PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
VOLUME 47, NUMBER 2, 2001
Editor: Marshall D. Sundberg
Department of Biological Sciences
Emporia State University
1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, KS 66801-5707
Telephone: 620-341-5605 Fax: 620-341-5607
Plant Science Bulletin
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil
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POSTMASTER: Send address changes to:
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Plant Science Bulletin
Editorial Committee for Volume 47
Vicki A. Funk (2001)
Department of Botany
Washington, D.C. 20560
Ann E. Antlfinger (2002)
Univ. of Nebraska - Omaha
Omaha NE 681823
Norman C. Ellstrand (2003)
Department of Botany and Plant Science
University of California
Riverside CA 92521-0124
Andrew W. Douglas (2005)
Department of Biology
University of Mississippi
University, MS 38677
James E. Mickle (2004)
Department of Botany
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7612
nical Society of America: The Society for ALL
Science: Preparing Students for their Career ..............................................................................42
News from the Society
Plenary Lecture: Dr. Gary Nabhan...............................................................................................48
McIntosh Apple Poster.................................................................................................................49
Botanical Society of
America needs a new Webmaster.........................................................................50
Dr. Elisabeth (Beth)
E. McIver (1941-2001)................................................................................50
of Florida and Monsanto Honor Indra K Vasil..............................................................53
New York Botanical
Garden, Director, Institute of Systematic Botany, Dennis W. Stevenson .......53
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings
Garden hosts Plant Conservation Conference .....................................................54
Conference on Plants & Environmental Pollution ...........................................54
David Starr Jordan
Hunt Institute Launches
Databases on Website...............................................................................55
Missouri Botanical Garden Establishes Center for Conservation & Sustainable
Botanical Garden Scientists Probe Rain Forests of Belize..............................................57
Tropical Ecology Course
"To the Editor"..............................................................................................................................58
BSA Logo Items.......................................................................................................................................84
I'm sure that all of you are familiar with the recent controversy concerning
the intention of a few scientists to clone a human in the near future.
The scientific community, as well as the general public, expressed immediate
and vocal concern over the ethics of performing such a procedure. (Imagine
my surprise when I learned that one of these scientists was an alumnus
of my department - receiving his BS here in Kansas some 30 years ago!)
Luckily such ethical dilemmas are restricted primarily to the biomedical
sciences - - or are they? What about genetically modified crops? What about
collaborating on a manuscript? What is scientific misconduct and what is
our responsibility if we perceive it in our lab or in another?
In this issue Dr. Lee Kass, Associate Professor of Botany and Curator
of the Elmira College Herbarium and Adjunct Associate Professor at the
L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University, provides some perspective on
how we might better prepare our undergraduates for the ethical situations
they might encounter in graduate school and beyond. And yes, ethics in
science also is a concern for botanists! If you're not familiar with our
Botanical Society of America Guidelines for Professional Ethics, enacted
in 1997, you can find them at http://www.botany.org/bsa/membership/ethics.html.
IN SCIENCE: PREPARING STUDENTS FOR THEIR CAREER.
In 1932, at the 6th International Congress of Genetics held in Ithaca
New York, R. A. Emerson, Chair of the Department of Plant Breeding at Cornell
University, gave an opening address titled "The Present Status of Maize
Genetics." In his introduction he declared "I cannot refrain from noting
here a very real advantage experienced by students of maize genetics ...
I am aware of no other group of investigators who have so freely shared
with each other not only their materials but even their unpublished data.
The present status of maize genetics, whatever of noteworthy significance
it presents, is largely to be credited to this somewhat unique, unselfishly
cooperative spirit of the considerable group of students of maize genetics.
In this connection I want gratefully to acknowledge the help of many persons
who have contributed directly or indirectly to this summary statement of
the status of maize genetics."
Shortly before that conference Emerson notified maize geneticists of
his plan to establish a Cooperation of Maize Geneticists. Soon after the
Congress Emerson and his student Marcus Rhoades issued what is considered
to be the first "Maize Genetics Cooperation News Letter" (October,1932),
in which unpublished data were freely shared among the members. Future
Nobel laureates George Beadle, Emerson's student, and Barbara McClintock,
Beadle's collaborator, freely submitted their results to this communication,
which continues to be published annually. This model laid the groundwork
for a similar publication for the "Drosophila" geneticists in 1933, and
more recently for the "Worm Breeders Gazette," the community newsletter
of the roundworm biologists (Cohen 1995).
The current discussions in the popular and academic press concerning
ethics in science lead us as teachers to think about our role in educating
students in ethical behavior, both as individuals and as research collaborators.
Through the years we have encouraged students to pursue careers in science.
After completing their undergraduate work some students who do go to graduate
or professional schools write, phone or visit and tell us stories of their
disappointment with some of the choices they made. Often this disappointment
stems from their idealistic vision of what they expected their graduate
experience to be like. The incidents they report often concern perceived
misconduct in research, employment practices or personal interactions;
areas recently examined by the Acadia Institute's (1994) Project on Professional
Values and Ethical Issues in the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers.
Some students are so disillusioned by their experiences that they leave
graduate school, sometimes after they have completed their research and
have begun writing their dissertations. Over the past few years reports
have appeared alerting faculty and administrators to the perceptions held
by both graduate students and faculty of misconduct in the academic community
(Swazey, Anderson and Louis, 1993). Anderson and Louis (1994) reported
that entering graduate students held views about ethics that did not differ
substantially from those who had been in their program for several years.
This result, they imply, indicates that "the importance of experiences
with and exposure to science as undergraduates may be more important than
has been previously thought, or at least more important than graduate school
experiences." I believe it is critical, at the undergraduate level, to
enlighten students regarding their idealistic expectations for graduate
study and to give them the confidence to argue intelligently when faced
with issues of perceived misconduct in science.
In this paper, first, I examine the perceptions that entering graduate
students have regarding ethics in science. Second I discuss some of the
realities our students face in graduate school. Finally, I suggest ways
that we may better prepare undergraduate students for the challenge they
may face if they do choose an ethical career in science.
In a paper published in Research in Higher Education, Anderson
and Louis (1994), remind the reader of "Robert Merton's 1942 classical
analysis of scientists' behavior, [identifying] the four norms of [academic]
research that are fundamental to the scientific ethos." These norms are:
Universalism, Communality, Disinterestedness and Organized skepticism (Table
1). These they tell us "are not so much ideals as shared working assumptions
about the way research should be conducted" (Anderson and Louis 1994).
Table 1. Robert Merton's
four norms of research fundamental to the scientific ethos (Anderson and
the separation of scientific knowledge from the personal characteristics
2. COMMUNALITY: the
shared ownership of all scientific knowledge, and the full and open communication
of all findings.
the separation of research from personal motives, for the sake of truth
advancement of knowledge.
4. ORGANIZED SKEPTICISM:
the critical, public examination of scientific work.
With regard to these norms, the academy has "the responsibility for
the conduct of its own members" and is therefore entrusted with communicating
it to new generations (Anderson and Louis 1994). It appears that many of
our undergraduate students come to expect these norms with respect to their
science education. Indeed some may embrace science because of the idealistic
belief that their professors have "a firm devotion to the pursuit of knowledge
and truth" (Anderson and Louis 1994).
Merton of course "recognized that scientists' behavior often deviated
from the norms" and Mitroff in 1974, identified a set of "counter norms
that are contrary to Merton's norms" (Anderson and Louis 1994). These counternorms
are: Particularism, Solitariness, Self Interestedness, and Organized Dogmatism
(Table 2). The set of alternative norms, Mitroff suggested are neither
superior nor inferior to Merton's norms (Anderson and Louis 1994).
Table 2. Mitroff's
counternorms that are contrary to Merton's norms (after Anderson and Louis
assessment of scientific knowledge based on the research group presenting
the protection of scientific findings to guard priority credit.
competitive research for recognition of personal achievements.
4. ORGANIZED DOGMATISM:
Scientists promote their own findings, theories, or innovations.
Anderson and Louis (1994) cite Rosenzweig's 1985 description of the
norm of communality as a "cultural myth" that has a firm basis in reality,
but it exaggerates reality in order to serve its real purpose, which is
to tell people how they ought to behave, not how they do behave. Anderson
and Louis (1994) also cite Zuckerman's 1988 argument that the social significance
of norms is indexed in the moral indignation expressed by scientists when
such norms are violated. They also point out that the norms stand as statements
of widely shared conceptions about appropriate behavior for academic researchers.
Our undergraduate students, I believe, share these conceptions.
REALITIES OF GRADUATE SCHOOL
In 1994, Braxton and Bayer (1994) reported that the  survey of
members of the AAAS [American Association for the Advancement of Science]
found that three fourths of those responding indicated that media coverage
had exaggerated the problem of scientific misconduct. However, "37 percent
of those polled believe that instances of fraud and misconduct [had increased
in the previous 10 years]. Moreover, a separate survey by NSF [National
Science Foundation, conducted in 1990]
reported that about 20 percent of the scientists said that they directly
encountered fraud, and about 20 percent of graduate deans have dealt with
verified cases of misconduct during the [previous] five years."
Certainly the reaction to the highly publicized reports regarding falsifying
research, inventing data, and appropriating materials from papers under
review, testify to the belief that many scientists do not support this
type of behavior in their students or colleagues. Although we would like
to believe that these are isolated incidents, the results of a graduate
student survey by Anderson et al. (1994) leave "no doubt that many students
are in contact with misconduct in their graduate programs." Anderson and
her colleagues surveyed 2,000 graduate students in the disciplines of chemistry,
microbiology, civil engineering, and sociology for their exposure to what
they perceived as misconduct in the areas of research, employment, and
personal interactions (Table 3). The 72% response rate suggests a high
rate of student concern. This concern seems justified because the survey
reported that "the average graduate student was exposed to misconduct by
2-5 graduate students or faculty members" (Anderson et al. 1994). At this
point one might ask why the graduate student survey revealed such an unexpectedly
high incidence of reported misconduct. Anderson et al. (1994) found that
"students are unlikely to report these instances to institutional authorities.
Over fifty percent (53%) of the respondents said that they could not report
cases of suspected misconduct without expecting retaliation." A similar
faculty survey found that only 35% of faculty believe that they could report
a colleague without reprisals (Swazey, Louis, and Anderson 1994).
Table 3. Anderson
et. al (1994) surveyed 2,000 graduate students for exposure to perceived
misconduct as defined
below. "...the average graduate
student was exposed to misconduct by 2-5 graduate students or faculty members"
(Anderson et al. 1994, see
also their Appendix A).
1. RESEARCH MISCONDUCT:
behaviors that violate the norms and standards specific to the academic
2. EMPLOYMENT MISCONDUCT:
conduct that would be deemed inappropriate or illegal in most organizations.
3. PERSONAL MISCONDUCT:
inappropriate or illegal behaviors among individuals with reference to
Additionally, the results of a survey by Anderson and Louis (1994) regarding
graduate student's subscription to the norms of science indicate that there
is "substantial ambivalence about the norms of academic research and considerable
support for the alternative counternorms." The survey asked students to
indicate the extent that they felt the norms and counternorms "should represent"
the behavior of scientists (Anderson and Louis 1994). Overall they found
"strong support among graduate students for the classical norms governing
the behavior of scientists." They also found however, that "subscription
to the norms is not universal and subscription to the counternorms is substantial"
(Anderson and Louis 1994). They conclude that this is an indication that
"many students do not see norms and counternorms as opposites, but as values
that can be held simultaneously without contradiction" (Anderson and Louis
1994). They believe that "students may tend to be more supportive of one
set of values or the other, but most are characterized by some ambivalence"
(Anderson and Louis 1994). The researchers examined the effects of climate,
structure, mentoring, and time spent in graduate school on student's subscription
to the norms verses the counternorms of scientific behavior.
As they hypothesized, their results show that "aspects of structure,
climate, and mentoring that put students in close contact with faculty
will be positively associated with subscription to the norms and negatively
associated with support for the counternorms. Smaller working group size,
value congruence among the student group, lower levels of exploitation,
opportunities to publish with faculty, and technical mentoring are all
positively related to support for the norms. Conversely, large group size,
formal supervision, and competition are associated with the counternorms"
(Anderson and Louis 1994).
Contrary to their hypothesis, Anderson and Louis' (1994) study suggested
that "the value orientations of U. S. students may be relatively fixed
at the point of entry [into their graduate programs]." They found that
"the number of years spent in [a] department is not correlated with support
for the norms and is only modestly negatively correlated with support for
the counternorms." In addition, they found that for U. S. students not
only are there no effects associated with time in the program but "there
is also evidence that neither departmental structure, nor departmental
climate, nor experience with mentors influences in significant ways the
degree to which students subscribe to the norms or counternorms" (Anderson
and Louis 1994).
I believe that one important aspect of the Anderson and Louis study,
which affects teachers of undergraduate students, is their implication
that "the importance of experiences with and exposure to science as an
undergraduate may be more important than has been previously thought".
"This implication, [they conclude] is consistent with data suggesting that
students who attend smaller liberal arts colleges, where they are more
likely to have worked closely with their professors, are more likely to
attend graduate school and obtain Ph.D.'s than students attending large
universities." They presume that this "greater likelihood of attendance
is the exposure and anticipatory socialization to a value system that is
consistent with the dominant norms" (Anderson and Louis 1994).
PREPARATION FOR GRADUATE SCHOOL
While we may be proud that the science faculty in small liberal arts
colleges are socializing students to expect the norm in professional scientific
behavior, should we ask ourselves if educators are doing undergraduate
students a disservice by not providing them with the preparation to deal
with the realities of counternorms and possible misconduct, which they
may face in graduate school? In the context of teaching our subjects we
can use historical examples to demonstrate and initiate discussions of
the norms and counternorms of scientific behavior. We can compare and contrast
these historical examples with current behaviors in science. This may result
in preparing students for the realities of their careers and perhaps give
them the confidence to speak out against it.
The example of Darwin and Wallace's contributions to the theory of evolution
is one that can be used to begin an examination of this subject. First
year students often learn that Darwin began preparing a manuscript about
his ideas on evolution shortly after returning from his voyage as naturalist
on the "Beagle". However, because his theories were so revolutionary, he
set to work collecting overwhelming quantities of evidence that would dispel
the prevailing concepts. Indeed we often use this as an example to teach
the scientific method. We may also ask our students to think about who
deserves credit for the idea. Although Charles Lyell and Joseph Hooker
prodded Darwin for years to publish his ideas, he refused. In 1858, Alfred
Russell Wallace, who conceived the same theory independently of Darwin,
prepared a 20 page manuscript on the subject, and mailed it to Darwin for
approval and requested he send it to Lyell. Darwin of course immediately
recognized that Wallace's arguments on the "struggle for existence" agreed
with his exactly. Darwin sent the manuscript to Lyell with a note requesting
the manuscript be returned so he could offer to send it out for publication.
He sadly concluded that his "originality, whatever it may amount to, will
be smashed." Lyell and J. D. Hooker solved the problem of assigning credit
by proposing a novel solution. They would read part of Darwin's 1844, 230
page manuscript and a copy of an essay he wrote to Asa Gray in combination
with Wallace's paper at the July 1st 1858 meeting of the Linnean Society.
The reading of Darwin's and Wallace's papers on evolutionary theory, (later
published in volume 3 of the "Journal of the Linnean Society") received
little attention. However, the publication in 1859 of "On the Origin of
Species" was greeted as revolutionary and popularized the theories with
the result that Darwin is usually credited with the idea of evolution by
natural selection. Students may read for themselves, in the "Introduction"
to the first edition of Darwin's "Abstract," how he credits Wallace's ideas.
He explains that he has been induced to publish "as Mr. Wallace...has arrived
at almost exactly the same general conclusions that [he had] on the origin
of species." And he continues by explaining the circumstances of their
This example might serve for a discussion of the consequences of the
norm of communality and disinterestedness. Had Darwin ascribed to the "counternorms"
of "solitariness" and "self-interest" he might have immediately published
his own manuscript without attributing any credit to Wallace. What might
have been the advantage or disadvantage of that decision? Did Wallace's
acceptance of the "norms" detract from his success as a scientist?
This consideration might lead to a discussion of how scientists currently
work, and what they expect from their colleagues and students with respect
to cooperative research. Or one might use this example to discuss how the
process of doing science has changed over the last few decades. In that
vein one might examine the competitive nature of science by requiring that
students read both "The Double Helix" (Watson 1968) and "Rosalind Franklin
and DNA", by Ann Sayre (1975). Students can then be made aware of how,
upon the publication of "The Double Helix", it became acceptable for scientists
to promote self-interestedness and even to appropriate the ideas of others
without their knowledge.
Ann Sayre conducted a private poll of graduate students at one of the
New York State University Campuses upon which she based the following paragraph
from her book:
A generation of graduate students in science read
"The Double Helix" and learned a lesson: the old morality was dead, and
they had just been told about its demise by a respected
highly successful Nobel Laureate, an up-to-date hero who clearly
knew more about how science was acceptably "done"
than the old-fashioned types who prattled about ethics. One of them
told me cheerfully that the way to get on was to
keep your mouth and your desk drawers locked, your eyes and ears open,
and "then beat the other guy to the gun." No doubt
there have always been ambitious graduate students-and postgraduates,
too-who thought this way; few of them announced
it; none of them thought that such engaging frankness would be a
recommendation. They have learned differently. Another
graduate student said that it was all down in "The Double Helix",
how to get ahead, and nobody thought the worse of
Watson, did they" (Sayre 1975)?
Some U. S. researchers have argued that self-interestedness is really
the "norm" and is necessary for our competitive grant application process.
Indeed Kass and Eshbaugh (1993) demonstrated that the process is not without
error and can lead to misconduct. Their example of the appropriation of
a botanical research idea by an NSF program director may be cited to alert
students of this possibility. In 1970, William T. Gillis in collaboration
with Richard A. Howard, and George R. Proctor, submitted a grant proposal
to the Program for Systematic Biology at NSF to prepare a flora of the
Bahama Vascular Plants. The grant proposal was rejected. However, in 1973,
upon leaving his appointment with the Program for Systematic Biology, the
former Director was awarded a grant to prepare a Flora of the Bahama Islands.
A comparison of both grant proposals leaves no doubt that the original
proposal's ideas and details were resubmitted by the former Program Director,
who had access to them. Although Gillis offered to assist with the Bahama
flora project he was rebuffed. In reviewing and using the "Flora of the
Bahama Archipelago" it was obvious that many of Gillis' contributions to
that flora had been ignored (Kass and Eshbaugh 1993).
Returning to some examples from the history of applied botanical science,
our students might read Medvedev's (1969) account of the "Rise and Fall
of T. D. Lysenko". This reading can show students the methods used by the
Lysenkoites to gain recognition for their ideas. "Distortion of facts,
demagoguery, intimidation, dismissal, reliance on authorities, eyewash,
misinformation, self-advertising, repression, obscurantism, slander, fabricated
accusation, insulting name calling, and physical elimination of opponents-
all were part of the rich arsenal of effective means by which, for nearly
thirty years, the "progressive" nature of scientific concepts was confirmed.
... any free discussion put Lysenkoism in mortal danger (Medvedev 1969:191).
These historical accounts may demonstrate the importance of maintaining
The reading of "Silent Spring" (1962) can also be used as an example
to heighten student's awareness of the problem scientists face in getting
new ideas accepted. This study can introduce students to the "norms" and
"counternorms" of "Organized Skepticism" vs. "Organized Dogmatism." Students
can learn that Rachel Carson was ostracized for her ideas, and only with
the courage of a supportive editor of a popular magazine was her work first
able to appear in public. One might also consider whether her position
as a female scientist may have hindered acceptance of her ideas. It is
revealing for students to examine the overwhelming data that Carson presents
to support her arguments for the correlation of pesticide use and the rise
in cancer rates, and to compare it with the arguments made against her
hypothesis. Some of these arguments were that DDT had been hailed as the
"new war weapon of the Allies," (Sharpe 1994) and that the eradication
of typhoid, and the control of malaria was of greater significance than
the possibilities of it causing a few deaths from cancer. Indeed Paul Herman
Mueller was awarded the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for
his 1939 discovery of the insecticidal powers of DDT. We know of course
that Carson's book was influential in having DDT banned in the U. S. in
1973, but it is still manufactured here and exported for routine use in
third world countries. With the advent of recent findings (Kelce et al.
1995), that the persistent DDT metabolite DDE is a potent anti-androgen
and may be linked to changes in human male reproductive health, including
testicular cancer, our students will find yet another subject for discussion.
It is not my intention to have the undergraduate curriculum dwell on
this topic. However, just as we incorporated the teaching of "writing across
the curriculum" into our classes, we might think about teaching "ethics
across the curriculum." We may also wish to consider the causes for misconduct.
LaPidus and Mishkin (1990) remind the reader of Nelkin's suggestion that
"scientific knowledge has become ... a commodity vulnerable to commercial
interests, public demands, and military controls." They add that "the pressure
to produce results has become intense and the stakes, in terms of continued
research support and access to information, have become much higher. ...
