PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
VOLUME 49, NUMBER 2, 2003
The Botanical Society of America:
The Society for ALL Plant Biologists
ISSN 0032-0919 - Electronic version ISSN 1537-9752
Address Editorial Matters (only) to:
Marsh Sundberg, Editor
Dept. Biol. Sci., Emporia State Univ.
1200 Commercial St.
Emporia, KS 66801-5057
Send address changes to:
Botanical Society of America
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166-0299
Plant Science Bulletin
Editorial Committee for Volume 49
Norman C. Ellstrand (2003)
Department of Botany and Plant Science
University of California
Riverside CA 92521-0124
James E. Mickle (2004)
Department of Botany
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7612
Andrew W. Douglas (2005)
Department of Biology
University of Mississippi
University, MS 38677
Douglas W. Darnowski (2006)
Department of Biology
Chestertown, MD 21620
Andrea D. Wolfe (2007)
Department of EEOB
1735 Neil Ave., OSU
Columbus, OH 43210-1293
Walter and Bessie
News from the Society
2003 Botanical Society of America
Darbaker Prize in
2003 Botanical Society
of America Outstanding Young Botanist Award
News from the Sections
Botany in Flux at ASB
William Louis Culberson 1930-
Sydney S. Greenfield 1915-
Charles Heimsch 1914-
The Rupert Barnaby
Oregon State Botanist Named Director
of NASA's Fundamental Space Biology
Chicago Botanic Garden/Royal
Botanic Gardens Partner in Global Seed Bank
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings
Global Summit on Medicinal Plants
The Seventh International
Organization of Paleobotany
Symposium Focuses on Sustainable
XVII International Botanical
Grants for Botanical Gardens and
Don Les' "Really Bad Plant
Botanical Society of America Logo
Plant Science Bulletin 49(2)
To begin this issue it is timely to reflect on some of the challenge
presented to the BSA membership in the very first article published in
Plant Science Bulletin 1(1):1-4, 1955. In "The Challenge to Botanists"
Sydney S. Greenfield, Chairman of the Committee on Education, rued that
"On the whole, botany has not kept pace with the expansion of the other
sciences, and in some cases there has been a decline if not an elimination
of botany from the curriculum. . . With regard to the general public, we
need to stimulate and conduct presentations of interesting news items and
stories that will lead to widespread understanding of the significance
of plants and plant studies." The Plant Science Bulletin was seen
as a tool that could help to remediate the problem.
Professor Greenfield passed away in April of this year.
The feature article in this issue is in the spirit of promoting public
appreciation of plants, and hopefully will serve as an additional incentive
for you to participate in Botany 2003, July 26-31 in Mobile, Alabama..
Our annual meeting brings us to within an hours drive of the "Charm
Spot of the Deep South." This is a fitting appellation for the beautiful
Bellingrath Gardens and Home on the Isle-Aux-Oies (Fowl) River near Theodore,
Alabama. The site of the gardens was originally a semi-tropical jungle
and Spanish moss-draped live oaks still tower over the formal plantings
in many of the gardens, along the trails, and around the Great Lawn. The
Camellia Arboretum, containing more than 1000 varieties, is said to be
the most complete collection of its kind in the world.
I hope you enjoy this brief biography of the founders and history of
the development of the Bellingrath Gardens and Home. -editor
Walter and Bessie
The year 2003 brings a centennial of the arrival to Mobile of one of
its most generous citizens of the 20th century, Walter Duncan
Bellingrath. Mr. Bellingrath moved from Montgomery, AL to establish Mobile's
Coca-Cola bottling franchise that year. Although that franchise dates to
1902, little had been done with it before Walter Bellingrath arrived in
Mobile in 1903 was a prosperous city. New construction downtown had
brought the Bienville Hotel (1900), the Masonic Temple (1901) and the new
City Bank Building was nearing completion on Royal Street under a new architect
in town, George B. Rogers.
Mr. Bell located his one man operation on Water Street and hit the pavement
trying to get restaurants, general stores and saloons to carry bottled
Coca-Cola. There were numerous soft drinks on the market and what is now
America's most popular soft drink was largely unknown outside larger
areas where soda fountains originally were the only source for the beverage.
Slowly but surely business picked up. At first Walter Bellingrath was
a one man operation. He would sterilize the bottles and refill them using
a foot-powered machine to affix the metal crown caps. He would pack them
in wooden cases and haul them in a mule drawn cart to their destination,
pick up the empty bottles for refill and head back to Water Street. The
hours were long and it was an uphill battle to get many retailers to even
try a bottle.
Bessie Morse Bellingrath
By 1905 Mr. Bell had been able to set up an office in his bottling plant
and hired a stenographer, Bessie Morse. They were married the following
year. Mr. Bellingrath always credited her with his success in life while
adding that God had been very good to him.
The newlyweds set up housekeeping in a rented cottage on St. Anthony
Street. By the end of the decade the couple had purchased a large house
at 60 South Ann Street in a house built by architect George B. Rogers.
Mr. Bellingrath wrote his mother soon after their move that their new home
was in one of the best newer sections of town and that he was very proud
In 1910 a new Coca-Cola plant was constructed on the northeast corner
of Royal and St. Anthony streets. The two story brick building had every
modern convenience and newspaper ads invited Mobilians to see the sanitary
conditions where "the contents of a bottle of Coca-Cola never come in contact
with human hands." This building had the distinction of being the first
in the south constructed for the sole purpose of bottling Coca-Cola and
Following Doctor's Orders
World War I meant wartime shortages of sugar, a key ingredient in Coca-Cola
syrup. Mr. Bellingrath had worked hard to get his customer base established
only to have a short supply of his product. The stress took its toll on
his health, and he went to see his physician, Dr. Paul McGehee.
Dr. McGehee's father had been minister to the Mr. Bellingrath's inlaws
over at St. Francis Street Methodist and apparently the two knew each other
well by 1917. Mr. Bell had mentioned during the exam that he had come across
an abandoned fishing camp down on the Fowl River which he would like to
purchase but just couldn't swing it. The young doctor looked at his patient
and said he had the diagnosis: "Learn how to play."
The bottler was puzzled until the physician admonished him to go and
buy that fishing camp and relax. His health problems would improve witha little
fishing and quiet. That advice was all an anxious Bellingrath
needed and he bought his camp.
Walter Bellingrath purchased a piece of property on a bluff overlooking
Fowl River which contained two run down camp houses. With the help of his
father-in-law, Capt. Sewell Walker Morse, a retired shipwright, the cabins
were repaired and made ready for company.
As the twenties arrived Coca-Cola sales skyrocketed. The sales of bottled
Coca-Cola in the United States rose 65 per cent between 1923 and 1928,
and have surpassed fountain sales ever since. Mr. Bell was one of the first
bottlers to introduce the six-pack carton and his then revolutionary idea
of heavy marketing in the winter to promote Coca-Cola as a year-round beverage
was copied by other bottlers around the country.
The fishing camp was called "Bellecamp" and became the scene of houseparties
for the Bellingraths and their guests. A generator was eventually installed
which gave the couple lights but water for many years had to be hauled
from a riverside well in buckets.
The First Bellingrath Garden
The garden at 60 South Ann became so filled with flower beds that Mr.
Bellingrath purchased a vacant lot behind the house and extended the driveway
to Bradford Avenue. Large specimen azaleas were hauled in and attractively
placed in a well clipped lawn.
When word spread about the beautiful garden behind the house the couple
generously told Mobilians that they were welcome to drive through to admire
it and such a drive became a Sunday ritual for many families. During the
height of azalea blooms the Bellingraths often had to station a household
servant in the drive to help untangle traffic!
It wasn't long before the flower beds at 60 South Ann were filled to
capacity but that didn't slow Bessie Morse Bellingrath as she collected
a growing number of large and unusual old azaleas from Mobile and Baldwin
counties. The overflow began to trickle south to "Bellecamp" with excellent
In 1927 the Bellingraths returned from a lengthy European tour. After
touring numerous gardens and estates in England and on the Continent, Mrs.
Bellingrath was determined to create a country estate from the fishing
camp. She hired George B. Rogers to assist in an over all plan for the
Fowl River property and his relationship with the Bellingraths would last
nearly twenty years until his death in 1945.
Courtyard, Bellingrath Home
The original camp house had already been replaced by the "Lodge" with
a stone fireplace and cathedral ceiling in the early twenties. Rogers developed
a series of flagstone pathways radiating away from the structure and covered
a muddy artesian well with the Fountain Plaza. Water is carried by gravity
down to the riverfront where it cascades down through the Grotto which
was completed on February 28, 1931.
The Public Discovers the Gardens
By the following Spring the property was prepared to host a national
garden club group and Mr. Bellingrath invited Mobile to come out the following
day to enjoy the azaleas. The city of Mobile turned out in anything on
wheels to come and see the estate everyone had been talking about. Roads
were jammed and the city police reportedly had to be called to assist county
authorities in untangling the traffic.
Walter and Bessie Bellingrath were astounded at the turnout. They had
visited Charleston and enjoyed its ancient Magnolia Gardens and recently
opened Middleton Place and decided to give the Gulf Coast its own version
of these famed gardens. In 1933 a small admission was charged and for the
first two years the gardens were only open in the Spring.
By 1934 the couple announced that the gardens would be open twelve months.
That meant that they
would spend a great deal more time at their river retreat and they
decided to build a year-round residence.
The Bellingrath Home
Architect George B. Rogers had laid out the gardens with fountains,
a lake and bridge, conservatory and waterfront grotto. The couple asked
him to design a new home to be built to the north of the Lodge. He termed
the structure "English Renaissance" noting that it was a design incorporating
the various architectural styles developed along the Gulf Coast. The fifteen
room house was completed in 1935 and contains 10,500 square feet.
Mrs. Bellingrath had been collecting antique furniture, silver and crystal
for many years but her shopping increased as her home neared completion.
She traveled often to the better shops along New Orleans' famed Royal Street
as well as being assisted by antiques dealers across the deep south. According
to Mrs. Bellingrath's nephew, Ernest Edgar, Jr., these purchases were always
made by check. Each check was made payable to "cash" so Mr. Bell was always
in the dark about what an item cost!
Years later when Mr. Bellingrath was asked by garden visitors how much
all of that beauty had cost his response was the same: "I don't know and
I hope I never find out."
Bessie Morse Bellingrath died in February, 1943 and was laid to rest
at Magnolia Cemetery near her parents, a brother, and nephew. She had ordered
the handsome granite enclosure from the McNeel Marble Company of Marietta,
GA which billed her the sum of $4,475.00 in 1940. After her death Mr.
completed the columned backdrop to this impressive space. The six fluted
columns reportedly cost $6,000 each, although no invoice has been uncovered
to verify this sum.
Mr. Bellingrath surmounted this monument with "Bellingrath-Morse" to
give the honor due to his late wife whom he was always quick to give credit
for his beloved Gardens to his dying day. "These Gardens were my wife's
dream," he would say, "and I always wanted to make her dreams come true."
A Foundation is Formed
Shortly after his 80th birthday in 1949, Walter Bellingrath
set up a foundation. Having had no children he was determined to find a
way to protect his wife's dream for the enjoyment of the public. He transferred
his assets into the non-profit trust with any profits not needed for the
upkeep of the gardens and home to benefit Central Presbyterian Church,
St. Francis Street Methodist Church and Southwestern College at Memphis
(now known as Rhodes College), Huntington College in Montgomery and Stillman
College in Tuscaloosa.
His choice of beneficiaries reflected his deep Presbyterian roots and
honored his wife's family who were Methodists. The foundation was charged
to maintain his beloved gardens and magnificent home "as a fitting memorial
to my wife."
Just days after his 86th birthday in August of 1955, Walter
Duncan Bellingrath died. His funeral took place at Central Presbyterian
and he was interred beside his beloved wife.
Today the only memory of the Bellingraths within the city of Mobile
is the impressive lot at Magnolia Cemetery. Mr. Bell's Coca-Cola plant
was torn down for the new F.B.I. headquarters. The handsome house at 60
South Ann Street which the couple took such pride in, was demolished for
a church expansion. Only the impressive carriage house survives, surrounded
by a vacant lawn where thousands of Mobilians once admired the blooms driving
everything from Model-T's to Packards.
Bellingrath Gardens and Home stands as a tribute to a remarkable couple
whose fortunes changed Mobile for the better. In 1938 a bronze plaque was
secretly installed at the Gardens and when the couple returned from a New
Orleans trip they discovered hundreds of people waiting on them. That plaque,
dedicated to the couple reads in part,
Erected in grateful appreciation by their fellow citizens in recognition
of Their faithful and untiring effort for the up-building of
Photos with permission of the Bellingrath-Morse Foundation.
News from the
Botanical Society of America
2003 Darbaker Prize in Phycology
The Botanical Society of America is accepting nominations for the 2003 Darbaker
Prize in Phycology. This award is presented for meritorious work in the study
of microscopic algae, based on papers published by the nominee during the last
two full calendar years (2001-2002).
The award is limited to residents of North America, and only papers
published in the English language are considered.
Nominations for the 2003 award should include a list of all of the nominee's
work to be considered for the 2001-2002 period, and a statement of the
nominee's merits addressed to the committee.
Nominations for the 2003 Darbaker Award should be sent by June 1, 2003
Department of Biology
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
Stevens Point, WI, 54481
fax (715) 346-3624
Society of America Outstanding Young Botanist Award Recipients
A. Certificate of
||Oklahoma City University
||James Madison University
||National Autonomous University of Mexico
|Estes, L. Dwayne
||Middle Tennessee State University
||Univ. of California, Davis
||Virginia Tech University
||Southern Illinois University, Carbondale
|Millet, Benjamin P.
||Truman State University
||University of Akron
||University of Oklahoma
||University of Colorado, Boulder
||Oregon State University
|Smith, Steven A.
||Sarah Lawrence College
||Eastern Illinois University
B. Certificate of Recognition
||The University of the South
||Truman State University
|Lewis, Robin A.
|Meyers, Stephanie A.
||Louisiana State University
||Southwestern University (Texas)
News from the
Botany In Flux At ASB 2003
During the 64th annual meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists
(ASB) in April, co-sponsored by the Southeast Section of BSA, a symposium
brought forth the familiar themes of plant blindness, zoochauvanism and
plant neglect while raising questions about the future of field botany.
