New Herbarium Building
on display in the Garden Design and Structure section is the
frontispiece from Giovanni Battista Falda's Li giardini di Roma
(1683). Among the five works highlighting American Native Trees
is the illustration of Sequoia wellingtonia "The Two Guardsmen"
from Edward Ravenscroft's The Pinetum Britannicum, 1884. "The Fruit
of the Cashew" is one of three lithographic plates from Etienne Dennisse's
Flore d'Amerique dessinee d'apre nature sur les lieux (1843-1846)
in Fruits and Vegetables. Pierre Joseph Redout's "Amaryllis Josephinae",
from Les liliaces (1802-1816) is one of ten outstanding botanical
prints in the section, Painted and Printed Plants. The exhibition
will be accompanied by an illustrated catalogue of the same title.
The LuEsther T. Mertz Library
Plants and Gardens Portrayed: Rare and Illustrated
Books from The LuEsther T. Mertz Library
May 2-July 31, 2002
In this issue:
Blute und Frucht: Morphologie, Entwicklungsgeschichte,
Phylogenie, Funktion, Okologie. Leins, P.
- Shirley Tucker.........................................................................................................................................................21
The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation. Schluter,
Dolph. - Susan Kephart.........................................................................22
Spatial Pattern Analysis in Plant Ecology.
Dale, Mark R.T. - Una Smith.....................................................................24
Spatial Patterns in Catchment Hydrology: Observations
and Modelling. Grayson, Rodger and Gunter Bloschl.
- Richard Sleezer........................................................................................................................................................24
The Gardener's Guide to Growing Orchids.
Rittershausen, Wilma and Brian. - William Louis Stern...............................26
Gifts of Winter: Catalogue of an Exhibition.
White, James J. and Lugene B. Bruno. - Marshall D. Sundberg................26
The Himalayan Garden: Growing Plants from the
Roof of the World. Jermyn, Jim. - Catherine Kleier........................27
Landscaping with Herbs. Adams, James.
- Joanne M. Sharpe........................................................................................28
Tylenchida: Parasites of Plants and Insects,
2nd ed. Siddiqi, M.R. - Derek A. Zelmer .................................................28
Nature's Government: Science, Imperial Britain,
and the `Improvement' of the World. Drayton, Richard.
- Sara Brooks Sundberg...............................................................................................................................................29
Plant Life of the Quaternary Cold Stages:
Evidence from the British Isles. West, Richard. - Nina L. Baghai-Riding.....30
Bulbophyllums and Their Allies.
Siegerist, Emily. - Joseph Arditti....................................................................................32
Cape Plants: A Conspectus of the Cape Flora of South
Africa. Goldblatt, P., and J. Manning.
- Lytton John Musselman..............................................................................................................................................33
Flora Europaea on CD-ROM - Ewald Weber.................................................................................................................34
Plant Diversity of an Andean Cloud Forest. Checklist
of the Vascular Flora of Maquipucuna, Ecuador.
Webster, Grady and Robert M. Rhode. - Blanca Leon..................................................................................................35
Plant Diversity of the Iwokarama Forest, Guyana.
Clarke, H.D., V. A. Funk and T. Hollowell.
- Sarah Delle Hultmark.................................................................................................................................................36
Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms:
Toward a New Synthesis 50 Years after Stebbins.
Ayala, Francisco J., Walter M. Fitch, and Michael
T. Clegg (eds). - James L. Smith II...................................................36
World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions,
2nd ed. Brummitt, R. K. et al. -Susanne Renner..........37
Blüte und Frucht. Morphologie, Entwicklungsgeschichte,
Phylogenie, Funktion, Ökologie. Leins, P., 2000. ISBN 3-510-65194-4.
(Paper US$44.00). 390 pp. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Nägele
u. Obermiller), Stuttgart. - With currently renewed interest in floral
development by systematists and molecular geneticists as well as morphologists,
we welcome this book by Professor Peter Leins, one of the world's leading
plant morphologists. Professor Leins is Director of the Institute of Systematic
Botany and Plant Geography, and Director of the Botanic Gardens of the
University of Heidelberg, Germany. Dr. Claudia Erbar, listed as collaborator
on the inner title page, is a Privat-Dozent at the same institution. She
is credited with help in composition of the book, advising on the text,
assembly of the plates, proofreading, and producing the index.
"Blüte und Frucht" describes the structure, development, and function
of flowers and fruits, copiously illustrated with splendid scanning electron
micrographs and photographs. It has three main parts: flower structure
and development (~140 pp.); pollination and pollination biology (100 pp,);
and seed and fruit structure, development, and function (~ 80 pp.). It
is dedicated to the great French floral morphologist Jean-Baptiste Payer
(1818-1860), who produced a two-volume work on floral development of ~330
genera of flowers in 1857 (Traité d'organogenie comparée
de la fleur, Masson, Paris), a work that remains indispensable to anyone
working on floral development within a systematic or evolutionary framework.
"Blüte und Frucht" is altogether different, however, in that it is
basically a general treatment with emphasis on processes common to most
flowers, rather than attempting to compare development in a definitive
array of taxa. The sections on pollination biology and fruits emphasize
the strong correlation between form and function in flowers.
Initial chapters cover floral organization and the reproductive cycle
of angiosperms, with important terms in boldface. The text is well organized
and relatively easy to follow, even for those not proficient in German.
The A-B-C genetic model for organ determination is described briefly. Succeeding
chapters examine floral symmetry, number and position of parts, and order
of organ initiation.
The authors use as examples and illustrations many of their previous
publications, such as using their published work on Magnolia species
(P. 23) to explain phyllotaxy. The order of organ initiation in each whorl,
while usually consistent in a species, may diverge considerably as in the
terminal flower versus the lateral flowers of Eryngium campestre
(pp. 27, 28). This contrasting ontogeny indicates that the inflorescence
controls or can modify the usual pattern of development of individual flowers.
Interestingly, the authors show considerable variation in order of organ
initiation in taxa of Brassicaceae, which is relevant to the extensive
recent genetic literature on the related genus Arabidopsis. They
show that the basic ground-plan of crucifer flowers can be produced in
five different orders of initiation. Floral symmetry is covered very briefly,
primarily as a list of terms and references only to Troll and Weberling
publications. Inflorescences receive scant attention (5 pages), mostly
including a glossary of terms.
Detailed chapters follow that deal with each set of floral organs: sepals,
petals, androecium, gynoecium, and nectaries. The perianth chapter discusses
generalized examples (tepals; perigon) versus flowers having a differentiated
calyx and corolla; nectar spurs; aestivation; "extra" whorls such as the
epicalyx of Malvaceae; the processes of fusion among sepals and petals;
possible evolution of whorls from the spiral condition; and the function
of a ring meristem in production of a fused calyx or corolla.
The androecium chapter emphasizes external form, and also development
of microsporangia, differing modes of pollen-sac formation, and differing
forms of stamens such as those of Laurus with large nectaries and
porate dehiscence. Deviations in number of microsporangia, different pollen
morphology, a discussion of the interesting correlation between centrifugal
vs. centripetal order of stamen initiation and vascular supply (but without
illustrations or references). Evolutionary shifts among related taxa receives
attention, particularly in polystemonous taxa. The initiation of stamen
clusters or fascicles in Hypericum, Melaleuca, Paeonia, Stewartia,
and Loasa are contrasted with successive initiation of multiple
stamens in Magnolia (centripetally) and in Capparis (centrifugally).
Reduction in stamen number is shown in a series of taxa in Scrophulariaceae.
The diversity of nectaries in different parts of flowers is nicely illustrated.
Ontogeny of pocketlike adaxial nectaries on perianth members in several
genera of Ranunculaceae is shown in series of SEM's and sectional views.
The various types of secondary pollen presentation are described and illustrated
in taxa of Campanulales and Asterales.
The carpel chapter contrasts different forms as well as differing modes
of carpel fusion (coenocarpy) resulting in the various types of placentation..
Considerable attention is paid to the compitum and transmitting tissue
in compound ovaries such as that of Geranium sanguineum with both
SEM and sectional views at several levels. The role of intercalary growth
is detailed in formation of a hypanthium and of the epigynous condition
The chapters on pollination discuss and show an intriguing variety of
floral adaptations. Floral adaptations associated with wind, water, and
animal pollinators include colors, color changes, UV guides on floral organs,
flavenoids, nectar, and scent. Floral syndromes associated with different
kinds of insect, bat, and bird pollinators are shown in a table. Novel
examples are in the flowers of Asarum caudatum and Aristolochia
arborea (Aristolochiaceae), which attract fly pollinators by simulating
mushrooms by their odor, red-brown flower color, and their cauliflorous,
clustered position around the base of the trunk (shown in A. arborea).
Another remarkable story is the stigmatic papillae in Campanula rotundifolia
that invaginate, carrying the pollen grains inside the body of the
The fruit and seed chapter has a picture key to fruit types, with photographs
and lists of examples. Numerous types of diaspore dispersal (fruits or
seeds) include some familiar examples (Coco-de-Mer or Lodoicia maldivica)
and many that are new. Professor Leins and his students have demonstrated
secondary seed presentation, somewhat analogous to that of a pollen presenter,
in which seeds are dispersed first to the upper side of inrolled bracts,
from which they can be dispersed more widely than they would if dropped
on the ground (in Campanula glomerata). The diaspores of sedges
are shown to be "floaters", aided by the inflated utricle. Ballistic diaspore
mechanisms and myrmecochory (ant-plant associations) are explored, as well
as the intriguing parallelism of red and black seeds in different plant
There is an extensive list of references (~400, 13 pages) at the end,
with a good range representing most of the One criticism is that there
are almost no citations to original publications in the text. For instance,
the discussion of obdiplostemony does not cite any references; the list
at the end of the chapter (on whorled flowers) contains 35 names and dates,
but one would have to look at each of the 35 at the back of the book to
determine which deal with obdiplostemony. Most descriptions and illustrations
are from work by the author and his students. The author displays definitive
knowledge of a diversity of floral form, but more references to specific
work, including that of other investigators, would have enhanced usefulness
of the text.