It does seem clear [they conclude] that the tensions exist that can interfere
with the development of good scientists as well as with the conduct of
good research" (LaPidus and Mishkin 1990).
In conclusion, with respect to undergraduates, at least at the smaller
liberal arts colleges, there appears to be statistical as well as anecdotal
evidence to support the idea that science
majors attending these schools have preconceived ideas concerning their
expectation for norms of scientific behavior. As graduate students they
are often disappointed when they experience a higher number of encounters
with research, employment, and personal misconduct than they had expected.
It is my belief that there are examples in the history of science that
we can teach our students to prepare them for current scientific practice.
These lessons of history may be used to prepare our students to face the
realities of a career in science and to afford them the confidence to be
good scientists and to do good research.
In 1995, Harriet Creighton, former President of the Botanical Society
of America, wrote to me (Creighton to Kass, 27 February, 1995) in response
to a series of questions I had asked her regarding her graduate school
experiences: "We were all there together [at Cornell, 1929-1934] doing
what we had been hired to do and taking the courses recommended to us,
and doing our research and writing it up, hopefully for publication- -They
were all pleasant, decent, honest, active, fun loving (when there was time)
people. Had they, or any number of them, been mean, grumpy, crooked and
nasty, I might have decided that if these are what botanists are, I don't
want to be among them- -But they and the faculty I knew at Wellesley and
at Cornell, and botanists I met at the annual scientific meetings were
all good people."
I would like to think that we can prepare our students to have a similar
I wish to thank Jeanette Mullens for inviting me to present these ideas
to the Continuing Symposium on Essential Botanical Knowledge at the College/University
Level sponsored by the Teaching Section of the Botanical Society of America
in 1995. I am most grateful to my friends and colleagues for their support
and encouragement in pursuing this most controversial topic. Specifically
I wish to thank Jerry Davis, Robert Dirig, Michael Hanson, Robert Hunt,
Melissa Luckow, Beverly Rathcke, and Hardy Eshbaugh for thoughtful insights.
Anderson, M. S., K. S. Louis and J. Earle. 1994. Disciplinary and departmental
effects on observations of faculty and graduate student misconduct. Journal
of Higher Education 65: 331-50.
Anderson, M. S. and K. S. Louis. 1994. The graduate student experience
and subscription to the norms of science. Research in Higher Education
Braxton, J. M. and A. E. Bayer. 1994. Perceptions of research misconduct
and an analysis of their correlates. Journal of Higher Education
Carson, Rachel. 1962. Silent Spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Cohen, Jon. 1995. Conduct in Science. The culture of credit. Science
Darwin, Charles. 1859. On the Origin of Species by means of Natural
Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life.
Facsimile of the first edition, 1964. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Emerson, R. A. 1932. The present status of maize genetics. Proceedings
of the Sixth International Congress of Genetics I: 141-152.
Kass, L. B. and W. H. Eshbaugh. 1993. The contributions of William T.
Gillis (1933-79) to the flora of the Bahamas. Rhodora 95: 369-391.
Kelce, W. R., C. R. Stone, S. C. Laws, L. Earl Gray, J. A. Kemppainen
and E. M. Wilson. 1995. Persistent DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE is a potent
androgen receptor antagonist. Nature 375 (6532): 581-585.
LaPidus, J. B. and B. Mishkin. 1990. Values and ethics in the graduate
education of scientists. Chapter 16. In: W. W. May ed., Ethics and Higher
Education New York: Macmillan.
Medvedev, Zhores A. 1969. The Rise and Fall of T. D. Lysenko.
Translated by I. Michael Lerner. New York: Columbia University Press, Anchor
Sayre, Anne. 1975. Rosalind Franklin & DNA. New York: W.
W. Norton & Co.
Sharpe, R. M. 1995. Another DDT connection. Nature 365:(6532):
Swasey, J. P., M. S. Anderson, and K. S. Louis. 1993. Ethical problems
in academic research. American Scientist 81: 542-553.
Swasey, J. P., K.S. Louis and M. S. Anderson. 1994. The ethical training
of graduate students requires serious and continuing attention. The
Chronicle of Higher Education March 9: B1-B2.
The Acadia Institute. 1994. Project publications, background papers
and reports, and presentations 1987-1994. Project on Professional Values
and Ethical Issues in the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers.
Bar Harbor, Maine.
Watson, J. D. 1968. The Double Helix. New York: Atheneum.
Lee B. Kass, an active member of the BSA Archives and History Committee,
is Visiting Professor at the L. H. Bailey Hortorium, Department of Plant
Biology, Cornell University. This paper was presented for an invitational
symposium sponsored by the Teaching Section of the BSA in August of 1995,
San Diego, CA. It was submitted for publication at the urging of then Present
W. Hardy Eshbaugh. Her research interests are in the flora of the Bahamas
and the history of botany. She has published on the Bahama flora and has
written biographies of American botanists. She is the recipient of a 1995-96
Fulbright Scholar Award at the College of the Bahamas, where she and her
husband Dr. Robert E. Hunt facilitated the establishment of a National
Herbarium for the Bahamas. NSF funding at Cornell University has assisted
her research and writing of an Intellectual Biography of Nobel Laureate
Lee B. Kass, Visiting Professor
L.H. Bailey Hortorium
Department of Plant Biology
Ithaca, NY 14853
News from the Society
For More Information Check Out
Plenary Lecture / Symposia
Dr. Gary Nabhan
Bridging Western Science and Indigenous Science: Ethnobiology and
Cross-Cultural Conservation Collaborations in the Bi-National Southwest.
Sunday, August 12, 7:30 pm, Enchantment Ballroom, Hyatt Regency Hotel.
Dr. Gary Nabhan is an award-winning writer and conservationist whose
wise ranging, prolific work has explored such connections as those between
cultural diversity and biological diversity, between people and desert
wildf\llife, between wild and cultivated plants, and between poetry and
natural science. His second book, Gathering the Desert (1985), received
the John Burroughs medal for nature writing. The MacArthur Foundation gave
him a "genius" fellowship in 1990, the same year he received a Pew Scholarship
on Conservation and Environment. Nabhan has focused his projects and writings
mostly on the Sonoran Desert region of Northwestern Mexico and the southwestern
United States. Dr. Nabhan is currently director of Northern Arizona University's
Center for Sustainable Environments, a research center specializing in
the sustainable use of natural resources on the Colorado Plateau.
Plenary Symposium: Functional and Comparative
Genomics: Evolutionary Implications. Douglas Soltis, Washington State
Form and Function in Bryophytes: Development, Constraints, and Consequences.
Angela E. Newton, The Natural History Museum, London, UK
Lichen Biodeterioration: Progress and Problems. Larry St. Clair,
Brigham Young University, UT and Mark Seaward, The University, Bradford,
Structural Botany in Systematics: A Symposium in Memory of William
C. Dickison. Kenneth M. Cameron and Dennis W. Stevenson, The New York
Botanical Garden, NY.
Plasticity in Integrated Phenotypes. Katherine A. Preston and
Theodore G. Wong, Stanford University, CA.
Why Leaves Turn Red: The Function of Anthocyanins inVegetative Organs.
David Lee, Florida International University, FL; Kevin Gould, University
of Auckland, New Zealand; James W. Wallace, Western Carolina University,
Evolution and Adaptations of Pteridophytes in Dry Climates. George
Yatskievych, Missouri Botanical Garden, MO; Elisabeth Hooper, Truman State
Linnaean Taxonomy: A Viable System for the New Millennium? Jerrold
I. Davis, Cornell University, NY.
Biogeography and Phylogeny of Caribbean Plants. Timothy McDowell,
East Tennessee State University, TN; Peter W. Fritsch, California Academy
of Sciences, CA.
Origins and Biology of Desert Flora. Timothy Lowrey, University
of New Mexico, NM.
Young Botanist Awards for
Certificate of Special Achievement
Christine Notis ..................................................Iowa
Michael Barker ....................................................Dennison
Ross Mueller ........................................................Lawrence
Abigail Fox ...............................................................Miami
Tristan Kraft .............................................................Miami
Lesley Knoll ...............................................................Miami
Todd Gorman ............................................................Miami
Nicholas Ruppel .........................................................Miami
Kelley Miller ..............................................................Miami
Kirsten Schmidt .........................................................Miami
Erin MacDonald ........................................................Miami
Briana Gross .......................................................Willamette
Nathan Gushwa ..................................................Willamette
Jonathan Thompson ...........................................Willamette
David Des Marais ............................University of California,
Jeffrey Morawetz ..............................................University
Amanda Habel ...............................................................Ohio
Lorena Brown ................................................................Ohio
Nile Kurashige ...........................Barnard College-Columbia
Heidi Marie Hartman .........Southern-Illinois University at Carbondale
Sarah J. Pittman ................Southern-Illinois University at
Scott Schuette ....................Southern-Illinois University
Peter R. Girardin ...............Southern-Illinois University at
McIntosh Apple Poster is now in full bloom on the Botanical Society's web
or go directly to the poster at http://mcintosh.botany.org/
After many months of effort on the part of many people, we finally have
a site that is useful to teachers and students. My thanks to the artist,
Brent Seabrook, for his knowledge and skill as a horticulturalist and for
his artist's eye as a photographer. It was a pleasure to work with Bob
Hummel and Keith Cooper at the Ohio State University Printing Facility
which did an excellent job of digitizing the images and designing and printing
the poster. The project would not have been possible without the financial
support (more than $3000) from McGraw-Hill and the moral support and encouragement
from their sponsoring editor, Marge Kemp. Steve Rice and Amy Russell at
Union College have done an excellent job in creating hands-on activities
related to the poster. Their carefully conceived pioneering work can serve
as a model for additional learning activities which can be added in the
months ahead. Finally, our overworked and underpaid web master, Scott Russell,
contributed many hours of work to take material from several contributors
and mold it into a unified design. The Botanical Society is indebted to
each of these people, members and non-members, for their support in our
effort to improve the quality of plant science education.
Gasping for Breath: Bottle Experiments With Mung Beans
History of Cultivation of McIntosh Apples: A Research Project Flower
Stucture and Function
( We are looking for submissions
Fruit Structure and Function
Bad Apples: Synchrony in Ripening Fruit
Sailing Seeds: An Experiment in Wind Dispersal
Big and Bendy: On the Biomechanics of Supporting Fruit
BSA Needs a New
The Botanical Society of America is searching for a webmaster to manage
the web activities of the Society, beginning August 16, 2001. The BSA web
site was created in December 1995, to meet the worldwide information service
needs of the Society as it entered the electronic age. Currently, the web
site provides online access to most of the public documents of the Society
and maintains information sites on sectional activities, meetings, and
electronic versions of various publications. Since 1997, when BSA first
obtained the domain "botany.org", over 800,000 page requests have been
logged on the main site, with over 3 GB of data transmission in the entire
domain (and sub-sites) in the last month.
The BSA Webmaster position will require knowledge of web page construction,
how to mount and maintain files on a web server and how to construct pages
that can be read by major available browser programs (MSIE is the most
prevalent [~50%] while Netscape accounts for~35%, others ~15%). Web pages
should be constructed so that viewers from around the world can view them.
The BSA Webmaster should be dedicated to the development of the discipline
of botany through the web site. The BSA Webmaster is a highly visible volunteer
position, with financial support available for purchase of software, selected
pieces of hardware and for web page development. The candidate will be
able to use existing servers or migrate the site to other servers, if this
is in the best interests of the Society and the candidate. The BSA Webmaster
also serves as the Chair of the BSA Web Committee, which is a standing
committee established under the bylaws answering to the BSA Executive Committee.
This is an excellent opportunity to learn about electronic publication
and electronic media delivery for the web. For further information, or
to apply for the position, please contact Scott Russell (firstname.lastname@example.org),
BSA Webmaster and Chair, Web Committee by email, telephone (1-405-325-6234)
or mail (Scott Russell, Department of Botany & Microbiology, University
of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019).
(BETH) E. MCIVER (1941-2001).
On April 1st, 2001, Dr. Elisabeth (Beth) Ellen McIver passed away after
lengthy battle against cancer. She was an eminent paleobotanist and active
member of the International Organization of Paleobotany, Botanical Society
of America, American Institute of Biological Sciences and other organizations.
Beth was born on July 11, 1941 in Loon Lake, Saskatchewan and grew up amidst
the boreal forest, where her interest in nature and wildlife flourished.
Following high school, Beth enrolled in the B.Sc. Nursing program at the
Regina General Hospital, graduating as a registered nurse in 1962. Her
nursing career spanned nearly two decades, and a diversity of positions.
Her exceptional competence and organizational abilities suited her well
to the demanding role of an operating room nurse, where she earned considerable
respect among staff and physicians. After raising a family of three children,
Beth enrolled in a B.Sc. program in Biology at the University of Saskatchewan,
completing her B. Sc. Degree with Distinction in 1979 and an Honors Certificate
in Science in 1983. While her initial intention was pursuit of a medical
career, Beth soon became enthralled with botany, particularly plant diversity
and evolution. A major influence was Dr. Taylor A. Steeves, who became
her first academic mentor, and whose teaching opened the door to a world
of discovery that would become Beth's great passion. Beth's interest in
plant evolution, combined with her love of nature and fieldwork, drew her
to the field of paleobotany. On the strength of her outstanding performance
in her undergraduate program, Beth was awarded a prestigious Natural Sciences
and Engineering Research Council of Canada Postgraduate Scholarship. In
1983 Beth embarked on a graduate research program that would earn her a
Ph.D. in 1989 from the University of Saskatchewan on the basis of her dissertation
on The Fossil Flora of the Paleocene Ravenscrag Formation in Southwestern
Beth McIver subsequently was awarded an NSERC Visiting Postdoctoral
Fellowship in the Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta, held from
1989-1991. In 1991 Beth returned to Saskatoon as a research associate with
the Department of Geological Sciences, University of Saskatchewan. She
served as Assistant Professor of Plant Systematics in the Department of
Biology (1995-1999), and as Adjunct Professor in the Department of Geological
Sciences (from 1995). She joined the W. P. Fraser Herbarium of the University
of Saskatchewan as a Research Associate in plant systematics, where her
collections of extant plants from the Old and New world are deposited.
Beth McIver became an internationally recognized authority in the areas
of Early Tertiary Paleofloristics and the origin and evolution of the Cupressaceae,
a family that she used as a model to address challenging systematic and
evolutionary theories. A major aspect of her research was the reassessment
of phylogenetic relationships at the inter- and intrageneric levels in
the light of new fossil evidence. She was responsible of the discovery
and description of many extinct Cupressaceae, and her synthesis of information
from fossil and extant taxa provided her with important insights into the
evolutionary and geographic history of the family. Her field research in
remote areas of Asia and the Southern Hemisphere to collect and examine
living Cupressaceae complemented her global view of the natural history
and evolution of the family. As an evolutionary botanist, Beth conducted
extensive research on the interpretation of paleoenvironments through correlation
of climate, plant morphology, and diversity. More recently, her research
focused on the study of the paleoenvironments of Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary
beds of Western Canada, including those hosting the dinosaur Tyrannosaurus
rex, in which she reconstructed local vegetation on which dinosaurs
depended. She used fossil plants as a primary source of information on
habitat and climate to reconstruct the local paleoenvironments, and to
help her to understand processes surrounding the extinction event. She
submitted a manuscript, on the paleoenvironment of T. rex, to the
Canadian Journal of Earth Science for publication only two weeks before
In 1987, Beth published the first of what would become a series of highly
regarded papers describing fossil taxa of the Cupressaceae, completing
major articles on the evolution of Chamaecyparis, Mesocyparis, Fokienia,
Thuja, and Widdringtonia. The latter, completed during the last
few months of her life, is to be published posthumously in an upcoming
issue of the International Journal of Plant Science. Other systematic contributions
include papers on Equisetum and a fossil flower she called Kurtzipites,
as well as her monographic treatment of the flora of the Ravencrag Formation
of Saskatchewan. Publication of her arctic research, carried out in collaboration
with her husband, Jim Basinger, contributed substantially to the understanding
of Early Tertiary high latitude floristics. During her extensive career,
she authored 13 major scientific articles in refereed journals and numerous
other contributions, and remained committed to her science to the end.
She was also devoted to public scientific education, including on-screen
contributions to TV documentaries, the most recent filmed by Cinenova Productions
(Discovery Channel) only two months before her death.
Beth is survived by her husband Jim Basinger; daughter Tara Vincent
(Danny Remenda), sons Jay Vincent and Jeff (Lean Anne) Vincent, stepdaughter
Claire Basinger, grandson Nicholas Remenda; sisters Sharon McIver De Bruyn,
Carol (Bill) Bursell, Mary (Russ) Rodman; brothers David (Wendy) McIver,
Calvin (Vicky) McIver, Roger (Beverly) McIver, Jon (Dianne) McIver, and
Dan (Evelyn) McIver.
Her family, friends and students will remember her as an outstanding
and devoted scientist, an inspiring teacher and mentor, and a dynamic and
enthusiastic colleague. We all have lost a wonderful friend and colleague
too soon. Her passion for nature, endless energy, enthusiasm and profound
commitment to scientific research, particularly the paleoflora of North
America, will be deeply missed. Her work has already inspired new generations
of her former students.
According to her wishes, a Service of Celebration of her life was held
in the Geology Atrium and Museum of Natural Sciences, the University of
Saskatchewan, a most appropriate setting, with its permanent exhibit of
full size replicas of dinosaurs including Tyrannosaurus rex, Stegosaurus
and Triceratops, surrounded by ferns, cycads, conifers, and flowering
Dr. Elisabeth E. McIver conducting Arctic field work in Ellesmere Island.
List of Selected Publications by Dr. Elisabeth E. McIver
McIver, E. E. (in review) The paleoenvironment of Tyrannosaurus
rex from southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. Canadian Journal of
McIver, E. E. 1999. Paleobotanical evidence for ecosystem disruption
at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary from Wood Mountain, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 36:775-789.
McIver, E.E. and Basinger, J.F. 1999. Early Tertiary Floral Evolution
in the Canadian High Arctic. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden
McIver, E.E. and Basinger, J.F. 1993. Fossil flora of the Ravenscrag
Formation (Paleocene), southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. Palaeontographica
McIver, E.E., Sweet, A.R., and Basinger, J.F. 1991. Sixty-five-million-year-old
flowers bearing pollen of the extinct triprojectate complex - a Cretaceous-Tertiary
boundary survivor. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 70:77-88.
McIver, E.E. and Basinger, J.F. 1989. The morphology and relationships
of Equisetum fluviatoides sp. nov., from the Paleocene Ravenscrag
Formation of Saskatchewan, Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 67:2937-2943.
McIver, E.E. (in press). Cretaceous Widdringtonia Endl. (Cupressaceae)
America. International Journal of Plant Science.
McIver, E.E. 1994. An early Chamaecyparis (Cupressaceae) from
the Late Cretaceous of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Canadian
Journal Botany 72:1787-1796.
McIver, E.E. and Aulenback, K.R. 1994. The morphology and relationships
of Mesocyparis umbonata sp. nov.: fossil Cupressaceae from the Late
Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 72:273-295.
McIver, E.E. 1992. Fossil Fokienia (Cupressaceae) from the Paleocene
of Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 70:747-779..
McIver, E.E. and Basinger, J.F. 1990. Fossil seed cones of Fokienia
(Cupressaceae) from the Paleocene Ravenscrag Formation, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Canadian Journal of Botany 68:1609-1618.
McIver, E.E. and Basinger, J.F. 1989. The morphology and relationships
of Thuja polaris sp. nov. (Cupressaceae) from the early Tertiary,
Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 67:1903-1915.
McIver, E.E. and Basinger, J.F. 1987. Mesocyparis borealis gen.
et sp. nov.: fossil Cupressaceae from the Early Tertiary of Saskatchewan,
Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 65:2338-2351.
Submitted by J. Hugo Cota-Sánchez, University of Saskatchewan,
Saskatoon, Canada. Jim Basinger, University of Saskatchewan also contributed
to this article.
University of Florida and Monsanto Honor BSA Member Indra K. Vasil
The University of Florida and Monsanto Company have established an endowed
professorship, the Vasil-Monsanto professorship, in honor of Indra K. Vasil,
who recently retired from the University of Florida after 32 years. Mark
Settles, from Rob Martienssen's group at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory,
who works on the functional genomics of maize (endosperm mutants), has
been appointed the first Vasil-Monsanto professor. Vasil, known for his
work on pollen development, and the molecular biology and biotechnology
of cereals, continues as a Graduate Research Professor Emeritus (email@example.com)
at the University of Florida. As President of the International Association
for Plant Tissue Culture & Biotechnology (IAPTC&B), he is currently
directing most of his effort toward the organization of the 10th IAPTC&B
Congress - Plant Biotechnology 2002 and Beyond (www.hos.ufl.edu/iaptcb)
to be held June 23-28, 2002, in Orlando, Florida.