The symposium "The Crisis in Field Botany: Loss of People and
began with a look at the past through an historical retrospective: Lawrence
Stritch asked the audience to look back at their botany teachers, to the
teachers of those teachers and so on, back as far as Carolus Linneus
if possible. He suggested we examine our own botanical lineage,
insisting that this knowledge of predecessors would help us understand
our present roles but more than that it would help us see "our responsibility
to ensure that the next generation of field botanists who will replace
us will have the opportunity to find an institution of higher learning
and the botanists from which to learn their craft" (Stritch 2003). Wayne
Owen of the USDA discussed preparing for a career in field botany. He stressed
the importance of communication skills, especially for dealing with broad
audiences of varying backgrounds that are so prevalent in bureaucratic
institutions today. He also noted the importance of good partnership management
skills for any well prepared field botanist, saying that "your success
is often influenced by the degree to which the public-at-large and the
local community value botanical resources" (Owen 2003). Marshall Sundberg
described how the preliminary results of his own work showed a decrease
in the number of botany departments and botany classes in colleges and
universities. He challenged listeners to respond with more data to help
complete the picture. He noted that, while botany graduate students are
down from 1968, the number is up since 1980 and asked where these new interests
might lie. Dr. Sundberg warned of the upcoming retirement of this generation
of botany teachers, reminding the audience that the teacher is likely one
of the most critical variables in influencing students' interests and the
career path that they pursue. Two other talks of interest in the symposium
mentioned the need for well-trained field botanists in the profit and nonprofit
sectors. Mary Klein, speaking for NatureServe, a non-governmental conservation
organization based in Arlington, Virginia, said that "field experience
is critical" with plant identification being the most important issue,
and said "it is much harder to fill job openings now than it was a decade
ago" (Klein 2003). Dennis Michael sounded a similar note, insisting that
the field botanists who make the decisions must be able to apply their
knowledge quickly, given the pace of dealings in the world today, and not
take ten years to run controlled studies. "The front line decision makers
need to have the knowledge and experience of the old time field botanists
that were part taxonomist, part ecologist, part naturalist, and full time
communicators" (Michael 2003). He brought up the point of a deficiency
of botany programs again, asking the audience where these people would
be trained. Mr. Michael rounded out the light tone of the day-long meeting
by playing George Jones' country-western hit song "Who's Going to Fill
"The Crisis in Field Botany" differed from other symposia at the conference
because it ended with an hour-long round-table discussion that allowed
presenters to address more questions and give the material more context.
Most seemed pleased with the results of the symposium.
The Potential Newcomers
Even as the discussion continued in the "Crisis" symposium, it was difficult
to see a "crisis"in other areas of botany, at least by looking around other
rooms at the conference. Perhaps the crowds were a little bigger in some
of the "Animal Biology-Ecology" talks. Maybe. There was a healthy enthusiasm
at all of the botanical poster sessions and paper presentations.
The ASB conference, with its relatively easy-going atmosphere, proved
to be a good place for the young researcher to build experience presenting
and there were numerous young researchers to take advantage of that opportunity.
Botanically oriented themes included: listing and mapping invasive species'
ranges, habitat boundary assessment, various species response to fire,
clonal structure and somatic mutation, chemical attractants, conifer cones
from the Cretaceous and demographics of particular endangered species,
just to mention a small part of an excitingly varied patchwork.
All these talks exuded energy and enthusiasm and none were "dry, complicated
and uninteresting," as has been suggested of botany in general by
Biology Teacher columnist Maura Flannery (Flannery 1987).
Perhaps the most obvious missing thing at the conference was the presence
of these newcomers in the conference's three symposia dealing with botany
- or all five symposia in general. While there were many
young scientists embracing botanical topics in paper presentations and
poster sessions, the audiences in the symposia were a mix of older academics
and other professionals. Perhaps this was because these symposia were scheduled
as large groups of longer talks and so may have been less inviting. Or
perhaps it was because the symposia were scheduled at the same time as
the poster sessions, some paper presentations and a few of the field trips.
The Association of Southeastern Biology's 64th annual meeting, held
in Washington, DC, may have been, in some small sense, a reflection of
what was discussed at the "Crisis in Field Botany" symposium: perhaps there
has been a drop in pure botanical interest as a result of zoochauvanism
and plant blindness among other causes, in that many paper presentations
with botanical themes had an ecological or genetic thrust to the research.
Regardless, many good questions did result.
Flannery, M. C. (1987). In the flower garden. American Biology
Klein, M. L. and Morse, L. E. (2003). Detectives of diversity - field
botany needs in non-governmental conservation organizations. Southeastern
Biology, 50(2) 197-198.
Michael, D. W. (2003). Field botany needs in the private sector: Who's
going to fill their shoes? Southeastern Biology, 50(2), 198.
Owen, Wayne. (2003). Preparing for a career in field botany.
Biology, 50(2) 197.
Stritch, L. R. (2003) From whence we come: A historical retrospective
of field botany. Southeastern Biology, 50(2) 196.
William Louis Culberson 1930-
It is with great sadness that I report the death of William Louis Culberson,
distinguished Lichenologist, prominent botanist, and treasured friend of
us all. He fought cancer for several months and died in his sleep with
his beloved wife, Chicita, at his side on February 8, in Duke University
Hospital. He was 73.
Bill received his B.S. degree at the University of Cincinnati, influenced
greatly by E. Lucy Braun and Margaret Fulford, who steered him into Lichenology.
He studied at the Université de Paris, where he received an M.S.
(Diplômé d'études Supérieures) and a Ph.D from
the University of Wisconsin, where he worked with John Thompson. Before
coming to the Department of Botany at Duke University in 1955, he was a
post-doctoral at Harvard University.
Bill had the good fortune to meet Chicita in a German class at the University
of Cinciinnati and they both were overwhelmed with each other. He persuaded
her to come to Wisconsin and get an M.S. in chemistry while he pursued
his Ph.D., which she did. This was the beginning of an incredible collaboration
in lichen chemistry and taxonomy. It was more than a simple collaboration:
it was a union of old-fashioned love and scientific talents. I don't think
either could have had the success they produced without the other. They
were a remarkable team in all respects.
I won't detail all of Bill's honors, There are many. He was President
of the Botanical Society of America and the American Bryological and
Society and was editor of both journals of the two societies. He taught
lichenology for many years at Duke and inspired students in many other
fields. A note from Marshall Crosby is typical of the responses: "His lichen
class was one of the best courses I took at Duke, and he helped tremendously
with my developing interests in editing and bibliography." Bill was a linguist.
Unlike most American scientists, he was fluent in French and German. He
knew Latin and wrote all of our Latin diagnoses. I don't know what we will
do without him.
What many of you might not know about Bill was his dedicated interest
in all aspects of horticulture and gardens. He was director of the Sarah
P. Duke Gardens for 20 years and greatly expanded and improved it, notably
by the addition of a magnificent Asiatic garden, now named for him. He
rescued it from an ordinary Kodachrome garden to a real Botanical Garden!
In addition to these outside activities, Bill produced more than 100 scientific
papers in lichenology and among other things, wrote a beautifully written
article for each issue of Flora, the Garden's publication. It is hoped
that these articles will be put together in a book.
Bill is survived by his wife, Chicita, and a family of devoted friends
in the Department of Biology at Duke University. A commemoration will be
held at the Sarah P. Duke Gardens at a date to be announced. Donations
can be made to the Gardens or to the American Cancer Society.
Please grieve with us. Sincerely. - Lewis Anderson.
Sydney S. Greenfield, 1915-
I am saddened to report the death of Professor Sydney S. Greenfield.
Professor Greenfield died on April 1st in Jersey City after
a long battle with abdominal cancer. He was 87. He is survived by his sister,
Pearl Goldman of Berkeley, California; two nephews, Robert Goldman of Berkeley
and Stephen Goldman of Culver City, and three great-nephews.
Professor Greenfield was born on November 28, 1915 in Brooklyn. He graduated
from Brooklyn College, where he earned the designation Fellow in Biology.
He taught Biology at the Harlem
Evening High School while pursuing his graduate work at Columbia University.
For his masters program, he followed several lines of research including
"Responses of Seedlings to Heteroauxin" and "Comparison of morphology and
anatomy of Dryopteris hybrids with parental species".
Professor Greenfield completed his doctoral dissertation at Columbia
under guidance of Professor S. F. Trealease, one of the pioneers in plant
physiology. Greenfield's dissertation was entitled: "Effects of inorganic
compounds on the inhibition of photosynthesis in Chlorella. After
defending his dissertation, Greenfield assumed the position of Research
Associate in Botany at Columbia, where he continued his research with Professor
Trealease on the effects of selenium and sulfur on plant growth. This work
led to a number of classic publications in the field of inorganic nutrition
In January of 1946 Greenfield joined the faculty of the University of
Newark, which became a part of Rutgers University in June of 1946. Upon
joining the faculty, Professor Greenfield was single-minded in pursuing
his goal of developing a strong program in botany in Newark. He continued
his research on selenium and selenium /sulfur interactions in plant growth
and development in a laboratory at 40 Rector Street, the old Ballantine
brewery. Indeed, it was Professor Greenfield who established the concept
in Newark of the researcher as teacher. His work from Rutgers was widely
recognized and resulted in numerous monographs and publications in scientific
However, so many of us will recall Professor Greenfield for his teaching.
Shortly after arriving in Newark, Professor Greenfield assumed responsibility
for the introductory biology classes, which he shared with Professor John
Keosian, who was, of all things, a zoologist. Professor Greenfield soon
developed a comprehensive botany program here. He introduced the first
botany courses in Newark and he developed a comprehensive undergraduate
botany major, still being offered for our undergraduates. He designed courses
that stressed the relationship between plant structure and function. He
also took great interest in developing new and innovative courses including
Economic Botany. Professor Greenfield earned a richly deserved national
reputation for his outstanding botany teaching.
As an active member of the Botanical Society of America and a tireless
advocate for the teaching of botany, Professor Greenfield chaired the Botanical
Society's Committee on Education. He was a founder and Editor of the Plant
Science Bulletin, a publication of the Botanical Society. He chaired
the Committee on the Role of Botany in American Colleges and Universities,
whose primary responsibility was to advocate for the importance of botanical
education in the liberal arts colleges and to fight for the preservation
of the plant sciences at colleges and universities in the United States.
Professor Greenfield gave numerous lectures to national organizations,
including the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the
Torrey Botanical Club, the American Institute of Biological Sciences, the
National Education Association, and the Council for Basic Education.
Professor Greenfield was also engaged in the Newark community. As a
resident of the city until the mid 1980's, Professor Greenfield served
on the Cultural Affairs Committee of the Newark Chamber of Commerce. For
many years he served on the Newark Cherry Blossom Festival Committees.
As an active member of the New Jersey Academy of Sciences, he was a driving
force behind the plan, still a dream, for a state Botanical Garden in Newark.
He curated a major exhibition and lecture at the Newark Public Library
entitled "The Eternal Garden, from Ancient Time to the Great Botanical
Gardens of Today."
In 1984 Professor Greenfield retired from the faculty, however he continued
to teach his beloved Economic Botany course (and to infect undergraduate
students with his fascination and love of plants) until 2001, marking 55
years of teaching at Rutgers-Newark. Up until this January, Professor Greenfield
was frequently seen on campus attending seminars and talking with faculty
and graduate and undergraduate students. He was strongly committed to
young people to follow careers in botany. Through his generosity, the Sydney
S. Greenfield Botany Fellowship was established. This fellowship is awarded
annually by the plant biology faculty of the Department of Biological Sciences
to encourage our brightest students to pursue careers in botany through
graduate study. There have been eight recipients of the Greenfield Fellowship
and it is a fitting legacy to Professor Greenfield and the tradition of
botany at Rutgers-Newark.
Charming, tenacious, witty, but most of all committed, Professor Sydney
S. Greenfield was one of the dynamic founding fathers of the Rutgers-Newark
- Edward G. Kirby, Professor of Botany and Acting Dean of Faculty
Charles Heimsch 1914-2003
Charles Heimsch, one of the pillars of the Botanical Society of America,
died in Moscow, Idaho, on 23 April 2003; he was born in Dayton, Ohio, on
4 May 1914.
Heimsch graduated from Miami University with a Bachelors in Botany (1936),
while excelling in football and golf, and from Harvard University with
a Masters (1939) and Ph. D. (1941) in Botany. After a post doctoral period
on a Harvard Traveling Fellowship at the University of California at Berkeley,
he started his academic career at Swarthmore College from 1942-46, thelast two
years of which he spent on a National Defense Research Committee
(Office of Scientific Research and Development) in Washington, DC. After
a year at Amherst College, he then taught for 13 years at the University
of Texas in Austin where he was promoted to Professor in 1953. In 1959,
he responded to his alma mater's call (especially from Ethel Belk) for
a chairman of Botany at Miami University and led the department beyond
the renowned bachelor's program and masters program into a doctoral program
and more than doubled the number of faculty; the first Ph. D. was granted
to John Byrne, Charlie's student. He retired in 1981 as an Emeritus Professor,
although he continued to teach part-time for several years. In his honor,
there is a Charles Heimsch Conference Room in Pearson Hall on Miami's campus
and a Charles Heimsch Graduate Award in Botany at Miami. He also received
Miami's Benjamin Harrison Award for his national contributions to higher
Charlie was very actively involved in the BSA, serving as Treasurer
(1963-64), Vice-President (1971), President (1972), Program Director (1979-
and Editor-in-Chief of the American Journal of Botany (1965-1969). He was
named a BSA Merit Award Winner in 1985 and received a special commendation
in 2002. He was clearly one of the stalwarts of the Society for parts of
8 decades, 1930s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s, 80s, 90s, and 2000s. In the past
year, at age 88, he was helping the Society in a fund raising capacity.
The students he either influenced or directed at bachelor, masters,
and doctoral levels included Arif Hayat, Billy Cumbie, Fred Rickson, Karl
Mattox, Terry Webster, Pat Paden Phillips, Calvin Smith, Tom Taylor, Graves
Gillespie, John Byrne, Jim Seago, Russell Camp, Deepa Biswas, Mike Harrington,
Eric Young, Joe Armstrong, Ed Tschabold, Tom Pizzolato, and Lynn Libous,
among others. During his years at Miami, he taught general botany, plant
anatomy, and an early course in economic botany. He carried his long interest
in teaching over to his Botanical Society endeavors, and he was long known
for attending sessions of the General, Developmental, and Developmental
& Structural sections at the annual meetings, which he rarely missed.
He was a coauthor of a talk on teaching plant anatomy given at the 1946
BSA meetings (Livingston and Heimsch, 1946, abstract) and coauthored one
of the first plant photo atlases for teaching (Lee and Heimsch 1962). Students,
in particular, could count on his presence - through his last meetings
in Madison, WI, 2002.