Although this book is not organized along systematic lines, an appendix
has an extensive outline of angiosperms which includes concise summaries
of the significant features of each family (63 monocot families, 131 dicot
families). These features include floral diagrams, symmetry, features such
as fusion among organs, position of the carpels, pollen type, pollination
method, floral attractants to pollinators, fruit type, number of genera
and species, and names of a few representative genera. The systematic arrangement,
according to the author, is a compromise between traditional treatments
and the newest findings based on molecular studies.
The book is nicely organized and produced. The illustrations are uniformly
excellent and appropriately located to illustrate concepts nearby in the
text. I did not encounter any subjects that could not be located easily
in the Table of contents or the index. According to the preface, the book
is intended for students, teachers at various levels of education, and
the lay public who might be interested in new and unfamiliar aspects of
biology. The profuse use of German common names of flowers, as well as
their scientific names, should make the book more appealing to nonscientists
familiar with German. "Steppenhexen" or "Steppe witch" is apparently what
Americans would call tumbleweed. In my view, "Blüte und Frucht" could
be used by those proficient in German as an introductory text in floral
morphology and development, with the bonus of introductions to pollination
biology and fruit form and function. It is useful as a reference to research
on floral form and development by Professor Leins and his students and
colleagues. — Shirley Tucker, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology,
University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9610
The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation, by
Dolph Schluter, 2000. Oxford University Press, New York, Paper, ISBN 0-19-850522-1,
$34.95. - Speciation, species concepts, and adaptive radiation in
species lineages have been the focus of much discussion and controversy
over the last century of evolutionary biology, stimulating advances in
our understanding of ecological adaptation, population differentiation,
and the mechanisms by which new species and clades arise and are maintained
in nature. Schluter's new book, The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation,
is an important contribution to this tradition, providing a synthetic and
provocative approach to the causative factors leading to adaptive radiation.
Moreover, his empirical research with finches and stickleback fish lends
credibility to his analysis and to the links between theory and case study
that form the core of his approach to adaptive radiation. Below I highlight
the strengths and key elements of his new book.
Adaptive Radiation is written in a very engaging and accessible
style, with discussions that are well-supported by diverse examples from
plants and animals, and from theoretical as well as empirical studies.
This aspect, as well as the informative tables make it particularly valuable
for graduate students and professional biologists with an interest in evolution,
whether they be systematists or population ecologists. The book is well-organized
topically and each chapter includes helpful subheadings, and an introductory
section that poses the important questions and lays out the direction of
each chapter unit. Chapters conclude with remarks and discussion elements
that not only synthesize elements presented earlier in the book, but pose
new questions and highlight gaps in our knowledge. Thus the book is an
excellent starting point for those who want to pursue new research in this
field. Other strengths include informative box inserts (e.g. on detecting
rapid speciation and trait-environment associations) and detailed tables
that list the case studies that meet established criteria for consideration
as evidentiary examples of topics such as character displacement, adaptive
radiation, and speciation via sexual selection. The final chapter is also
a useful summary of the key points of consensus developed throughout the
text. However, the 50 year projection might have done more to take the
reader beyond the current content of Schulter's book. For example, it might
extend links between macro and microevolutionary approaches, draw in the
newly emerging tools of genomics, protenomics, and refer reader to the
role of duplicate genes and multigene families in evolution.
The book begins with a clear statement of objectives—to evaluate the
ecological theory of adaptive radiation set forth by early pioneers, most
notably Simpson, in light of new evidence. Schluter defines adaptive radiation
as the as the "evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within
a rapidly multiplying lineage," noting the importance of common ancestry
(though not necessarily monophyly), phenotype-environment correlation,
trait utility, and the rapidity of speciation. The latter can be judged
using data such as the branching rates of ancestral and descendent species
within clades, and the extent to which speciation events exceed extinctions.
He also effectively defines and establishes criteria for these terms and
concepts and for others that are critical to his evaluation of the ecological
theory of adaptive radiation. I particularly enjoyed the effectiveness
with with he defined even "simple" concepts such as environment, and his
handling of alternative definitions of adaptation and adaptive radiation.
Consistently throughout the book, Schluter presents and evaluates alternative
hypotheses—e.g. mutation and drift—as explanations for concepts ranging
from phenotypic divergence to reproductive isolation. He also includes
an impressive selection of case studies from both the plant and animal
literature in his elucidation of the three major processes contributing
to adaptive radiation: 1) phenotypic divergence of populations linked
to environment and resource use, 2) phenotypic divergence of populations
resulting from resource competition with close congeners, or from new ecological
opportunities created via release from competition from more distant taxa,
and 3) ecological speciation as a product of the same processes contributing
to phenotypic divergence in populations. Thus, the book is explicitly focused
on microevolutionary processes operating at lower taxonomic levels, rather
than on macroevolution.
Overall, the book is an outstanding contribution to the published literature
and is a must for evolutionary biologists interested in speciation and
reproductive isolation. The diversity of plant and animal examples is a
clear strength also. For botanists, plant examples that are highlighted
include not only classic cases such as the Hawaiian silversword alliance
(e.g., studies by Baldwin), but studies of Schiedea (Sakai &
Weller et al.), and Dalechampia (Armbruster) as well. Research on
Aquilegia (Hodges) is featured as a an example of a key innovation
(nectar spurs) leading to rapid evolutionary diversification. Other
plant taxa are also mentioned in relation to phenotype-environment correlations
(e.g. Encelia) and with respect to speciation, hybridization or
character displacement (e.g. research on Iris, Ipomopsis, and Iris,
by labs headed by Arnold, Campbell, and Rieseberg, respectively). However,
while plant evolutionary biologists will find much to learn from and enjoy
in Schluter's work, some important processes that contribute to speciation,
and hence to adaptive radiation are insufficiently developed as alternative
explanations or models. Certainly one book cannot hope to meet everyone's
ideal expectations, but hybridization and polyploidy received scant attention
relative to processes that predominate in animals (e.g. sexual selection).
Many studies have demonstrated niche divergence, phenotypic novelty, and
speciation involving hybridization and/or polyploidy in taxa ranging from
ferns to sunflowers. Moreover, the book would have benefited from at least
brief inclusion of the potential role of apomixis and selfing with respect
to reproductive isolation and phenotypic variation. In all, however, the
book is an excellent and provocative source of information relative to
classical and emerging concepts of the ecology of adaptive radiation. I
highly recommend it. Those interested in speciation might also want to
read the articles by Schulter and others in the recent special issue on
Speciation, published in Trends in Ecology and Evolution, June 2001,
Vol 16 (2001). - Susan R. Kephart, Department of Biology, Willamette University.
Spatial Pattern Analysis in Plant Ecology.
2000. Dale, Mark R.T. ISBN 0-521-79437-4. (paper US$35.95) 326 pp. Cambridge
University Press (http://www.cup.org/).
40 West 20th Street. New York, NY 10011-4211.- The topic of
this book is extremely interesting and important to many plant ecologists.
Unfortunately, I found this book to be excessively telegraphic, with a
number of other shortcomings. The book concerns primarily measurement of
data, followed by analysis of measurements. It gives little attention to
simulation studies, fitting of models to data, or hypothesis testing. There
is only passing reference to Monte Carlo simulation, one of the most important
and powerful modeling and hypothesis testing methods used in ecology. I
found no mention of agent-based models, and only a scant paragraph on cellular
automata as compared to Markov models, which are themselves not adequately
described. Perhaps these subjects should have been either given more detail,
or omitted. The types of measurements discussed are primarily restricted
to one or two dimensions: usually transect or quadrat measurements of plant
distributions on a plane (a land surface) at a moment in time. It would
have been helpful to discuss not only methods applicable to plants in three
dimensional space, such as in a body of water or in a forest canopy (this
lack mentioned in the book), but also methods of spatial and temporal pattern
analysis that are commonly used in plant paleoecology. The bibliography
is fairly good, emphasizing applied work (especially case studies) but
with few references to the historical or statistical literature. There
is an index, which is useful, but I wish it were far more extensive.
For established researchers in plant ecology, this book will probably
serve as a useful overview of methods of spatial pattern analysis. For
graduate students or others just getting started, I recommend first reading
one of the classics (my favorite is Diggle, 1983). I think this book does
a fair job of filling a significant gap in the plant ecology literature,
and I hope there will be a future, revised edition. _ Una Smith, Los Alamos
National Laboratory, MS K-710, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545.
Diggle, P.J. 1983. Statistical analysis of spatial point patterns. Mathematics
in biology, Academic Press, London; New York.
Spatial Patterns in Catchment Hydrology.
Observations and Modelling. Rodger Grayson, and Gunter Bloschl, Ed.
2001. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. - Spatial Patterns
in Catchment Hydrology is an international compilation that deals with
various aspects of spatial variability and hydrologic modeling. The common
thread throughout this volume is that the calibration and validation of
distributed parameter hydrologic models needs to incorporate comparisons
between model results and patterns of measured phenomena to provide insight
into how well these models represent the processes governing water fluxes
that vary spatially. The number of actual cases of this type of comparison
is relatively small. Most hydrologic models have been calibrated against
data from a limited amount of stream hydrograph data from a limited number
of gaging stations. The problem with this type of calibration is that for
any given situation there are probably a multitude of possible model realizations
based on a variety of parameter configurations that may result in a good
statistical `fit' between modeled and measured hydrograph data. While these
types of comparisons are important, they do not provide us with much information
about how well the models are actually representing the processes that
cause rainfall, infiltration, recharge, throughflow, and runoff to vary
The individual chapters (each written by different scientists) are organized
into three parts. Part one covers topics considered by the authors and
editors to be "fundamental" to spatial hydrologic modeling. Part two contains
seven case studies where distributed models have been calibrated using
a wide variety of spatial data. Part three contains two relatively short
chapters that discuss approaches to distributed hydrologic model calibration
and validation using spatial data, and summary remarks about spatial patterns
pertinent to hydrologic processes and their modeling.
