY 10011-4211.
The Natural History of Madagascar. Goodman, Steven M. and Jonathan
P. Benstead. 2004. ISBN 0-226-30306-3. (Cloth US$85.00) 1760 pp. The University
of Chicago Press, 1427 East 60th St., Chicago, IL 60637-2954.
Plant Cell Culture. Evans, D.E., J.O.D. Coleman, and A. Kearns.
2003. ISBN 1-85996-320-X (Paper US$47.95) 194 pp. BIOS Scientific Publishers,
29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001-2299.
A Primer of Ecological Genetics. Conner, Jeffrey K. and Daniel
L. Hartl. 2004. ISBN 0-87893-202-x (Paper US$34.95)..Sinauer Associates,
Inc., P.O. Box 407, Sunderland, MA 01375-1118.
¡Tequilla!: A Natural and Cultural History. Valenzuela-Zapata,
Ana G. and Gary Paul Nabhan. 2004. ISBN 0-8165-1937-4 (Cloth US$29.95)
ISBN 0-8165-1938-2 (Paper US$14.95) 160 pp. The University of Arizona Press,
355 S. Euclid, Ste., 103. Tucson, AZ 85719.
Uncommon Fruits for Every Garden. Reich, Lee. 2004. ISBN 0-88192-623-X
(Cloth US$24.95) 308 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite
450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Vitamin C: Functions and Biochemistry in Animals and Plants.
Asard, H., J.M. May, and N. Smirnoff. ISBN 1-85996-293-9 (Cloth, US$145.00)
323 pp. BIOS Scientific Publishers, 29 West 35th Street., New
York, NY 10001-2299.
Weed-Crop Competition: A Review. 2nd ed. Zimdahl,
Robert L. 2004. ISBN 0-88138-0279-2 (Cloth US$54.99) 220 pp Blackwell Publishing
Professional, P.O. Box 570, Ames, IA 50010-0570.
How can we stop you from telling more lousy grass
It's a di-lemma floret
it's worth. Just culm down and don't `panic'
or I'll go awn and awn.....
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