Charlie's research in systematic plant anatomy began with wood anatomy
(e.g., Heimsch and Wetmore 1939, his first published research article;
he used Jr. in those early years), and his major work followed shortly
thereafter (Heimsch 1942). His research expanded into both developmental
and systematic studies of roots in the late 1940s. He made a mark in root
biology with two early papers. His study on barley root tissue development
became a standard (Heimsch 1951). However, a little paper (Heimsch 1960),
which he actually started many years earlier, on tomato root cortex development
as related to phloem position initiated a host of studies by others on
the relationship between nutritional supply and root growth and by his
own graduate students on the root apical meristem and cortex development
(e.g., Hayat and Heimsch 1963; Byrne and Heimsch 1970; Armstrong and Heimsch,
1976; etc.). This tomato research was also part of a much larger study
that he had started sometime before 1956 on the patterns of root apical
meristem organization in dicots. The first full report of the systematic
root meristem study was finally presented in 2002 by former student, Jim
Seago, at the BSA meetings in Madison, WI, with coauthor Charlie in attendance.
Charlie had worked with Seago on the draft of the manuscript for this research
as recently as November 2002.
Charlie was an avid golfer, maple syrup producer, and ardent Miami alumnus,
but most of all Charlie loved his family (Richard, Carolyn, and Alan, six
grandchildren and three great grandchildren) and botany.
Donations may be made to the Charles Heimsch Memorial Fund at the Miami
University Foundation, 725 E. Chestnut St., Oxford, Ohio, 45056.
Selected Chronological Bibliography
-Heimsch, C., Jr., and R. H. Wetmore. 1939. The significance of wood
anatomy in the taxonomy of the Juglandaceae. American Journal of Botany
-Heimsch, C., Jr. 1942. Comparative anatomy of the secondary xylem
in the "Gruinales" and "Terebinthales" of Wettstein with reference to taxonomic
grouping. Lilloa 8: 83-198.
-Livingston, L. G., and C. Heimsch. 1946. The use of leaf peel preparations
in teaching leaf anatomy. American Journal of Botany 33: 824. Abstract
-Heimsch, C. 1951. Development of vascular tissues in barley roots.
American Journal of Botany 38: 523-531.
-Heimsch, C. 1960. A new aspect of cortical development in roots. American
Journal of Botany 47: 195-201.
-Lee, A. E., and C. Heimsch. 1962. Development and structure of plants:
A photographic study. Holt, Rinehart,
and Winston, New York, NY.
-Hayat, M. A., and C. Heimsch. 1963. Some aspects of vascular
in roots of Cassia. American Journal of Botany 50: 965-971.
-Byrne, J. M., and C. Heimsch. 1968. The root apex of Linum.
American Journal of Botany 55: 1011-1019.
-Armstrong, J. E., and C. Heimsch. 1976. Ontogenetic reorganization
of the root meristem in the Compositae. American Journal of Botany 63:
- James L. Seago, Jr. and Joseph E. Armstrong with help from Richard Heimsch,
Thomas N. Taylor, Hardy Eshbaugh, and others.
THE RUPERT BARNEBY AWARD
The New York Botanical Garden is pleased to announce that Jason Alexander,
currently a graduate student in the Department of Botany & Plant Pathology,
Oregon State University, is the recipient of the Rupert Barneby Award
for the year 2003. Mr. Alexander will be studying the systematics of various
species of Astragalus in the western United States.
The New York Botanical Garden now invites applications for the Rupert
Barneby Award for the year 2004. The award of US$ 1,000.00 is to assist
researchers to visit The New York Botanical Garden to study the rich collection
of Leguminosae. Anyone interested in applying for the award should submit
their curriculum vitae, a detailed letter describing the project for which
the award is sought, and the names of 2-3 referees. Travel to the NYBG
should be planned for sometime in the year 2004. The application should
be addressed to Dr. James L. Luteyn, Institute of Systematic Botany, The
New York Botanical Garden, 200th Street and Kazimiroff Blvd.,
Bronx, NY 10458-5126 USA, and received no later than December 1, 2003.
Announcement of the recipient will be made by December 15th.
Anyone interested in making a contribution to THE RUPERT BARNEBY
FUND IN LEGUME SYSTEMATICS, which supports this award, may send their
check, payable to The New York Botanical Garden, to Dr. Luteyn.
Klemmer Named Manager, Center for Teaching
and Learning, Chicago Botanic Garden
Cindy Klemmer has been appointed to the position of manager, Center
for Teaching and Learning, at the Chicago Botanic Garden. The new Center
for Teaching and Learning consolidates the staff, expertise and resources
of the former departments of School and Teacher Services, and Youth and
Family Programs. In her new position, Klemmer is responsible for the
delivery and evaluation of the Chicago Botanic Garden's educational programs
for school students, teachers and youth, both on-and off-site.
Klemmer recently completed her Ph.D. from Texas A&M University,
where she conducted research assessing the effect of school gardening programs
on the science achievement of elementary students. While there, she also
served first as garden programs facilitator and later as county horticulturist
for Texas A&M's Department of Horticultural Sciences and the Texas
Agricultural Extension Service. She also has an M.S. in public horticulture
administration from the University of Delaware through the Longwood Graduate
Program, and a B.S. in horticulture from Texas A&M University.
As children's education coordinator for the Massachusetts Horticulutral
Society, Klemmer coordinated the popular Plantmobile school outreach program
and children's programming for the New England Flower Show. She also has
been a consultant for the award-winning "Texas Prairie Adventure" at the
Dallas Arboretum and an outdoor children's exhibit, "Secrets of the Garden,"
at Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, PA.
She currently serves as co-chair of the education committee of the American
Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. Klemmer is a contributing
author for the Junior Master Gardener Golden Ray Series, Youth Handbook
and Leader Guides and has written several articles for the Boston Globe
Newspaper in Education supplements. She resides in Lake Forest, Ill.
OREGON STATE BOTANIST NAMED DIRECTOR
OF NASA'S FUNDAMENTAL SPACE
Terri Lomax, a professor of botany at Oregon State University, has been
appointed director of the Fundamental Space Biology Division at NASA. The
division, which she will direct for the next 2-4 years, is a $150 million
annual research program that studies the effects of space on the physiology,
development and function of living organisms. Lomax most recently served
as director of OSU's Program
for the Analysis of Biotechnology Issues and has conducts research on
the role of gravity in plant growth.
"I'm overwhelmed to be selected for a position such as this," Lomax
said. "It's especially exciting right now, because with the upcoming completion
of the space station, NASA is committed to a renewed emphasis on space
science, and this division is responsible for much of the agency's biological
research. It will be a great opportunity to help plan good research projects,
develop new technologies and be involved in federal policy development."
The fundamental space biology program Lomax will head examines gravity's
role in the evolution and development of terrestrial organisms and ecological
systems, as well as how plants and animals, especially humans, react and
adjust to the effects of different gravity levels. It may address questions
about cellular processes in space, the physical effects of space flights
on organisms, or the role of gravity in life on Earth.
The Wintergreen Nature
Programs for summer, 2003. All programs are held at Trillium House at Wintergreen
Resort in central Virginia's beautiful Blue Ridge. Contact The Wintergreen Nature
Foundation for more information or to register by phone.
Native Landscape Gardening in the Blue Ridge
June 14th 9:00am to 5:00pm
$50 members, $60 non-members
Participants will become familiar with both woody and herbaceous plants
for zones 5 and 6 as well as a variety of habitats. Discussions will include
plant combinations, soil composition, and natural pest and disease control.
The goal is to explore the use of native plants in producing a low maintenance
garden that will provide year round beauty. Included will be tours of
gardens and the opportunity for the group to design a garden on an undeveloped
Joan Albiston is a registered landscape architect in Charlottesville,
VA. Her firm, Albiston Associates, creates landscape designs for private
and multifamily residential, commercial, municipal and non-profit projects
throughout central Virginia.
Ian Robertson, Ltd. is a well established landscape design and horticultural
consulting firm in Charlottesville. Ian designed the Flagler Perennial,
Minor, Streb and the West Island Garden at Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden
in Richmond. He is also an instructor in horticulture at Piedmont Virginia
Discover the World of Lichens and Bryophytes
June 28th 9:00am - 4:00pm and
June 29th 9:00am - 2:00pm
$90 members, $100 non-members
Virginia's flora consists of at least 3,500 species or varieties of
vascular plants. Not included in this count are the nonvascular plant and
plant-like organisms like mosses, algae, mushrooms and lichens. These groups,
if included in the flora would up the number of flora by several thousand
species. Learn about two of these groups that are visible year round; the
lichens and the bryophytes. Saturday will focus on the lichens of Virginia
and Sunday will be an introduction to the world of mosses, liverworts and
hornworts. Participants will learn the basics of lichen life histories
and identification techniques, then see species in the field. Bryophytes
will be introduced Sunday with a discussion of structures, habitats and
identification. The book Lichens of West Virginia is recommended for the
lichen class, and can be purchased at the shop at Trillium House.
Dean Walton is a field biologist for the Virginia Natural Heritage program
of the Department of Conservation and Recreation. He also serves on the
Flora of Virginia Project advisory board.
The Story of Ferns and Fern Allies
August 16 9:00am - 4:00pm and
August 17 9:00am _ 1:00pm
$90 members, $100 non-members
Join us for a comprehensive discussion and exploration of Virginia's
ferns and fern allies. Teaching materials will include plants in the field
as well as local and regional herbarium specimens. In addition todemonstrating
gross and microscopic diagnostic criteria for each of the fern families,
participants will take a detailed look at fern reproduction and the genesis
Graham Stevens is a former TWNF botanist with particular expertise in
the Spleenwort family. Chip Morgan is a botanist and member of the Flora
of Virginia Project Board with responsibility in compiling information
on ferns and fern allies within Virginia.
Chicago Botanic Garden/ Royal
Botanic Gardens Partner in Global Seed Bank Program
Millennium Seed Bank Project, Kew, London
The United States' flora is the fourth most threatened in the world.
Twenty-three globally endangered or threatened plant species occur in the
Upper Midwest. Many more species are rare, with fewer than 20 populations
throughout the region. Plants are fundamental to the existence of humankind,
yet thousands face extinction.
Armed with technologically efficient laboratories and botanists having
nearly 75 years of combined training in plant conservation science, the
Chicago Botanic Garden has signed on as the latest partner in the Millennium
Seed Bank Project with Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. Other members
of the international collaborative represent Western Australia, Burkina
Faso, Chile, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mexico,
Namibia and South Africa. U.S. participants include the Ladybird Johnson
Wildflower Research Center in Texas and the U.S. Bureau of Land Management,
The Chicago Botanic Garden's charge: collect and safeguard the seeds
of all tallgrass prairie plants indigenous to the Midwest - an estimated
1,500 species, including Echinacea purpurea (Purple coneflower) and the
prairie grass, Andropogon gerardii (Big bluestem). At the heart of the
Millennium Seed Bank Project is a human drive to safeguard the world's
plants for generations to come. The brainchild of Kew's Seed Conservation
Department, the project already has successfully secured the future of
virtually all the United Kingdom's native flowering plants and aims to
collect and conserve 10 percent — more than 24,000 species — of the world's
seed-bearing flora, principally from drylands, by 2010.
Seed is collected on expedition "in the field" according to strict scientific
protocols after botanists first locate the plants. The Garden's botanists
are experts with knowledge of temperate plants of the region, and are familiar
with the area's locations of specific species. The seeds are then sent
to England, where they are stored at minus 20 degrees Celsius, deep in
huge underground vaults in the Wellcome Trust Millennium Building at Wakehurst
Place in West Sussex. This preserves each seed's unique characteristics
and ensures its prolonged viability. In addition to collecting seed, the
Garden is conducting research in collaboration with Kew, including testing
the viability of seed and determining if an environmental factor where
a seed was collected affects its ability to survive in storage. The Garden
also conserves seeds in its own laboratories, thereby building its collection,
and supplies Midwestern seeds for banking to the National Center for Genetic
Resources Preservation in Fort Collins, Colo.
"Although diverse and healthy plant communities are necessary to support human
life, plant diversity throughout the world is in jeopardy," says Kayri Haves,
Ph.D., director of the Garden's Department of Conservation Science and Institute
for Plant Conservation Biology. "The Conservation Science program at the Chicago
Botanic Garden is part of a fascinating international effort to address this
problem through research and education." For more detail on plant conservation
science initiatives at the Chicago Botanic Garden, visit the Garden on the Web
anic.org/research/conservation. For background on the Millennium
Seed Bank Project, log onto the Royal Botanic Gardens Web site, http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/msbp/index
. For a complete list of U.S. imperiled plants conserved at botanic gardens,
visit the Center for Plant Conservation's Web site, www.centerforplantconservation.
GLOBAL SUMMIT ON MEDICINAL PLANTS
( GSMP) ; Mauritius - 2003
Nearly all centuries from ancient times have used plants as a source
of medicine. Many people in the modern world are turning to Herbal medicine.
The use of Traditional medicine and other Alternative Therapies for the
maintenance of good Health has been widely observed in most countries.
Traditional medicine is rich in domestic recipes and communal practices.
The recent upsurge in the use of Herbal Medicines has led to enormous commercial
possibilities, but many issues remain unresolved. Today, many medicinal
plant species face extinction or severe genetic loss, but detailed information
is lacking. For most of the endangered species, no conservation action
has taken place. In the present context, an International Summit on Medicinal
Plants will be a forum for scientists, researchers and policy makers to
meet and discuss the key areas of conservation of medicinal plants, health
care and Ethnomedicine etc.
Century Foundation and Bangalore University have great pleasure to host
the Global Summit on Medicinal Plants in Mauritius Island with the support
of Mauritius Research Council, WHO, Ministry of Tourism, Air Mauritius
etc. from September 25th - 30th , 2003. at MARITIM HOTEL, Mauritius.
The main Theme of the Conference is `Recent Trends in Phytomedicine
and Other Alternative Therapies for Human Welfare'.
The Island of Mauritius which is the venue of the conference is unique
in its Flora and Fauna. The flora is composed of 700 species of indigenous
plants, of which about 300 are endemic to the region. Several endemic and
indigenous species are used in the Traditional medicines. Traditional Knowledge
in Mauritius is an Important source of income , food and health care locally.
However many endemic plants in Mauritius are on the verge of extinction.
Hence there is a need to promote the Revitalization and use of local health
Traditions of ethnomedicine in the region and share the benefits derived
from traditional knowledge with the Global community.