The text is generally well written and edited though it has what I would
refer to as a decidedly European flavor in terms of spelling and grammar.
With the exception of some of the in-depth model descriptions the text
is also relatively easy to read. The figures are clear and useful and the
graphics quality is very good throughout the book. The only mechanical
criticism I have is with regard to the reference information. The book
has a single large reference section at the end of the book. This method
seems odd for a compilation of chapters written by different authors discussing
different albeit related subject material. I suppose that having individual
chapter reference sections would introduce some redundancy, but I constantly
found myself having to thumb to the back of the book to look up sources.
It would have been much more convenient to have the references for each
chapter at the end of each chapter.
Particular Things I liked about the book.
The breadth of the topical, technical, climatic, and geographical coverage
within the framework of spatially modeling hydrologic processes is quite
good. Topics included the spatial variability of snow cover, soil moisture,
precipitation, runoff, shallow groundwater, and groundwater/vadose zone
interactions. A wide variety of techniques for gathering data and modeling
processes related to these topics were used. Climates ranged from alpine
to semiarid to humid tropical. Geographical coverage encompassed four continents.
My overall impressions from the case studies were that no single method
is necessarily applicable in all settings and that different processes
are most important to capture correctly the hydrologic fluxes in different
settings. Together, the case studies provide a reasonably thorough overview
of methods currently available, their accuracy, and where research areas
need to concentrate to improve modeling results.
Minor shortcomings and omissions
I hesitate to criticize this work because it is I believe a very valuable
contribution to hydrology. I am also acutely aware that decisions have
to be made in the planning and editing stages of such a work regarding
its ultimate length and breadth of coverage. However, from my admittedly
biased perspective, there are a few useful topics that are conspicuously
missing. First, and probably most obvious is the lack of discussion regarding
the application of geographic information systems (GIS) techniques for
modeling hydrologic processes and available GIS datasets that can be used
in distributed hydrologic models. In a text dealing with the spatial variability
of hydrologic processes that discusses distributed parameter input data
and spatial modeling it seems strange that the term GIS is only briefly
mentioned on four pages. GIS is such a common tool used for managing spatial
data sets, supplying input data to models, and for the graphic display
of model results that I think it probably deserves at least equal billing
with the remote sensing techniques discussed extensively in various sections
of the text. Second, I was a little troubled that in a book about the study
of spatial patterns that there was no mention of indicator kriging. It
strikes me that the discussion about interpolating parameters in chapter
2 would be greatly enhanced by a discussion about this well documented
technique that facilitates the interpolation and mapping of spatial patterns
of the likelihood that a given parameter exceeds a given threshold value.
Third, there are specific chapters devoted to the discussion of the variability
of precipitation and evaporation processes that are very appropriate and
necessary but the variability of soil properties affecting hydrology is
not discussed as a formal topic. Considering the importance of soil properties
for modeling infiltration, runoff generation, water storage, evapotranspiration,
and recharge it would seem that a discussion of the techniques used to
assess, model, and represent soil variability might have been appropriate.
The editors of this text indicated in the Preface that the book is designed
for "...two types of readers". Those with "… a general knowledge of catchment
hydrology…" who want to learn more, and "…hydrologists who already have
a sound knowledge of methods for spatial data analysis and of distributed
modelling, but are thinking of undertaking studies similar to those presented
in the book." I believe that I can safely say that the editors and authors
hit their mark reasonably well. This book would be a valuable resource
for both types of readers. I could also see this book being a resource
for scientists who are not hydrologists, but who wish to understand more
about hydrologic modeling. - Richard Sleezer, Earth Science Department,
Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas, USA.
The Gardener's Guide to Growing Orchids.
Rittershausen, Wilma and Brian. 2001. ISBN 0-88192-496-2 (Cloth US$29.95)
159 pp. Timber Press, Suite 450, 133 SW Second Avenue, Portland, Oregon
97204 - - The "Gardener's Guide to Growing Orchids" is a recent addition
to the plethora of similar "how-to" books on orchids. It is written mostly
for those orchid fanciers living in temperate climates and northern regions
almost to the exclusion of those in the subtropics and tropics where orchids
may be brought to their glory without greenhouse shelters. Thus an extensive
part of the current work deals with greenhouse culture virtually ignoring
aspects of outdoor culture.
Like other books on growing orchids, authors Wilma and Brian Rittershausen
perpetuate the sloppy horticultural terminology characteristic of this
genre. They still "feed" orchids and do not recognize that orchids do not
eat, but manufacture their own food through photosynthesis. Inflorescences
are invariably called "spikes," they anthropomorphize the plants that "like"
a richer compost and "dislike" the extremes of being cold, and write about
roots that "breathe." Then there is British terminology that may be offputting
to the non-British: they write of "mains of water" and "cottonwool," and
they burn "paraffin" in their greenhouse heaters. Hoses have a "lance"
(nozzle) at the end, and orchids may be watered with a "rosed" can.
The chapter on "Orchids in the Home" is informative as is the section
on potting, although they indicate that "chunks of fir bark [are], obtained
from pine forest trees." Too, they ignore some important potting media
as osmunda "fiber" and tree fern plaques and "totems." The chapter on "Pests
and Diseases" would have benefited from illustrations of the pests. Spicer
mites are not sprayed with insecticides, rather with miticides. Appendix
3, "Reading about Orchids," contains nine books of 13 by the Rittershausens.
It ignores such time-tested treatises as Rebecca Northen's comprehensive
"Home Orchid Growing" (1990. Simon & Schuster, New York).
The "Glossary" is helpful, but somewhat misleading, e.g., the pollen
cap is not the anther, monopodial orchids do not produce "an upward-growing
rhizome from which grow pairs of leaves," mycorrhizae inhabit orchid roots,
and the pseudobulb stores food as well as water.
Outstanding features of the book are the excellent color renditions
of orchid flowers and the extensive descriptive listing of popularly grown
orchid species and hybrids. Each of these is accompanied by brief notes
on its habitat in nature, the appearance of the plant and its flowers,
and pertinent cultural tips. Generic descriptions are helpful outlining
the geographic distribution of each genus, discussing taxonomic questions,
and describing general cultural requirements. An index to plants names
and subject matter complete the volume. Although there are certain inadequacies
in this book, the beautiful illustrations and excellent plant descriptions
will make worthwhile contributions to one's shelf of orchid literature.
_ William Louis Stern, Department of Botany, University of Florida.
Gifts of Winter: Catalogue of an Exhibition.
2000. White, James J and Lugene B. Bruno. ISBN 9-913196-69-X (paper US$16.00)
72 pp. Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University,
5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 152113-3890. _ We recently had our first
winter storm of the year _ an ice storm followed by several inches of snow.
Walking to work the next morning was a beautiful sight, but many of the
58 illustrations in this attractive volume that celebrates the winter season
are nearly as moving. Most of the works represented are from the Hunt Collection,
but 14 were produced specifically for the exhibition by artists Richard
Carroll, Charles Pitcher, and Michael Wheeler.
The reproductions are of excellent quality and are artfully arranged.
On several facing pages, similar subjects in different styles or from different
times are juxtaposed. For example, the contemporary watercolor of White
ash, Black cherry, Shadbrush, Red maple, Ohio buckeye, American elm,
by Anne Ophelia Dowden (1975) balances the watercolor of [Maple Leaves]
attributed to Samuel Wickersham (1869). The details in both, down to fungal
lesions and insect damage, are remarkable. I particularly enjoyed the two
series by Carroll and Pitcher. One can almost feel the texture of the individual
specimens Carroll paints: a maple seed, a cluster of dried grapes, a hickory
fruit or a dried and shriveled Sassafras leaf. Picture frames a mood, almost
dream-like, with a thicket of peeling sycamore trunks or stand of birch
Interspersed with the artwork are some poems of the season taken from
Flora and Thalia; or, Gems of flowers and poetry by a lady (London,
printed for Henry Washbourne, 1835), Floral poesy, a book for all seasons
(London, Frederick Warne & Co., n.d.), and The Book of Flower Fairies,
Cicely Mary Barker, 1927.
At the end is a conspectus of the artists and their works. This is a
delightful volume to peruse on a winter evening and would make an excellent
gift for yourself or a friend. _ Marshall D. Sundberg, Department of Biology,
Emporia State University, Emporia, KS 66801.
The Himalayan Garden: Growing Plants from
the Roof of the World. Jermyn, Jim. 2001; ISBN 0-88192-500-4 (Hardbound,
$34.95) 320 pp. Timber Press, Inc, 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland,
OR, 97204-3527. - Although Mr. Jermyn admits early in his book that he
has never been to the Himalayan region proper, his knowledge and fascination
with the plants of this region is completely apparent. The book reads like
an intriguing catalog of beautiful plants, enticing you to cultivate them
in your own garden. Descriptions are given for all plants along with a
brief natural history or a bit of information on how to grow them. For
me, the book's superior aspect was the amazing, glossy, color photographs
located on almost every other page throughout the book. Seeing these beautiful
plants, I felt inspired to take on even the most challenging species.