New York Botanical Garden Appoints New Director for the Institute of Systematic
Dr. Dennis W. Stevenson, one of the world's leading authorities
on cycads, is The New York Botanical Garden's newly appointed Director
for the Institute of Systematic Botany (ISB), a department of The International
Plant Science Center, effective February 1, 2001.
As the Director of the ISB, Dr. Stevenson will oversee a full-time staff
of 23, including Ph.D. scientists, research assistants, technicians, and
support staff. The ISB strives to document plant diversity through field
research around the world, to identify and describe plant taxa, to study
evolutionary relationships, to inform the scientific community and the
public of new finding, and to train future botanists. In the year 2000
alone, ISB researchers conducted some three dozen field expeditions around
the work: published 52 papers in scientific journals' published 31 abstracts,
book reviews, or popular articles; and managed nine major Web sites. Researchers
are active in efforts to conserve ecosystems through compiling floristic
surveys for policymakers and studying plant and animal extinction. ISB
curators work closely with other ISB scientists from the Garden's Lewis
B. and Dorothy Cullman Program for Molecular Systematics Studies to determine
patterns of plant evolution and biogeography.
"With momentous technological developments in molecular biology, this
is an exciting time to be involved in studies of plant systematics and
evolution. We now have new tools to address what were intractable questions
a few years ago. Leading the ISB in the incorporation of these new methods
into our research repertoire here at the Garden will be both challenging
and exciting." _ Dr. Dennis W. Stevenson, Director for the Institute of
Systematic Botany and the Plant Research Laboratory.
In addition to his role as Director of the ISB, Dr. Stevenson will continue
to serve as the Garden's Director of the Plant Research Laboratory. The
Laboratory conducts phytochemical studies; analyzes plant-derived pharmaceutical
applications: and collaborates with State agencies to monitor weather and
air quality of the New York City metropolitan area. It provides data from
scanning electron microscopy for the study of pollen, floral development,
and leaf surface structure. The laboratory often hosts visiting researcher
from around the world conducting phytochemical research, molecular systematics,
and plant anatomical research. It is also actively engaged in the Garden's
Graduate Studies Program.
"I am delighted that Dr. Stevenson was able to be persuaded to ad to
his already considerable responsibilities at the Garden by taking on the
leadership of the Institute of Systematic Botany. He is a first-rate, prolific
botanical scholar with broad experience across the discipline. In addition,
he is an accomplished teacher and mentor to students. I am confident the
ISB and the Garden will be well served by Dr. Stevenson's new appointment."
_ Dr. Brian M. Boom, Vice President for Botanical Science and Pfizer Curator
Dr. Stevenson is a specialist in Cycadales (cycads), an ancient group
of plants recognized as the sister group to all other living seed plants.
He pursues active field programs, particularly in the Neotropics, to study
cycads. He is also engaged in The Plant Genomics Consortium, a program
led by the Garden, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, and New York University
to conduct genomic studies. His particular genomic research involves the
examination of leaf and reproductive development, and the potential role
of these plants in the development of medicinal products. He has published
numerous research papers and serves on the faculties of Cornell University,
Columbia University, New York University, and Yale University.
Dr. Stevenson succeeds Dr. Scott Mori, who will stay with the ISB as
Nathaniel Lord Britton Curator of Botany and continue his research on the
fungal and plant diversity of central French Guiana.
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings
Botanic Garden Hosts Plant Conservation Conference "Ecology and Management
of Oak Woodlands
The 2001 Midwestern Plant Conservation Conference, hosted by the Chicago
Botanic Garden, will be held on September 13 and 14, 2001. This conference
is intended to provide a forum for exchanging research results on Midwestern
conservation issues, for setting regional plant conservation priorities,
and for developing and implementing collaborative conservation projects.
The first day of the meeting will be dedicated to a symposium entitled,
"Ecology and Management of Oak Woodlands." Oaks have been a prominent part
of North American deciduous forests and a critical component of Midwest
ecology. Planned in collaboration with the Morton Arboretum, the symposium
will feature talks by Marc Abrams, John Kotar, Craig Lorimer, Louise Egerton-Warburton,
Tom Crow, Karel Jacobs, and Roger Anderson addressing such issues as recent
ecological changes in oak forests, canopy-understory processes, invasive
species management, fragmentation, and other topics.
The second day of the symposium will focus on contributed papers and
posters dealing with research and stewardship projects focusing on conservation
of Midwestern plants and communities and will include a Midwestern Rare
Plant Task Force meeting. Scientists, stewardship professionals, arboreta
and botanic garden staff, volunteers, and other interested in botany and
conservation biology will want to attend.
For registration materials, contact: Ed Lyon, Symposia & Special
Programs Coordinator at (847) 835-8278 or firstname.lastname@example.org
. Chicago Botanic Garden, 1000 Lake Cook Road, Glencoe, IL 60022.
International Conference on Plants & Environmental Pollution (ICPEP-2)
National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India, 5-10 November
Registration (concessional) and Abstracts: 30th June 2001.
Registration (normal) at the conference desk: 5th November
Conference inauguration byDr.M.S.Swaminathan: 5th
November 2001, 16.00 hrs
Scientific Sessions: 6-10 November 2001.
Plenary Session: 10 November 2001.
Conference Secretariat: Dr. K. J. Ahmad
Organizing Secretary ICPEP-2
National Botanical Research Institute
Lucknow - 226 001, India.
Phone: +91-522-205831 to 35 extn. 223 (Office)
Fairchild Tropical Garden, a nonprofit botanical garden in Coral Gables,
Florida, with internationally recognized programs in science, education
and horticulture, seeks to fill the full-time permanent position of Conservation
Horticulturist within the Research Department. Responsibilities: Plan,
implement and maintain an active conservation horticulture program for
the purpose of supporting and augmenting the Garden's conservation programs.
Specific duties include: 1) manage an ex-situ collection of approximately
100 species from S. Florida, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands; 2) manage
the Seed Storage Facility and conduct research on tropical seed storage
methods; 3) collect and voucher, propagate, cultivate, reintroduce and
monitor native plant species; 4) supervise the Assistant Conservation Horticulturist,
graduate students, volunteers and interns; 5) interact with local, state,
regional and national agencies, in particular the Center for Plant Conservation;
6) coordinate activities with the Horticulture and Education Departments
to display and interpret the Lynn Fort Lummus Endangered Species Garden
and the new Jewels of the Caribbean exhibit; 7) participate in public outreach
events, local, state and regional conferences; 8) teach public and university
courses. Qualifications: Ph.D. in horticulture, botany, agronomy, forestry
or related science; one-year postdoctoral experience specific to endangered
species conservation preferred; M.Sc. with equivalent experience will be
considered. Demonstrated excellence in written and spoken communication,
grant proposal writing and budget management. Salary: Commensurate with
experience, with full benefits. Letter and Curriculum vitae to: Director
of Research, Fairchild Tropical Garden Research Center, 11935 Old Cutler
Road, Coral Gables (Miami) FL 33156-4299, or email@example.com
. Closing date for applications: 30 June 2001 or until position is
filled. Equal Opportunity Employer; ADA/Drug-free Workplace Compliant
Updated Positions Available Listings
At BSA Website
Current position announcements are maintained on the Botanical Society's
website Announcement page at URL http://announce.botany.org/.
Please check that location for announcement which have appeared since this
issue of Plant Science Bulletin went to press. To post an announcement,
contact the webmaster: <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
David Starr Jordan Prize in Evolution, Ecology, Population or Organismal
In 1986, Cornell, Indiana, and Stanford Universities jointly endowed
a Prize, international in scope, to commemorate David Starr Jordan, a scientist,
educator, and academic leader associated with all three Universities. The
Prize is presented every three years to a young scientist (or scientists;
normally no more than 40 years old, or not more than 10 years post-Ph.D.)
whose research is redirecting work in one or more areas of Jordan's interest:
evolution, ecology, population and organismal biology. In addition to receiving
a commemorative medal and a cash award of $15,000, the recipient(s) will
deliver scholarly presentations of his/her work at each of the participating
The Prize winner, selected by a committee drawn from all three Universities,
will be announced in late 2001. Letters of nomination, accompanied by a)
two other letters of support; b) the nominee's full curriculum vitae;
and c) copies of five representative publications by the nominee, should
be sent, prior to 15 September 2001, to:
Prof. Ward B. Watt
ATTN: David Starr Jordan Prize Committee
Dept. of Biological Sciences
371 Serra Mall
Stanford, CA 94305-5020 USA
(650)-723-4297 · FAX (650)-723-6132
Institute Launches Databases on Web Site
At the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, we are in the process
of formatting for the Web existing databases of the information contained
in our collections and publications. Through the databases, we hope to
offer the global community greater access to our information. To date we
have launched six databases on our Web site (http://huntbot.andrew.cmu.edu/).
Originally published in nine parts from 1985 to 1998, the Catalogue
of the Botanical Art Collection at the Hunt Institute database was
compiled by James J. White with the assistance of Elizabeth R. Smith. The
database contains information on the 30,000 paintings (mostly watercolors),
drawings and original prints in our collection. The data fields include
name, nationality, dates, taxon, title, description, printmaker, signature,
place of execution, date of execution, medium, support, image size, dimensions,
edition, publication, accession number and notes. Currently, the artist's
name and nationality, the taxon, and the title of the artwork are searchable
The Categorical Glossary for the Flora of North America Project
(Robert W. Kiger and Duncan M. Porter, 2001) is available also as a database.
This database contains 2,627 terms with their synonyms, categories, limitations
and definitions, and can be searched by one or more of these fields. This
selective glossary attempts to reconcile, integrate, and codify the traditional
terminology of plant-taxonomic description, and should be especially useful
for computer-based comparative databanking of such information. It covers
a high proportion of the total complement of structures, characters, and
character states pertinent to detailed conventional description of the
morphology and higher-level anatomy of plants other than algae.
Compiled by Robert W. Kiger and James L. Reveal, the Comprehensive
Scheme for Standardized Abbreviation of Usable Plant-Family Names and Type-Based
Suprafamilial Names database is a scheme of four-character abbreviations
for all properly usable plant-family names known to have been published
to date, and of two-character rank suffixes for coordinated abbreviation
of type-based names at standard suprafamilial ranks. The database can be
searched by full family name or by four-character abbreviation.
The Index to Binomials Cited in the First Edition of Linnaeus' Species
Plantarum database, compiled by Robert W. Kiger, lists all binomials
in Carl Linnaeus' Species Plantarum of 1753. The records in the
database include fields for genus, epithet and page number. The genus and
epithet are searchable fields.
Two parts of the Index to Scientific Names of Organisms Cited in
the Linnaean Dissertations together with a Synoptic Bibliography of the
Dissertations and a Concordance for Selected Editions (Robert W. Kiger,
Charlotte A. Tancin and Gavin D. R. Bridson, 1999) are available as databases.
Compiled by Kiger, the Index to Scientific Names database accounts
for over 30,700 occurrences of more than 13,900 different formal names
of plant and animal taxa that appear in the original editions of the 186
Linnaean dissertations, and is intended to serve as a finding aid. The
database includes the scientific names, the dissertation titles, the Lidén
reference numbers, pagination and any additional notes. The Original
Linnaean Dissertations database incorporates the synoptic bibliography
section of the book, which was compiled by Tancin and based on a handlist
prepared by Bridson. This database includes in each entry the Lidén
number, respondent, title, date of defense, pagination, short title, Lidén
title, Soulsby title, Drake title and notes. The searchable fields are
Lidén number, respondent, title and date of defense.
As we fine-tune the format and the search capabilities of these databases
and those to come, we will appreciate any comments or suggestions.
— Scarlett T. Townsend, Editor
Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Botanical Garden Establishes A Center for Conservation and Sustainable
A Center for Conservation and Sustainable Development has been established
at the Missiour Botanical Garden with a $5 million pledge from the Bellwether
Foundation of St. Louis and $1.1 million from four other foundations: the
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, The David and Lucile Packard
Foundation (each $400,000), the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation ($200,000)
and The Summit Foundation ($100,000). Under the terms of the Bellwether
pledge, the Garden will raise another $900,000 and the Center will seek
program support for its different activities.
The Center, structurally a new division of the Garden, will serve as
a clearinghouse for plant conservation efforts, striving to make information
about plant diversity readily accessible to all stakeholders _ government
agencies, non-government organizations, researchers, farmers and industrialists
_ charged with the preservation and sustainable utilization of plant resources.
Roger McManus, former president of the Center for Marine Conservation
and currently Advisor for Oceans in the Office of the Secretary, U.S Department
of the Interior, was named director of the Center, effective March 7. McManus
was trained as a botanist at the University of Arizona and has a career
of achievements in the field of conservation, especially endangered species,
both for government agencies and non-government organizations.
"The Center's work will be based on the Garden's already extensive global
reach to advance international conservation and sustainable development
through the world." Said Dr. Peter H. Raven, director of the Garden. Raven,
one of the world's most distinguished botanists and conservation advocates,
envisioned establishing the Center when he first came to the Garden in
St. Louis 30 years ago.
"The establishment of the Center has always been a dream for me. But
I knew we had to build our research program first. The Garden now is a
world center for the identification and collection of plants under the
most rigid international protocols, publishing our discoveries, and making
them available in cyberspace, through the largest data base of plant information
in the world, to other scientists and interested parties without restriction….The
Center will promote development which meets the needs of the present world
community without compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs…. This means, of course, protecting natural resources and
improving living standards and ecological systems for the benefit of all
mankind," Raven said, noting that "We are living in a time of runaway extinction,
when perhaps a third of all kinds of organisms in the world may disappear,
with enormous impact on both the developing and developed world, but especially
on those who already are suffering from the deterioration of the world's
The Missouri Botanical Garden's mission is to discover and share knowledge
about plants and their environment, in order to preserve and enrich life.
Today, more than 140 years after its founding by Henry Shaw, the Missouri
Botanical Garden is a National Historic Landmark and a center for research,
education and horticultural display. More than 50 Ph.D. botanists and 150
technical support staff are based at one of the world's largest herbariums
and a major botanical research library. Its botanists work in 24 countries
on every continent, including North America, with a specialty in rain forests
of the developing world.
New York Botanical Garden Scientists Probe the Rain Forests of Belize,
Revealing Crucial Data on Vanishing Maya Plant Lore and the Diversity of
Capping 13 years of field and laboratory work, three scientists at The
New York Botanical Garden have succeeded in doing what few botanists have
the energy or resources to attempt: They have inventoried all the species
of plants of an entire country _ Belize. This exhaustive inventory, presented
in the publication Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize: With
Common Names and Uses, includes the historical uses of plants by Maya
civilizations and other cultures living in this area.
Full of dense rain forest, fire-scarred savanna, and hundreds of remote
off-shore islands, Belize is slightly larger than the state of Massachusetts.
Despite the threat of malaria and other tropical diseases, frequent hurricanes,
and prolonged periods in remote areas with minimal supplies, Garden scientists
and their local collaborators mounted over one hundred collecting expeditions
to nearly every corner of the country. Travel through some of the most
remote rain forests of Central America was by helicopter, jeep, canoe,
unimog, and on foot. Many thousands of specimens were collected. Through
painstaking research in the field and in herbaria throughout the United
States, the authors have definitively placed the number of species in Belize
at 3,560, eliminating much of the uncertainly previously associated with
the identification of Belizean plants.
Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize, presents the flora
of Belize as it exists today and provides insight into how the flora is
currently utilized locally and regionally. Working with local people in
Belize and specialists throughout the world, the authors, Dr. Michael J.
Balick, Dr. Michael H. Nee, and Daniel E. Atha, have synthesized vast amounts
of highly technical information into a concise summary that will be used
by botanists, ecologists, anthropologists, medical professionals, and ecotourists.
Significant new finding in botany and ethnobotany are presented for
the first time. Endemic plants and species never before reported for Belize
are identified and discussed. Every species is classified into a comprehensive
system utilizing information gained from centuries of classical taxonomic
research and the results of modern molecular studies.
Among the ethnobotanical discoveries, the authors show that nearly 40
percent of the plants of the country are used for a variety of purposes,
such as food, medicine, and construction, indicating the high degree to
which local people still rely on plants for much of their everyday living.
Perhaps the most significant contribution of the work is the linking
of thousands of years of Maya traditions of plant use with the latest research
and taxonomic interpretations. Though not presented in great detail, the
uses of individual plants are linked to valid scientific names, permitting
more detailed studies of past, present, and future relationships between
local people and the plants around them.
For millennia preceding Columbus' "discovery" of the New World, the
species presented in this work provided the Mayas _ widely regarded as
the most advanced pre-Colombian civilization of the Western Hemisphere
_ with nearly all of their material, cultural, and spiritual needs. The
Mayas were the only indigenous Americans to independently develop writing
and from the few remaining works, it is clear that plants were central
to nearly every aspect of the culture.
Though little remains of their writing, and despite systematic efforts
to erase much of their culture, the Mayas succeeded in preserving much
of their ethnobotanical heritage (especially the use of plants for healing)
through oral tradition. Tragically, these traditions were nearly extinguished
as the older practitioners died without passing on their knowledge to the
younger generation, who are often indifferent to "the old ways."
Preserving these traditions required a multi-disciplinary approach,
let by Dr. Balick and his colleagues in Belize, Drs. Rosita Arvigo and
Gregory Shropshire of the IxChel Tropical Research Foundation, in which
botanists, working with physicians, interviewed local people and made herbarium
specimens of the plants they used. These specimens, and many thousands
were crucial in piecing together the whole flora. Without them, the
report or suggestion of a species or plant use in Belize (or anywhere else
in the world) is conjecture. But with a herbarium voucher specimen, a species
can be independently verified by a qualified botanist anywhere in the world.
And at any time in the future.
The New York Botanical Garden, founded in 1891, is a public garden and
research institution dedicated to the documentation and preservation of
the Earth's plant diversity. The Garden's International Plant Science Center
is one of the most accomplished, intensive, and distinguished botanical
science r\programs in the world. It includes the Institute of Economic
Botany for research, teaching, and publication in the field of economic
botany and the Institute of Systematic Botany for the research and documentation
of plant diversity, plant taxa, and evolutionary relationships. The collections
in its Herbarium and the LuEsther T. Mertz Library are among the most extensive
resources of their kind. The Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Program for Molecular
Systematics Studies and The Plant Genomics Consortium are becoming widely
recognized as major contributors to our understanding about the origin
and evolution of plants.
Ecology Course in Australia
Aug 3rd-18th 2001
We fly out of LA into Cairns where we will study the Great Barrier Reef,
rainforests in the Daintree regions, savannas and wetlands. For more info
contact Brent DeMars, PhD, Lakeland College 440 953-7147 or email@example.com
, cost $2750.00 all inclusive, even food.
To the Editor-
A little problem of nomenclature
The "In Memoriam" of Dr Rupert Barneby in the Spring 2001 issue of Plant
Science Bulletin states that he was born in Monmouthshire, England.
Monmouthshire as a county no longer exists, although what was Monmouthshire
is now in Wales _ shades of plant systematics and nomenclature?
Rather like the plant Lotus uliginosus* - which oscillates between
L. uliginosus and L. pedunculatus on almost a decade basis
_ Monmouthshire was in Wales until, in 1536, it was made subservient to
English courts. Since then the position has been anomalous. Ecclesiastically
it has always remained part of Wales and included in most Acts of Parliament
relating to Wales, although excluded from others of importance. This was
an uneasy situation. A University College of Wales and Monmouthshire was
established in 1883. There was a land tenure bill (Wales and Monmouthshire)
and a local government bill (Wales and Monmouthshire) rejected by the House
of Commons in London in 1897 and 1902 respectively.
This ambiguity continued. The first language of the local people was
Welsh for several centuries after 1536. Many place names in Monmouthshire
are Welsh _ probably Celtic originally because of similarity to those in
Cornwall and Brittany. Someone born in Monmouthshire was eligible to compete
at international level for England or for Wales, although most rugby players
This confusion was eventually resolved in the reorganization of counties
in the United Kingdom in the 1970's. Glamorgan and Monmouthshire became
Gwent, and Gwnet is in Wales.
*Lotus uliginosus _ (1952) 1st Edition of Flora
of the British Isles by A.R. Clapham, T.G. Tutin and E.F. Warburg,
Cambridge University Press.
L. pedunculatus _ (1959) 2nd Edition of Flora
of the British Isles by A.R. Clapham, T.G. Tutin and E.F. Warburg,
Cambridge University Press. It was at this stage that New Zealand researchers
started a breeding program with material supplied to them under this name.
L. uliginosus _ (1987) 3rd Edition of Flora
of the British Isles by A.R. Clapham, T.G. Tutin and D.M. Moore.
L. pedunculatus _ (1991) New Flora of the British
Isles by Clive Stace, Cambridge University Press.