Mauritius with its multicultural population, suitable tropical climate,
beautiful sandy beaches and green vegetation is a paradise island and its
efficient communication infrastructure and regular airline connections
with Asia, Europe, Africa and Australasia is an ideal location for this
This conference will draw attention to the vital importance of medicinal
Plants and Other Therapies in Health care. There will be exciting programmes
of plenary lectures, oral and Poster presentations and round table discussions.
In addition to the scientific events, there will be opportunities for social
interactions at the welcome reception and cultural events and programme
of local visits.
We, on behalf of the Organizing Committee, welcome you to participate
in this eventful Global summit on Medicinal Plants from September 25th
- 30th , 2003 in Mauritius. Also, you are requested to nominate people
from your institution /department so as to enable them to disseminate latest
information on the sustainable utilization and cultivation of Medicinal
For Registration and preliminary information on the summit please visit
our website: www.cenfound.org/global/global
Dr V Sivaram ,
Global Summit on Medicinal Plants
Department of Botany
Post - Graduate Centre
Phone: + 91-80-3650312
Dr Anita Menon,
Global Summit on Medicinal Plants
# 35, 3rd Cross, Vignannagar
The Seventh International
Organization of Paleobotany Conference
The Seventh International Organization of Paleobotany Conference will
convene in Bariloche, Argentina, March 21st through March 26th, 2004, at
the Llao Llao Hotel and Resort on the Andean Range. The VII IOPC will be
opened to all people interested in fossil plants as well as those scientists
linked to plant biology and geology disciplines. For additional information,
please check the meeting web page at www.iopc2004.org
or well contact the organizer at email@example.com
Symposium Focuses on Sustainable
Chicago Botanic Garden, July 31
Landscape professionals will learn practical realities and innovative
solutions for sustaining landscapes dominated by native plants and natural
plant communities at a School of the Chicago Botanic Garden symposium on
July 31, 2003.
The "Sustainable Landscape Design" symposium is appropriate for professionals
who design, install and maintain landscapes, as well as for site planners
and engineers, large property owners and land managers seeking a better
understanding of the benefits of designing landscapes with the entire ecosystem
in mind. The program will focus on technical issues and case studies through
roundtable discussions and lectures by experts including Debra Shore, editor,
Chicago Wilderness magazine; Joyce Powers, restoration ecologist, Prairie
Ridge Nursery, Mt. Horeb, Wis.; and Nancy Strole, clerk of Springfield
Township, Ill. Topics will include the regulatory aspects, construction
and maintenance, and design and stewardship of sustainable landscapes.
Audience members also will be invited to share their stories and experiences.
The Garden is one of the premier sources in the United States for the
continuing development of conservation, design or horticultural skills
for professionals. Most programs are approved for continuing education
units (CEUs) from professional organizations. The "Sustainable Landscape
Design" symposium qualifies for CEUs from the following organizations:
Association of Professional Landscape Designers, 2.5 CEUs; and Illinois
Landscape Contractors Association, 5 CEUs.
Early registration runs through June 24. The symposium, from 9 a.m.
to 3:30 p.m., costs $109 for Chicago Botanic Garden members; $137 for
Registration after June 24 is $129 for Chicago Botanic Garden members;
$162 for nonmembers. For more information or to register, call (847) 835-8261,
or visit the Garden's Web site at www.chicagobotanic.org/symposia
. Registration deadline is July 24.
XVII IBC 2005
XVII International Botanical Congress
Vienna, Austria, Europe
Austria Center Vienna
18 - 23 July 2005
13 - 16 July 2005
The XVII International Botanical Congress (XVII IBC) takes place 2005
in Vienna, Austria. It is being organized by the IBC Organizing Committee,
the Society for the Advancement of Plant Sciences and the Vienna Medical
Academy, with support from many societies related to Plant Sciences, as
well as universities, research institutions, and private sponsors. The
XVII IBC is held under the auspices of the International Association of
Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS) of the International Union
of Biological Sciences (IUBS).
The XVII IBC, like all its precursors, will be a major convention of
scientists from around the world. The XVII IBC will be a centennial meeting,
100 years after the 2nd modern IBC Vienna in 1905.
Registration is open to any person interested in any field related
to plant biology. Payment of the registration fee allows entrance to all
sessions, exhibitions and receptions; it will also include receipt of all
congress documents and abstract publications. Reduced fees will apply to
students and to scientists from developing countries.
The Austria Center Vienna is a large and attractive building with all
modern facilities to support large international meetings.
Duration of the XVII IBC:
Scientific Sessions and Ceremonies July 18 - 23 (Monday - Saturday)
2005. The Nomenclature Section will be held during July 13-16 (Wednesday
- Saturday) 2005 at the UNI-Campus "Neues Hörsaalzentrum".
The congress will convene at the Opening Session on Monday, 18 July
2005, with welcoming ceremonies and plenary lectures. The Scientific Program,
and commercial and other exhibitions will take place from Monday through
Scientific events will end daily at 18:30 leaving evenings free for
Society or social meetings, or for the many cultural events and attractions
that Vienna has to offer.
The Scientific Program
In the tradition of previous IBC Meetings, the Scientific Program of
the XVII IBC will consist of Plenary Lectures, Symposia (consisting of
oral and poster sessions), Society or Association Meetings, New Media
and Discussions and Workshops. All participants (plenary speakers excepted)
will be limited to one oral or poster presentation.
Scientific Disciplinary Areas:
1. Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics
2. Genomics, Proteomics, Metabolomics
3. Structure and Development including Functional Aspects
4. Botanical Diversity, Systematics
5. Population Biology
6. Plant-/Eco- Physiology, Biogeogenic Cycles
7. Phytochemistry (basic and applied)
8. Ecology, Environment; Conservation Biology
9. Human Society and Plant Sciences
10. Natural Resources, Biotechnology, Economic Botany
11. Knowledge sharing Databases, Bioinformatics,Electronic Communications,
The official language is English. No simultaneous translation will
Various pre-, mid- and post-Congress excursions will be offered.
The botanical collections in Austria are exceptionally rich. W and
WU (Vienna), GJO and GZU (Graz, 150 km from Vienna) and LI (Linz, 180 km
from Vienna) contain together 6,000,000 herbarium specimens including more
than 500,000 types. Make use of the opportunity to visit these collections!
Deadline for symposium proposals: 30 September
All prospective participants are invited to submit a proposal for a
Symposium fitting within one of the Disciplinary Areas. Proposed symposia
that bridge two or more disciplinary areas are also welcome and encouraged.
All authors (oral contributions and posters) will have to supply abstracts,
the deadline for which will be announced in the Second Circular.
Proposals or questions regarding the Congress should be sent to:
Dr. Josef Greimler
XVII IBC 2005
Institute of Botany, University of Vienna
A-1030 Vienna, Austria
To receive the Second Circular, please fill out the following registration
form and return it (preferably electronically) to the Secretary General
GRANTS FOR BOTANICAL GARDENS AND
The Stanley Smith Horticultural Trust invites applications for grants
up to $20,000 for education and research in ornamental horticulture. Not-for-
botanical gardens, arboreta, and similar institutions are eligible. The
deadline for applications is August 15, 2003. For guidelines, contact Thomas
F. Daniel, Grants Director, SSHT, Dept. of Botany, California Academy of
Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA (email: firstname.lastname@example.org;
tel. (415) 750-7191).
Thomas F. Daniel, Curator
Department of Botany, California Academy of Sciences
Golden Gate Park
San Francisco, CA 94118
Tel. (415) 750-7191
Fax (415) 750-7186
Development and Structure
- Anatomy of the Monocotyledons IX. Acoaceae
and Araceae. Keeting, R.C. - Thomas B.
- The Earth's Biosphere: Evolution, Dynamics,
and Change. Smil, Vaclav. - Peggy
- Fenugreek: The Genus Trigonella.
Georgios A. - Michael A.
- Plants, Genes, and Crop Biotechnology, 2nd
ed. Chrispeels, Maarten, J. and David E. Sadava. - Judy
- Purshia: The WIld and Bitter Roses.
Young, James A. and Charlie D. Clements. - E. Durant
- Stevia: The Genus Stevia. Kinghorn,
A. Douglas. - Douglas
- The Natural History of Pompeii.
Jashemski, WIlhelmina F. and Frederick G. Meyer (eds). - Satish K.
- Alpine Plants of North America.
Nicholls, G. - Rebecca
- The Genus Arisaema: A Monograph for Botanists
and Nature Lovers. Gusman, G. and L. Gusman. - Thomas B.
- Portraits of Himalayan Flowers.
Yoshida, Toshio. - Douglas
- The Botanical Language: An Interactive Guide
to Vascular Plants. Crowl, Virginia A. - Douglas
- Plants. Ridge, Irene (ed). - Henri
-The Triple Helix: Gene, Organism and
Lewontin, Richard. - Jonathan
Anatomy of the Monocotyledons IX. Acoraceae
and Araceae. Keating, R. C. 2002. ISBN 0-19-854535-5. (Hardcover 125.00
£.) 855 photomicrographs in 115 plates, 327 pp. Oxford University
Press, - This long awaited work by Rich Keating, Professor Emeritus
at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville and Research Associate
at the Missouri Botanical Garden, is a wealth of information on
the family Araceae. It is the 9th in a series of works on anatomy
of the monocotyledons with earlier volumes treating the Gramineae, Palmae,
Commelinaceae-Zingiberales, Juncales, Cyperaceae, Dioscoreales, Helobeae
(Alismatideae) and Iridaceae.
The work provides a glossary of tissue types along with abbreviations
used for different morphological features and an extensive introduction
dealing with numerous aspects of vegetative growth and morphology, germination
and growth, reproductive morphology (inflorescences, pollen and pollination,
fruits, seeds and embryos), paleobotany, chromosomes, biogeography, chemistry
including thermogenesis and finally ethnobotany. A review of anatomical
literature covers general sources, tissues (xylem, phloem, laticifers,
secretory tissue and glands), cellular inclusions (starch, crystals, silica
and various protrusions), leaves (venation, cuticle and blade surface,
epidermis, mesophyll and special ecological features), stems and roots.
The comprehensive literature cited at the end of the book is probably the
most complete list of literature ever published on anatomy and related
subjects for Araceae and Acoraceae, making it an important feature of the
The introduction also discusses the anatomical character state
and their potential use in phylogenetic analysis , discussing in turn
and sclerenchyma tissues and a summary of the trends of specializations
in morphological features. This summary is one of the most interesting
parts of the book because here Keating presents evolutionary trends of
specialization in 24 different anatomical features. Later he makes use
of these trends in specialization to assist him in making decisions regarding
his own new suprageneric system of classification.
In one part of the introduction Keating summarizes different systems
of suprageneric classification including that of Grayum (1990), Bogner
& Nicolson (1991), Mayo, Bogner & Boyce (1997) and Keating from
the present volume. Keating's own classification table also summarizes
some of the distinguishing leaf and petiole characters.
The final portion of the introduction deals with molecular phylogenetic
studies and a comparison is made between the strict consensus tree of French
et al. 1995 with the classification of Keating (2001) based on anatomical,
morphological and molecular data. The system is based entirely on monophyletic
In a section entitled `Histological and Character State Definitions
for Vegetative Shoot and Root Anatomy of Araceae' Keating defines, illustrates,
and compares all the characters recorded in the remainder of the work.
The characters used included leaf structure (venation, midrib shape,
trichomes, cuticle, epidermis, stomata, hypodermis, mesophyll, air cavities,
collenchyma, vascular bundles and sclerenchyma), secretory ducts
(laticifers, tannin cells, starch granules, crystal-bearing cells), raphide-
cells (druses, prismatic crystals and crystal sand), stems and
The remainder of the book systematically reports the anatomical investigation
of the Acoraceae and Araceae, by tribe and by genus, with each summarizing
the anatomical features and listing the relevant literature for each. A
total of 855 detailed photomicrographs in 115 plates exemplify the various
anatomical features. The photomicrographs are of great quality and clarity.
An excellent summary at the end of the book lists all the genera in
which certain diagnostic features occur. This enables one to make comparisons
This quarter century effort by Rich Keating has produced a work that
has been long awaited but well worth waiting for. It will rank as one of
the greatest achievements in aroid literature and owing to its breadth
and detail will be valuable to a broad audience. - Thomas B. Croat, Missouri
Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO USA
Bogner, J. & D. H. Nicolson. 1991. A revised classification of
Araceae with dichotomous keys. Willdenowia 21: 3550.
French, J. C, M. Chung, & Y. Hur. 1995. Chloroplast DNA phylogeny
of Ariflorae. Pp. 255-275. In: P. J. Rudall, P. J. Cribb, D. F.
Cutler & C. J. Humphries (eds.), Monocotyledons: Systematics and
Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Grayum, M. H. 1990. Evolution and phylogeny of Araceae. Ann. Missouri
Bot. Gard. 77: 628677.
Keating, R. C. (in Press). Revised outline of the Genera of Araceae.
Missouri Botanical Garden Monographs.
Mayo, S. J., J. Bogner, & P. C. Boyce. 1997. The Genera of
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
The Earth's Biosphere: Evolution, Dynamics,
and Change. Smil, Vaclav. 2002. ISBN 0-262-19472-4 (Cloth US$32.95)
346 pp. The MIT Press. 5 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142-1493. -
The term `biosphere' was first coined by Eduard Suess (1831-1914), an Austrian
geologist, in 1875. This was at a time when the earth "system" was being
described as a set of concentric specialized spheres, from the earth's
core to the top of the atmosphere. Suess originally defined the `biosphere'
as the zone at the surface of the lithosphere (the earth's crust) where
plants' roots are in the soil to feed and at the same time a part [of the
plant] is in the air to breath. However, by today's nomenclature, this
is entirely too narrow a definition. The scientist to expand on this concept
of biosphere, and, thus, the progenitor of the contemporary model, is Vladimir
Vernadsky (1863-1945). This book describes the current extent of the earth's
biosphere, as roughly extending from the upper level of the troposphere,
about 900 km (birds have been known to fly that high), to about 2+ km deep
in the ocean (whales have routinely dive that deep) to possibly 7 km subsurface
(bacteria have been detected in boreholes). This book is at first a testament
to Vernadsky and his research and ideas and, secondly, the interconnectivity
of "life" within the earth's biosphere.
Thus, the earth's biosphere is that zone where life exists, from the
microbial to the human, and this book admirably presents this complex tableau.