The book begins with an introduction to the ecological divisions of
the Himalayas, which forms the outline as the book is divided into chapters
along elevational gradients in the Central Himalayas. Mr. Jermyn uses this
approach because the elevation where the plant is found in nature will
dictate where and how it ought to be placed in the garden. For example,
he discusses peat gardens within the chapter entitled ìTemperate
Zone,î because some plants, such as certain Primula species, from
the temperate elevation zone do best in a peat garden. After the temperate
zone, there is a chapter on the subalpine zone and lastly, a chapter on
the alpine zone. I was disappointed, particularly given the title of the
book, that this latter chapter was the shortest of the three zones; though,
perhaps the short length of the alpine zone chapter reflects the difficulty
of growing plants from this elevation. The book finishes with two short
chapters: one on propagation, the other on pests and diseases.
The second chapter in the book is devoted to a short history of plant
hunting in the central Himalayas and some discussion on conservation. I
think this chapter is important because Mr. Jermyn stresses the idea that
plants from this region ought not to be dug up en masse and removed for
greedy growers in other countries. Instead, he stresses that many plants
can be grown from propagation or from seed and that we, as consumers, should
be careful to purchase our Himalayan species from reputable gardens.
This book is not really a how-to book on rock gardens or alpine plants.
If one were more interested in specific information on how to make a rock
garden or on how to cultivate alpine plants, then I would recommend Creating
and Planting Garden Troughs by Joyce Fingerut and Rex Murfitt. However,
Mr. Jermyn does have some wonderful conceptual
and design recommendations for creating a woodland garden using Himalayan
Clearly this book is written more for the horticulturist and gardener
than for the botanist, and Mr. Jermyn has some humorous critiques of our
profession. After describing his frustration with name changes on species
of which he was fond, he writes, "Though I may have belabored this point,
I feel strongly that most readers are down-to-earth gardeners like myself
and deserve some sort of explanation of what the botanists are up to."
Indeed, what are we botanists up to?
My main criticism of the book has less to do with Mr. Jermyn's treatment
than it does with my own selfishness. Although the book is called The
Himalayan Garden, it should really be entitled "The Central Himalayan
Garden" because the western Himalayas are poorly treated. This was disappointing
to me since I live in southern Colorado, where the climate is much more
like the Himalayas of western India or Pakistan. Many of the species Mr.
Jermyn describes are much better suited to his U.K. home or to our Pacific
Northwest than to the semi-arid climate in which I live. Some Himalayan
genera common in Colorado gardens are overlooked in this book. For example,
species of Bergenia [Saxifragaceae] and Acantholimon [Plumbaginaceae]
were recently found in a plant-hunting trip to Pakistan (Kelaidis, 2001),
but neither is mentioned in The Himalayan Garden.
Despite the fact that many of the species may prove too challenging
for my dry and alkaline garden, I would still recommend it for rock gardeners
and those interested in Himalayan plants. Mr. Jermyn's knowledge of his
subjects and descriptions of them are impeccable. There are many interesting
facts about various species, and I think most botanists with any interest
in mountain flora would find this book an enjoyable read. — Catherine Kleier,
Curator, Adams State College Herbarium, Department of Biology, Adams State
College, Alamosa, CO 81102.
Fingerut, J., and R. Murfit. 1999. Creating and Planting Garden Troughs.
B.B. Mackey Books, Wayne, PA.
Kelaidis, P. 2002. Diamonds in the rough: natural wonders abound on
the steppes and high western Himalayan Mountains of Pakistan. Denver
Botanic Gardens Newsletter: Jan/Feb: 2-3.
Landscaping with Herbs. Adams, James.
Timber Press 2001 (paperback edition of 1987 hardcover book). ISBN 0-88192-514-4.
223 pages. - - Working with a botanical garden on a wild and wooded site
on the Maine coast, I have been looking for practical ideas for landscaping
the rocky ledges that can be conveyed to our visitors with similar landscaping
challenges. With this in mind, I thought of herbs with their fragrance
and variety of shapes and textures. A book called "Landscaping with Herbs"
should have had just the advice I needed. However, crammed though it is
with information, this was an extremely difficult book from which to find
useful and practical advice.
The author identifies several kinds of landscapes where herbs could
be used, including a fragrant garden, formal gardens (both beneficial and
for beauty), informal landscape, contemporary landscape and the wild landscape.
For each landscape type he provides a descriptive essay on the landscape
type, a descriptive essay on the herbs for that type, and another essay
he calls a walk through the landscape. Each of these essays ramble over
pages of small paragraphs without subheading or spacing to indicate his
ultimate goal. In the herb essays, recipes are randomly scattered throughout
and since most of them seem to find ways to use fennel, they appeared to
me to be quite repetitive. Their relevance to the topic of landscaping
was not at all clear. There were several landscape plans showing homes
and lawns, surrounded by curved garden borders dotted with a variety of
plantings, including trees, shrubs and perennials with a few herbs added,
although the logic of their placement was difficult to discern in this
format. The color photos of gardens, mostly in the Seattle area, gave a
better of idea of the possible combinations.
More useful are the Appendices of the book where there is a hardiness
zone map. There is also a chart listing the scientific names of many different
herbs along with various information needed to plan their planting location
such as blossom color, sun and moisture requirements and potential pests.
Another table showed landscape uses and herbal uses, this time listed by
common name, making these two charts difficult to compare. An interesting
dictionary of the various Latin genus and species names could actually
be very useful in teaching a course on herbs. Finally, a detailed index,
identifying references to the recipes as well as the essay text could be
helpful in relocating information one had seen somewhere in the essays.
Overall, I wished that the author had taken a more structured and concise
approach to the subject as he does in setting out "ten steps to a knot
garden". In structuring the essays, clearly identifying some basic principles
for including different herbs into a landscaping plan would have been helpful.
- Joanne M. Shapre, Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens, Boothbay, ME 04537
Tylenchida: Parasites of Plants and Insects.
2nd Edition, by M.R. Siddiqi. CABI Publishing, New York, New York.
2000. xvii + 833 p. $225. ISBN 0-85199-202-1. - In 1986 the first edition
of this book was released, and it rapidly gained broad acceptance as the
most significant publication in the field of nematology. Since that time
Dr. Siddiqi's definitive work has inspired and directed such a tremendous
volume of research on these numerically dominant and economically important
plant parasites that the publication of a second edition became a necessity.
The first edition has been out of print for several years, so the release
of the second edition will provide relief to the weary nematologists that
have diligently protected their worn copies from covetous graduate students.
Although the taxonomic importance of the Tylenchida might be lost on
some, the economic importance of this group should be well known among
botanists. Moreover, one has only to glance at the descriptions and depictions
of the radiations of the tylenchids to be overwhelmed by the extensive,
yet finely partitioned, continua of life-histories, physiological requirements,
and ecological adaptations. Although Dr. Siddiqi's primary goal was to
outline a meaningful and current classification for this extensive group,
what has emerged is a veritable catalog of model systems for those more
interested in biological processes than specific taxa.
The first chapter contains as thorough an introduction to the tylenchids
as could be imparted upon such a diverse group, including their radiation,
life-histories and ontogeny, habitats and feeding habits, ecology, epidemiology
and control. A glossary of taxonomic terminology also is included in the
first chapter, perhaps as preparation for the subsequent historical review
of the taxonomy of the Tylenchida. Also contained within the first chapter
is an overview of nematological techniques that guides the reader through
the entire process, from collection to final preparation for light or electron
The second chapter contains a complete, yet concise, overview of the
anatomical and structural characteristics of the Nematoda, complete with
vivid SEM micrographs, and clear diagrams. What follows in an excellent
primer on taxonomical methods, including an explanation of nomenclature,
and a description of the various methods and associated analyses for both
structural and molecular data. The chapter concludes with an overview of
evolutionary systematics covering both cladistic and phenetic approaches.
The origin and phylogeny of the Tylenchida are discussed in the third
chapter, with the remainder of the book being devoted to the description
(including diagnoses, differential keys, and etymologies) and classification
of the constituent valid genera and higher taxonomic categories of the
Tylenchida. The focus is on clear identification, with the goal of supplying
a reference suitable for students and researchers dealing with plant and
insect nematology, plant pathology, and workers in the field of plant quarantine.
This goal is realized through the classification by subgenus and subfamily
in several taxa, the clarity of the text, and the numerous diagrams and
electron micrographs, all of superior quality, that depict clearly the
characters outlined in the diagnoses.
Although alternative classification schemes are presented in detail,
the author's perception of this diverse group, based on 40 years of experience,
is unabashedly interwoven into the tapestry of classification that is presented.
This is precisely what makes this work so invaluable. Dr. Siddiqi clearly
states that progress in the field of taxonomy arises only from dissention,
and invites readers to `oblige the scientific community' by improving upon
his insights and theses. This edition has been extensively re-written,
in essence constituting a new book rather than a second edition, and its
impact certainly will be felt as broadly, if not more so, than the first
edition. As remarkable as it is that a single individual could produce
two such milestones in a single lifetime, even a brief perusal of this
book will convince you that the task could only fall to Dr. Siddiqi. -
Derek A. Zelmer, Department of Biological Sciences, Emporia State
University, Emporia, KS 66801.
Nature's Government, Science, Imperial Britain,
and the `Improvement' of the World. Drayton, Richard. 2000; Yale Univ.
Press; ISBN: 0300059760 (Hardcover $40.00) 346 pp. + xxi.- In this richly
illustrated, provocative study the story of the origins and development
the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew becomes a vantage point from which one
can understand changing ideas about botany, science and British imperial
government from the mid eighteenth to the early twentieth century. The
notion of "improvement" for the sake of creating a useable and orderly
nature, lay deeply embedded in ideas about the study of botany and science
during this period, justifying and stimulating developments as diverse
as the creation of botanic gardens like Kew, to new methods of plant classification,
to remarks such as those made by Puritan minister John Cotton who proclaimed
about Colonial New England that those who "`bestoweth culture and husbandry
on it [the land], his Right it is.'"(p. 57). Drayton argues that the concept
of nature as property for use and development depended upon collecting
information about nature, what he calls "Nature's Government." He devotes
most of his analysis to developments between the late eighteenth and early
twentieth centuries because these were years of British imperial expansion
when Enlightened government joined forces with the scientific community,
and botany in particular, to collect information and legitimize their actions
through schemes for agricultural improvement, both at home and abroad.