In Volume 2 of Flora Europaea (1968), edited by T.G. Tutin et
al., it is clear that P.W. Ball has L. uliginosus and L. pedunculatus
as different species.
-David A. Jones, Department of Botany, University of Florida
Development and Structure
p. 60 Actin:
A Dynamic Framework for Multiple Plant Cell Functions. C.J. Staiger,
F. Baluska, D. Volkmann, P. Barlow. 2000. - John Z. Kiss
p. 60 Dream Plants for the
Natural Garden. Henk Gerritsen and Piet Oudolf. 2000. - Joanne
p. 61 Elsevier's
Dictionary of Plant Names and their Origin. Donald Watts. 2000.
- Thomas G. Lammers
p. 61 Invasive Species
in a Changing World. Harold A. Mooney and Richard J Hobbs (eds).
2000 -Laura Hyatt
p. 63 Prairie
Wetland Ecoloogy. The Contribution of the Marsh Ecology Research Program.
Murkin, H.R, A.G. van der Valk and W.R. Clark (eds). 2000. - Donald H.
p. 64 Tropical Ecosystems
and Ecological Concepts. Osborne, P.L. 2000. - Kathleen L. Shea
p. 65 A Rum
Affair: A True Story of a Botanical Fraud. Karl Sabbagh. 1999.
- Grady Webster
p. 67 North
American Boletes: A Color Guide to the Fleshy Pored Mushrooms.
Bessette, Alan E., William C. Roody, and Arleen R. Bessette. 2000. - Tom
p. 68 Chemicals
from Plants: Perspectives on Plant Secondary Chemistry. N.J. Walton
and D.E. Brown (eds). - Michelle A. Briggs
p. 68 The Orchid in Lore and Legend.
Berliocchi, L. Translated by L. Rosenberg and A. Weston, Mark Griffiths
(ed). 2000. -Joseph Arditti
p. 70 Teaching Greenhouse CD.
Mohammad Mehdi Fayyaz. 2000. - Jonathan Frye
p. 70 The
Cattleyas and their Relatives, Volume VI. The South American Encyclia
Species. Withner, Carl L. 2000. - Joseph Arditti
p. 71 Flora de Murcia. P. Sanchez Gomez,
J. Guerra Montes, E. Coy Gomez, A. Hernandez Gomzalea, S. Fernandez Jimenez
and A.F. Carrillo Lopez. 1999. - Marcel Rejmanek
p. 71 Flora
of China. Volume 24, Flagellariaceae through Marantaceae. Wu Zhengyi
and Peter H. Raven (co-chairs, editorial committee) 2000. - Neil A. Harriman
p. 72 Flowering Plants of the
Galapagos. Conley K. McMullen. 1999. -Douglas Goldman
p. 74 Genera
Orchidacearum. Volume 1. General Introduction, Apostasioideae, Cypripedoideae.
A. M. Pridgeon, P. J. Cribb, M.W. Chase, and F. N. Rasmussen (eds).
1999. -Joseph Arditti
p. 76 Investigations
into the Systematic Botany and Phylogenetic Relationships of Takhtajania
perrieri (Capuron) Baranova & J.-F Leroy (Winteraceae).
- James E. Eckenwalder
p. 77 Passion Flowers, 3rd ed.
Vanderplank, John. 2000. -Kristen Porter-Utley
p. 78 Pictoral
Guide to the Common Woody Plants of the Northeastern United States.
D. Kimbler, M. Clayton, & M. Adams. 2000. -Douglas Goldman
p. 80 Sage. The Genus Salvia.
Kintzios, Spiridon E. (ed). -Neil A. Harriman
A Dynamic Framework for Multiple Plant Cell Functions. C.J. Staiger,
F. Baluska, D. Volkmann, P. Barlow. 2000. ISBN: 0792364120 (Cloth US$294)
663 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The
Netherlands. - The plant cytoskeleton has been the subject of great interest
in recent years to cellular and molecular biologists. While the cytoskeleton
has an obvious structural function, its role in diverse signal transduction
pathways is becoming increasingly appreciated. Actin filaments, sometimes
referred to as microfilaments, along with microtubules constitute the bulk
of the plant cytoskeleton.
This well-written and well-edited book consists of 36 chapters, which
are review articles by recognized experts in their respective fields. These
articles represent the current state of our knowledge about the actin cytoskeleton
from cytological, cellular, physiological, and molecular perspectives.
In fact, a strength of the book is having good representation of diverse
The first chapter discusses the diversity of the plant actin gene family.
Chapters 2 - 7 consider the critical role of actin-binding proteins, such
as myosins, profilin, and fimbrin, in actin function. However, I do think
that an overview chapter on this topic would have been helpful. There are
several chapters on the role of actin in specialized systems (e.g., pollen
tubes, root hairs, guard cells), and in processes such as gravitropism,
auxin transport, and responses to pathogenic fungi. The last few topics
covered deal with the latest methodologies such as visualization methods
and GFP (green fluorescent protein) technologies.
The quality of the illustrations is very good. One can see the subtle
features present in the confocal and electron micrographs as well as the
bands on the gels. Some of the chapters include quality color illustrations
as well. Having said this, I did find that several of the chapters included
too few (or no) illustrations. The book lacks an index, which would have
been helpful to the readers.
The review articles are current since the reference list includes papers
up to 1999, and, in most cases, up to early 2000. In many chapters, these
reference lists are extensive and exhaustive.
I enjoyed reading Actin: A Dynamic Framework for Multiple Plant Cell
Functions and commend the editors for doing such a good job. Although
it is a bit pricey, this book is a must for researchers interested in the
plant cytoskeleton. The book can be used in graduate-level classes, and
it is recommended for acquisition by university libraries.
- John Z. Kiss, Dept. Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056
Dream Plants for the Natural
Garden. Henk Gerritsen and Piet Oudolf. Timber Press 2000.
ISBN 0-88192-493-8. 144 pages. — The authors, who are from
the Netherlands, choose about 1200 plants, mostly perennials, ferns, grasses
and a few shrubs, of the myriad now available to gardeners and classify
them into three maintenance categories: tough, playful and troublesome.
Dream plants are tough. They are reliable and can be maintained over
the years in an average garden without pesticides, artificial fertilizers
or intense labor. However, by including plants from the playful and
troublesome categories the authors also describe some of their favorites
which though not completely meeting their criteria for dream plants may
be worth the extra effort of dealing with their foibles. The resulting
well-illustrated choices include many garden standbys as well as plants
which are not ordinarily thought of.
In an era when the term natural gardening increasingly
implies the use of native plants indigenous to the region so as to maintain
habitat for local wildlife, these authors choose a more liberal definition.
For them natural gardening is a matter of a certain wild quality in appearance
which results from choosing either ornamental plants and cultivars or native
plants which may also attract insects, butterflies and birds. Each
plant is listed alphabetically by scientific name within its category and
the hardiness zone, blooming time and sun/shade requirements are included.
A great deal of very useful information about the morphology and culture
of each plant is conveyed in a prose style which is botanically correct
while at the same time is very readable. What sets this book
apart from other books on the subject is the complete candor of the authors
in explaining their choices. Even their disagreements are aired leaving
the reader to choose. Interesting essays on an eclectic variety of
topics such as winter silhouettes, color schemes and staking are interspersed
among the pages of plant descriptions. These essays allow the authors
to express some of their stronger opinions such as the failure of a traditional
color wheel to provide any assistance whatsoever in achieving satisfactory
color combinations in a garden.
Since the book is written by Europeans, I wondered
about the availability of their recommended plants in my area of this country.
By comparing an arbitrary selection (tough plants from A through C in zone
5 or lower) to those listed in the on-line catalog of a large nearby nursery
here in Maine (Fieldstone Gardens) I found that almost 50% were available.
A useful addition to this book would be a checklist of all recommended
plants with the maintenance category, hardiness zone and culture information
listed. I strongly recommend this book to anyone who is interested
in knowing more about plants which require little maintenance yet can bring
interesting colors and textures to a garden. - - Joanne Sharpe,
Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens, Boothbay ME 04537.
Dictionary of Plant Names and their Origin. Donald Watts. Elsevier
Science, Amsterdam, 2000. ISBN 0-444-50356-0. xxx + 1001 pp. _ The circulating
coinage of virtually every nation on earth is stamped with the name of
that nation. Cents plainly state, "United States of America," pesos read,
"Estados Unidos Mexicanos," and so forth. The sole exception? The United
Kingdom. Pence and pounds bear no national identification. I will not speculate
on what this might imply about British attitudes. I only bring it up because
the book at hand suffers the same deficit.
When one encounters a book with the straightforward title "Dictionary
of Plant Names," one might reasonably assume that it will pretty much cover
most plant names in some fashion. One might even be forgiven for concluding
that such a book would permit access to information via scientific names
as well as vernacular. Both those assumptions would be wrong in the present
What the book comprises is an alphabetical listing of vernacular names
of plants in the United Kingdom. Incredibly, nowhere in the book
is that delimitation spelled out explicitly. In the half page Preface (p.
v), the only explanatory material in the book, there are passing references
to "the West country" and "Devonshire and Yorkshire," but nowhere does
the author indicate that the scope of his work is confined to the U.K.
So, aside from a misleading title, what of the book? It certainly does
appear to be an exhaustive compendium of British vernacular names, with
such explanations of their definite or possible origins as is possible.
For example, random page-flipping tells us that Ornithogalum pyrenaicum
Desf. is known as Bath Asparagus, because young shoots are picked and sold
in the markets around Bath, to be eaten as a vegetable in the style of
Asparagus officinalis L. We likewise learn that Veronica
chamaedrys L. is charmingly referred to as Hawk-Your-Mother's-Eyes-Out,
from the superstition that if a child picks the plant, his or her mother
will die during the year.
Most of the listed usages and origins are supported by literature citations.
The bibliography listing the cited references covers 22 pages (pp. ix-xxx)
and encompass a broad spectrum of academic, folkloric, literary, culinary,
and agricultural work. Unfortunately, the citations are non-specific; only
the work is cited, not the page.
Perhaps the greatest problem with the book (aside from the title) is
its lack of any means to access scientific names. Each vernacular name
listed is identified by one or more binomials (though without their appended
author names), but there is no companion listing by binomial, nor even
an index to these. For example, I wanted to learn the names applied to
the British species of Campanula, but was unable to do so. This
information could only be gleaned by reading each and every entry. This
single failing will greatly limit the utility of the book to serious botanists
interested in common names.
In summary, this misleadingly titled book will be of considerable use
to those who have come across a vernacular name for some plant that grows
in the British Isles and wish to identify the plant more precisely and
understand the linguistic origins of the vernacular name. Beyond that,
it has little to recommend it, short of the amusement value of names such
as Fool's Ballocks, Yorkshire Fog, Flapdick, Jack-an-Apes-on-Horseback,
Joynson's Remedy Cheese, and Priest's Pintle. — Thomas G. Lammers,
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, Oshkosh WI 54901.
Invasive Species in
a Changing World. Harold A. Mooney and Richard J. Hobbs, Editors. 2000.
ISBN 1-55963-782-X (paper, US$30.00) 457 pp. Island Press, 76381 Commercial
Street, P.O. Box 7, Covelo, California 95428. - Biological invasions and
global environmental changes caused by human activities are not only unprecedented
ecological problems, but they also present interesting opportunities for
biologists to explore basic principles and theories about biological organization.
Although a great deal of scientific energy and funding has gone into studying
these two phenomena separately, how might they interact? This is the premise
of this very interesting volume put together by Mooney and Hobbs. The working
(and supported) principle is that invasions are likely to be worse than
anticipated under the global changes we face.
The book reports on presentations in a workshop held in 1998 in San
Mateo, California as a part of the Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP).
GISP is coordinated by SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment),
and supported by a variety of world environmental organizations. It was
formed to improve international collaboration in dealing with the invasive
species problem, which is critical, as the dimension of the problem clearly
requires such activity. GISP's mandate is to assemble information and approaches
for prevention and management, disseminate such information to governments
and communities, and to lay the groundwork for new tools in science, information
management, education and policy to be developed through collaborative
international action (see the website:http://jasper.Stanford.EDU/GISP).
This book in the first of several anticipated to emerge from the program.
The material in this volume is broken up into three sections dealing
with the dimensions of the problem of global change and biological invasion,
societal impacts and regional examples.
The first section addresses ecological realms (freshwater, [Kolar &
Lodge], marine [Carlton] and terrestrial [Dukes]), environmental changes
(land use [Hobbs], fire [D'Antonio]) and ends with an exploration of the
impacts of global change on microevolutionary processes [Barrett] and addresses
various methods of impact and spread assessment [Mack]. Most of the authors
in this section do a tremendous job of bringing their perspectives on invasions
to the problem of global change and point out important interactions. For
instance, Kolar & Lodge point out that increasing water quality in
canals connecting the Laurentian Great Lakes (presumably a positive environmental
change) is accelerating the movement of invaders between bodies of water,
encouraging invasion. D'Antonio points out that in general, fire promotes
the growth of alien species. Even when used as a management tool to eliminate
invaders, fire creates opportunities for invasion to take place, whether
or not the invaders are, themselves, fire adapted. The problem is exacerbated
by the fact that changes in fire regimes associated with global change
are likely to have unknown consequences for fire-adapted natives. Barrett's
chapter on microevolution points out that invasions are good model systems
for studying how plants in general will respond to global changes, but
that more information about phenotypic plasticity and genetic variation
are needed to effectively forecast the effects of environmental change.
Most of these chapters have something new and integrative to say, although
they are mostly written by people whose expertise is in the field of invasives,
rather than that of global change effects.
The second section is mainly economic in nature. Chapters on international
politics [McNeely], human health [McMichael and Bouma], assessments of
environmental vulnerability [Sutherst], and environmental valuation [Naylor]
are capped off by a fascinating analysis of the economic costs and benefits
of removing Tamarix species from riparian habitats in the southwestern
US [Zavaleta]. Zalaveta has quantified the amount of water lost in the
region to transpiration by Tamarix, the costs of various efforts to reclaim
this water, and the cost of total elimination of the species from the southwest
($3,000 per acre). She shows that elimination is the most cost-effective
approach in the long run, especially in light of the global changes which
are forecast to exacerbate the problems Tamarix generates. This chapter
stood out as the most compelling chapter in the book for this reader. Similar
analyses of other invaders would make fascinating comparisons possible.
Overall, the timely message from this section is that explicit accounting
of invader impacts and economic costs are needed to effectively mobilize
monies needed for introduction prevention, control and eradication.
The final section addresses the impact of global change of invasions
on a regional scale. It includes chapters on invasions in South Africa
[Richardson et al.], Germany [Scherer-Lorenzen et al.], New Zealand [Clout
and Lowe] and Chile [Arroyo et al.]. These regions differ very widely in
the impact that invaders have had historically and the challenges they
face in the future. South Africa is unique in the impact that alien woody
shrubs and trees have had in a variety of habitats, including the fynbos.
Germany, like the rest of Europe, has a long history of invasion that has
mainly served to enhance biodiversity. New Zealand's natural history is
nearly entirely dominated by invasions, while Chile's incredibly diverse
array of habitats make the identification of potentially harmful invaders
a complex affair. This section is the least compelling because most of
these chapters concentrate on describing the breadth of invasions within
the region and either model simple projections of changed plant distributions
that have been done many times before, or weakly conjecture about the impacts
of global change.
Global changes will clearly accelerate the rates at which species are
introduced to new habitats, alter resource bases that shift competitive
and other interactions between alien and native species, and inject new
variables into projections of future species distributions and ecosystem
composition. Although this volume is not likely to become a critical desktop
reference for workers in the fields of global change or invasives, it is
an interesting, thought-provoking read you should encourage your library
to buy if you have any interests in either field. - Laura Hyatt, Department
of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY
Wetland Ecology. The Contribution of the Marsh Ecology Research Program.
Murkin, H. R., A. G. van der Valk and W. R. Clark (eds.). 2000. ISBN 0-8138-2752-3
(cloth US$79.95) 413 pp. Iowa State University Press, Ames. - Twenty-two
years ago, a partnership was forged between Ducks Unlimited Canada and
the Delta Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Station to conduct an intensive
ecological investigation of northern prairie wetlands known as the Marsh
Ecology Research Program (MERP). This collaboration was aimed at advancing
from a field dominated largely by descriptive studies to one that emphasized
empirical work encompassing all areas of wetland ecology and management.
The present book is an evaluation of the MERP, with chapters designed to
summarize the past contributions of the program and current state of understanding
achieved as a result of 10 years of intensive investigations. A major objective
was to assess the effects of water level changes (wet-dry cycles) using
long-term data obtained from 10 experimental cells. A variety of physical
and biological information was obtained from these studies.
Eleven contributors provided 13 chapters which are organized in four
parts: I: introductory material (two chapters), II: nutrient budgets (four
chapters), III: ecology (5 chapters) and IV: summary (2 chapters). Three
appendices add information on techniques and sampling, nutrient budgets,
and publications (an impressive list of 93 articles and 16 graduate theses).
Overall I found the book to be appropriately organized, and well referenced.
Tables and figures were informative and explained clearly, with technical
jargon kept to a minimum in the accompanying text. This format made the
chapters easy to read and digest with good comprehension. Chapters were
of uniformly high quality, with each section comparable in scope and depth
as the rest.
The book begins with a succinct description of the study area (vegetation,
climatic data, etc.), the design of the experimental cells followed in
the course of the study, and the salient features of the wet-dry cycle
operating in natural prairie marshes. Next, a description of nutrient budgets
(N, P and C) and the effects of flooding, drawdown and reflooding experiments
is given in good, understandable detail. This section presents a number
of interesting findings, e.g., how nutrients (esp. N, P) can be lost (and
productivity reduced) as a consequence of water-level management techniques
and how changes in macrophyte pools resulting from drawdown influence nutrient
pools. Data for all three nutrients are summarized in a number of useful
tables and graphs that show the shifts in nutrient pools throughout various
stages of the experimental manipulations.
The largest section of the book (Part III, ecology) begins with impressive
maps of emergent species showing the changes occurring in all cells over
the course of the experiments. Discussions include factors leading to zonation
genesis and evaluations of various quantitative models of vegtational dynamics
(e.g., logistic regression, spatially explicit models). The subsequent
chapters summarize the dynamics of various groups of organisms including
algae, invertebrates, birds, and muskrats. Most chapters conclude by a
useful section on "Research Needs". These chapters provide much useful
information that would
especially be important to wetland managers. The essential findings
of these sections are also nicely summarized at the end of the book (Summary
This book is an excellent example of how long term studies can provide
useful synthetic information on ecological systems. Any person with an
interest in wetland ecology should definitely check it out. There are a
number of good case studies that demonstrate the biological effects of
hydrological changes in wetlands and nicely demonstrate the complexity
of interactions in these systems. Because of its fairly limited scope,
this is not a book that would be suitable as a text for an introductory
wetland ecology course. However, it would be ideal to use in a graduate
level seminar course on wetland ecology. The abundance of stimulating multidisciplinary
subject matter should provide plenty of discussion for an intensive semester
of scrutiny, and it is especially suited for a diverse audience of wetland
biologists and hydrologists. - Donald H. Les, Department of Ecology &
Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3043.
and Ecological Concepts Osborne, P.L. 2000. ISBN 0-521-64251-5, 0-521-64523-9
(cloth US $88.00, paper
US$39.95) xiv+464pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th St., New
York, NY 10011-4211.- Osborne's text on tropical ecosystems provides a
valuable new resource for students in tropical countries, the intended
audience, or for anyone interested in using examples from tropical ecosystems
to learn about or teach ecology. This book is different from most ecology
texts because each chapter is written to focus on a particular ecosystem
type and ecological concepts are introduced as part of the discussion of
the ecosystem. For example, competition among coral reef species is used
to illustrate the niche concept and savanna grazing animals illustrate
patterns of population growth in chapters on coral reefs and savannas,
respectively. Osborne also has more on aquatic environments than most texts,
with five out of 14 chapters on lakes, rivers, wetlands, mangroves, and
coral reefs. The information on aquatic ecosystems is especially valuable
because there are other texts on tropical rainforests or with a regional
focus (such as Kricher 1997, Longman and Jenik 1987, Mabberley 1992, Whitmore
1991), but much less information is readily available on tropical aquatic
ecosystems. Six chapters are on terrestrial ecosystems and three chapters
discuss tropical areas in general: the first chapter on "The tropical environment"
and the last two chapters on "Cities and human ecology" and "Global ecology".
Osborne, Executive Director of the International Center for Tropical
Ecology at the University of Missouri-St. Louis, has traveled throughout
the tropics, but admits a bias from his own work on tropical limnology
and wetlands in Africa, Papua New Guinea and Australia. The text reflects
his interests, although he brings in examples from the New World tropics
and gives thorough overviews of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
A quick check showed more than two-thirds of the examples are from Africa,
New Guinea and Australia. The boxes highlighting examples or important
topics related to a given chapter are mostly from Africa or New Guinea
and the lakes and rivers chapters have more boxes than other chapters.