In language tailored to the knowledgeable reader, Smil begins with the
formation of life, as it is proposed for earth. Then, he offers us the
broad scope of evolution; how environment affected "life", how "life" affected
the environment and how "life" affected "life". His presentation is populated
with numerous illustrations, graphics, and photographic material supporting
his analyses. He validates his discussion with copious references as nearly
40 pages of citations attest. However, he cuts a broad swath across many
disciplines and theories, such as biophysics, chemistry, plant science,
ecology, environmental science, and just about every "fill-in-the-prefix"-ology
there is. Unfortunately, there is a noticeable lack of mathematics. Which
may, or may not, have been deliberate in order to attract the non-specialist.
No equations are on hand to corroborate statements or relationships. There
are plenty plots and graphs, but offers no explanation on what generated
them, except to cite a reference. Smil has collected together a great deal
of information and has strung it together as if it were the established
model. Although, the parts seem to be well cited from the literature and,
assumingly, reliable, his linkages and logic should be considered carefully.
Finally, in his Epilogue, the reader is severely scolded and we are lectured
on the consequences of overpopulation and other human stresses on our
the only biosphere we have.
Included is an assortment of appendices, providing tabular data ranging
from biochemistry cycles to estimates of the biosphere's phytomass. The
book is a good read, although it lacks some scientific rigor. The Earth's
Biosphere is appropriate for most general academic and public collections
and would be suitable for undergraduates and other informed readers. -
Peggy Dominy, Sciences Librarian, Hagerty Library, 33rd &
Market Sts., Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, 19104
Suess, E. 1875. Die Enstehung der Alpen (The Origin of the Alps). Vienna:
Fenugreek: The genus Trigonella.
Petropoulos, Georgios A., ed. 2002. ISBN 0-415-29657-9 (Cloth US$95.00
) 200 pp. Taylor and Francis, Inc., 29 West 35th Street, New
York, NY 10001. _ Trigonella foenum-graecum, referred to as fenugreek
in English-speaking countries, is possibly one of the oldest medicinal
plants known to humankind. Fenugreek seed have been found in the tomb of
Tutankhamun (entombed around 1325 B.C.) and the plant was mentioned by
Hippocrates (470 _ 410 B.C.). T. foenum-graecum, like other members
of this genus, contains a wide array of biologically and/or pharmacologically
active steroids, polyphenolics, and volatiles in its leaves and seeds.
It has been used successfully as a forage crop thanks to the nutritional
value of its leaves, and several industrial uses have been realized for
the galactomannans (polysaccharide mucilage) in its seeds. These and other
aspects of the phytochemistry, agronomy, and industrial applications of
fenugreek are covered in Fenugreek: The genus Trigonella,
a recent volume in the series: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants _ Industrial
Profiles (Roland Hardman, Series Ed.).
Following the introductory chapter, which gives an overview of the cultivated
regions, plant uses, and research activities relevant to Trigonella,
the book provides detailed chapters on: Botany, Physiology, Cultivation,
Breeding, Nutrition and use of fertilizers, Pests and diseases, Weeds,
Chemical constituents, Pharmacological properties, and Marketing. Several
authors have contributed to this volume, with the book editor authoring
or co-authoring four of the 11 chapters. As with many books that have multiple
contributors, there is some degree of overlap amongst chapters, especially
with respect to the overriding theme of medicinal properties, but each
chapter does stand alone and provides unique material on its topic. A good
inclusion of black and white photographs, figures, and tables complements
the text; one page with four color plates also is included, but it is
that these plates are all duplicated images of photos already presented
in black and white. Each chapter has its own reference list. A relatively
comprehensive index is included at the end of the book.
Coverage on some topics is rather weak, such as the chapters on Weeds
and on Pests and diseases, but most of the other chapters are quite thorough.
Although the book is primarily focused on fenugreek, the cultivated species,
the Botany chapter branches out and provides a nice overview of the taxonomy
and distribution of the Trigonella genus. Topics relevant to seed
and reproductive biology, such as pollination, seed development, germination,
or yield, are covered in several chapters. Medicinal uses also are referred
to throughout the book, but the chapter on Pharmacological properties provides
the most comprehensive and scientifically supported presentation on this
topic. It also is a good source of literature citations pertaining to the
potential health benefits of fenugreek. Many references in this chapter
are from medical and pharmacological journals, while other chapters more
frequently cite non-refereed herbal books. The Phytochemistry chapter offers
an excellent, easy-to-read presentation of the diverse chemical compounds
found in fenugreek, and includes numerous chemical-structure figures that
were greatly appreciated.
There are some minor problems and inconsistencies in the book. SI
International) units are not used throughout all the chapters, and in some
cases (e.g. Nutrition and fertilizers) the contributing author repeatedly
jumped from SI to non-SI units within the same paragraph, or even within
the same sentence. There are a few numerical errors (e.g. pod diameter
on pg. 12), occasional misplaced decimal points, and some Tables contained
abbreviations that were not defined in the Table legend or text. Overall,
however, most of the chapters appear to have been well edited for consistency.
This book is recommended to plant scientists in several disciplines,
including general botany, agronomy, physiology, biochemistry, and systematics,
to health science researchers interested in phytoactive compounds, and
to industry scientists concerned with food ingredients and natural products
applications. College and university libraries, particularly those serving
students and faculty with interests in alternative crops or medicinal botany,
should obtain a copy. Although the book contains no genomic information
on Trigonella, researchers working in legume genetics and genomics
nonetheless would find this volume of relevance, especially those working
with the closely aligned model legume, Medicago truncatula. _ Michael
A. Grusak, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Children's Nutrition Research
Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston,
Plants, Genes, and Crop Biotechnology
ed.). Chrispeels, Maarten J. and David E. Sadava. 2003. ISBN 0-7637-1586-7
(Cloth US$87.50) 576 pp. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 40 Tall Pine Drive,
Sudbury, MA 01776-2270. This is a good revision of Plants, Genes, and
and the new title clearly signals the editors' emphasis on biotechnology.
This edition offers updated information, new contributing authors, new
chapters, new illustrations, a new organization, and a supply of discussion
questions at the end of each chapter for use in the classroom. The book
has received the approval of the American Society of Plant Biologists.
On the whole it is an improvement over the popular first edition and will
be a good textbook for introductory classes in plant biology and crop science.
Coming seven years after the first edition, this new edition has a lot
of catching up to do, and the updates are apparent from the beginning.
"Human Population Growth: Lessons from Demography" reports the slowdown
in population growth. There are expanded treatments of the influence of
the socioeconomic status of women on birth rates and the reasons why hunger
persists in a world that produces enough food for all. Unfortunately, evidence
of hasty revision begins on the first page with the statement "Two thousand
years ago the population reached 300 million, and now it stands at 6 billion,
a 20-fold increase. Since then the human population has increased 20-fold."
"Agricultural R&D, Productivity, and Global Food Prospects," new
for the second edition, covers many factors contributing to production
gains, including changes in agricultural practices and changes in food
consumption. Attractive graphs and maps convey a large amount of information
about resources and productivity. "Development, Productivity, and Sustainability
of Crop Production" contains excellent graphics to explain productivity.
One map shows world distribution of arable land and fresh water, including
the hectares of land and millions of liters of water available per person
in each region. It is especially informative when considered in light of
another map comparing agricultural labor and land productivity.
"Food Security: Why do hunger and malnutrition persist in a world of
plenty?" is an expansion of a topic from the first edition. Since most
countries produce more than enough food to meet the minimum requirements
of all their citizens, writers are continually trying to explain why hunger
and malnutrition are always with us. Several causes are noted: poverty,
lack of influence within a culture, and discrimination based on gender,
age, race, or religion. Recent declines in agricultural aid and education
aid are partly to blame. So, too, is U.S. agricultural policy, which requires
that food aid be surplus U.S. agricultural products. U.S. aid efforts are
thus driven, not by the need abroad, but by the surplus at home. Suggested
solutions are to improve food policies in developing countries, to encourage
the development of a free market, and to encourage countries to reallocate
spending from the military to agriculture. Reducing poverty is perhaps
too general and daunting a solution for the author to propose, but it appears
subtly throughout the text. The author mentions that Europe's aid strategy
is to provide money to buy up locally available food for distribution to
the hungry, since the root problem is nearly always poverty rather than
"Developing Food Production Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa" is a new
topic for this edition. Sub-Saharan Africa has been a difficult area in
which to apply modern agricultural methods. This chapter covers climate,
traditional land use patterns, traditional crop production methods, and
agricultural policies that make this region what it is.
"The Molecular Basis of Genetic Modification and Improvement of Crops"
has been reorganized and enlarged from the first edition and now is placed
earlier in the sequence. It provides a comprehensive view of molecular
biology and genetics, including the composition of DNA and proteins, mitosis
and meiosis, components of the gene, restriction enzymes, tissue culture,
and transformation via Agrobacterium and particle bombardment. The
illustrations are superb. A few statements may raise eyebrows. The definition
of biotechnology as "the use and manipulation of living organisms, or substances
obtained from these organisms, to make products of value to humanity" is
so broad as to include primitive hunting and gathering, and it ignores
the possibility of making products that harm humanity. The definition of
genetic engineering as the transfer of genes between different organisms
seems plain enough until one considers the cases in which additional copies
of a native gene have been inserted to intensify a trait, or anti-sense
sequences have been inserted to nullify a trait. The claim that "molecular
manipulations later eliminate the molecular marker gene" is ahead of its
time. This is a goal, but all commercially available crops still contain
"Plants in Human Nutrition and Animal Feed" provides a good overview
of nutrition basics, including carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins,
vitamin deficiencies, phytoestrogens and vegetarianism. "Golden rice,"
an excellent example of how genetic engineering could enhance crops, is
given a balanced treatment. It can provide a portion of the daily vitamin
A requirement, substituting for the fruits and vegetables that are not
always within the budget of poor city dwellers. However, the authors fail
to mention that "golden rice" is not yet available commercially. The section
on food safety and regulation is very short.
"The Genetic Basis of Growth and Development" covers cells, tissues,
organs, vegetative propagation, plant hormones, flowers, fertilization,
the ABC model of floral organ determination, photoperiod, seeds, and fruits,
and gives some examples of genetically engineered changes in these traits.
"Seeds: Biology, Technology, and Role in Agriculture" is a new chapter
for this edition. The topics include seed development and germination,production
and storage, certification programs, seed banks, "Terminator"
technology, and the shift in profits from companies that sell externally
applied chemicals to companies that put traits into seeds.
"Converting Solar Energy into Crop Production" provides good coverage
of photosynthesis, including photosystems I and II, C3 and
pathways, sources and sinks, photoprotection, water loss, and the implications
for crop biomass production. "Plant Nutrition and Crop Improvement in Adverse
Soil Conditions" covers soil particle size, pH, salinity, mineral nutrients
and deficiencies, water deficits, and breeding for crops tolerant of problem
soils, while "Life Together in the Underground" covers the complex processes
that occur out of sight. Mycorrhizae, root parasitism, the nitrogen cycle,
nematodes, and agronomic practices for "healthy" soil are included.
"Ten Thousand Years of Crop Evolution" covers the beginnings of agriculture,
plant domestication, centers of origin, crop evolution, the crop gene pool
concept, genetic diversity, and intellectual property rights. "From Classical
Plant Breeding to Modern Crop Improvement" introduces the reader to the
extensive intercontinental exchange of crops that occurred over the last
half century and to the plant breeding efforts that were required to make
that exchange successful. The chapter includes all the standard points:
variation, selection, genotype versus phenotype, broad sense heritability,
environment influences, hybrids, backcrossing, quantitative trait loci,
the Green Revolution, and the traits that may be introduced via genetic
engineering in the future. The pedigree of IR-72 rice has been dropped
from this edition.
The next three chapters, Crop Diseases and Strategies for Their Control,
Strategies for Controlling Insect, Mite, and Nematode Pests, and Weeds
and Weed Control Strategies, are expanded treatments of the pest and disease
chapters from the first edition. The disease triangle, biological control,
and herbicides are well covered. The discussion of chemical defenses of
plants has been considerably shortened in this edition.
"Toward a Greener Agriculture" covers improved agricultural practices
and sustainable agriculture. The potential contribution of genetic engineering
to sustainable agriculture is considered. "Plants as Chemical and Pharmaceutical
Factories" examines "biopharming," its potential for producing specialty
chemicals with less damage to the environment, and the possible impacts
on economies around the world.
"Urban Myths and Scientific Facts about the Biosafety of Genetically
Modified Crops" is the only disappointing chapter. The first half discusses
ten objections to genetically modified crops, including harm to the monarch
butterfly, superweeds, fish genes in tomatoes, "unnatural" science, and
the spread of antibiotic resistance. These objections are widely subscribed
to, although some are not based on fact and others take a narrow view of
a complex problem. Some of the issues are given a balanced treatment, but
others are not so well treated. In particular, the segments on the monarch
butterfly, superweeds and horizontal transfer of
antibiotic resistance suffer from failure to reveal relevant but
facts. Teachers probably will want to use additional resources when they
cover this aspect of crop biotechnology. The second part of the chapter
is more satisfactory. It covers some of the testing and oversight of genetically
engineered crops, especially for potential allergens.
Despite the deficiencies of the final chapter, the text as a whole is
excellent in its breadth of view and its discussion of the complex issues
associated with farming and biotechnology. This book can make a large
toward improving factual knowledge and understanding of crop science at
many levels of the agricultural and governmental sectors of our society.
- Judy Harrington, Research Associate, Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado
Purshia: The Wild and Bitter Roses. James
A. Young and Charlie D. Clements. 2002. ISBN 0-87417-491-0 (Cloth US$39.95)
280 pp. University of Nevada Press, Mail Stop 166, Reno, NV 89557-0076
— This is a timely, passionate book centering on antelope bitterbrush
tridentata) and its congeners desert bitterbrush (P. glandulosa
= P. tridentata var. glandulosa) and Stansbury cliffrose
(P. stansburiana = P. mexicana var. stansburiana, Cowania
stansburiana), shrubs endemic to Western North America. The authors,
particularly the senior author, have a long and productive history working
on the lands on which Purshia occurs and an intimate familiarity
with management of those lands and the people (both researchers and managers)
who have studied and managed Purshia. They and their colleagues
contributed substantially to the primary literature from which book draws.
The book is rich with detail, documentation, and personal anecdotes. I
found it an entertaining and instructive read.