Botanic gardens played a significant role in these experiments. Under
the leadership of Sir Joseph Banks (1783-1820), and Sir William Hooker
and his son (1841-1873), Kew Gardens evolved from a garden that served
as royal showcase for exotic, ornamental plants to one that vigorously
promoted the economic uses of plants throughout Britain's possessions.
Services the Garden provided for the improvement of the Empire included:
its role as a repository, and disseminator, of plants and seeds from around
the world; its patronage of voyages for discovery and collections of plants,
such as that of the infamous Captain Bligh and his collection of Breadfruit;
and its support of a network of colonial botanic gardens with agendas similar
to that of Kew. The Garden's work in the collection, germination and dissemination
of chinchona, used for the production of quinine, is just one of many endeavors
that made Kew a "useful garden."
The author makes a convincing argument that lurking behind many of Kew
Gardens activities in support of the Empire lay an ulterior motive, that
of the professionalization of science, and botany in particular. Under
the leadership of the Hookers, Kew Garden became a world-class herbarium
and "international centre for the science of botany."(p. 220) Kew Gardens
endures in these roles, outlasting its early connections with British imperialism,
even though the it can no longer claim to house a "scientific empire" (267)
as it could until the early years of the twentieth century. The ideology
of "improvement" did not evaporate with the British Empire. Drayton argues
that Kew Garden's economic function within the ideology of improvement
was adopted by other influential British government institutions by the
middle of the twentieth century. Still later, institutions such as UNESCO
and the World Bank assumed the task of improvement. What remains for all
of us today, as Drayton points out, are questions concerning the human
and environmental costs arising from free trade, the marketing of nature
and ecological interchange.
This is a timely book. Recent studies such as Empire's Nature: Mark
Catesby's New World Vision and an upcoming conference, sponsored by
the Omohundro Institute, entitled "From Bacon to Bartram: New World Inquiries
into the Natural World," raise similar issues concerning the connections
between science, nature and empire, especially in early America. The interdisciplinary
character of Nature's Government makes this book useful reading
for a wide academic audience ranging from economic botanists to environmental
historians For some of these readers the connection between "improvement"
and colonization will be familiar from other works, including William Cronon's,
influential Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology
of New England. What is intriguing about this book is the combination
of these themes with the work of a botanic gardens, particularly the Royal
Botanic Gardens at Kew. - - Sara Brooks Sundberg, Department of History,
Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas.
Cronon, William.1983.Changes in the Land, Indians, Colonists, and
the Ecology of New England, Hill and Wang, N.Y.
Meyers, Amy R. W. and Margaret Beck Prichard, 1998 Empire's Nature,
Mark Catesby's New World Vision, University of North Carolina Press,
"From Bacon to Bartram: New World Inquiries Into the Natural
World," An Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture
Conference, March 22-24, 2002, American Museum of Natural History, New
York City, New York.
Plant Life of the Quaternary Cold Stages, Evidence from the British
Isles. Richard West, 2000, ISBN 0-5215-9397-2 (hard cover, $105.00),
320 pp, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom. - The Quaternary Period,
a subdivision of geologic time, is separated into two epochs; the Pleistocene
(2.3 million years ago to 10,000 years ago) and the Holocene (10,000 years
ago to present). The Pleistocene is best known for its ice ages. During
the Pleistocene, however, the climate vacillated from cool to warm causing
massive polar ice caps to expand and contract. Many glaciers covered and
altered the earth's surface during the cold stages, especially in northern
Europe and North America. Warmer, temperate periods (interglacials) of
shorter duration occurred between glaciations. As a consequence, geographical
ranges of many plant and animals species changed throughout the Pleistocene.
Some species expanded hundreds of kilometers northward onto new deglaciated
terrain during each interglacial interval but retreated to more southern
latitudes when glaciers expanded. In areas that were not overridden by
ice sheets, some species persisted through long intervals of less favorable
climate in small isolated populations within their interglacial range,
whereas others species shifted to more favorable, lower latitudes.
Richard West, a botanist and geologist, analyzed 94 cold stage, Pleistocene
vegetation sites from Britain and Ireland. Most of the sites are distributed
throughout southeast Britain. Five sites are scattered throughout Ireland,
and five sites are located on the Isles of Scilly. The majority of the
sites are confined to river, gravel floodplains in low-lying areas or lacustrine
areas situated within kettle holes. Many of the sites belong to the Devensian
(Last Cold Stage) but other floras extended back into the Middle and Early
Pleistocene. Lists documenting 6651 records of macroscopic plant remains
including fruits, fruit stalk, sporangium, cone scales, sheathing leaf
base, mycorrhizal root, wood and leaves and 13,775 pollen records are noted.
Included in the taxa records are frequency, age, site, comments on identification,
and count. Data for most of the sites were published prior to 1995 but
a number of unpublished accounts are also presented.
The book is divided into sixteen chapters. The first six chapters give
an overview of the floras with regards to geologic setting, sedimentary
environments, taphonomy, explanation of abbreviations used in data tables,
and site locations. The seventh chapter uses information from various data
tables to provide a family-by-family conspectus of vascular plants found
throughout all 94-site localities. Macroscopic or microscopic remains of
genera and species, distribution, habitat, and preservational quality are
Details regarding the representation of taxa in the fossil flora are
presented in Chapters 8 - 12. Chapter 9 compares biological aspects of
the cold stage flora to present-day floras growing in more northern areas
including the Arctic and Denmark. The percentages of Hemicryptophyte, Cryptophyte
and Therophytes, the life span of plants, physiological plasticity, and
species variability are considered. These comparisons suggest how the Pleistocene
cold stage floras were distinct and have little relation to present Arctic
vegetation. The Pleistocene floras were more varied, widespread and productive.
Each species has its own particular history, ecological physiology and
genetic variability. Habitats of the cold stage floras are discussed in
Chapter 10. West notes how latitude differences with regard to solar insolation
and differences in soil drainage may account for greater variability in
The present distribution of fossil taxa is the theme of Chapter 11.
Changes in sea levels, migration routes, anthropogenic causes, and time
table records account for many geographical groupings that are presented.
West states that cold stage conditions gave short-lived species the opportunity
to thrive in open environments but that some cold-stage species preferred
to thrive in disturbed habitats associated with more temperate regimes.
As a result, many cold stage species could respond to changing environments.
Chapter 12 identifies specific plant records and categorizes the vegetation
into distinct habitats including polar desert, grassland and meadow, dunes,
heaths, marshes, woodlands, and salinity fields. West concludes that regional
grasslands dominated stadial assemblages whereas interstadial assemblages
had more forest development.
The reconstruction of past climates associated with the cold stage floras
is accounted for in Chapter 13. Evidence from geologic sediments, oxygen
isotopes, snowfall, pollen dispersal, paleobotanical indicator species,
and competition are contemplated. January and July temperature ranges and
precipitation levels are estimated. West notes, however, that climate reconstruction
is complex. For example, some species that currently live in northern areas
also occur in more southern areas where soils and lack of shade provide
Cold stage vertebrate and invertebrate fauna that are associated with
the Pleistocene floras are the subject of Chapter 14. Similar to other
areas in North America and Asia, large herbivores including Bison roamed
the grasslands during the stadials. West notes that former authors have
used the composition of beetle assemblages to infer specific climatic tolerances
but that this idea could be misleading. Some ranges for beetles may have
been more widespread in the past. For example, West notes that in Late
Devensian assemblages, a local Tibetan species was associated with present-day
How the cold stage stadial flora arose and its demise are discussed
in Chapter 15. West emphasized that this flora originated in the late Tertiary,
contain elements of modern arctic-alpine and temperate vegetation, and
is unlike any other flora that exists today. Its extinction is partly contributed
to the destruction of forests by Neolithic man and the agricultural revolution.
The final chapter suggests that future studies including DNA analysis,
improvements in taxonomy and an atlas of fossil macroscopic plant parts
could aid in understanding climate change.
This book is written for the specialist interested in Quaternary climates.
It also is an important reference for students who want to know more about
present floras and their environments. Detailed species lists are provided
along with an appendix that lists taxa found in the cold stage sediments.
Multiple references that span the 1950's to the late 1990's are cited throughout
the text. Numerous tables are included throughout the various chapters
which are often confusing unless one refers to abbreviations used in earlier
chapters. Included with the text is a compact disc that provides a searchable
format of the cold stage flora. - Nina L. Baghai-Riding, Department of
Biological Sciences, Delta State University, Cleveland, MS 38733
Bulbophyllums and Their Allies. Siegerist.
Emily, S.2001. ISBN 0-88192-506 (Hardbound $34.95) 251 pp. Timber Press,
Inc., 133 S. W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, Oregon 97204.- A recollection
of a Bulbophyllum in full bloom in the Bogor Botanical Gardens,
Indonesia I have had for about 30 years is of a revolting stench which
nearly made me vomit while trying to photograph the flower. Such disagreeable
odors ("compared to the stench of dead elephants that have been in the
sun for many days," according to Siegerist) are not unusual among flowers
in this genus. In the case of Bulbophyllum phalaenopsis the flower
may "appear to the [carrion] flies to be the maggot-riddled flesh of dead
animals." The foul smell "accentuates this fallacy." The sex life of orchids
is weird and wonderful, is it not?