The book is ambitious, touching on all the main concepts of ecology
in less than 500 pages, compared to 600-800 pages in many ecology texts.
The writing style is clear and to-the-point with important terms highlighted
in bold. Subsections within each chapter make the text easy to follow.
The pictures, tables and diagrams are in black and white, clearly legible,
with helpful legends. There are several attractive color photos on the
front and back covers. At the end of the book there is an extensive glossary,
with cross-references, a listing of references cited and a detailed index.
Chapter summaries highlight the main points of each chapter. The text assumes
that the reader has had at least an introductory course in biology and
is planning to major in biology, ecology or environmental science.
While it is difficult to decide on the order of presentation of topics
in any ecology text, I thought that little attention was paid to evolutionary
concepts and it would have been helpful to have natural selection and speciation
discussed earlier. The discussion of speciation and extinction was not
introduced until near the end of the book in Chapter 12, "Isolated habitats
and biogeography". In many cases I found it frustrating to have a question
brought up, only to be told it will be discussed later. For example, the
chapter on lakes (Chapter 5) brought up the issue of why there are so many
species of fish in one lake compared to another and the reader is told
that this issue will be discussed in Chapter 12.
The book begins by defining the tropics in terms of location, climate
and biogeography. Basic terms such as biome, ecosystem and energy flow
are defined. The reader is told that the text will focus on "similarities
that exist within biomes from different regions in order to unravel the
major features of their ecology" and that more specific information will
be needed for details about a particular area. The chapter on deserts is
used to discuss the effects of abiotic (environmental) factors on organisms
and the grassland chapter facilitates the introduction of primary production
and energy flow. Osborne points out that savannas cover one-fifth of the
land surface of the world and half of the African continent and that much
savanna vegetation is maintained through regular burning. The basics of
population ecology are introduced in the savanna chapter, using examples
from Africa to illustrate population growth, age structure, competition,
predation, key factor analysis and ecosystem models. Lakes are used to
discuss thermal stratification, aquatic primary productivity, food chains,
biogeochemical cycles, eutrophication and consequences of exotic species
introductions. In the discussion of rivers, the river continuum concept
and the flood-pulse concepts are compared. Ecological succession is discussed
as part of the wetland chapter, giving succession an aquatic rather than
its usual terrestrial association. The importance of wetlands in reducing
flood flow and enhancing downstream water quality is described. Although
Osborne cites the figure that 80% of wetlands in Ohio, USA have been lost,
no comparable figures are given for tropical areas. Decomposition and the
detritous food chains are explained as part of the chapter on mangroves.
Biodiversity is the focus of the discussion of rainforests, with emphasis
on plant-animal interactions, nutrient cycling, species diversity, patch
dynamics, forest fragmentation and conservation.
The structure of high and low elevation forests is compared and community
change along environmental gradients is discussed. Coral reef formation
and threats to coral reefs from bleaching and other organisms such as the
crown of thorns starfish are clearly explained.
Resource management and conservation are emphasized in the last two
chapters and discussed at the end of several chapters. Osborne points out
that poor environmental health leads to impaired human health. The importance
of planning for sustained yields in fishing and other industries is stressed,
as is identifying high priority areas for conservation. The melting of
tropical glaciers is discussed as an example of the effects of global warming
and readers are warned that global warming may lead to human populations
at higher elevations and the spread of malaria-carrying mosquitoes. The
consequences of high rates of human population growth are also discussed.
Overall I recommend this book for anyone interested in the structure
and function of tropical ecosystems. It provides a good overview of the
main tropical ecosystems, with examples from around the world and clearly
explains basic ecological concepts. This will be a valuable resource for
students in tropical countries and for others looking to better understand
tropical ecosystems. A goal of the book is to educate people so that they
understand the basic science needed to make good conservation decisions.
I would recommend this as background reading for students going on my field
courses in the tropics, but those who have had introductory ecology will
benefit more from texts focused on the natural history of specific regions.
Travelers to tropical regions will benefit from the overview this book
provides, but will also need to find more specific local references.-Kathleen
L. Shea, Department of Biology, St. Olaf College, Northfield, MN 55057.
Kricher, J. 1997. A Neotropical companion, 2nd ed., Princeton
University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Longman, K.A. and Jenik, J. 1987. Tropical forest and its environment,
2nd ed. Longman, London.
Mabberley, D.J. 1992. Tropical rain forest ecology, 2nd ed..Chapman
and Hall, New York.
Whitmore, T.C. 1991. An introduction to tropical rain forests.Oxford
University Press, New York.
A Rum Affair:
A True Story of a Botanical Fraud.—Karl Sabbagh. 1999. ISBN 0 374-25282-3
(cloth, US$24.00). 276 pp. Farrar, Strauss, and Geroux, New York. _ It
would be extraordinary, if not unprecedented, to find a book emphasizing
floristic taxonomy on the New York Times Non-Fiction Best Seller List.
Although A Rum Affair did not quite achieve this in the United States,
it did receive attention in the New York Times Book Review. This
curious book is a highly original contribution to a rare—one might almost
say invented—genre of botanical literature: the botanical detective story.
It reads in places like a British detective novel, with a flamboyant suspect
who is thought to have committed fraud, and a botanical Jaubert whose zeal
for justice leads him to pursue his Jean Valjean onto an unlikely locale
in the Inner Hebrides off the coast of Scotland. In telling this story,
the author, Karl Sabbagh, has clearly benefitted from his background of
a Cambridge degree and experience in directing scientific educational television
programs for the BBC. But A Rum Affair is scarcely a typical "who-done-it",
because at the end of the book the culprit is never quite brought to justice,
or even publicly exposed. For author Sabbagh, and for the reader too, the
passage turns out to be more exciting than the destination.
The facts of the case (admittedly murky in places) involve suspicions—that
rose to accusations—of botanical foul play in the early 1940s on the island
of Rum (earlier spelled "Rhum" by Victorian geographers who prudishly shied
away from having an island named for an intoxicating substance). The villain
of our story, John William Heslop Harrison, was a professor of botany at
the University of Newcastle on Tyne, in northern England (Northumberland)
and a vigorous field naturalist who in the 1930s had begun field studies
(that now would be called "biological inventory") in the Outer and Inner
Hebrides Islands off the west coast of Scotland. As a result of his field
studies, Heslop Harrison became an adherent of the "nunatak theory," earlier
developed by Scandinavian botanists, that some species survived even during
the height of the Pleistocene on isolated and unglaciated mountains (and
islands). In a widely-read article in Nature in 1951, Heslop Harrison
cited a number of species he had found, including several Carex, that
he was certain had survived the Ice Age in "nunatak" areas in the Hebrides.
Aside from the fact that the "nunatak" hypothesis was never wholeheartedly
adopted by the botanical community, even before publication of the Nature
article Heslop Harrison had to contend with rumors circulating among British
botanists that his "nunatak plants" were not convincingly documented. Some
of the rumors appear to have originated from a competing team botanizing
in the Hebrides that centered around A. J. Wilmott, head of the herbarium
at the British Museum of Natural History, and his mercurial colleague Maybud
Campbell, an ex-opera singer who played secretary-as-prima donna of the
Botanical Society of the British Isles. These, and other supporting characters,
lend a distinct flavor of Agatha Christie to the story.
The island of Rum became the cockpit of this botanical drama because
Heslop Harrison published in the Journal of Botany in 1941 new records
from Rum that were disputed by other British botanists. His claim that
he had found Carex bicolor, a species unknown from the British Isles,
was considered suspect, along with a number of other new records from Rum.
Wilmott seems to have been both exasperated by Heslop Harrison's effrontery
and suspicious of the veracity of some of the botanical records coming
out of Newcastle. Apparently he determined to settle scores with Heslop
Harrison for his vulgar behavior in a contentious correspondence that continued
up until 1945, as well as for his transgressions against professional ethics.
The plot against Heslop Harrison appears to have materialized during a
1947 field trip to Glen Affric by a group of professional and amateur botanists,
including Wilmott, Maybell Campbell, Charles Raven (the biographer of John
Ray), and his son John. John Raven, then a student at King's College, Cambridge,
and a keen amateur botanist, was apparently persuaded to take an active
role in a "plan" to expose Heslop Harrison by making covert observations
on the island of Rum. With Heslop Harrison's accordance, and not without
some logistical problems, John Raven did succeed in landing on Rum and
locating some of the botanical specialties such as Carex bicolor.
What he found appeared to confirm suspicions that Heslop Harrison had "salted"
localities on Rum by transplanting individual plants of the critical species
from his own garden.
On the basis of his observations, John Raven wrote a report to Trinity
College—which was necessary to justify the grant of £ 50 that he
had received—in which he detailed his observations on Rum, and explicitly
concluded that Heslop Harrison had planted individuals of several species
on the island and then claimed to have "discovered" them. This report was
never published, although Sabbagh was able to read it in the Trinity College
library. However, in January 1949 Raven published in the prestigious journal
Nature an abbreviated version of the report in an article titled
"Alien plant introductions on the Isle of Rhum,." in which he concluded
that Carex bicolor and Polycarpon tetraphyllum were introduced
to the island. Although written in the usual dry academic prose, its carefully
wordly statements carried crystal-clear implications for anyone familiar
with the controversy about locality records of Hebridean plants..
Heslop Harrison, who may not have been a regular reader of Nature,
apparently was unaware of Raven's article for a couple of years, but when
he did see it his response was predictably violent, and his rebuttal to
Nature was rejected by the editors. In 1952 he wrote a letter to
Raven accusing him—with understandable bitterness—of visiting Rum under
false pretenses. However, the tradition of Victorian gentility in matters
of scientific controversy appears to have prevailed, and nothing further
about the Rum episode appeared in public prior to Heslop Harrison's death
One of the curious aspects of A Rum Affair is that it involves
scientific fraud in the field of plant systematics. In their fascinating
analysis of biological frauds, Betrayers of the Truth, Broad and
Wade a couple of decades ago cited a considerable number of instances of
fraudulent behavior, especially in molecular biology and medical research,
but only two in botany: Mendel's fudging of crossing data in his experiments
with peas, and Lysenko's outrageous repudiation of genetics in plant breeding.
In the genteel field of plant taxonomy, where researchers' ethics are not
tested by intense competition for huge grants from NIH, NSF, or NASA, there
would seem to be much less temptation to succumb to fraud. Plant taxonomists
have certainly had contentious disagreements (e.g., the interactions between
E. L. Greene and M. E. Jones), but as hot as the rhetoric often was, the
claims were usually about bad judgment, not fraud. Plagiarism—the appropriation
of taxon descriptions done by someone else—has been leveled at botanical
authors such as L'Heritier; even Darwin had a problem in explaining how
much he was influenced by Blyth's earlier statement of the theory of natural
selection. The botanical fraud committed by Heslop Harrison is therefore
remarkable enough to justify Sabbagh's detailed analysis, although some
readers may feel that the last two chapters of the book are beating a dead
Overall, A Rum Affair presents an entertaining saga of the social
dynamics in the parochial world of British floristic taxonomy in the mid-20th
century; it provides a revealing glimpse into British botanical culture
of that age that will bemuse American readers. In the 1940s the class differences
between the Heslop Harrison and his Oxbridge/London enemies were apparently
more consequential than would have been the case in the United States.
The ambiguous role of John Raven remains slightly disquieting; his deceptive
behavior in the clandestine trip to Rum detracts from his righteous, crusading
role in exposing Heslop Harrison. He, and the others in Wilmott's circle,
come across as social and academic snobs who apparently saw no serious
ethical problem in bending the rules in order to expose Heslop Harrison's
fraudulent behavior. Whether intentional or not, Sabbagh's account of all
this is redolent of a comedy of manners in the pages of Trollope—we are
missing only the Archdeacon! It also has something of the air of an anthropological
treatise, describing the strange mores and supersititions of a secretive
cult obsessed with unfathomable minutiae of plant structures and relationships.
Even more unkindly, Sabbagh comments that "botany does not have the image
of a serious science." On the other hand, he graciously concedes that while
"you don't expect botanists to win Nobel Prixes… you [also] don't expect
them to blow up the world. "Perhaps A Rum Affair is most commendable
in the mirror it holds up so that each of us can see how much Heslop Harrison,
Wilmott, or Raven is reflected in our own image.— Grady L. Webster, Herbarium,
University of California, Davis.
American Boletes: A Color Guide to the Fleshy Pored Mushrooms. Bessette,
Alan E., William C. Roody, and Arleen R. Bessette. 2000. ISBN 0-8156-0588-9
(Cloth $US 95.00) 396 pp. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY 13244-5160.
- The boletes include some of the largest, strangest, most beautiful, and
most delectably edible mushrooms that one is likely to encounter. They
are impressive even to those normally uninterested in fungi, and they have
inspired generations of devotees to collect and identify them. But the
ugly truth is that they can be devilishly difficult to identify. This is
because there are over 300 hundred species in North America alone, and
many are rarely encountered, or similar in appearance. Worse yet, their
descriptions are spread throughout various regional field guides and technical
literature, and photographs or illustrations are unavailable for many.
The new book, North American Boletes has made a giant leap toward solving
this problem. It is the first, and only, comprehensive set of photographs
and descriptions for North American boletes. All previous books, both field
guilds and monographs, are either more regional, less complete, or both.
The photographs in North American Boletes are stunning - - so impressive
that I would recommend this book to anyone with an interest in the boletes,
even if it contained nothing beyond the photos. The color reproductions
are excellent and in most cases multiple specimens are posed to reveal
important macroscopic characters. The aesthetic appeal of these photos
and the number of species photographed make this an easy book to peruse
for hours. Photos are arranged alphabetically, which makes it easy to find
particular species. Common species are often represented by several photographs
to help document the range of variation. Short, semi-technical descriptions
of the macroscopic features, spore color, spore dimensions, habitat, and
edibility, and a comparison to similar species is provided in a uniform
format for each species. In addition, the author and original citation
for each species name is given at the beginning of each description. Common
synonyms are often mentioned in the summary, and others are often cross-listed
in the index. Descriptions and photos of gasteroid and lamellate boletes,
such as Gastroboletus, Phylloporus and Meiorganum, are also included, as
are photographs of "pseudoboletes", such as Albatrellus and Boletopsis.
In addition photographs of 27 undescribed bolete species are provided,
although descriptions or keys leading to them are not. Inclusion of these
"new species" is a little frustrating, as many of them look so much like
well-known species that it is not immediately obvious what sets them apart.
However, others are clearly unique and are well enough illustrated that
they are probably recognizable from these photos alone.
As stated in beginning of the book: "First and foremost this book is
intended to serve as a guide for field identification ...", and "for amateurs"
could be added to this statement. As such, the keys are based on non-technical
macroscopic characters. In addition the terminology necessary is carefully
defined and illustrated in the beginning of the book. The keys are divided
between Eastern and Western North America, and within these two regions
the species are broken down into seven or nine keys based on stipe and
tube characteristics. These individual keys contain dichotomous couplets
until they terminate in a set of from 2 to 8 short species descriptions.
This will be a frustrating ending for many users, and is one of weakest
features of the book. The book contains additional information of several
types. It starts with a short dedication to Ernst Both, a living unsung
hero of American boletes. A short history of "Boletology" in North America
follows, and appendices on chemical regents, microscopic examination, collecting
and cooking, and a glossary are given at the end.
At $95 from Syracuse University Press the book is a must for bolete
lovers of all persuasions. Professional mycologists will find some deficiencies
in the nomenclature, may dispute some of the species names assigned to
the photographs, and may find it hard to jump to a particular species group
and sort out the likely suspects, but will nonetheless, find it an indispensable
book. Serious amateurs will love it; it was written for them, and there
is no other book like it. _ Tom Bruns, Department of Plant and Microbial
Biology, University of California, Berkeley.
from Plants: Perspectives on Plant Secondary Chemistry. N.J. Walton
and D.E. Brown, eds. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte.Ltd. ISBN: 981-02-2773-6
- I know what you're thinking - - ANOTHER book on secondary chemicals?!
There have been some great works published recently, so what can this work
offer that you don't find in the others? I was thinking the same thing,
and was pleasantly surprised by the scope and target of this effort.
Instead of organizing chemicals by their structure (e.g. alkaloids,
cyanide, flavonoids, etc.), this book opens with a Harborne chapter on
the ecological significance of chemicals, and groups chemicals according
to their function in the environment. For example, this examines antifungal
compounds, those associated with symbioses, as well as the more common
secondary metabolite roles as pigments and anti-feedants.
Did you know that 74% of our currently used, plant-based drugs were
discovered through ethnobotany? Take heed pharmaceutical companies! Simmonds
and Grayer first take an ethnobotanical track in their discussion of drug
discovery and development, discussing matters such as the above statement,
and pharmaceutical screening techniques that I will certainly cover in
future Medicinal Plants courses. Then, the authors offer a wonderful blending
of 21 different plants and the pharmaceutical drugs that are made from
them (often including drug trade names, such as Vepeside from podophyllotoxin's
derivative), and brief drug actions (e.g. anti-cancer).
Another chapter focused on disease prevention and dietary substances.
Williamson et al. take a much needed look at the problems of too many secondary
plant chemicals in the diet. They focus on two compounds known to cause
human problems: potato glycoalkaloids, and furanocoumarins of the carrot
family. We've heard a lot about breeding plants with higher secondary chemical
levels to make them more pest resistant, yet increased pest resistance
doesn't always mean a better food item. The authors then go on to discuss
several known benefits from increasing other phytochemicals. This includes
the ability of some chemicals to act as antioxidants (and a good discussion
on the wide variety of antioxidant actions), chemicals that block or suppress
cancerous growth, and phytoestrogens.
Other authors focused on plant products that are used as lead structures
for drug development, using plant enzymes to produce novel chemical structures,
inserting and expressing foreign plant proteins, and the future of biotechnology.
Although I would openly admit their essential nature, I have to admit,
as an ecologist, several chapters made my eyes glaze over a bit. I also
know that my chemist and molecularly-oriented colleagues would find them
the meat of the book. One chapter is dedicated to characterizing secondary
metabolite pathways. This chapter is a good review of our current knowledge,
and includes a solid discussion of techniques such as the use of labeled
precursors, radioactive tracer studies, protein purification and characterization,
and molecular approaches to characterizations. Another chapter focuses
on secondary product isolation and analyses, and encompasses a whopping
amount of information, from extracting solvents to common (and uncommon)
detectors for GC's. A third chapter examines the methods used for elucidating
structures of different plant secondary products (e.g. mass spectroscopy
As you can see, the compilation covers a wide range of topics, and might
make a good graduate-level text, or a nice addition to a personal or facility
library. It offers a good range of chemistry, drug discovery, molecular
and ecological topics, although the book does lean a bit towards molecular
and chemical aspects. - Michelle A. Briggs, Department of Biology, Lycoming
College, Williamsport, PA 17701
The Orchid in Lore and Legend
Berliocchi, L., translated by L. Rosenberg and A. Weston, editted by
Mark Griffiths, 2000. ISBN 0-88192-491-1(hard cover US$29.95) 184 pp. Timber
Press, Inc., The Haseltine Building, 133 S. W. Second Avenuue, Suite 450,
Portland, OR 977204 _ Orchids are strange! Right? Right! Orchids are weird!
Right? Right! Orchid aficionados will buy any book that deals with their
favorite plant. Right? Right! So, collect a few myths, several biographies,
a number of stories, descriptions of selected genera, and a tidbit or two.
Add a few illustrations (relevant or not, properly reproduced or not, fuzzy
or not) to the mix, throw in a few pages of abbreviated botanical and horticultural
data, combine with a dash of information stir and concoct this volume.
It is limited and incorrect in spots, informative here and there, but entertaining
The opening line of the book and a statement on page 10 if not narrow
and Eurocentric are certainly misleading: "Exotic orchids have been part
of our (italics mine) lives for more than two hundred years . .
. " (page 9) and "our (italics mine) knowledge of orchids begins
with . . . botanical texts of the second half of the eighteenth century"
(page 10) certainly contradict statements on page 29 that information on
orchids can be found in a Chinese text published "about 800 B. C" and that
they were mentioned in Sanskrit texts dated 1550-1000 B. C., the Ebers
papyrus (1600 B. C.) and Assyrian herbals (668-675 B. C.). Actually, the
Chinese Shih Ching (The Books of Songs) was published in the 10th-6th
century B. C (2500-3000 years ago) and other books or references to orchids
in China date back to about 500 B. C., the 3rd century, 30-124
A. D. and 581-645 A. D.(Chen and Tang, 1982; Hew 2001) Good copy editing
would have caught the contradiction which matters less than the question:
"who is `our' "? For me at least "our" should be the entire
human race, not just Europeans (Berliocchi is Italian) whose arrogance
in dealing with people from other continents (including the Americas) and
races (former colonials?) seems to have no bounds. Even in listing women
who took a dim view of orchids the book limits itself to British suffragettes
and fails to mention Gian Chin, Mao Zedong's wife who also waged war against
them as capitalist flowers while secretly growing fancy hybrids herself.