Bitterbrush and its near relatives are important browse plants that
are locally common. Young and Clements instruct the readers on their natural
history, value to wild (especially mule deer) and domestic animals, and
management issues (especially as they pertain to fire, invasive weeds,
browsing, and plant succession) in twelve chapters. These sometimes interlocking
chapters group into four focus areas: (1) the plants' place in the biological
(Chapter One, The Wild and Bitter Roses; Chapter Three, Bitterbrush Plant
Communities) and human (Chapter Two, Hunters, Herdsmen, and Brush) worlds;
(2) growth, reproduction, and physiology (Chapter Four, Ecophysiology of
Purshia; Chapter Five, Purshia Seed Physiology; Chapter Eight,
Ruminent Nutrition; Chapter Eleven, The Role of Nitrogen); (3) small animal
ecological relationships and diseases, Chapter Seven, Granivore Relations;
Chapter Nine, Insects and Plant Diseases; and (4) management issues, Chapter
Six, Seeding Purshia Species; Chapter Ten, Wildfire Relations; Chapter
Twelve, Purshia Management.
I think the book is especially useful in collating information and making
a synthesis of the natural history and management of antelope bitterbrush
(not so much is known about the other species) during the century and a
half that Euro Americans have heavily imprinted Western North America.
The authors make a plausible case for the expansion of antelope bitterbrush
before and around the turn of the 20th century. This case is
based on a depletion of perennial grass in the absence of invasive alien
weeds with the subsequent increase of mule deer, a winter browse dependent
animal, followed by exploitation of bitterbrush and other browse species
by both domestic and wild ungulates and invasion by alien weeds, especially
cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), and western juniper (Juniperus
occidentalis) and an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfire
(see also Leopold 1949, Whisenant 1990, Miller and Wigand 1994). They detail
the efforts of land managers and federal and state research scientists
including their personal efforts to find solutions to these degraded lands;
especially to increase the population size and density of bitterbrush.
They acknowledge with irony that those populations may have been artificially
high and therefore be difficult or impossible to re-establish under current
Other interesting paradoxes with themes in the book are the relationships
of bitterbrush to sagebrush (subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia)
both in plant communities and in the minds of people and the nitrogen fixing
capacity of bitterbrush and its near relatives. The authors point out the
continuing efforts of land managers to control sagebrush while trying to
enhance bitterbrush for animal habitat. While they acknowledge importance
of sagebrush in the plant communities that they dominate the authors point
out that this is a recent phenomenon. Both older literature and occasionally
the authors have concerns about the utility of sagebrush on the landscape.
The discovery of nitrogen fixation by Purshia is carefully detailed
as is the importance of nitrogen to the productivity of semi-desert plant
communities. However, it remains an elusive enigma of how Purshia
nitrogen fixation benefits both the species and its attendant plant community.
There are a few issues that I feel a need to address. There are too
many long, involved tables copied from the cited literature. The tabular
material is for the most part summarized in the text. Most of the illustrations
are excellent but a few are of poor quality, e.g., 3.5, 4.1, 6.1, 10.2a,
12.1, and 12.5. The authors needlessly spend time in the introductory chapter
on Apache plume (Fallugia paradoxa), a species once thought to be
a close relative of cliffrose (by me and my colleagues even!—see Blauer
et al. 1975) and quote literature about hybridization with cliffrose. That
relationship has been shown to be distant and the hybridization doubtful
by base chromosome number differences, lack of viable progeny from the
putative hybrids, a functionally dioecious breeding system in Fallugia,
and no root nodules nor nitrogen fixation in Fallugia (McArthur
et al. 1983, Baker et al. 1984). Even though information presented in the
book is very well documented there are places, e.g., Artemisia variation
(p. 147) and Purshia obligate outcrossing (p. 152), where the appropriate
documenting literature could be cited. Despite the authors' prodigious
research output on bitterbrush ecology and management they cite several
anecdotal efforts of their work that bear no citation. There are a few
typographical mistakes, e.g., McArthur is rendered MacArthur (p, 7—I would
notice that), Gambel is rendered Gamble (p. 142), and Bruce Welch is Brian
Welch (p. 151).
I don't want to mislead anyone. Despite my finding a few areas that
could be improved in this book, I liked it a lot. I recommend it for anyone
interested in Purshia biology and management and who would like
to enjoy the ride, find the original source documents, and gain personal
insight in biological discovery. It is unfortunate that the book doesn't
detail how bitterbrush communities can assuredly be restored but it is
certainly state of the art on what has been tried and thoughtfully details
much of what needs to be learned and why bitterbrush is important in several
ecosystems.—E. Durant McArthur, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research
Station, Shrub Sciences Laboratory, Provo, UT 84606-1856.
Baker, M. A., D.J. Pinkova, B. Parfit, and T. Righetti. 1985. On
and its intergeneric hybrids in Arizona. Great Basin Naturalist 44: 484-486.
Blauer, A.C., A.P. Plummer, E.D. McArthur, R. Stevens, and B.C. Giunta.
1975. Characteristics and hybridization of important Intermountain shrubs.
family. USDA Forest Service Research Paper
INT-169. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
Leopold, A. 1949. Oregon and Utah, cheat takes over. p. 154-158 in
A Sand County almanac. Oxford University Press, New York.
McArthur, E.D., H.C. Stutz, and S.C. Sanderson. 1984. Taxonomy,
and cytogenetics of Purshia, Cowania, and Fallugia (Rosoideae,
4-24 in A. R. Tiedemann and K. L. Johnson,
compilers. Proceedings—research and management of bitterbrush and cliffrose
in Western North America. USDA
Forest Service General Technical Report INT-152.
Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT
Miller, R.F. and P.E. Wigand. 1994. Holocene changes in semiarid pinyon-
woodlands. Bioscience 44: 465-474.
Whisenant, S.G. 1991. Changing fire frequencies on Idaho's Snake Rive
Plains: ecological and management implications. p. 4-10 in E.D.
McArthur, E.M. Romney,
S.D. Smith, and P.T. Tueller, compilers. Proceedings—
on cheatgrass invasion, shrub die-off, and other aspects of shrub biology
USDA Forest Service General Technical Report INT-276.
Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
Stevia: The Genus Stevia. Kinghorn,
A. Douglas. 2002. ISBN 0-415-26830-3 (Cloth US$90.00) 211 pp. Taylor &
Francis Books 29 West 35th St., New York, NY 10001. Stevia tells
the story of that genus from the Asteraceae which includes Sugarleaf, Stevia
rebuadiana, a popular source in some countries of non-nutritive sweeteners.
This arrives as one more volume in series titled "Medicinal and aromatic
plants/Industrial profiles," from Taylor and Francis. As a part of that
series, it includes both reviews of the fundamental botany of this important
genus, with the emphasis on S. rebaudiana, as well as detailed technical
reviews of the production and organic chemistry of the principal non-nutritive
sweeteners, stevioside and rebaudioside A, produced by these plants.
This work opens with a general Overview by the editor, followed by
of the botany and ethnobotany of the genus as a whole. The editor commendably
keeps S. rebaudiana from being the sole focus throughout, though for obvious
economic reasons, S. rebaudiana does receive the greatest amount of attention
in most chapters. It is the major source of non-nutritive sweeteners in
this genus, though a few other species out of the several hundred in Stevia
also produce these compounds. The chapter on ethnobotany stretches back
to the first European contact with natives in the region of Paraguay from
which S. rebaudiana originally comes.
The various chapters' authors then turn to more specific consideration
of the phytochemistry of the non-nutritive sweeteners and of the other
chemical components of the Stevia's leaves, including extensive discussion
of the artificial synthesis of these compounds. Their economic importance,
especially in Japan where these compounds are a very important commercial
source of non-nutritive sweeteners, comes next along with consideration
of possible toxic side effects of these compounds, fear of which has kept
them relegated in the American market to natural foods stores and the like.
Also considered are the requirements for cultivation of Stevia spp. Finally,
the use of sweeteners from S. rebaudiana in Korea, where their use is rising
significantly, comes under consideration in the last chapter. Throughout,
extensive bibliographies are provided.
The chapters are universally well written and very well illustrated,
with biogeographic maps or sets of chemical structures as appropriate,
and many readers will find the text accessible. This volume would be of
interest to a number of audiences. Phytochemists and food scientists will
find it fascinating, given the potential of the non-nutritive sweeteners
from S. rebaudiana as well as other taste-modifying compounds from a variety
of plants. These include the sweet-taste inducing protein miraculin from
Miracle Berry (Richardella dulcifica, syn. Synsepalum dulcificum) which
is also used extensively in Japan after production from transgenic bacteria,
and the terpene glycoside gymnemic acid from Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae).
Introductory students might be introduced to some of the fascinating compounds
offered by plants using some of the introductory chapters, including the
ethnobotanical material, and even neuropsychologists and vertebrate
who use these taste-altering compounds in both research and student
also ought to buy a copy. All college and university libraries should purchase
a copy, and many amateur botanists would enjoy the introductory material
as well as the chapters on the practical use of these compounds in Japan
and Korea. - Douglas Darnowski, Department of Biology, Washington College.
The Natural History of Pompeii. Jashemski,
Wilhelmina F. and Frederick G. Meyer [Editors]. 2002. ISBN 0-521-80054-4
(Cloth US$175.00) 502 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th St.,
New York, NY 10011-4211. Campania, a fertile area in the shadow of Mt.
Vesuvius, was considered the most beautiful region in the whole world according
to the Roman historian Florus. Pompeii and Herculaneum were prosperous
Campanian cities on the shores of Bay of Naples. Preserved ruins indicate
that before 79 AD these Roman cities were well planned with their forums,
market places, shops and temples. They flourished in the proximity of Mt.
Vesuvius as evidenced by their lavish villas, fruit gardens and wide roads.
The people of Pompeii grew vineyards and olive trees, and traded wine and
olive oil. Their gardens had pools, fountains, furnished triclinia, and
inner garden walls painted with trees to lend an air of spaciousness. The
people were tall and healthy and women were strong and beautiful. Frequent
explosions of Vesuvius had spread ash that made the land fertile for
Vesuvius had been silent for 700 years before 79 AD except for a severe
earthquake in 62 AD after which the city was rebuilt to its former grandeur.
The people of the area must have been accustomed to minor temblors as
few fled when volcanic ash started falling at about noon on August 24,
79 AD. Some wealthy people must have left as several large and magnificent
houses have been uncovered without any inhabitants. Then, in the middle
of the night, the remaining residents of Pompeii and Herculaneum were caught
in the wrath of Vesuvius. Hot ash and pumice spewed out burying the city
in pyroclastic flows and surges one after another that continued until
the early morning. Pyroclastic flows encircled an area that included the
cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. There was no terrestrial escape route
except towards the sea. Recent excavations indicate that people did flee
to the beach to find an escape but within a short time, pyroclastic flows
even extended the beach several kilometers into the sea.
Gaius Plinius Secundus (Pliny the Elder) was a Roman senator and commander
of the imperial fleet at Misenum where he lived with his sister and her
17 year old son, Pliny the Younger. During the early afternoon of August
24, Pliny's sister drew his attention to a large, umbrella-pine-like cloud
arising from Vesuvius, 32 km across the Bay of Naples. The naturalist Pliny
wanted a closer look at the phenomenon so ordered a ship for the excursion.
However, the journey became an attempted rescue mission for, just as Pliny
was setting off, he received a message from his friend Rectina, informing
him that ash fall was blocking all escape routes from her house near the
foot of the mountain. Unable to land at Pompeii which was already buried
under pyroclastic debris, Pliny diverted his ships to Stabiae where he
succumbed to poisonous gases. Although the pyroclastic flows did not affect
Stabiae, the city was covered by about 200 cm of ash-fall. It is said that
the volcanic ash from the eruption reached Rome, Africa, Syria, and Egypt.
The only surviving eye-witness accounts of the eruption of Vesuvius
are two of Pliny the Younger's letters to the Roman historian Caius Cornelius
Tacitus written 24 years after the fact. Recent excavations of Pompeii
and Herculaneum have uncovered graphic evidence of the eruption that has
been preserved for 1900 years. The sting of death is revealed in the skeleton
of a man caught by a pyroclastic flow while trying to escape [Figure 50].
Even his cry appears frozen in time. A mother's anguish is perceptible
as she protects her child from the pyroclastic surge that entombed them
both [Figure 51]. A mule or horse skeleton, still standing, fills the barn
with its screaming neigh [Figure 349]. A homeowner beat such a hasty retreat
from the city that the guard-dog was left chained in the house. The dog
tried to free himself but became entangled around the peg and then squirmed
to become a victim of death [Figure 341]. A wealthy matron was caught in
a Herculaneum chamber with a satchel of gold jewelry on her waist, ear-rings,
and two rings on her left hand [Figure 372]. Some help came to the survivors
and the devastated area after the catastrophe. Titus, the Roman emperor,
rushed to review the area on hearing about he calamity, provided help to
survivors, and gave special privileges to neighboring towns which had given
shelter to refugees from the disaster area.
Pliny the Elder wrote about almost everything he noticed during his
lifetime. In addition to his Natural History, he is said to have written
102 volumes on various scientific and antiquarian subjects. Among his writings
only the 37 volumes of The Natural History are extant. His books cover
subjects such as cosmology, geography, zoology, plants and their medicinal
uses, and minerals and stones. Pliny was the first to use references for
his sources of information. In describing plants, he gave Greek and Italian
names, somewhat like modern synonymies. The editors of The Natural History
of Pompeii have compiled the chapters using Pliny's Natural History as
The eruption of Vesuvius is unique in human history for nature preserved
the effects of the catastrophe vividly and completely. Although many excavations
have been undertaken in the area, this book is the first to document all
aspects of the natural history under one cover. It is an ambitious project
and the introduction states modestly that this book is only the beginning.
Recent excavations have uncovered several complete skeletons of fleeing
people huddled together in beach-side chambers at Herculaneum. Stratigraphic
descriptions of profiles unfold the history of the eruption and the
of various surges from the afternoon of August 24 to the next morning.
All plants cataloged in this book are identified from actual carbonized
remains or from wall paintings [see wall-painting of quince and plums in
a glass bowl; Figure 88], mosaics, sculpture [Figure 95], graffiti,
or accounts by ancient authors like Pliny the Elder. All 184 plants documented
here are identified by their scientific names at generic or mostly specific
levels and by their English and Italian common names. Each plant description
gives the source (such as wall painting), references to ancient authors,
and remarks. Carbonized remains of Allium sativum (garlic) were
found in Herculaneum indicating its use in Italy since Roman times. Pinus
pinea or umbrella-pine (referred to in Pliny the Younger's letter to
Tacitus) is shown in a painting [Figure 127]. Its carbonized cone was found
in Herculaneum [Figure 126]. There was no dearth of material to use in
describing Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera (grape), which was painted
or sculpted frequently [Figures 160-163]. A SEM photomicrograph of a beautiful
cross section of a grapevine stem is illustrated in Figure 159. Several
lists of spores and pollen grains are given but none are photographed except
for a pollen grain of Malva sylvestris (wild mallow) in Figure 108.