Even after the Orchidaceae has been relegated to second place in terms
of size after the Asteraceae it is still a huge family. And, it contains
a number of very large genera. Bulbophyllum is one of them with
2700 known species. It is a worldwide genus found mainly in Malesia, New
Guinea, Australia, India to Madagascar and Africa with a few species in
the Americas. Plant size varies greatly within the genus. Only a few species
produce beautiful flowers of the kind that is common among orchids. Some
are relatively large, but others are nearly microscopic. Not all produce
foul smells as pollinator attractants. Several smelling bulbophyllums are
pollinated by nectar seeking flies which probably prefer sweeter fragrances.
A book covering all 2700 Bulpbophyllum species is a near impossibility.
The author clearly recognized this fact and wisely selected to cover 375
Bulbophyllum species (approximately 14% of the total) plus 170 related
taxa and hybrids. In addition to descriptions the author also provides
lists of synonyms where applicable. This is especially important in view
of the penchant of orchid taxonomists to constantly create new species
and genera, eliminate and/or reduce existing ones to synonymy, constantly
transfer taxa back and forth between existing and newly created classification
concepts and engage in never ending squabbles. An example of these gymnastics
(none of which are the author's fault) is Bulbophyllum odoratissimum
(J. E. Smith) Lindley which was established in 1830 and is considered to
be a valid name at present after being Stelis odoratissima J. E.
Smith in 1816, Stelis caudata D. Don in 1825, Tribrachia odoratissima
(J. E. Smith) Lindley in 1826 and Phyllorchis odoratissima (J.
E. Smith) Kuntze in 1891.
Descriptions of species, hybrids and horticultural requirements are
concise, but clear, informative and entirely sufficient. I think that those
who may wish to grow and identify the species described in this book will
find them to be entirely satisfactory and the book as a whole to be very
useful. It is also an enjoyable book to read.
The book has 77 color illustrations each identified as a plate despite
the fact that in most cases several photographs are printed on one page.
What should have been done is to call each page a plate and label the photographs
as figures. This is probably due to poor copy editing. Some of the photographs
are excellent, a few leave some to be desired, but the majority are at
least good enough to illustrate the flower in question. However all suffer
from not being printed well enough to be lustrous and to "jump off the
page" as orchid pictures should and generally do in well produced books.
This is certainly not the fault of the author and the photographers.
A book like this one should have a subject index, but this one does
not. All index entries are of plant names. Regardless of whether this is
an error of omission (by the author who failed to prepare it) or commission
(by the publisher who did not insist on one) the absence of a subject index
will detract from the usefulness of the book. On the other hand the glossary
(pages 220-225) is very helpful. Another welcome part of the book is the
section on hybrids (pages 213-218).
Bulbophyllums is not a book for scientists. It is a book for growers
and orchid lovers. As such it is well written, informative, and excellent
as a guide. I do not have any bulbophyllums in my greenhouse. This book
made me wish I did, but then a recollection came back from my days in Bogor.
_ Joseph Arditti, Departrment of Developmental and Cell Biology, University
of California, Irvine, CA 92697.
Cape Plants A conspectus of the Cape Flora of
South Africa. Goldblatt, P., and J. Manning. 2000. ISBN 0-620-26236-2.
Strelitzia 9: 1-774. (Hardbound) XXX 774 pp. National Botanical Institute
of South Africa, Private Bag X101, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. - Few temperate
floras can compare with that of the Cape Region. Plant life is diverse
and, in a word-bizarre. As a frequent field worker in the region, I am
always struck by how much some of the plants in the northern Cape region
look like the plants in Dr. Seuss books. The range of habits, especially
of succulent perennials, is no less remarkable than the rate of endemism.
For example, in the Cape flora the genus Erica comprises 658 species
of which 635 are endemic. Cape plants are not only diverse and strange
in morphology, they also have fantastic pollination syndromes like the
beetle flowers of Hydnora africana. Just recently a gerbil pollinated
plant was described! And new species are being found, including tiny quillworts
discovered since the publication of the book (Musselman and Roux, unpublished).
So, having a volume that can guide us through this wonderland of plants
is a welcome addition that involved a tremendous effort by Goldblatt and
Manning and the almost forty contributing specialists. Cape Plants will
prove an invaluable resource for botanical research. It builds on the wonderful
tradition of botanical research in South Africa with its network of botanical
gardens and herbaria as well as a plethora of publications on every aspect
of the flora.
After a succinct introduction to the physical characteristics, floristic
composition, and diversity of the Cape region, there is a selection of
colored plates, well reproduced. Families are arranged according to the
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group recommendation. Genera and species are arranged
alphabetically. This is a conspectus; no family or generic descriptions
are given. Family and genus entries give the number of taxa worldwide and
the distribution within the Cape region and elsewhere. Common names in
English and Afrikaans (but not in indigenous languages) are included as
well as taxonomic synonyms. Species entries are the most detailed with
the habit, selected salient features, along with flowering (or other sexual
reproduction) time, habitat and distribution.
Obviously, the value of a flora to someone unfamiliar with the plants
depends on the utility of the keys. I found the keys simple and workable.
Family keys are in the back of the book.
Following the family keys is a section of taxonomic notes showing that
the authors have placed their work in the context of on going modern systematic
work. An appendix includes statistics for the families including data on
the number of genera, endemic genera and species, and the distribution
of endemism within the floristic provinces of the Cape region. The index
includes families, genera, and their synonyms.
Conspectus of the Cape Flora is not a field guide! The book is
heavy, well bound, and well printed. This is a massive work and a major
contribution to floristic research in Africa which will be invaluable to
botanists, ecologists, wildlife managers, conservation workers, and anyone
interested in the stunning flora of the Cape region. Herbaria, botanical
gardens, museums, and libraries will want this essential reference on their
bookshelves. - Lytton John Musselman, Department of Biological Sciences,
Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0266.
Flora Europaea on CD-ROM. 2001. ISBN
0-521-77811-5 (CD-ROM US$550) Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th
Street, New York, NY 10011-4211. The famous Flora Europaea is available
now on CD. The CD-ROM contains the full text of the five volumes of Flora
Europaea including all maps and appendices; the first volume is from
the 2nd edition. Flora Europaea is probably the most important
reference for the identification of ferns and fern allies, gymnosperms
and angiosperms growing wild or widely cultivated in Europe, and covers
more than 10,000 taxa. It does not contain pictures and distribution maps;
the geographic distribution of a species within Europe is indicated by
listing the geographical territories in which it is found. Territories
where the species are not native are especially marked.
The CD-ROM is easy to install and opens with a Main Menu
offering a preface, instructions on how to use the CD, Text of Flora
Europaea, and several interactive functions, including Indexes,
Identification Keys, Search and Glossary. These interactive
functions can be accessed from every screen. The Indexes function
opens with a panel containing all genera and families included in Flora
Europaea. Users may scroll through the list or write a name in a text
box on top of the panel, leading to the respective name in the list. Selecting
a name gives a list of all species of that genus on a new panel. From here,
access to the species description in the text is provided by highlighting
the name. Once in the text, one can easily flick through it backward and
forward. The text can also be directly accessed from the main menu by choosing
Text of Flora Europaea.
Fully interactive identification keys are provided by selecting Identification
Keys from the main menu. A first couplet of a key appears, and selecting
the appropriate character leads to the next couplet of the key. The selected
characters are sequentially displayed in a separate panel, allowing the
user to retrace the route taken. At any point it is possible to obtain
a list of taxa corresponding to the selected characters. The Search
option allows to use wildcards and up to 25 search items linkable by Boolean
operators, thus providing a powerful search tool. Results of the searches
lead to the respective pages or paragraphs of the text. From the text or
key, immediate access to the Glossary is possible where taxonomic
terms are defined. To open Glossary it is sufficient to highlight
a term in the text or key.
The CD-ROM does not allow to perform simple tabulations, e.g., tabulating
number of species of a certain genus among several countries. For researchers,
such an option would greatly increase the value of any electronic flora,
although it is clear that the present CD has not the purpose for performing
statistics. Occasionally, one finds spelling errors in the text, which
just have been copied from the printed version due to the scanning process.
Some basic statistics in the introductory section on the number of families
and taxa treated in the Flora Europaea would be helpful.
It would also be of great help if the explanations to the abbreviations
of the 34 geographical territories would be accessible from any screen.
These explanations are somewhat awkward to find as one needs to click through
several menu options until one gets to the "Explanatory Notes and Technical
Terms" section of the text.
Despite this minor criticism, the CD-ROM is a highly valuable tool as
there are not many floras available in electronic form. - Ewald Weber,
Geobotanical Institute, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland.
Plant Diversity of an Andean Cloud Forest. Checklist
of the Vascular Flora of Maquipucuna, Ecuador. Grady. L. Webster and
Robert. M. Rhode. 2001. ISBN 0-520-09830-7 (paper US$36.00). 211 pp. University
of California Publications in Botany Volume 82. University of California
Press, 2000 Center Street # 303, Berkeley, CA 94704. - Ecuador's flora
is undoubtedly one of the most diverse in the tropics, with more than 15,900
species (Jørgensen and León-Yánez 1999). During the
last 25 years, intensive collecting in several parts of the country by
Ecuadorian and foreign botanists (e.g. Renner, 1993) has helped to learn
about the taxa that inhabit the smallest country in the Andes. However,
much work is still required to learn about and understand species composition,
habitat requirements, extent of distributional ranges, and conservation
status. This is especially true for the Ecuadorian Andes, where the largest
number of endemic species occurs (Valencia et al. 2000). Within this context,
the Webster and Rhodes book provides information on a rich local flora
that serves as a tool for further studies in floristics, systematics, and
As a result of a ten-year effort, Webster and Rhodes present a checklist
of a montane area, located between 1200 and 2800 m elevation that includes
a private reserve, Bosque Protector Maquipucuna in western Ecuador. This
checklist is organized in nine parts. The introduction outlines the goal
of the checklist, which is a first step for a future preparation of a flora.