Myths of orchids are covered in chapter 1. They are fun to read. Some
were new to me, but in the absence of citation it is hard to determine
whether all of them are true myths or if some were contrived or at least
altered by the author. I do know that he story about an orchid clinging
to a skull in an Australian cemetery was first told about South America
and even found its way into a science fiction tale. The story about the
Costa Rican boy who ran off with a crucifix from a chapel to hide it from
the conquistadors certainly makes no sense. Chapels and crucifixes did
not exist in Central and South America until after the conquistadors imposed
them on the people. Again, good copyediting would have caught this error.
Chapter 2, which deals with orchids from prehistory to history, is interesting
but not free of faults. For example, I wonder what do illustrations of
ancient pagodas and the entrance to Beijing have to do with orchids. A
short paragraph on page 32 suggests that orchids are mentioned in the Egyptian
Ebers Papyrus and Vedic writings of the Aryans and Assyrian herbals, all
without details and attributions. In my 40 years of working with orchids
this is the first time I read these assertions and find it difficult to
accept them on faith. The rest of the chapter contains short biographies
of orchid botanists, which are accurate for the most part even if telegraphic.
However the description of Georgius Everhardus Rumphius contains several
errors. He was not a professional adventurer, his Herbarium Amboinenses
which consists of 6+1 volumes not 12, was completed before his death, not
after it, and not a single volume of this legendary series (which I finally
got to hold in my hands in the library of the Singapore Botanic Gardens)
is devoted entirely to orchids.
Orchid patrons and hunters are the subject of chapter 3. It opens with
a short introduction dealing with collectors which asserts that "the Low
Countries were the first to import [orchids] from the Malay Archipelago"
without providing a source. I find this statement to be questionable. The
remainder of the chapter consists of short biographies of orchid botanists
and collectors of the past. Like the ones in the previous chapter these
biographies are mostly accurate, short and devoid of details, but not free
The fourth chapter deals with arts and customs. It nits, picks and chooses
subjects and manages to be interesting, but is far from being complete,
detailed and fully accurate. .
Chapter 5 deals with the plants themselves. It presents minimal information
and since nothing in it has anything to do with lore or legends I assume
that it was added to beef up the book. Unfortunately it contains several
errors. The orchids referred to on page 119 as saprophytic are actually
parasitic on their fungi. If saprophytic orchids exist they are yet to
be discovered. On page 125 the labellum is described as twisting "around
180 degrees when the flower blooms . . ." This is not true, the entire
flower turns in a process called resupination. The extent of turning can
be 180E. However in some instances the flowers turn less than that. In
several species the rotation can be as much as 360E and the flowers end
up in the position they were before resupinating. Also on page 125 pollination
is referred to as fertilization. The question about how subterranean orchids
are pollinated which is described on page 129 as one about which "we have
no idea" was answered long ago by Australian botanists (Dixon, Pate and
Altogether Lore is typical of books written by people who may
(or may not) be accomplished experts in another area and become fascinated
by orchids. They gather snippets of information, collect a few factoids,
read several books, give a number of talks to growers, acquire admirers
and convince themselves that they are orchid experts. Then they write a
book which could have been good, but is not simply because the author(s)
did not have the expertise to write it. Lore is fun and easy to
read, but the information it contains should not be accepted without many
questions. _ Joseph Arditti, Department of Developmental and Cell Biology,
University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2300.
Chen, S. C., and T. Tang. 1982. A general review of the orchid flora
of China. Pages 39-87 in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology, reviews
and perspectives Vol. II. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
Dixon, K. W., J. S. Pate and J. Kuo. 1990. The Western Australian fully
subterranean orchid Rhizanthella gardneri. Pages 37-82 in
J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology, reviews and perpsectives Vol.
V. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
Hew, C. S. 2001. Ancient Chinese orchid cultivation. A fresh look at
an age-old practice. Scientia Horticulturae 87: 1-10.
Teaching Greenhouse. Mohammad Mehdi
Fayyaz. 2000. CD, requires Windows 95 or higher, or Macintosh OS 7.5 or
higher. University of Wisconsin. _ Dr. Fayyaz, who is Director of the University
of Wisconsin's Department of Botany's greenhouses and gardens, has produced
an interactive "reference for instructors, greenhouse managers, instructional
laboratory specialists, technicians, and high school biology teachers involved
in the plant sciences. It serves as an aid in the cultivation of plants
grown in the greenhouse for class use, and as a guide to acquaint users
with the various teaching applications these selected instructional plants
embody." The CD includes:
· "Over 200 plant
species, accessed by their Latin name, common name, or anatomical structures
· Each species' plant
· Suggested varieties,
cultivars and/or alternate species for classroom study
· A brief botanical
· Greenhouse cultivation
· Teaching applications
· Interactive, illustrated
glossary of terms
· Cross reference
by plant anatomy to assist in determining which plant species exhibit certain
characteristics needed for
· Integrated Pest
Management references and recommendations
I have spent several hours exploring the contents of this CD and found
that it delivers what it promises. The interface and its cross-referencing
via hypertext links make the CD intuitively obvious to use, and provide
easy access to its contents. Since I teach plant science at a (small) college
without the benefit of a "Director of Greenhouses and Gardens," I am responsible
both for teaching and for maintaining our greenhouse with help from student
assistants. With the CD Teaching Greenhouse, I see more clearly
how to closely integrate those two activities. Students will find this
CD easy to use as a reference for their work in the greenhouse, and as
an aid in starting their research projects with some sound, practical advice.
I have only a few negative comments. As with many resources published
electronically, typographic errors are too common. Several of the links
use different names to refer to the same target (e.g. Anatomy vs. Plant
Organs). Integrated Pest Management is not included in the Table of Contents,
although it is included in the site navigation frame. Finally, Dr. Fayyaz
promises that "future versions will incorporate photographic images of
each plant and supplemental illustrations." These will be welcome additions,
although the current version does include photographic and line-drawn illustrations
of many of the terms in the glossary. Other information or features that
I would find helpful, and which I recommend for future editions, include:
· Adding a section
of "Greenhouse Management 101" for neophyte (student) workers, including
directions for common
propagation and cultivation
procedures, recipes for various media, and an orientation to the importance
regimes for different plants
· Adding an Index
by Teaching Application
· Adding Links to
Websites with Instructional Exercises
No information was provided regarding the price of this CD. Unless the
cost is truly unreasonable, however, this handy resource should be carefully
considered by anyone involved in the operation of a Teaching Greenhouse.
_ Jonathan Frye, Department of Natural Science, McPherson College,
McPherson, KS 67460.
Cattleyas and Their Relatives Volume VI. The South American Encyclia
Species Withner, Carl L. 2000. ISBN 0-88192-435-9 (hard covers US$44.95)
194 pp. Timber Press, Inc., The Haseltine Building, 133 S. W. Second Avenuue,
Suite 450, Portland, OR 977204. _ This is the last volume in what is described
with a "cutism" as "a book in six parts" (the proper, "uncute" and straight
term is "a six volume series"). I reviewed favorably two of the previous
volumes. This volume deals with Encyclia species other than those
found in Mexico and central America. It is of the same caliber as the previous
volumes in thi series.
As with many other orchids the genus Encyclia was subject to
debates. At one time all encyclias were part of the genus Epindendrum.
W. Hooker separated Encyclia due to the "circumstance of the column
of fructification being enclosed in, or wrapped around by, the labellum
(Encyclia = circumvolvo)". At present this is still the main
characteristic, which separates Encyclia from Epidendrum
in addition to the fact that "encyclias possess a pseudobulb, while (sic,
the proper word here is "whereas") most epidendrums do not." However the
vagaries of orchid nomenclature and horticulture being what they are (with
the Royal Horticultural Society exerting tremendous traditional, international
and undue influence) hybrids involving these species must be registered
as Epidendrum (and to be "valid" all orchid hybrids must be registered
with the RHS). All of this leads me, a non-systematist, to wonder whether
all this labellum warping (or maybe carping) is really, really necessary
or just another gymnastic so typical of orchid taxonomists. Somehow I think
it is the latter, but it is not Withner's doing
Withner described Encyclia clearly in volumes IV and V and deals
lightly with the subject here. However on pages 7-9 he goes into some detail
regarding what to look for in using the key. This is a very useful feature.
It is followed by diagnostic line drawings of perianth segments, a table
which attempts to organize the South American species by region and keys
to species of different regions. The outcome is welcome clarity.
Descriptions of species occupy most of the book. Many of these descriptions
are accompanied by line drawings. Color illustrations (most of them good)
are grouped in the center of the book. The result is a pleasing, clear,
instructive and to all appearances accurate book which is a bargain at
the price. In fact the entire series is a bargain.
As far as I am concerned the book has only a single major fault, one
found in all other volumes of this series: "Common names" contrived by
the author. No one makes up common names; they simply arise. But, for reasons
known only to himself Withner insists on inventing "common names" He does
that by translating scientific names or elaborating on selected features.
The result is "common names" like Acute Encyclia for Encyclia acuta
(what are the chances that a term like "acute" would be part of a real
common name? cute perhaps, but the awkward "common name" is certainly not
that), Goias Enclyclia for Encyclia goyazensis [why not Goya's and
is that a robed or disrobed orchid painted by the famed Spanish painter
Francisco Goya (1746-1828) one of whose paintings scandalized some contemporaries?],
Remote-flowered Encyclia for Encyclia remotiflora (is that a tongue
twister or an orchid whose flowering is controlled by a TV/VCR/multifunction
remote control?) and Xipheres-like Encyclia (is that a rare tropical diseases
or a Xipheres- or a xiphisternum or a sword or a comb-look-alike?). If
not silly and pretentious these "common names" are simply funny.
Funny or not, this volume and the entire series are a credit to the
author and well worth having and/or giving. It is a post (or even pre)-retirement
effort any orchid specialist can and should be proud of. _ Joseph Arditti,
Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California,
Irvine, CA 92697-2300.
Flora de Murcia. P. Sánchez Gómez,
J. Guerra Montes, E. Coy Gómez, A. Hernández Gomzález,
S. Fernández Jiménez and A.F. Carrillo López. 1998.
2nd edition. ISBN 84-89820-60-0(paper, price not stated) 439
pp. DM Librero Editor, Merced, 25. 30001-Murcia. _While publication of
the Flora of the Iberian Peninsula is still in progress (Castroviejo et
al. 1986 et seq.), floras of smaller regions of the peninsula are
extremely useful. This is not only because of their coverage of all vascular
plant families, but also because it is usually more convenient to use one-volume
local floras in the field. Murcia is a medium-sized (11,320 km2)
province in southwestern Spain. The Flora de Murcia includes identification
keys to families, genera, and species in this area. About 15% of species
are illustrated by simple drawings of average quality. Even though both
native and naturalized species are represented in this book, clear distinction
of their status is not always made (Amaranthus spp., Bidens pilosa,
Conyza spp., Xanthium spinosum, etc). _ Marcel Rejmánek,
Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Castroviejo, S. et al. (eds.) 1986 et seq. Flora Iberica Plantas
Vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Real
Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid. [Eight of the projected 21
volumes have been published between 1986 and 1999.]
of China. Volume 24, Flagellariaceae through Marantaceae. 2000.
Wu Zhengyi and Peter H. Raven, cochairs of the editorial committee. Science
Press (Beijing), 16 Donghuangchenggen North Street, Beijing 100717, China
and Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis), 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St.
Louis, MO 631102291, USA; Hardbound, ISBN 0915279835 (V. 24), 12 unnumbered
pp. + 431 pp. $85. - This the sixth of a projected 25 volumes. The work
continues apace, having begun in 1994. Yes, it is going to take some time.
The sequence of families is a modified Englerian one, so that clarity requires
a listing of what's included here, in alphabetical order: Amaryllidaceae,
Bromeliaceae, Cannaceae, Centrolepidaceae, Commelinaceae, Costaceae, Dioscoreaceae,
Eriocaulaceae, Flagellariaceae, Iridaceae, Juncaceae, Liliaceae, Lowiaceae,
Marantaceae, Musaceae, Philydraceae, Pontederiaceae, Restionaceae, Stemonaceae,
Taccaceae, Xyridaceae, Zingiberaceae.
The Liliaceae include 57 genera and 726 species, easily the largest
family treated here. The volume will be of special interest because so
many of these are cultivated, and because so many have counterparts elsewhere
in the Old World as well as in the New World. The family as treated here
is admittedly artificial; a more modern treatment might separate these
in China alone into 18 different families, as is acknowledged in the introductory
material on page 73.
The range of the flora is given on both front and back endpapers, to
include Tibet and Taiwan.
The formatting is identical to the previous five volumes. There are
no illustrations (these will appear in a separate volume). There are no
nomenclatural innovations, these having appeared in a number of other places,
It is important to stress that, as before, this is not just a translation
of previous Chineselanguage treatments into English. A great deal of restudy
has gone into the work, and it is genuinely new and critical. Some taxa
heretofore ascribed to the Chinese flora are remarked on and excluded,
typically with the phrase ". . . but no specimens of these taxa have been
seen by the present authors." Species known in China only from cultivation
are not included. Horticultural and medicinal uses are mentioned briefly.
Ranges outside of China are given, where the taxon is not endemic to China.
There are occasional, brief nomenclatural notes here and there, which will
be of interest to the specialist. As is usual in floras, issues of typification
are not treated, these being left to the more technical literature.
The editors have taken pains to make the flora useful and practical;
for example, in the treatment of dioecious Dioscorea, the yam, there
is one key to staminate flowering material and a second key to fruiting
material. Everywhere, the keys are absolutely parallel and the legs are
extensive and descriptive.
The flora is very much a worldwide cooperative effort, including a great
many Chinese botanists as well as specialists elsewhere. This may account
for the pace at which the treatments are appearing; it surely accounts
for the overall excellence of the work.
We are promised a seventh volume (volume 8) shortly, to include the
Brassicaceae, Crassulaceae, and Saxifragaceae. _ Neil A. Harriman, Biology
Department, University of WisconsinOshkosh, Oshkosh, WI 54901.
Flowering Plants of the Galapagos.
Conley K. McMullen. 1999. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. ISBN 0-8014-8621-1.
370pp. - Most people know the Galapagos because of their unusual animals,
whereas their plant diversity is not commonly discussed in the popular
programming and literature about this archipelago. Unfortunately, this
means that a very important part of the Galapagos biota remains relatively
unknown to the general public. Furthermore, it is difficult for biologists
first visiting the Galapagos Islands to begin discovering their floristic
diversity since they must use the excellent, yet large and heavy Flora
of the Galapagos Islands by Wiggins & Porter (1971; Stanford University
Press). Books of such stature make problematic field companions. Furthermore,
such books are difficult to use by non-botanists, particularly for the
majority of tourist visitors to the Galapagos Islands every year. An optimal
reference would be one that could be easily carried in the field, provide
good descriptions and illustrations of plants and habitats, and be easily
usable by the botanist and layperson alike. All these criteria appear to
be met by the book Flowering Plants of the Galapagos, by Conley
Beginning with a foreword by Sir Ghillean Prance, this book contains
introductory sections addressing many issues, from basic plant morphology
to Galapagos natural history. In the first section, "How to use this guide,"
there is a general overview of plant morphology, and a discussion of the
structure of the species entries found in this book. Additionally, there
is an illustrated guide to basic flower structure, inflorescence types,
and leaf shape and arrangement. This section is followed by another more
extensive section detailing the natural history of the Galapagos Islands,
focusing predominantly on the vegetation of the archipelago. Herein are
discussed the history of European discovery of these islands, details of
geography, geology and climate, and an overview of the history of botanical
exploration of this area. In addition, there is a discussion of floristic
details, focusing on endemic taxa, degrees of endemism, and the number
of other native and non-native plants. The arrival and establishment of
floristic elements are reviewed, centering on fruit and seed modifications
that aid in dispersal, seed germination and dormancy, and reproduction
with reference to pollination systems. Examples are given from the local
flora. A discussion is given on the several vegetation zones on the islands,
presenting the details of seven different community types, specifically
the littoral, arid, transition, Scalesia, Zanthoxylum, Miconia,
and the fern-sedge communities. A summary of the threats to the Galapagos
vegetation is offered, primarily addressing the effects of introduced plants
The majority of the remainder of the book consists of descriptions and
details about numerous plant species. This large section, however, is preceded
by a relatively short and simple key to the species covered in this book,
organized according to a combination of growth form, leaf arrangement,
and flower color. Groups of species are then placed in separate subsections
in the book according to this classification scheme.
For each species covered, many details are given. At least one photo
is provided, and both the scientific and common names are presented (the
former including authorities), as well as the plant family. The geographic
range is described, with considerable attention given to the range within
the Galapagos Islands. Habitat information is mentioned, as is a detailed
morphological description of the plant species. Furthermore, other miscellaneous
comments are offered pertaining to its biology, botanical history, or human
usage. Other similar plant species are also often discussed.
A detailed and illustrated glossary of plant morphological terminology
is posted at the end of the book. There are two appendices, the first one
listing all Galapagos plant taxa covered in this book organized by family,
genus, and species; and the second listing plants commonly seen at numerous
specific localities on each of the different islands.
Overall, this is an excellent field guide, yet there are some minor
problems. First, the habitat information given for the Zanthoxylum
zone is rather sparse compared to that of the other zones described. Although
it is a habitat that has suffered greatly since the arrival of European
immigrants, it would be interesting to know more about this endangered
community type. Next, the habitat description for each of the species entries
is limited to a choice of "moist uplands," "arid lowlands," and "coastal
zone," despite the fact that seven vegetation zones were described in detail
early on in the text. The author explains this by stating (p. 37) "this
system is more valuable for visitors to the Galapagos because the seven
vegetation zones, although attractive in theory, are obvious on only a
few of the higher islands." This simplified classification system is essentially
based on that of Johnson & Raven (1973; Science 179: 893-895).
Although there are subtle differences between some of these seven ecological
communities, this does not mean that a more detailed and precise ecological
description should not be given for each species covered, just because
the majority of visitors to the Galapagos won't come in contact with many
of these places. The more detailed ecological classification gives interesting
and valuable information nonetheless, and perhaps at least an intermediate
classification system should have been used.
Another difficulty with this book consists of the placement of photographs.
Although all photos are numbered to correspond with specific species entries,
I occasionally found it necessary to have to search for the corresponding
illustrations, which are sometimes found on nearby pages. And lastly, on
some rare occasions, the identity of the species within photographs may
be incorrect (e.g., the photo of Passiflora suberosa is actually
one of P. tridactylites).
However, these problems are really quite minor, and are greatly outweighed
by the positive attributes of this text. The level of information provided
is detailed and diverse, with scientific references often cited, yet with
not so much detail as to be overwhelming to the non-botanist. This book
is useful for people ranging from tourists with limited background in biology,
to the expert botanist. The introductory sections themselves are interesting,
summarized clearly, and give a solid basic overview of the botanical and
natural history of these islands, along with important basics for plant
identification. It is well illustrated, with many high-quality photos,
and covers a large enough diversity of the flora of the Galapagos to be
a good introduction for anyone. Even the selection of plants covered, although
only a subset of the total flora, are well chosen for their taxonomic,
ecological, and geographic diversity. Through this guide the user will
become familiar with many endemic plant genera and species, as well as
many widespread taxa. For example, I found it interesting that several
species of familiar plants native to the southern and central United states
are also native to the Galapagos, such as Desmanthus virgatus, Rhynchosia
minima, Sapindus saponaria, and Zanthoxylum fagara. In
addition, the floristic lists for many field sites presented in Appendix
2 is a real bonus in a field guide, allowing the visitor to the islands
to make focused excursions to see specific floristic elements. This is
something rarely offered in field guides. Finally, it is a relatively compact
manual, making it easy to carry in the field, an attribute not to be understated.
In summary, it is easy to recommend this book for anyone interested in
natural history, or at least for anyone who plans to travel to the Galapagos
Islands. Even for someone not traveling to the islands, it is a useful
botanical resource. —Douglas Goldman, L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Department
of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
Volume 1. General Introduction, Apostasioideae, Cypripedoideae.
A. M. Pridgeon, P. J. Cribb, M. W. Chase, and F. N. Rasmussen., eds. 1999.
ISBN 0-19-850513-2 (hardcover £45.00) 197 pp. Oxford University Press,
Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, U. K. _ "Lindley certainly dominated
orchid science for over forty years from 1920 . . . he effectively cornered
the market in access to he new orchidaceous discoveries . . . his prolific
writing and publication . . . ensured that others naturally deferred to
his opinion . . . [his] last significant contribution to orchid taxonomy
. . . was . . . an attempt to monograph the [orchid] family . . . Completing
the task, even then, was beyond the capabilities of any one man" (pp.