Micropaleontological chapters (including palynology) examine various profiles
to interpret environmental changes in the Vesuvian area.
Fish, marine invertebrates, insects, amphibians and reptiles, birds,
and mammals are described following the style of the plant descriptions.
All these taxa are cataloged from paintings or sculptures found in the
ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Snakes had a special place in culture,shrines,
and fashion during Hellenistic and Roman periods. A rat-snake
climbing on a small fig tree is described from a beautiful painting [Figure
283] and snakes are described from exquisite gold bracelets [Figure 287].
A full section is devoted to snakes on Pompeian household shrines [Figures
The final chapter details deductions about the health, nutrition and
social status of Herculaneum's people based on an examination of a small
population of human skeletons. Although the inferences of this small study
cannot be applied to the whole population of Campania, preliminary deductions
can be made about the people of the area. Fertility at Herculaneum was
low probably due to the common use of contraception and abortion. Mostof the
inhabitants were healthy and well nourished. Women married young
and there were mother-child deaths during child-birth. Prostitution and
slavery were practiced in Herculaneum. Medical cures were available for
certain diseases. In general, it was an affluent society with a creed of
The editors should be complimented on their selection of reputed chapter
authors from various scientific fields. This book instills a half a century's
research on Pompeii. It is well-written and beautifully produced on glossy
paper that renders excellent reproductions of wall-paintings, sculptures,
and illustrations. However, reflection from the paper makes reading cumbersome.
Good books are difficult to find and excellent ones are rarely affordable.
The cost of this book is 35 cents per page which is a steal for such a
book. Those who can, should get it and others should find a library to
read it. All libraries should keep a copy on their reference shelf. This
book will always be a centerpiece for lively conversation. — Satish K.
Srivastava, Geology Consultant, 3054 Blandford Drive, Rowland Heights,
California 91748; e-mail: email@example.com
Alpine Plants of North America. Nicholls,
G. 2002. ISBN 0-88192-548-9; 344 pp. Timber Press Inc., Portland, OR. _
Alpine plants experience demanding environmental conditions. These plants
must withstand tremendous variation in temperature, moisture, and wind
exposure to survive in what might be consider one of the most extreme plant
environments. What is astounding to anyone who has hiked through these
alpine regions, however, is the floral diversity that these regions harbor.
In Alpine Plants of North America, Nicholls provides a fairly
comprehensive overview of the flowering plants in North American alpine
environments. The book is primarily targeted towards growers and alpine-plant
enthusiasts. Information conveyed in the book is readily accessible to
non-scientists. In general, Nicholls avoids the use of technical plant
terms and propagation and cultivation terms, and he provides a glossary
at the end of the book for any marginally confusing terms that he does
use (i.e., blade, calyx, rhizome). The book will be useful for scientists
interested in propagating alpine plants for research purposes; however,
this text will not be particularly informative for ecologists interested
in the natural history of alpine plants. Very little natural history is
provided, accept for anecdotal information spread throughout the volume.
The book has three sections. In the Introduction, Nicholls describes
the principal characteristics of alpine habitats in North America (including
Alaska, the Pacific Mountain System, the Great Basin, and the Rocky Mountains).
This introduction highlights the variable environments that alpine plants
experience and sets the stage for one of the take-home messages in this
book, the difficulty of growing alpine plants outside of their native ranges.
In the second section of the book, Nicholls provides descriptions of
alpine plants occurring in 54 genera. Each genus is introduced by a short
section describing specific characteristics of the vegetation and flowers.
Also included in some of the descriptions are some interesting anecdotal
facts about the genera, such as the origin of some of the genera names
and their reproductive biology. For each genus, he then describes either
all of the alpine North American species or a subset that either he has
had success cultivating or that he finds particularly attractive. The individual
species accounts include their native range, elevation, phenology, and
an accompanying photograph. Following these species accounts are detailed
propagation and cultivation protocols for each genus. Also included is
information on common garden pests and appropriate measures for pest control.
In the final section of the book, the author provides general cultivation
information primarily for non-scientists, including the types of containers
to use, how to construct rock gardens, sand beds, raised beds, and the
benefits of alpine houses. He also discusses the merits of different soil
mixtures and how to prepare the mixtures. The book ends with a glossary,
appendices of alpine plant distributions by state and mail-order sources
for seeds, and an index of plant names and the page number(s) on which
the plants were described.
I only found the book to contain a few minor shortcomings. Primarily,
I would have liked to have seen the author include more information about
the natural history (and in particular the reproductive biology) of the
plants, besides whether or not they were annual or perennial. In a few
cases, the author mentioned that species were heterostylous or who the
important pollinators were. In general, however, this information was sparsely
represented in the text. In addition, in cases where genera were described
as "toxic" to humans or livestock (i.e., Delphinium or
I would have liked to have seen some information about the types of secondary
compounds involved (i.e., alkaloids).
Despite these minor weaknesses, the strengths of this book are many.
Foremost, the book provides useful and practical advice for propagating
and cultivating alpine plants. For individuals attempting to grow alpine
plants out of their native range for either research or heuristic purposes,
this book is an invaluable resource! I also particularly liked the photographs
of each species. Almost 500 color photographs are provided in the book.
The photographs provide up-close information about the flowers and about
the plant vegetation. The majority of the photographs depicted in the book
were taken in the native range of the plants, providing a nice visual image
of the types of substrates that the plants grow on naturally.
The diversity of floral features offered by alpine plants and the challenge
presented in growing them will continue to attract plant enthusiasts. This
text presents a valuable resource for the propagation and cultivation of
these flowering plants. -Rebecca Irwin, Institute of Ecology, Ecology Building,
University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
The Genus Arisaema, A Monograph for
Botanists and Nature Lovers. Gusman G, Gusman L. 2002. ISBN
3-904144-91-X (Cloth, US $ 69.95.) 507 color plates, 15 tables, 28 figures,
450 pp Timber Press, Portland, OR 97204-3527. This stunning and beautiful
book is the result of many years of field work in many parts of the world
by the authors who had firsthand experience with most of the species and
made photographs of plants, mostly in natural habitats, showing different
morphological aspects which best typify their systematics. A total of 507
color photographs allow most species to be well illustrated.
After a discussion of methods and timing of expeditions the introduction
has a detailed and interesting section on morphology of the genus
defining different aspects of the morphology and discussing each unit
Each feature is illustrated with a combination of line drawings and color
photographs. Tuber morphology growth patterns, shoot and leaf morphology,
variations in leaf patterns, inflorescences and sexual expression, differences
in floral morphology, fruit morphology and germination patterns are all
discussed in detail and correlated where possible with sectional classification.
A glossary of leaflet shapes and many other features is presented, making
even the beginner immediately familiar with Arisaema.
Another part of the introduction deals with chemical and medicinal properties
of Arisaema and still another section deals extensively with cultivation,
dealing separately with species from different regions of the world giving
temperature and climatic regimes. The authors have a primary interest in
learning how to cultivate all species and have been successful with a large
percentage of the species. Having arisaemas in cultivation has enabled
the Gusmans to better understand the species and to learn how best to grow
them. This information, passed on the readers, is one of the important
features of the book. Hardiness and winter protection, proper nutrition,
and a discussion of pests and diseases is an important aspect of cultivation.
A discussion of flowering time is presented and a table of flowering times
in Belgium is presented.
A section on propagation deals with vegetative multiplication, the timing
of fruit production, seed development and proper methods of sowing seed.
The section on systematics provides a history of genus, principal workers
and a history of their efforts and recent methods of investigations including
a tabular presentation of chromosome counts and the respective citations
Following a detailed description of the genus is a detailed multi-entry
key to the 14 sections of Arisaema accepted by the authors. A table
is also presented which shows the geographical distribution of the different
sections. Another table defines the characters used to key out species.
These characters are later presented in a tabular form for sections and
subsections. Also for each section inflorescence and leaf types are summarized
and presented with diagrammatical paintings.
Finally the bulk of the book deals with a detailed treatment of all
the sections and the species in each section, complete with extensive discussion
of each taxon including detailed descriptions as well as patterns of
and flowering periods. The end of the book provides a detailed alphabetical
glossary of terms particularly useful for the non botanist and an extensive
bibliography with over 500 references involving Arisaema
This is indeed a very welcome work, a wonderfully colorful and immensely
practical book for anyone even remotely interested in Arisaema.
It is a book that aroiders have been awaiting for a long time and the wait
has been worth it. It will be a prized possession of horticulturists and
botanists alike. - Thomas B. Croat. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis,
Portraits of Himalayan Flowers. Yoshida,
Toshio. 2002. ISBN 088192-551-9 (Cloth US$39.95) 124 pp. Timber Press,
133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204-3527. Portraits
of Himalayan Flowers presents a largely pictorial account of many attractive
plants from the Himalayas. The author is an associate researcher at the
University Museum of the University of Tokyo, and he spent a decade traveling
to the world's tallest mountains photographing various plants, most from
the alpine regions though a few come from forests at lower altitudes.
Though this is an English edition of an originally Japanese book, the
text is in excellent English, flowing melodically in many places. To the
reader, the text resembles a sparer cousin of other famous works on the
botanical exploration of the Himalayas, like Farrer's The Rainbow Bridge.
Yoshida sets the scene very well in his brief introduction, as when he
describes a morning early in his travels "Exiting the hut in which I had
spent the night, I passed through a narrow doorway into a barren field
shrouded in bright morning mist. A voice chanting a strange melody drew
me out. In the field, a herd of male yaks and some scattered stones stood
among the reddish stubble of just-harvested buckwheat," following later
with comments like "All these flowers looked like large jewels scattered
over the bleak highlands by the hand of God and left there because no one
had dared to touch them" (pp.13, 15). The voice was that of an old Tibetan
reciting the Tibetan Buddhist rosary, with 108 repetitions of a mantra.
This experience had such an effect on the author that he chose to illustrate
108 plants in this work.
Before the Introduction, Professor Hideaki Ohba of the University of
Tokyo provides in two pages "A History of the Study of Himalayan Plants."
Throughout the main part of Portraits of Himalayan Flowers, at the base
of each picture Yoshida provides a concise text including scientific and
common names for each plant, as well as pertinent details on growth habits
and other preferences, and the altitude at which the plant was photographed.
This work comes from Timber Press, so no great surprise that many outstanding
photographs of horticulturally important species illustrate this work.
The author patiently waited for rare clear skies to photograph almost every
plant, in spite of his working during the wettest part of the year in the
Himalayas. He also includes the names of many prominent peaks shown in
If there is a flaw in this work, it is the too-dark printing of some
of the excellent photographs, at least in the copy used by the reviewer.
Contrast is fine throughout. Otherwise, the book is a delight throughout,
and most of the pictures are of excellent brightness.
Every college and university should obtain a copy of Portraits of Himalayan
Flowers by Toshio Yoshida for its library. The stunning photographs will
appeal to everyone interested in the Himalayas or in botany, and they might
be an excellent tool for sparking interest in new students, with pictures
of the famous Himalayan rhubarbs and woolly members of the Asteraceae.
Buy a copy today. _ Douglas Darnowski, Department of Biology, Washington
The Botanical Language: An Interactive Guide
to Vascular Plants. Crowl, Virginia A. 2002. CD . 157 Forest Ave.,
Hudson, MA 01749-1830. The Botanical Language presents a wide range of
basic botanical terms along with ample illustrations in a readily accessible
format. The CD is formatted to be used with either a Macintosh (OS 7.0
or higher) or PC (Windows 3.1, 95, NT, or later). The reviewer was able
to use this CD with Windows 2002 and Mac OS 10.2 without difficulties related
to system software.
The Introduction presents a warning of the need to study the terms carefully
and systematically—the author seeks with this CD to present details of
vascular plants, saying that they have been chosen for the subject of this
work because they are the most commonly noticed plants. Also, the author
created this CD for use by students of botany or interested laymen. The
opening to the CD includes a stern warning that not reading the Introduction
will lead to confusion in new users, but this in part indicates that there
are some flaws in the design of this CD—after all, the design should be
optimized for the convenience of the user. In addition, the details and
terms discussed are limited to those which are observable using the naked
eye or a 10x hand lens.
The Table of Contents groups the photographs and their accompanying
descriptions into seven sets, as they are related to Flowers, Inflorescences,
Leaves, Descriptive Terms, Fruits and Seeds, Grasses and Sedges, and
Plants. In all, 293 photographs illustrate various species at a resolution
that is perfectly adequate for the purpose chosen. The 293 photos illustrate
not quite as many species—a few species receive more than one entry.
Clicking on one of these seven categories leads the user to a list of
the various entries under that heading. Entries consist of a single photograph
with a few paragraphs of description. Botanical terms are highlighted in
the description by underlining, and clicking on the term links to the glossary.
Each term in the glossary has a short paragraph listing a definition and
links to other entries throughout the CD that use that term. This is a
sensible and useful feature, though one problem in the design of this CD
is that links to other entries occur only as numerical references, not
botanical or common names. Therefore, it is not immediately obvious, without
actually going to those other entries, what other plants share a given
By clicking on the small version of the photo which sits next to the
text in an entry leads to a large version of the same photograph with the
parts in question clearly labeled. The illustrations are of very good contrast
and brightness though generally not of high resolution.
Another section on Relationship of Terms briefly discusses Contrasting,
Confusing, and Merging Terms, though the length of the discussion and the
lack of included illustrative examples in this section may make it less
than useful for new botanists—if nothing else, pairs of links to entries
illustrating these three should have been included. Similarly, there is
a Taxonomic Table which describes Latin names, their origins and use, as
well as giving many examples, though not covering all families of vascular
The Botanical Language will be of real use in introductory courses or
anywhere a quick review of basic botanical terminology is needed. The lack
of a search feature is a drawback, but it will nevertheless be of general
utility. _ Douglas Darnowski, Department of Biology, Washington College.
Plants. Irene Ridge, Editor. 2002 ISBN 0-19-
(Paperback + CD-ROM) 345pages Oxford University Press.- This book is an
introductory text on plant physiology. The text is targeted towards "first
or second year undergraduates". There are some places where it is clear
prior coursework is assumed and for the typical first year undergraduate
in the US (this text is geared towards the UK audience) this text would
be rather difficult. Students who have had at least a year of biology (including
a significant botany component) and chemistry would be able to understand
the material in this text. There are 6 chapters of roughly 50-55 pages
each. I feel these are a bit long for the typical first year student but
the organization of these chapters and their length makes sense.