It is followed by a very brief account of the climate and topography, and
another on the vegetation. The study site lacks detailed data on precipitation,
temperature, and soil features, like many other montane areas in the tropical
Andes. Thus, climatic conditions are extrapolated from neighboring stations
with precipitation there ranging from 2000 to 3230 mm/year. There is no
description of soil types, and therefore their link to the plant communities.
The vegetation is considered to include both "lower montane cloud forest"
and "upper montane cloud forest".
This book also includes an analysis of the flora. Ten families, Araceae,
Asteraceae, Dryopteridaceae s.l., Gesneriaceae, Melastomataceae, Orchidaceae,
Piperaceae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae and Solanaceae, are among the most speciose
plant families, a feature similar to other montane areas in the tropical
Andes. In addition, Webster and Rhodes attempt a comparison of species
richness and family composition with other montane and lowland areas within
and outside Ecuador, including Río Palenque, and sites in Brazil,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru and Venezuela. This is followed by a brief description
of the conservation status of their study area.
The last part provides a listing of the 1640 species, with habitat,
altitudinal range, life form, vegetative or reproductive morphological
features, and voucher collection numbers. Webster and Rhode based their
publication on more than 5200 collections, over half of those collected
by the first author and collaborators on the University of California Research
Expeditions Program, mainly in the reserve. Five other surrounding localities
within less than 5 km of the western end of the reserve were also surveyed.
The importance of this publication resides in this listing. It provides
additional information of new plant records for Ecuador, and Pichincha
Province, contributing to the inventory of the tropical Andes, and the
registering of those endemic and rare taxa. The list of Araceae, prepared
with the assistance of Thomas Croat, includes some taxa previously collected
by Luis Sodiro during the late 19th and early 20th
centuries in the surrounding areas, some of which are restricted to Ecuador.
There are references for each listed genus, and comments under taxa of
difficult taxonomy. There are a few minor misspellings, including the name
of the Guayllbamba River in Fig.1, a missing M for Maquipucuna in page
20, and for scientific names in pages 37, 38, 45, 71, 75 and 102. A probable
misidentification is listed in Crassulaceae: Crassula venezuelensis
(Steyerm.) M. Bywater and Wickens is the only aquatic species in the tropical
Andes and not C. connata (Ruiz and Pav.) A. Berger. There are five
appendices listing dominant taxa by altitude, and epiphyte richness and
composition. There are 35 black and white photographs, some of which provide
views of the study area and selected plants.
This book will be useful to individuals specifically interested in floristics
of tropical America, especially from the tropical Andes. The availability
of this checklist through the web (http://herbarium.ucdavis.edu)
allows for another easy way of accessing the information. Webster and Rhodes
have done an important step in their eventual goal of preparing a floristic
treatment. It would be helpful in the future to consider similar efforts
in other protected sites, including those managed by the government of
Ecuador. —Blanca León, Plant Resources Center, University of Texas
at Austin, Austin, TX 78712.
Jørgensen, P. M. and León-Yánez, S. 1999 (eds.).
Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany,
Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 1-1181.
Renner, S. S. 1993. A history of botanical exploration in Amazonian
Ecuador, 1739-1988. Smithsonian Contribution to Botany 82:1-39.
Valencia, R., N. Pitman, S. León-Yánez and P. M. Jørgensen.
2000. Libro Rojo de las Plantas Endémicas del Ecuador 2000. Herbario
QCA, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito.
Plant Diversity of the Iwokarama Forest, Guyana.
H. D. Clarke, V. A. Funk and T. Hollowell. 2001 ISBN 1-889878-07-3. (Paper
US $20.00) 86 pp. SIDA Botanical Miscellany No. 21. Botanical Research
Institute of Texas, 509 Pecan Street, Fort Worth, Texas 76012-4060. - Non-literate
societies have persons designated as "Those Who Remember." All the events
in the history of the people can be recited by such adepts. In our time
we have plant collectors who, while they cannot protect the flora, can
at least, preserve specimens in herbaria and publish plant lists like this
one. They are "Those Who Remember" a botanical world so rapidly disappearing.
Much effort is being made to record, and in some cases protect, the
flora of the Guiana Shield of which Iwokarama is a part. The difficulties
facing the collectors involved in this particular area is somewhat understated
in the text. However, if one carefully reads the geological, edaphic and
climatic data it does not take much imagination to realize how heroic their
Efforts of foreign professionals to involve the local people is commendable.
One hopes that some of those volunteers are given scholarships to study
botany at a university, with the proviso that they return and work in the
area. The writers seem to think setting up a local herbarium is a rather
simple matter. Perhaps, but the cost can be staggering in third world economies.
The heart of the book is the lists:
Appendix 1. It is very useful to have the other four areas: Kaietur
Fallas, Mabura Hill, Saul (Central French Guiana) and Reserva Ducke,
near Manaus, Brazil. However it would have been yet more useful to give
the coordinates of these preserves in the Guiana Shield, and at least a
sentence or two about their geobotanical character so the reader could
make conclusions about the relationships of the plants listed. Comparing
the flora of a wetland or a dry with the forests of Iwokarama could be
an "apples with oranges" situation.
Appendix 2. Iwokarama Plant Collections with the names of each collector.
Appendix 3. List of Ranks of Species Richness by Family for Iwokarama,
Four Other Sites in NE S. America, and the Guianas Overall.
Appendix 4. Specialists Contributing Determinations of Iwokarama Specimens.
This book will appeal only to specialists in South American flora. For
them the above criticisms are moot. But anyone beginning studies in the
area would certainly appreciate the additional information without having
to research much further. _ Sarah Delle Hultmark
Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms:
Toward a New Synthesis 50 Years after Stebbins. Francisco J. Ayala,
Walter M. Fitch, and Michael T. Clegg, Editors, 2000. 0-309-07099-6 (paperback
US$19.95) 352 pages. National Academy Press, 2102 Constitution Avenue,
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418.—Some readers upon seeing the title, Variation
and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms, may expect a didactic textbook.
While this book certainly provides much information which could be used
for discussion in an advanced undergraduate or graduate course, it is not
a textbook per se. This fascinating compilation consists of 17 papers presented
at a colloquium sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences meant to
celebrate the 50th anniversary of G.L. Stebbins Variation
and Evolution in Plants. The range of expertise is impressive and the
topics are divided into five sections: early evolution and the origin of
cells, viral and bacterial models, protoctist models, population variation
[in plants], and trends and patterns in plant evolution.
I found the first part of this book, early evolution and the origin
of cells, riveting. In this part, Schopf reviews the research on the Precambrian
record of life; Margulis, Dolan, and Guerrero discuss the evolution of
eukaryotes from ancient symbioses; and Palmer et al. discuss the
evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes. In part two, I thought that Levin
and Bergstroms article about the differences between prokaryote and eukaryote
evolution was particularly interesting and informative. I think that every
biologist will find something of interest in this book, especially if you
are interested in plants, microbes, genetics, or evolution.
Two articles will be of particular interest to those readers with an
interest in plant reproductive ecology. In part four, Clegg and Durbin
discuss flower color polymorphism in morning glory in an article entitled,
"Flower Color Variation: A Model for the Experimental Study of Evolution."
In part five, Holsinger in "Reproductive Systems and Evolution in Vascular
Plants" discusses the affects of self-fertilization and asexuality versus
outcrossing on the genetic structure of populations.
At the beginning of Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms,
Peter Raven's details Stebbins' life and work in a short biography. This
book gave me a new appreciation of Stebbins' work and of the work that
is still being done in these research areas. I would highly recommend this
book. Fortunately, you don't have to take my word for it, because you can
see for yourself and read it online for free (http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9766.html).
Although it is not an expensive book, you can also order it online at the
National Academy Press website and receive a discount. - James L. Smith
II, Biology Department, La Sierra University, Riverside, CA 92515-8247.
World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant
Distributions, 2nd Edition. R. K. Brummitt (with assistance
from F. Pando, S. Hollis, N. A. Brummitt and others). 2001. ISBN 0-913196-72-X
(stiff paper cover, US$10.00), 137 pp. Published for the International
Working Group on Taxonomic Databases for Plant Sciences by the Hunt Institute
for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellow University, Pittsburgh.— The
international working group on taxonomic databases (TDWG) was started in
1985 to explore ideas on standardization and collaboration between major
plant taxonomic database projects. Its goal is to establish the standards
that will facilitate comparison or combination of data. Anyone concerned
with mapping plant distributions across larger geographical areas should
consider buying this booklet or printing it out as a pdf file from http://www.tdwg.org/geo2.htm.
Digitized geo-referenced maps suitable for use in a GIS also are part of
this and available from the Kew web site at
What does this offer? Mainly, it provides a system of non-overlapping
acronyms for all the World's countries and large provinces (as of 1991)
grouped at four levels. In addition, there are 17 maps showing the recognized
regions and smaller units, down to ITA-VC (Italy-Vatican City) with less
than one square kilometer. The four levels consist of `basic recording
units', which are political entities, such as countries, states, or departments.
These are grouped by continent and region, and into `Botanical Countries'.
In the majority of cases, political countries and Botanical Countries are
the same. An example of a discrepancy is Italy. Politically, this includes
neither San Marino nor the Vatican City, while as a Botanical Country it
does. This kind of discrepancy obviously is frequent, and the TDWG committee
by its own admission failed to overcome it in a completely satisfactory
way. One could have introduced something like `Italy mainland', which might
include San Marino, Vatican City, and Elba, but not the islands Sardegna
and Sicilia, which politically, but not floristically, are part of Italy.