117 and 141 in Cribb, 1999).
The quote above describes John Lindley (1799-1865), "the `founding father'
of orchid taxonomy" (p. 141 in Cribb, 1999) whose orchid herbarium was
acquired by the the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew (RBGK) in 1864 (Stearn,
1999). It also provides an insight into recent orchid related activities,
policies and attitudes at RBGK (Hansen, 2000). In addition, the quote explains
an extensive "Index of Synonyms" published in a horticultural work (Bechtel,
Cribb and Launert, 1986) and was obviously intended to establish nomenclatural
dominance for its author. The current volume and the entire projected series
are clearly the intellectual offspring of Lindley's Folia Orchidacea
(1852-1858), "his last contribution." Given the excellence of the volume
under review here this is a fortunate and scientifically important international
undertaking. The editors include two outstanding American orchid science
polymaths (both currently at RBGK). One of them is also a talented scientist
and a very effective editor of orchid publications (AMP) whereas the other
(MWC) can count among his many impressive accomplishments the founding
of orchid molecular taxonomy. Of the other two one is a leading, but controversial
(Hansen, 2000), British orchid taxonomist at RBGK who is also active in
CITES related activities (PJC). The other (FNR) is a Danish
orchid biologist who has published on floral structures of orchids
and is also a taxonomist.
Fittingly the first volume of this major taxonomic undertaking is dedicated
to Robert L. Dressler, the leading orchid taxonomist of our day whose phylogenetic
ideas and classifications schemes (Dressler, 1981, 1993) have influenced
and still influence the thinking of all who work with orchids at present.
This volume is divided in two parts. The first part presents basic information
on the development of orchid classification, morphology, anatomy, palynology,
embryology, seed morphology, cytogenetics and molecular systematics. These
chapters are excellent as they stand. They are well written, authoritative,
rich in content, clear and easy to read. There are only a few problems
with what is present (see below). The problems are with what is missing.
This includes a chapter on physiology and development despite the fact
that some physiological and developmental processes may be of taxonomic
value. Examples are: 1) resupination which occurs in some species but not
in others and may vary in extent when it does take place (for a review
see Ernst and Arditti, 1994), 2) spontaneous and pollination-induced floral
senescence which varies within and between genera (for reviews see Avadhani
et al., 1999; Hew and Yong, 1997), 3) dependence on and requirements for
mycorrhiza for seed germination (for reviews see Arditti, 1967, 1979, 1992;
Arditti et al., 1982; Hadley, 1982; Arditti and Ernst, 1984; Rasmussen,
1995; Currah et al., 1997), and 4) carbon fixation pathways which may differ
within and between genera (for reviews see (Avadhani et al., 1982; Arditti,
1979, 1992; Hew and Yong, 1997). Phytochemisty is also missing despite
the taxonomic importance of some carbohydrates (it is interesting to note
here that the term was formulated during research on the carbohydrates
of European orchids; for a review see Ernst and Rodriguez, 1984), antocyanins
(for reviews see Arditti and Fisch, 1977; Ernst and Rodriguez, 1984; Avadhani
et al., 1994; Hew and Yong, 1997) and alkaloids (for reviews see Lüning,
1974; Slaytor, 1977). Phytoalexins, which were first, discovered in orchids
(Bernard, 1911) and can be genus specific (Stoessl and Arditti, 1984) are
also not covered. And, mycorrhiza, which plays a pivotal but variable role
in the life cycle of orchids (for reviews see Hadley, 1982; Rasmussen,
1995; Currah et al., 1997) is missing too.
The second part of the book is devoted to the Apostasioideae and Cypripedioideae.
The taxonomic treatments are detailed and complete dealing as they do with
many aspects of each group including descriptions, distribution, keys,
cytogenetics, phylogenetics, name derivations, synonymy, anatomy, morphology,
palynology, phytochemistry, ecology, pollination, uses, cultivation, propagation,
extensive listings of literature and much more (but not physiology). This
renders the volume not only a convenient and rich source of information
but also a scholarly well-synthesized treatise on an interesting group
As mentioned above there are only (remarkably) few errors in this book,
but for me at least (given my specialty areas in orchids and activities
as editor and reviewer for 40 years) they are worth noting. The first two
are on page 22 of the morphology chapter (written P. J. Cribb, one of the
four editors). One of these is the statement that descriptions of protocorms
are available only for a limited number of species in five reports, which
are cited in the chapter. This is absolutely not the case. Descriptions
and illustrations (both photographs and line drawings) of protocorms of
many species abound in the literature of the last century. The list is
simply too long to cite here. Some of the best are in a book by a Russian
embryologist (Poddubnaya-Arnoldi and Selezneva, 1957). Even if the text
presents problems since it is in Russian, the illustrations are easy to
identify and the captions contain scientific names in Latin letters.
A second error on page 22 is the assertion that "the term `protocorm'
was coined by the French botanist Bernard . . ." In fact the term was proposed
by the Dutch botanist and long time director of botanical gardens in Bogor,
Indonesia, Melchior Treub (1851-1910) to describe a stage in the germination
of club mosses: ". . .je propose de donner au tubercule embryonnaire
des Lycopodes le nom de p r o t o c o r m e" (spacing of letters in
the last word as in the original, Treub, 1890). The orchid seedlings Noël
Bernard observed in 1899 looked very much like the lycopod structures (Bernard,
1899; for illustrations see Treub, 1890) and he used Treub's term to describe
them (Arditti, 1989). As a result the term entered the orchid literature
(but with time the "e" was dropped) and became established to the point
of leading to errors in attribution like the one here.
Another problem is an incomplete discussion of the phytochemistry of
Cypripedium and Paphiopedilum (for some of what is missing
and reviews see Ernst and Rodriguez, 1984; Hausen, 1984). The uses section
on page 127 could have benefited from additional details (they can be found
in Lawler, 1984).
On page 131 seed propagation is called "micropropagation." This not
a proper use of the term which was originally defined "as any aseptic procedure
involving the manipulation of plant organs, tissues and cells that produces
a population of plantlets thereby making it possible to by-pass conventional
sexual of vegetative propagation" (for reviews see Krikorian, 1982; Arditti
and Krikorian, 1996). Seed germination is both conventional and sexual
propagation and should not be referred to as micropropagation even if the
techniques are aseptic and similar to tissue culture.
Also on page 131 the culture of immature seeds is referred to as "green
pod method." This term is used by practical growers, but should not have
used in a scientific book without a comment that the fruit of Cypripedium
is actually a capsule. Regardless
of terminology the section does not mention that the best time to culture
immature seeds of Cypripedium calceolus is 40 days after pollination
(Wagner and Hansel, 1994; Hansel-Hintner, 1996). This information (which
is not mentioned in the review by H. Rasmussen, which is cited by the author)
is important because it pertains directly to one species and may provide
guidelines for other members of this genus.
Are the problems outlined in the paragraphs above critical or major?
No, especially since this is the first volume in a series. There is plenty
of time and probably enough space in forthcoming volumes for additions,
errata lists and chapters on subjects that are missing now. Therefore I
hope that my comments will prove to be helpful and constructive. In fact
that is why I concentrated on areas in need of improvement rather than
on the many positive aspects of this volume (also my list makes for a shorter
review because it is not nearly as long as an enumeration of positives
would be). This is also the reason for the many reviews I cited. A work
like this was needed in Lindley's time and is even more welcome now. I
am sure that by the time the entire six-volume series is published it will
be complete, well rounded and a pleasure to both read and behold. It will
contain more than enough good information to become the standard work in
its field for many years to come and required reading for all who work
with orchids. _ Joseph Arditti, Department of Developmental and Cell Biology,
University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2300.
Books and reviews are cited as much as possible to save space.
Arditti, J. 1967. Factors affecting the germination of orchid seeds.
Botanical Review 33: 1-97.
Arditti, J. 1979. Aspects of the physiology of orchids. Pages 422-655
in H. W. Woolhouse (ed.), Advances in botanical research
Vol. 7. Academic Press, London.
Arditti, J. 1989. History of several important research contribution
by South East Asia scientists. Malayan Orchid Review (Singapore)
Arditti, 1992. Fundamentals of orchid biology. John Wiley and
Sons, New York.
Arditti, J., M. A. Clements, G. Fast, G. Hadley, G. Nishimura, and
R. Ernst. 1982. Orchid seed germination and seedling culture. Pages 243-370
in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology, reviews and perspectives
Vol. III. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,New York.
Arditti, J., and R. Ernst. Physiology of germinating orchid seeds.
Pages 177-222 in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology, reviews and
perspectives Vol. III. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,New York.
Arditti, J., and M. H. Fisch. 1977. Anthocyanins of the Orchidaceae:
Distribution, heredity, functions, synthesis and localization. Pages 117-155
in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology, reviews and perspectives
Vol. I. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,New York.
Arditti, J., and A. D. Krikorian. 1996. Orchid micropropagation: the
path from laboratory to commercialization and an account of several unappreciated
investigators. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 122: 183-241.
Avadhani, P. N., C. J. Goh, A. N. Rao and J. Arditti. 1982. Carbon
fixation in orchids. Pages 173-212 in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid
biology, reviews and perspectives Vol. II. Cornell University Press,
Avadhani, P. N., H. Nair, J. Arditti and C. S. Hew. 1999. Physiology
of orchid flowers. Pages 189-362 in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid
biology, reviews and perspectives Vol. VI. John Wiley and Sons, New
Bechtel, H., P. Cribb and E. Launert. 1986. The manual of cultivated
orchid species. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Bernard, N. 1899. Sur la germinacion du Neottia nidus-avis.
Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie
des Sciences, Paris 128: 1253-1255.
Bernard, N. 1911. Sur la fonction fungicide des bulbes d'ophrydées.
Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique. Ser. 9, 14: 221-234.
Cribb, P. J. 1999. Lindley's life-long love affair with orchids. Pages
107-141 in W. T. Stearn (ed.), John Lindley 1799-1865, gardener_botanist
and pioneer orchidologist. Antique Collector's Club in association
with The Royal Horticultural Society, Woodbridge, Suffolk, U. K.
Currah, R. S., C. D. Zelmer, S. Hambleton, and K. A. Richardson. 1997.
Fungi from orchid mycrrhiza. Pages 117-170 in J. Arditti (ed.),
Orchid biology, reviews and perspectives Vol. VII. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands
Dressler, R. L. 1981. The orchids, natural history and classification.
Harvard University Press, Cambrdige, Massachusetts.
Dressler, R. L. 1993. Phylogeny and classification of the orchid
family. Dioscorides Press, Portland, Oregon.
Ernst, R., and J. Arditti. 1994. Resupination. Pages 135-188 in
J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology, reviews and perspectives Vol.
VI. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Ernst, R. E., and E. Rodrigues. 1984. Carbohydrates of the orchidaceae.
Pages 223-260 in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology, reviews and
perspectives Vol. III. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,New York.
Hadley, G. 1982. Orchid mycorrhiza. Pages 83-118 in J. Arditti
(ed.), Orchid biology, reviews and perspectives Vol. II. Cornell
University Press, Ithaca,New York.
Hansel-Hintner, A. 1996. In vitro Kultur von Cypripedium calceolus
L. und Dactylorhiza Majalis (Rchb.) Hunt et Summerhays. Die Orchidee
Hansen, E. 2000. Orchid fever. Pantheon Books, New York.
Hausen, B. M. 1984. Toxic and allergenic orchids. Pages 261-282 in
J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology, reviews and perspectives Vol.
III. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,New York.
Hew, C. S., and W. H. Yong. 1997. The physiology of
tropical orchids in relation to the industry. World Scientific Publishing
Co., Pte., Ltd., P. O. Box 128, Farrer Road, Singapore 912805.
Krikorian, A. D. 1982. Cloning higher plants from aseptically cultured
tissues and cells. Biological Reviews 57: 151-218.
Lawler, L. J. 1984. Ethnobotany of the Orchidaceae. Pages 27-149 in
J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology, reviews and perspectives Vol.
III. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,New York.
Lüning, B. 1974. Alkaloids of the Orchidaceae. Pages 349-382 in
C. L. Withner (ed.), The orchids, scientific studies. John Wiley
and Sons, New York.
Poddubnaya-Arnoldi, V. A., and V. A. Selezneva. 1957. Orhidei i
ih kultura. U. S. S. R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
Rasmussen, H. N. 1995. Terrestrial orchids from seed to mycotrophic
plant. Cambridge University Press, Pitts Building, Trumpington Street,
Cambridge EB2 1RP, U. K.
Slaytor, M. B. 1977. The distribution and chemistry of alkaloids in
the Orchidaceae. Pages 95-115 in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology,
reviews and perspectives Vol. I. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,New
Stoessl, A., and J. Arditti. 1984. Orchid phytoalexins. Pages 151-175
in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology, reviews and perspectives
Vol. III. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,New York.
Treub, M. 1890. Etudes sur les Lycopodiacees. Annales du Jardin
Botanique Buitenzorg 8: 1-37, plates I-XII.
Wagner, J., and A. Hansel. 1994. In vitro seed germination of
Cypripedium calceolus L. at various embryogenic stages. Angewandte
Botanik 68: 5-9.
into the Systematic Botany and Phylogenetic Relationships of Takhtajania
perrieri (Capuron) Baranova & J.-F. Leroy (Winteraceae). Annals
of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Vol. 87, no. 3. ISSN 0026-6493 (paper,
US$35.00). 136 pp. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO 63110.——Shades
of Pakaraimea, Ticodendron, and Wollemia: the discovery,
rediscovery, or belated recognition of new taxa in small families, or those
that are geographically isolated from their nearest relatives can generate
intense interest, especially if the plant belongs to a group with botanical
cachet. Such discoveries are now often used as opportunities for multidisciplinary
studies that can catapult the subject from obscurity to being among the
best known of their group. The discovery and resulting studies can also
serve to improve understanding of the group as a whole.
So it is with Takhtajania, the only African member of the "woody
ranalean" Winteraceae. Collected once in 1909, but not assigned to Winteraceae
until 1963 nor to its own genus until 1978, the plant was intensively but
unsuccessfully sought at its type locality in Madagascar while the meager
specimens of the original gathering were picked apart for their secrets.
It finally turned up, some 150 km away, in 1994 (although not recognized
until 1997) and the newly discovered large population of these understory
shrubs or small trees has subsequently filled the research coffers of a
whole slew of specialists who were sought out for their interest in "basal"
The results of their investigations are presented in this issue of the
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, which organized the work through
the personal interest of George Schatz, who introduces the volume with
an account of the growth of knowledge about Takhtajania and the
search for more plants. Some of the studies focus on Takhtajania
itself, including wood and bark anatomy (S. Carlquist), young shoots (R.
C. Keating), flower structure (P. K. Endress et al.), pollen (F. B. Sampson),
embryology (H. Tobe and F. B. Sampson), and fruit vasculature (T. Deroin),
all studies based on fluid-preserved material. The remaining papers review
the rest of the Winteraceae as well and their relationships to Canellaceae
and beyond. These include the (largely micro-) fossil record (J. A. Doyle),
water relations (T. S. Feild et al.), flower development (A. N. Doust),
cytology (F. Ehrendorfer and M. Lambrou), and some molecular (nuclear and
chloroplastal) data (K. G. Karol et al.). Missing are field studies on
Takhtajania, such as pollination biology and regeneration ecology,
as well as studies of secondary metabolites, especially alkaloids and flavanoids.
Although the Winteraceae is a small family of only about 60 species
in 5 genera (or up to 8 depending on how much you split Zygogynum),
there is no unanimity among the authors here on their mutual relationships.
The floral data of Endress et al. identify two weakly structured clades
in the family and link Takhtajania with Pseudowintera and
Zygogynum rather than with Drimys and Tasmannia. The
molecular data of Karol et al., on the other hand, support a stepped phylogeny
with Takhtajania (usually) sister to the remaining genera, followed
by Tasmannia, Drimys, Pseudowintera, and Zygogynum. This
phylogeny is well-supported but represents only one fifth of the species
in the family and less than 1.8 kbp of sequence. The data set includes
a substantial number of parsimony informative indels, which were mapped
onto the final cladogram a posteriori rather than contributing to
its construction. Interestingly, these indels are almost all on the branches
subtending the members of individual genera rather than within the genera
or on the branches linking them. Thus, although potentially powerful, they
actually provide almost no support for relationships among the genera.
As usual, more data would be helpful and an integration of more extensive
molecular data with a broad spectrum of morphological characters for a
larger sample of the family should lay to rest uncertainties about the
intrafamilial relationships. Despite the enduring appeal of the "primitive"
angiosperms, however, I can't help but feel that Takhtajania itself
offers no key insights into angiosperm evolution. Other than the romance
of its rediscovery after long years of concerted searching and its geographical
isolation from the other genera, it appears (except for a very few features,
like the bicarpellate, unilocular ovary) to be an astonishingly unexceptional
member of its family. Still, the detailed studies in this volume present
an enormous amount of new information on Takhtajania and also correct
some of the errors that had arisen from study of the much more limited
original material, as well as bringing together some handy review material
on the Winteraceae as a whole. ——James E. Eckenwalder, University of Toronto,
Department of Botany, 25 Willcocks St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3B2.
Passion Flowers, 3rd
ed. Vanderplank, John. 2000. ISBN 0-262-72035-3 (paper US$29.95) 224
pp. The MIT Press, 5 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142-1493. - John
Vanderplank is the curator of the National Collection of Passiflora
at Greenholm Nurseries in Kingston Seymour, Clevedon, Bristol (UK). His
third edition of Passion Flowers is an incredibly beautiful book
that seeks to "…encourage readers to cultivate one of these lovely vines
and enable them to identify any of the many species or cultivars growing
all over the world". Toward this goal, the book consists of five chapters
focusing on the classification, structure, cultivation, propagation, hybridization
and history of this fascinating group of plants. He includes a chapter
on passion flower butterflies (subfamily Heliconiinae), as passion
flowers are the almost exclusive larval hosts for over seventy species
of these tropical and neotropical butterflies. There is also a chapter
on the pests and diseases commonly associated with these plants and the
ways to control them. However, the majority of the book focuses on the
description and discussion of 151 passion flowers, 30 of which are hybrids
or cultivars. Most of the plant descriptions covered in the book are accompanied
by a line drawing of a leaf and two stipules along with a color photograph.
The discussion accompanying each description includes information regarding
its natural distribution, specific cultivation strategies, uses and local
name(s). There is an identification key toward the back of the book, a
glossary of botanical terms and a list of suppliers, organizations and
individuals interested in the cultivation of passion flowers.
The cultivation and propagation techniques outlined in Passion Flowers
are very accurate and useful to the temperate zone gardener attempting
to cultivate these wonderful plants in the greenhouse or garden. The
chapter concerning the legend of the passion flower is well written
and includes translations of Jacomo Bosio's original work of 1609. Floral
diagrams that accurately illustrate the structure of two commonly cultivated
passion flowers and a glossary of terms enable the reader to understand
the descriptions that are included in the book. In addition, the novice
will find the identification key, which is based upon leaf shape and size,
flower size, petal color and coronal filament color, easy to use.
Taxonomists familiar with Passiflora species will find problems
with the descriptions and discussions included in the book. The treatment
of each species, hybrid or cultivar varies in the depth of coverage and
the author uses scientific terminology inconsistently. For example, in
his description of P. kalbreyeri Mast. the author writes, "Vine
Densely ferruginous-tomentose" whereas in the description of P. karwinskii
Mast. he states "Vine Weak". In addition, although many of his descriptions
are quite accurate, problems can be found when comparing some of them to
the actual herbarium specimens and field records of botanists. For instance,
in the author's description of Passiflora tridactylites Hook. he
states, "It (P. tridactylites) is most distinct and easily identifiable
by its small, tough, simple leaves and tiny yellowish flowers". He also
reports that the plant grows wild in Jamaica. However, the leaves of P.
tridactylites are tri-lobed, sometimes very deeply so, and the plant
is endemic to the Galapagos. Furthermore, some forms of P. suberosa,
admittedly a very closely related species, perfectly fit his description
of a plant with "small, tough, simple leaves and tiny yellowish flowers".
Field botanists will also find that the identification key, because of
its limited species coverage (the genus comprises over 500 species) would
not be very useful. However, the gardener who is interested in identifying
one of the many cultivated passion flowers available in the horticultural
trade will find it very helpful. Lastly, although the second and third
editions of Passion Flowers are greatly improved over the first,
many of the sweeping and sometimes misleading statements that Linda Escobar
found bothersome in her review of the first edition (Systematic Botany
17:340) still exist.
In conclusion, this book should be of interest to passion flower enthusiasts
who will be impressed and intrigued by the beautiful photographs and drawings
of this interesting and diverse group of plants. The cultivation practices
will also be invaluable to anyone wishing to grow passion flowers. If you
have the second edition of Passion Flowers, keep it and enjoy it,
but I cannot suggest that you rush out to buy this newest version. This
is the "third edition" of this book. However, there were no major changes
in the text or format of the book relative to the second edition. It would
be best to call this a second paperback printing of the second edition.