Plants covers the major areas one would expect to find in a plant
physiology text although the depth of detail is less than that found in
Taiz and Zeiger's, Salisbury and Ross', and Hopkins and Hüner's Plant
Physiology texts. There are several points in Plants where the authors
of a given chapter point out that memorizing and focusing on the tiniest
details is not what is important. They make evident that understanding
the importance of some concept, for example, the features of life cycles
that have lead to success in terrestrial environments, is paramount to
memorizing many details of those cycles. One thing included in this text
that I have not seen in many plant physiology texts is a chapter on interactions
between seed plants and microbes. Generalizations on such interactions
and several case studies are presented. This is a nice basic chapter.
This text sticks very well to the main theme which is answering the
question "how do plants function and grow in a wide range of environments."
Every topic introduced in Plants somehow leads back to the main
theme. This book also delivers when it comes to emphasizing "doing science".
A number of the topics are approached in a fashion that leads the reader
to understand how we know what we know. How did plant physiologists explore
a particular phenomenon? What was observed in specific experiments and
how did the scientists arrive at their interpretations?
One feature I find attractive with this text is the inclusion of questions
as the reader reads the text, not as a list at the end of the chapter.
These questions ask the reader to obtain information from tables and figures,
including graphical data. This information in some cases must be interpreted
in light of already presented information. The one thing I did not like
about this arrangement is that the answers to the questions appear immediately
after the question. I would prefer including all the answers in an appendix
at the end of the text or certainly separated somehow from the question.
This text also comes with a CD-ROM for PC only. Two "exercises" are
included: Digital Microscopy and Plant Gene Manipulation. Both of these
are supplemental to the material in the book although they certainly can
help student understanding of topics in the text. The exercises are interactive.
They are probably too elementary for more advanced students but the programs
would provide a good review for them and certainly the exercises are appropriate
for the intended audience.
This is a good introductory book on plant physiology. It is not as detailed
as other texts out on the market but it does things quite attractive for
teaching an introductory student some basic ideas of plant physiology.-
Henri Roger Maurice, Department of Biology, University of Southern Indiana,
Evansville, IN 47712
The Triple Helix: Gene, Organism and Environment,
Richard Lewontin. 2000. ISBN 0-674-00677-1 (paperback, $15). Harvard University
Press. 136 pp. _ This little book (only 13cm x 19cm x 136pp!) has an expansive
scope. In the first three chapters, which were originally presented as
a series of lectures in the Lezioni Italiani in Milan, Lewontin critiques
the reductionist agenda in modern biology. The fourth and final chapter,
which was written expressly for this book, outlines an alternative framework
for our consideration, suggesting a middle path between "unremitting
and "obscurantist holism."
The three chapters of critique are well-written and persuasive. Lewontin's
writing is easily accessible to undergraduate students, and yet manages
to question many of the underlying assumptions implicit in the thought
and work of most biologists today. The case he builds is strengthened
by the evidence presented from the scientific literature, and by the clarity
of his logic and expression. Were his critique somehow taken to heart by
biologists, it would significantly redirect the course of scientific inquiry
in the 21st century. As Lewontin says: "There is nothing
in the first three chapters of this book that is not well known to all
biologists. Everybody `knows' at some level of consciousness that DNA is
not self-reproducing, that the information in DNA sequences is insufficient
to specify even a folded protein, not to speak of an entire organism, that
the environment of an organism is constructed and constantly altered by
the life activities of the organism. But this in-principle knowledge cannot
become folded into the structure of biological explanation unless it can
be incorporated into the actual work of biologists." P.129.
The real question is how to accomplish the task set forth in that last
sentence. As a start, these three chapters should be required for reading
and discussion by all undergraduate and graduate students of biology and
their professors. If we were to do that, I believe we would soon come to
wrestle with the same challenge which Lewontin faces in Chapter 4. In his
"The earlier chapters in this book have a distinctly negative flavor.
They are devoted to explanations of the way in which a reductionist approach
to the study of living organisms can lead us to formulate incomplete answers
to questions about biology or to miss the essential features of biological
processes or to ask the wrong questions in the first place. It is easy
to be a critic. All one needs to do is to think very hard about any complex
aspect of the world, and it quickly becomes apparent why this or that approach
to its study is defective in some way. It is much more difficult to suggest
how we can, in practice, do better. It is useless to call in general terms
for some more synthetic approach or to say that somehow we need a new insight."
Lewontin's response to this challenge is to make the following case,
which I'll present in a highly condensed form: The middle path between
reductionism and holism requires us to recognize that "The world is divided
into nearly independent subsystems within which there are effective interactions
but between which there are no palpable relations… The delineation of effective
subsystem boundaries is a major practical task for the biologist…" p. 110.
Recent theories of systems (i.e. catastrophe theory, chaos theory, and
complexity theory) are inadequate explanations of biological phenomena,
and so we should consider that "organisms are internally heterogeneous
open systems." p. 114.
Recognition of the internal heterogeneity of biological systems should
lead to a renewed emphasis on "form" and its relationship to function at
all levels of organization. From the elucidation of the structure of DNA
in 1953 to the "X-ray structure of a voltage dependent K+ channel"
(Nature 423:33-41, 1 May 2003), the essential role of structural
knowledge in our understanding of function is abundantly clear. "For this
purpose we do not need a revolutionary insight into the laws of biology,
but only a lot of hard work." p. 118.
Consideration of the openness of biological systems leads to the recognition
that "organism and environment are both causes and effects in a co-evolutionary
process… This coevolutionary process … is almost always topologically
That is, small changes in the environment lead to small changes in the
organisms which, in turn, lead to small changes in the environment." p.
126. "In order to take proper account of the ordinary topologically continuous
changes in the relation of organism and environment, we do not need a revolution
in the way experimental observations are made… only a reorientation of
attention." p. 127.
Finally, "New experimental techniques are in part induced by the problems
that are under investigation by a community of scientists with common interests,
but once those technologies exist they have great power in determining
the questions that are asked…As there is a dialectic between organisms
and their environments… so there is a dialectic of method and problematic
in science… Progress in biology depends not on revolutionary new
but on the creation of new methodologies that make questions answerable
in practice in a world of finite resources." pp. 128-129.
While it may be unfair to extract the skeleton of an argument for inspection,
including few of the ligaments and almost none of the flesh, I have endeavored
to do justice to the case Lewontin makes in Chapter 4. I admit to some
disappointment that there was no "new insight," no successor to the attempts
of catastrophe theory, chaos theory, and complexity theory to provide an
overarching framework to bridge reductionism and holism, except to emphasize
the definition of organisms as internally heterogeneous open systems. On
the other hand, the book succeeded beautifully in stimulating me to think
about these deeper philosophical issues in biology, and to discuss them
with my students and colleagues. I recommend The Triple Helix highly
to both students and senior scientists for its provocative analysis of
the intellectual direction of the biological sciences. Jonathan Frye, Department
of Natural Science, McPherson College, McPherson, KS 67460.
If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor,
stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed
1 May, 1 August or 1 November). Send E-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org,
call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list because
they go quickly! Editor.
Advanced Research on Plant Lipids. Murata, Norio. 2003. ISBN
1-40201-105-9 (Cloth US$127) 439 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V. P.O.
Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
American Botanical Prints of Two Centuries. Bridson, Gavin, James
J. WHite and Lugene B. Bruno. 2003. ISBN 0-913196-75-4 (Paper US$25.00)
239 pp. Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University,
5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890.
Australian Plant Communities: Dynamics of Structure, Growth and
Specht, Ray L. and Alison Specht. 2002. ISBN 0-19-551654-0 (Paper US$40.00
) 492 pp. Oxford University Press, 2001 Evans Road, Cary , NC 27513.
Climbing Roses of the World. Quest-Ritson, Charles. 2003. ISBN
0-88192-563-2 (Cloth US$34.95) 376 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second
Ave., Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Volume 13, 1865, Supplement
1822-1864. Burkhardt, Frederick, Duncan M. Porter, Sheila Ann Dean,
Samantha Evans, Shelly Innes, Alison M. Pearn, Andrew Schlater, Paul White
and Sarah Wilmot (eds). 2003. ISBN 0-521-82413-3 (Cloth US$90.00) 695 pp.
Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th St., New York, NY 10011-
Developmental Plasticity and Evolution. West-Eberhard, Mary Jane.
2003. ISBN 0-19-512235-6 (Paper ) 794 pp. Oxford University Press, 2001
Evans Road, Cary, NC 27513.
An Encyclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Riffle, Robert Lee, and
Paul Craft. 2003. ISBN 0-88192-558-6 (Cloth US$49.95) 528pp Timber Press,
Inc. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Gathering Moss: A Natural and Cultural History of Mosses. Kimmerer,
Robin Wall. 2003. ISBN 0-87071-499-6. (Paper US$17.95) 176 pp. Oregon
State University Press, 101 Waldo Hall, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331-6407.
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trees. More, David. 2002.
ISBN 0-88192-520-9 (Cloth $79.95) 800 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133
S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Lloyd Herbert Shinners: By Himself. Ginsburg, Ruth. 2002. ISBN
1-889878-10-3 (Paper US$28) 223pp. Botanical Research Institute of Texas
Press, 509 Pecan Street, Fort Worth, TX 76102-4060.
Medicinal Plants of the World, Vol. 1, Chemical Constituents, Traditional
and Modern Medical Uses , 2nd ed. Ross, Ivan A. 2003. ISBN
1-58829-281-9 (Cloth US$99.50) 489 pp. Humana Press, 999 Riverview Dr.
Totowa, NJ 07512.
Native Plants in the Coastal Garden: A Guide for Gardeners in the
Pacific Northwest, Revised and updated. Pettinger, April and Brenda
Costanzo. 2002. ISBN 0-88192-582-9. (Paper US$19.95) 248 pp. Timber Press,
Inc. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
The Natural History of a Garden. Spedding, Colin and Geoffrey
Spedding. 2003. ISBN 0-88192-578-0 (Cloth US$) 253 pp. Timber Press, Inc.
133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
The New Book of Salvias. Clebsch, Betsy. 2003. ISBN 0-88192-560-8
(Cloth US$29.95) 344 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite
450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Origination of Organismal Form: Beyond the Gene in Developmental
and Evolutionary Biology. Müller, Gerd B. and Stuart A. Newman.
2003. ISBN 0-262-13419-5 (Cloth US$ 45.00) 342 pp. The MIT Press. 5 Cambridge
Center, Cambridge, MA 02142-1493.
Perfect Planet, Clever Species: How Unique are We? Burger, William
C. 2003. ISBN 1-59102-016-6 (Cloth) 345 pp. Prometheus Books. 59 John Glenn
Drive, Amherst, NY 14228-2197.
Pesticides: Problems, Improvements, Alternatives. Hond, F. Den,
P. Groenewegen and M.M. van Straalen. 2003. ISBN 0-63-20595-2 (Cloth US$134.99)
256 pp. Iowa State University Press, 2121 State Avenue, Ames, IA 50014-8300.
Plant Biotechnology 2002 and Beyond: Proceedings of the 10th
IAPTC&B Congress. Vasil, Indra K. (ed). 2003. ISBN 1-4020-1126-1
(Cloth US$181) 619 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V. P.O. Box 989, 3300
AZ Dordrecht, THE NETHERLANDS.
Plant Resins: Chemistry, Evolution, Ecology, and Ethnobotany.
Jean H. 2003. ISBN 0-88192-574-8 (Cloth US$49.95) 612 pp. Timber Press,
Inc. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Plant Tissue Culture: 100 Years Since Gottlieb Haberlandt. Laimer,
Margit and Waltraud Rücker (eds). 2003. ISBN 3-211-83839-2. (Paper
EUR 78.00) 260 pp. Springer-Verlag KG. Sachsenplatz 4-6, P.O> Box 89, A-1201,
Plants on the Trail with Lewis and Clark. Patent, Dorothy Hinshaw
and William Muñoz. ISBN 0-618-06776-0 (Cloth$18.00) 104 pp. Clarion
Books, 215 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10003.
Postharvest Oxidative Stress in Horticultural Crops. Hodges,
Mark, (ed). 2003. ISBN 1-56022-963-2 (Paper US$49.95) 280 pp. The Haworth
Press Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580.
Pteridologia 3: A Modern Moltilingual Glassary for Taxonomic
Lellinger, David B. 2002. ISBN 0-933500-02-5 (Cloth US$15.00) 263 pp. American
Fern Society, Inc., 326 West St., N.W., Vienna, VA 22180-4151.
Rainforest. Oldfield, Sara., photography by Bruce Coleman Collection.
2003. ISBN 0-262-15106-5. (Cloth US$29.95) 160 pp. The MIT Press. 5 Cambridge
Center, Cambridge, MA 02142-1493.
The Tangled Field: Barbara McClintock's Search for the Patterns of
Genetic Control. Comfort, Nathaniel C. 2003. ISBN 0-674-01108-2 (Paper
US$17.95) 337 pp. Harvard University Press, 79 Garden Street, Cambridge,
Taxonomy, Distribution, and Ecology of the Genus Phaseolus
(Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) in North America, Mexico and Central America.
Freytag, George, and Daniel Debouck. 2002. ISBN 1-88878-11-1 (Paper
US$40.00) 300 pp. Botanical Research Institute of Texas Press, 509 Pecan
Street, Fort Worth, TX 76102-4060.
Taxus: The Genus Taxus. Itokawa, Hideji and Kuo-Hsiung
Lee (eds). 2003. ISBN 0-415-29837-7 (Cloth ) 456 pp. Taylor & Francis
Inc., 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001.
Tree Bark: A Color Guide. Vaucher, Hugues. 2003. ISBN 0-88192-576-4
(Cloth US$39.95) 260 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite
450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Weeds in My Garden: Observations on Some Misunderstood Plants. Heiser,
Charles. 2003. ISBN 0-88192-562-4. (Cloth US$22.95) 260 pp. Timber Press,
Inc. 133 S.W. Second Ave., Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
The Well-Designed Mixed Garden. DiSabato-Aust, Tracy. 2003. ISBN
0-88192-559-4. (Cloth US$39.95) 460 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second
Ave., Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Don Les' "Really Bad Plant
1. What do you get from eating too much milo?
2. Why was the Triticum plant sick?
3. Which plant hangs out at Las Vegas?
4. Who laughs at Calamus jokes?
5. Which plant couple wore green on St. Patrick's Day?
Faux Bumper Advertising compliments of Prof. Robert Tatina, Dakota
Wesleyan Univ., Mitchell, SD
1. sore gums
2. it ate some wheat germ
3. the bird of pair-of-dice
4. somebody with a rattan sense of humor
5. Phil and Rhoda O'Dendron
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