Such a solution, however, would have introduced numerous new names, and
so the group settled on a Botanical Country/political country coding system.
Thus, Italy as a Botanical Country is the same as Italy sensu Flora
Europaea, but Italy as a political country is not. The gazetteer, which
makes up a third of the text, lists some 2100 geographical names plus many
synonyms together with their acronyms and code numbers. Acronym derivation
and coding are straightforward. Each name in the gazetteer is followed
by two digits that place it on a continent and in a region. Five letters
then refer it to political and botanical countries. Thus, Inno-shima, a
synonym of Honshu listed in the gazetteer, is coded 38 JAP-HN, 38 being
Eastern Asia. The Kamaran Is. belong to South Yemen and are 35 YEM-SY,
35 being the Arabian Peninsula, Jalpaiguri is 40 IND-WB (Indian Subcontinent,
West Bengal), and Denmark is 10 (Northern Europe) DEN-OO, political and
botanical country being identical in this case. A synopsis of changes between
the first and second editions of this work fills eight pages. Most have
to do with additional units (e.g., Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bosnia-Herzegovina,
Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia), boundary changes,
and improvements in the five-letter codes. Some changes result from the
input of Indian and Mexican botanists, who suggested better delimitations
for the Himalayan and Mexican regional schemes.
Besides for those concerned with large plant databases, this work should
be of interest to all those interested in coding distributions for computer-assisted
analyses. _ Susanne Renner, Department of Biology, University of Missouri,
If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor,
stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed
(1 February, 1 May, 1 August or 1 November). Send E-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org,
call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list because
they go quickly! -editor.
Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi, 9th ed.
Kirk, P.M., P.F. Cannon, J.C. David and J.A. Stalpers. 2001. ISBN 0-85199-377
X (Cloth US90.00) 655 pp. Oxford University Press, 2001 Evans Road, Cary,
The Alfred Russel Wallace Reader: A Selection of Writings from the
Field. Camerini, Jane R. (ed). 2001. ISBN 0-8018-6781-9 (Cloth US$42.50)
ISBN 0-8018-6789-4 (Paper US$18.95) 219 pp. The Johns Hopkins University
Press, 2714 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-4319.
Allelopathy in Agroecosystems. Kohli, Ravinder K., Harminder
Pal Singh, and Daizy R. Batish (eds). 2001. ISBN 1-56022-090-2 (Cloth US$74.95),
ISBN 1-56022-091-0 (Paper US$54.95). 447 pp. Food Products Press, The Haworth
Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, New York, 13904-1580.
An Atlas of Orchid Pollination: America, Africa, Asia and Australia.
Van der Cingel, N.A. 2001. ISBN 90-5410-486-4 (Cloth US$99.00) 306 pp A.A.
Balkema Publishers, c/o Ashgate Publishing Company, 2252 Ridge Road, Brookfield,
Bamboos for Gardens. Meredith, Ted Jordan. 2001. ISBN 0-88192-507-1
(Cloth US$39.95) 408 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite
450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Botanical Dietary Supplements: Quality, Safety and Efficacy.
Mahady, Gail B., Harry H.S. Fong, and Norman R. Farnsworth. 2001. ISBN
90-2651-8552 (Cloth US$79.50) 276 pp A.A. Balkema Publishers, c/o Ashgate
Publishing Company, 2252 Ridge Road, Brookfield, VT 5036-9704.
A Cactus Odyssey: Journeys in the Wilds of Bolivia, Peru, and Argentina.
Maruseth, James D., Roberto Kiesling, and Carlos Ostolaza. 2002. ISBN
0-88192-526-8 (Cloth US$39.95) 306 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second
Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Economic Botany: Principles and Practices. Wickens, Gerald E.
2001. ISBN 0-792-36781-2 (Cloth US$220) Kluwer Academic Publishers. P.O.
Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Environmental Physiology of Plants 3rd ed. Fitter,
Alastair H. and Robert KM Hay. 2002. ISBN 0-12-257766-3. 367 pp. Academic
Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495.
Faunal and Floral Migrations and Evolution in SE Asia-Australasia.
Metcalfe, I., J.M.B. Smith, M. Morwood, and I. Davidson. 2001. ISBN 90-5809-349-2
(Cloth US$130.00) 416 pp. A.A. Balkema Publishers, c/o Ashgate Publishing
Company, 2252 Ridge Road, Brookfield, VT 5036-9704.
Flammable Australia: The Fire Regimes and Biodiversity of a Continent.
Bradstock, Ross A., Jann E. Williams, and A. Malcolm Gill (eds). 2001.
ISBN 0-521-80591-0 (Cloth US$130.00) 462 pp. Cambridge University Press,
40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.
Flora Hibernica: The wild flowers, plants and trees of Ireland.
Pilcher, Jonathan and Valerie Hall. 2002. ISBN 1-903464-03-X (Cloth US$49.95)
204 pp. Dufour Editions, Inc., Chester Springs, PA 19425-7103.
Flora of Russia: The European Part and Bordering Regions, Volume
4. Fedorov, An.A.(ed). 2001. ISBN 90-5410-754-5 (Cloth US$100.00) 512
pp. A. A. Balkema Publishers, P.O. Box 1675, NL-3000 BR Rotterdam, Netherlands.
Flora of Russia: The European Part and Bordering Regions, Volume
5. Fedorov, An.A.(ed). 2001. ISBN 90-5410-755-3 (Cloth US$193.00) 515
pp. A. A. Balkema Publishers, P.O. Box 1675, NL-3000 BR Rotterdam, Netherlands.
Fungi as Biocontrol Agents: Progress, Problems and Potential.
Butt, T.M., C.W. Jackson and N. Magan (eds). 2001. ISBN 0-85199-356-7 (Cloth
US$140.00) 390 pp. CAB International, Oxford University Press, 198 Madison
Ave., New York, NY 10016-4341.
Fungi in Bioremediation. Gadd, G.M. (Ed). 2001. ISBN 0-521-78119-1
(Cloth US$120.00) 481pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th
Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.
Heme, Chlorophyll, and Bilins: Methods and Protocols. Smith,
Alison G. and Michael Witty (eds). 2001. ISBN 0-896-29111-1 (Cloth US$125.00)
340 pp. The Humana Press, 999 Riverview Drive, Suite 208, Totowa, New Jersey
The Herbal Internet Companion: Herbs and Herbal Medicine Online.
Owen, David J. 2001. ISBN 0-7890-1051-8 (Cloth US$49.95) ISBN 0-7890-1052-6
(Paper US$19.95). 194 pp The Haworth Press, Inc. 10 Alice Street, Binghamton,
New York 13904-1580.
Icones Pleurothallidinarum XXII: Systematics of Masdevallia Part
Three, M. Subgenus Masdevallia, Section Masdevallia, Subsection Masdevallia,
M. Subgenus Masdevallia, Section Minutae. Luer, Carlyle A. 2001. ISBN
1-930723-0607 (Paper ) 261 pp. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 4344 Shaw
Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63110-2291.
An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Clematis. Toomey, Mary and Everett
Leeds. 2001. ISBN 0-88192-508-X. 428 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second
Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Insects and Gardens: In Pursuit of a Garden Ecology. Grissel,
Eric. 2001. ISBN 0-88192-504-7. (Cloth US$29.95) 345 pp. Timber Press,
Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
10th International Exhibition of Botanical Art and Illustration.
White, James J. and Lugene B Bruno. 2001. ISBN 0-913196-73-8. (Paper US$25.00)
183 pp. Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University,
5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15213-3890.
Mountains in the Sea: The Vietnamese Miniature Landscape Art of Hòn
Non Bô. Phan Va7n Lít with Lew Buller. 2001. ISBN 0-88192-515-2
(Cloth US$34.95) 232 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite
450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Perception of the Visual Environment. Boothe, Ronald G. 2002.
ISBN 0-387-98790-8 (Cloth US$98.95) 407 pp. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.
333 Meadowlands Parkway, Secaucus, NJ 07094.
Phytoliths: Applications in Earth Sciences and Human History.
Meunier, Jean Dominique and Fabrice Colin. 2001. ISBN 90-5809-345X (Cloth
US$123.75) 384 pp. A.A. Balkema Publishers, c/o Ashgate Publishing Company,
2252 Ridge Road, Brookfield, VT 5036-9704.
Plant Systematics: A Half-Century of Progress (1950-2000) and Future
Challenges. Stuessy, Tod F., Elvira Hörandl, and Veronika Mayer
(eds). 2001. International Association for Plant Taxonomy, Institute of
Botany, University of Vienna, Rennweg 14, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.
The World of Clovers. Gillett, John M and Norman L. Taylor. (Edited
by Michael Collins). 2001. ISBN 0-8138-2986-0 (Cloth US$149.99) 488 pp.
Iowa State University Press, 2121 South State Street, Ames, Iowa 50014-8300.
American Journal of Botany back issues
American Journal of Botany back issues from 1914 (volume 1)
are available on the JSTOR web site http://www.jstor.org/.
Articles can be viewed as citations, graphics (scalable high quality gif
images), or downloaded into standard or high quality PDF reprints. Contents
can be browsed or searched. The JSTOR material is subject to a five year
moving wall; more recent on-line copies of the Journal will remain
GRANTS FOR BOTANICAL GARDENS AND ARBORETA
The Stanley Smith Horticultural Trust invites applications for grants
for up to $20,000 for teaching and research in horticulture. Not-for-profit
botanical gardens, arboreta, and similar institutions are eligible. The
deadline for applications is August 15,
2002. For guidelines, contact William Louis Culberson, Ph.D., Grants
Director, Stanley Smith Horticultural Trust, PO Box 51759, Durham NC 27717-1759,
USA (e-mail wlc@pobox,com;
Updated Positions Available Listings At BSA
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