However, if you would like to learn more about passion flowers, and don't
already own the second edition of Passion Flowers, you will thoroughly
enjoy this book. _ Kristen Porter-Utley, Department of Botany, University
Guide to the Common Woody Plants of the Northeastern United States. 2000.
D. Kimbler, M. Clayton, & M. Adams. (CD US $20.00) University of Wisconsin-Madison,
Department of Botany, Attn. Mike Clayton, 430 Lincoln Dr., Madison, WI
53706. - One of the challenges in teaching courses addressing plant diversity
is to find the right sort of demonstration material. For much of the academic
year it is difficult to take advantage of the native plant diversity for
those residing at more northerly latitudes, since typically from October
through April there is little native flora available. And even if the time
of year or climate are more favorable, not everything that one might need
or want is close at hand. Hence a compiled set of images can be an invaluable
resource. And as computers have become indispensable teaching tools, the
presentation of sets of plant images using this tool can be quite convenient,
both through the diversity of images that can be saved, and the minimal
physical space required for electronically archiving these files.
The Pictorial Guide to the Common Woody Plants of the Northeastern United
States by Kimber et al. is one such computerized botanical resource. Developed
for use with a botany class at the University of Wisconsin (Botany 402,
Dendrology), this is a compilation of projects developed by instructors
and undergraduates. It covers not just native woody plants, but also those
naturalized and cultivated. The Pictorial Guide actually consists of separate
collections of software and images of plants, usable both on a Macintosh
(minimum of OS 8) or PC (minimum of Windows 95). All software required
to view these images is contained on the CD. Through an introductory Adobe
Acrobat Reader document, one can access the different elements of software,
which are a catalogue of images using Portfolio Browser, and an interactive
guide to winter twigs and a pictorial guide to trees designed with Macromedia
The catalogue of images accessed through Portfolio Browser allows the
user to, in theory, scan through all images files on the CD using sorting
keywords of genus, species, and morphological features. The interactive
twig guide through Authorware provides the details on winter twigs from
56 species representing 37 genera. An alpha
betized list of these taxa is provided, and the user clicks on the
name of the taxon of interest, which is followed by an image of a winter
twig of that species. The image has labeled arrows pointing to positions
of interest, i.e., the terminal bud, leaf scar, bud scales, cross-section,
etc. Upon clicking on the points of interest the user is provided with
a close-up image of that feature. The Authorware pictorial guide to trees
presents a dichotomous key of several woody plant species based on several
vegetative features, i.e. leaf shape and arrangement, and plant form. Choices
are typically illustrated with a representative photographs, one couplet
presented at a time. The user navigates through successive illustrated
couplets, eventually arriving at an image of the species of interest.
Also on this CD-ROM are several folders containing a multitude of pictures,
these folders with contents organized by twig photos, family, genus, common
name, or geography. There are two folders with respect to geography, one
of plants native to the Northeastern U.S., and another of those not native.
Within the latter folder, images are sorted by those native and not native
to the U.S. overall, and within the folder of non-U.S. woody plants images
are sorted by those of plants from China and Japan, those from Eurasia,
and those that are "hybrid cultivars." This represents a lot of images,
specifically over 1,400, representing 50 families, 113 genera, and greater
than 230 species and some hybrids. These are the images viewed through
Portfolio Browser, or can easily be viewed with JPEGView, which is included
on the CD.
All these images presented in so many ways clearly provide a good teaching
resource. The interactive Authorware resources integrate many of these
images into an easily usable guide that illustrates morphology and the
construction of dichotomous taxonomic keys. And the large collection of
images in general provide a greater diversity of woody plant species than
can be found within the immediate vicinity of most teaching institutions
in the northern United States and southern Canada. Furthermore, many of
these photos were carefully composed to illustrate interesting aspects
of morphology, variation, and even human uses of a number of plant species.
For example, a there is photo of the leaf variation present in Acer
negundo, close-ups of the resin dots in the leaves of Myrica pensylvanica,
cross-sections and details of the twigs of many species, and several photos
of a cranberry farming operation. There are also useful composite images
presented, such as one of the leaf attachment of several needle-bearing
conifer genera. And with these images, instructors can create further composite
images to use with teaching.
Unfortunately, despite the promising potential of this software package,
there are an enormous number of problems. To begin, there are a surprising
number of misidentifications or photos placed in the wrong folders. For
example, the image provided of a fruiting branch of Paxistima (=Pachistima)
canbyi (Celastraceae) is actually that of Comptonia peregrina
(Myricaceae), and the image of a flowering branch of Viburnum dentatum
is actually V. farreri, an uncommonly cultivated eastern Asian species.
The image identified as Quercus marilandica is probably that of
a hybrid between Q. ilicifolia and perhaps Q. velutina, and
the habit image of Kalmia angustifolia is actually Rhododendron
catawbiense, and the habit image of R. catawbiense is actually
K. latifolia. An image of Acer saccharum leaves is placed
in the A. rubrum folder, and there are other examples of this sort
of problem with other taxa.
There are a large number of spelling errors throughout this package.
Acer ginnala is spelled three different ways, Aralia spinosa
is incorrectly spelled "spinulosa", Sassafras is misspelled,
and other errors like this abound, which makes it difficult to search for
images using Portfolio Browser.
Many images are problematic, often being too dark or blurry, the latter
being true for many close-up photos. The size scale presented in the photos
is often unclear as to the definition of the type of units. And many of
the photos are not properly representative of the plants. For example,
several photos were taken at the wrong time of year to be representative,
e.g., almost all the acorn photos, which were photographed in the early
summer when the fruit was about 20-30% full-sized. Furthermore, a surprisingly
large number of photos were taken of senescent Autumn leaves or those that
are diseased or otherwise damaged, none of which accurately represent the
In some photos the nature of some morphological features is not clearly
defined. For example, the photo identified as an inflorescence of Acer
saccharum would be more accurately identified as being an inflorescence
of male flowers. Likewise, the photo of immature catkins of Alnus rugosa
is actually one of the immature female flower-bearing catkins.
Many genera in this package are represented by numerous photos from
several species. Yet all too often proper comparisons can not be made because
images of equivalent morphological features are not available. To make
the proper comparisons one needs to have photos of flowers, fruit, buds,
bark, cones, or other applicable features for all species represented.
In this package, however, such morphological features are typically presented
for only a subset of the species within a genus. For example, it would
be good to see the bark of all species of Quercus presented in this
package, and cone photos of both Picea glauca and P. rubens
would have been useful. Furthermore, some common species were omitted from
this package which would have provided useful comparisons with their congeners,
such as Picea mariana and Taxus canadensis.
The folders with image files sorted by geographic range are full of
inaccuracies. Several species are incorrectly placed in the folder of plants
that are not native to the Northeastern U.S., such as Aralia spinosa,
Corylus cornuta, Kalmia latifolia, Quercus prinus
(better called Q. montana), Rhododendron maximum, and several
others. Furthermore, several species are incorrectly placed in the folder
of plants that are native to the Northeastern U.S., such as Cladastris
kentuckea (= C. lutea), Halesia carolina, Maclura
pomifera, Paxistima canbyi (which is also placed in the folder
of plants that are not native to the Northeastern U.S.), Tilia cordata,
Viburnum opulus (the latter two are Eurasian species), and several
others. Quite frankly, these errors leave me wondering what the authors
mean by "Northeastern U.S."
As handy as the two Authorware guides are, they represent merely a small
subset of the species depicted in the 1,400 image files. This is unfortunate
since it renders the Authorware applications to be of limited utility considering
the diversity of woody plants within the Northeastern U.S. In addition,
this guide has some errors with characters presented for identifying plants.
For example, in order to correctly identify Sorbus acuparia in the
pictorial tree guide, one would have to determine that it has opposite
compound leaves, despite the fact that the species (like most other members
of Rosaceae) has alternate leaves. And in fact if one chooses alternate
compound leaves they will not end up with this guide giving an identity
of S. acuparia, but will meet with a photographic example of a tree
with alternate compound leaves, which happens to be one of S. acuparia!
Other such character-based problems exist with this guide. And some characters
in this guide are poorly described, such as the key choice for the shape
of the leaf bases of plants with opposite, simple, and entire leaves, given
as "petiole bases of leaves joined by a transverse line or meeting" versus
"petiole bases of leaves not joined by a transvers[e] line." Although this
suggests that the authors may be trying to avoid more technical botanical
terminology such not to overwhelm the layperson, it might be better to
just use such terminology and provide a simple glossary with the software
Also disappointing with this Authorware pictorial guide is that it does
not take the keying process to completion, often ending with a sizable
list of taxonomic names to choose from at random to see what matches the
plant in hand. This greatly limits the utility of this piece of software,
and it would have been better to design the keys such that they get the
user to exactly one plant.
And lastly, the interactive twig guide, although being a nice resource
for identifying many species, has the problem of incomplete labeling. Many
twig images are unlabeled at the points of interest that one can click
on to see up-close, whereas many other images are properly labeled.
This Pictorial Guide to the Common Woody Plants of the Northeastern
United States has a great deal of potential, and obviously a lot of work
went into it. But it was quite disappointing to note all the errors and
inconsistencies in this software package. For the user, such problems will
invariably lead to abundant misidentifications and misinterpretations about
the plants being covered, which is not what a teaching resource should
do. Unfortunately it gives the impression that this was a project thrown
together rapidly, yet which needed further refinement; consequently I find
it difficult to recommend. However, if the problems outlined above can
be resolved, and the entirety of the huge image collection can be integrated
through the Authorware applications, or at least the pictorial tree guide,
it would be a most remarkable teaching resource. —Douglas Goldman,
L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University,
Ithaca, NY 14853.
Sage. The Genus Salvia.
Kintzios, Spiridon E., ed. xix + 297 pp. ISBN 9058230058, hardcover, US$110
at amazon.com. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsteldijk 166, 1st Floor,
1079 LH Amsterdam, The Netherlands.- The generic name is derived from the
Latin "salvare," "to be saved." This reflects its ancient role in medicine,
and the roster of ailments for which it is sovereign is very long indeed:
cardiac problems, eye afflictions, all manner of brain problems (including
Parkinson's disease), kidney ailments, and so forth. The classical herbalist
Gerard recorded that "Sage is singularly good for the head and brain, it
quickeneth the senses and memory, stengtheneth the sinews, restoreth health
to those that have the palsy, and taketh away shakey trembling of the members."
I took the title to mean that this was some sort of taxonomic monograph.
Emphatically, it is not. There are neither keys nor descriptions. There
are estimates of the size of the genus, which vary from 400 to 700 to 900
species. There is a list of some hundreds of species in one contribution,
with many of the binomials unadorned with authors. The genus is worldwide,
both naturally and in cultivation, but the emphasis in this volume is on
a few species of Europe and Asia. One of these is Salvia miltiorrhiza
Bunge, an Asian species long valued for its medicinal properties. The epithet
at first glance looks misspelled, but it is not _ it is a combination of
Greek roots meaning "red root," I learned from an appropriate dictionary.
There are 32 contributing authors. Their expertise is in physiology,
biotechnology, pharmacognosy, and agronomy. Their treatments are highly
technical and the book is laden with chemical names and formulae.
A visit to a large grocery store, and never mind a health food store,
will reveal a large public interest in what is here termed "phytomedicine."
(The term is an illegitimate combination of a Greek with a Latin root,
but it is probably too late to scrub it from the language.) It is evident
from this book that such interest is taken very seriously, and it is heartening
to see that folk medicine is being rigorously tested in some laboratories.
It is evident from the extensive references cited at the end of each
chapter that there is a very large literature the expert needs to consult.
Indeed, the concluding chapter in the book, "Scientometric analysis of
science and technology bibliographic information sources with regard to
genus Salvia," concerns itself with just this issue: how to find
out what you need to know. There are 13 major databases which the authors
concern themselves with. Some charge a fee so high that the authors could
not consult them. They assess the various sources for their efficiency
in unearthing references on Salvia, and they warn the reader against
mistyping the search word as "saliva." The use of "sage" in the searches
is also discouraged, because it turns up "sagebrush" (which is Artemisia,
Asteraceae) and "Sage Grouse." It seems that some of the search machines
charge you for each "hit," whether it is useful or not, and you can run
up a heavy tab rather quickly.
This volume is the fourteenth in a series, with earlier volumes devoted
to exhaustive studies of Black Pepper, Basil, Ginkgo biloba, and a number
of others. There are twenty more volumes in preparation, including treatments
of Licorice, Cinnamon, and Artemisia.
There is a concluding index, but it is by no means complete. For example,
the quote from Gerard (supra) is cited on p. 11, but you' ll have
to remember that, because there is no reference to it in the index. Most
of the authors are not native speakers of English, and the editor is to
be congratulated on rendering the various treatments into serviceable,
if not entirely colloquial, English. _ Neil A. Harriman, Biology Department,
University of WisconsinOshkosh, Oshkosh, WI 54901, USA; firstname.lastname@example.org
If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor,
stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed
(1 February, 1 May, 1 August or 1 November). Send E-mail to email@example.com,
call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list because
they go quickly! Ed.
Advances in Chickpea Science. Maiti, Ratikanta and Pedro Wesche-Ebeling.
2001. ISBN 1-57808-156-4 (Cloth US$92.00) 360 pp. Science Publishers, Inc.
Post Office Box 699, Enfield, New Hampshire 03748.
African Traditional Medicine: A Dictionary of Plant Use and Applications.
Neuwinger, H.D. 2000. ISBN 3-88763-086-6 (Cloth DM 198) 589 pp. Medpharm
GmbH Scientific Publishers, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany.
Aromatic Rices. Singh, R.K., U.S. Singh and G.S. Khush. 2000.
ISBN 1-57808-129-7 (Cloth US$69.00) 302 pp. Science Publishers, Inc. Post
Office Box 699, Enfield, New Hampshire 03748.
Biological Thermodynamics. Haynie, Donald T. 2001. ISBN 0-521-79165-0
(Cloth US$100.000); ISBN 0-521-79549-4 (Paper US$35.95). 379 pp. Cambridge
University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.
Blüte und Frucht: Morphologie, entwicklungsgeschichte, Phylogenie,
Funktion, Ökologie. Leins, Peter. 2000. ISBN 3-510-65194-4 (Paper
DM88.00) 390 pp. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, (Nägele
u. Obermiller) Johannesstrasse 3A, D70176, Stuttgart, Germany.
The Cactus Family. Anderson, Edward F. 2001. ISBN 0-88192-498-9
(Cloth US$99.95) 776 pp. Timber Press. 133 S. W. Second Avenue, Suite 450,
Portland, OR 97204-3527.
The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms. Hickey,
Michael and Clive King. 2001. ISBN 0-521-79080-8 (Cloth US$85.00) ISBN
0-521-79401-3 (Paper US$29.95) 208 pp.Cambridge University Press, 40 West
20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.
Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Guaramacal National Park, Portuguesa
and Trujillo States, Venezuela. Dorr, Laurence, J., Basil Stergios,
Alan R. Smith and Nidia L. Cuello A. in: Dorr, Laurence J. (ed) Contributions
from the United States National Herbarium 40:1-155. 2000. ISNN 0097-1618.
(Paper) 155 pp. Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560-0166.
Categorical Glossary for the Flora of North America Project.
Kiger, Robert W. and Duncan M. Porter. 2001. ISBN 0-913196-70-3 (Paper
US$5.00) 165 pp. Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon
University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890.
Changing Plant Life of La Frontera: Observations on Vegetation in
the U.S>/Mexico Borderlands. Webster, Grady L. and Conrad J. Bahre,
(eds.). 2001. ISBN 0-8263-2239-5 (Cloth $34.95) 272 pp. University of New
Mexico Press. 1720 Lomas Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1591.
A Class-book of Botany (17th ed). Dutta, T.C. 2000.
ISBN 0-19-565307-6 (Paper US$14.95) 621 pp. Oxford University Press, 198
Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016-4314.
Crop Improvement, Volume 3, Quality Characters. Gupta, U.S. ISBN
1-57808-126-2 (Cloth US$66.00) 158 pp. Science Publishers, Inc. Post Office
Box 699, Enfield, New Hampshire 03748.
Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources In Vitro. Volume 2: Applications
and Limitations. Razdan, M.K. and E.C. Cocking. 2000. ISBN 1-57808-055-X
(Cloth US$88.00) 320 pp. Science Publishers, Inc. Post Office Box 699,
Enfield, New Hampshire 03748.
Diseases of Fruit Crops. Singh, R.S. 2000. ISBN 1-57808-149-1
(Cloth US$85.00) 308 pp. Science Publishers, Inc. Post Office Box 699,
Enfield, New Hampshire 03748.
Domestication of Plants in the Old World. (3rd ed)
Zohary, Daniel and Maria Hopf. 2001. ISBN 0-19-850357-1 (Cloth US$75.00)
ISBN 0-19-850356-3 (Paper US$34.95) 316 pp. Oxford University Press, 198
Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016-4314.
Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Richardson, David M. (ed).
2000. ISBN 0-521-55176-5 (Cloth US$160.00), ISBN 0-521-78910-9 (Paper,
US$54.95). 527 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th
Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.
The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation. Schluter, Dolph. 2000. ISBN
0-19-850523-X (Paper US$34.95). 288 pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison
Avenue, New York, NY 10016-4314.
Enduring Perfection: Paintings by Damodar Lal Gurjar: Catalogue of
an Exhibition. White, James J. and Lugene B Bruno. 2001. ISBN 0-913196-71-1.
(Paper US$10.00) 44 pp. Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie
Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890.
Fern Grower's Manual: Revised and Expanded Edition. 2001. ISBN
0-88192-495-4 (Cloth US$59.95) 624 pp. Timber Press, 133 S. W. Second Avenue,
Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Field Flora of the British Isles. Stage, Clive. 1999. ISBN 0-521-65315-0
(Paper US$39.95) 736 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th
Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.
Field Guide to Indiana Wildflowers. Yatskievych, Kay. 2000. ISBN
0-253-21420-3 (Paper US$17.95) 372 pp. Indiana University Press, 601 N.
Morton Street, Bloomington, IN 47404.
Flora of the Gran Desierto and Rio Colorado Delta. Felger, Richard
S. 2000. ISBN 0-8165-2044-5 (Cloth, US$75.00) 700 pp. The University of
Arizona Press, 355 S. Euclid Ave., Suite 103, Tucson, AZ 85719.
The Flowering of Man: A Tzotzil Botany of Zinacantán.
Breedlove, Dennis E. and Robert M. Laughlin. 2000. ISBN 1-56098-897-5 (Paper
US$24.95) 336 pp. Smithsonian Institution Press, 750 Ninth Street NW Suite
4300, Washington, DC 20560-0950.
Forest Fires: Behavior and Ecological Effects. Johnson, Edward
A. and Kiyoko Miranishi (eds). 2001. ISBN 0-12-386660-x (Cloth US$96.00)
594 pp. Academic Press. 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495.
Gardening in the Desert: A Guide to Plant Selection & Care.
Irish, Mary F. 2000. ISBN 0-8165-2057-7 (Paper US$17.95) 175 pp. The University
of Arizona Press, 355 S Euclid Ave, Suite 103, Tucson, AZ 85719.
Green Engineering. Anatas, Paul T., Lauren G. Heine and Tracy
C. Williamson (eds) 2000. ISBN 0-8412-3677-1 (Cloth US$135.00) Oxford University
Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016-4314.
Introduction to Plant Biotechnology. Chawla, H.S. 2000. ISBN
1-57808-130-0 (Paper US$38.50) 378 pp. Science Publishers, Inc., Post Office
Box 699, Enfield, New Hampshire 03748.
Lichens. Purvis, William. 2000. ISBN 1-56098-879-7 (Paper $US14.95)
112 pp. Smithsonian Institution Press, 750 Ninth Street NW Suite 4300,
Washington, DC 20560-0950
The Looking-Glass Garden: Plants and Gardens of the Southern
Hemisphere. Thompson, Peter. 2001. ISBN 0-88192-499-7 (Cloth US$39.95).
451 pp. Timber Press. 133 S. W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR
Managing Human-Dominated Ecosystems: Proceedings of the Symposium
held at MBG in March, 1998. Volume 84 in the series Monographs in Systematic
Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden. Hollowell, Victoria C. (ed.).
2001. ISBN 0-915279-85-1 (Paper US$39.95) 372 pp. Missouri Botanical Garden
Press, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110.
Medicinal Plants of the World, Volume 2, Chemical Constituents, Traditional
and Modern Medicinal Uses. Ross, Ivan A. 2001. ISBN 0-896-03877-7 (Cloth
US$99.50) 488 pp. The Humana Press, 999 Riverview Drive, Suite 208, Totowa,
New Jersey 07512.
Microbial Interactions in Agriculture and Forestry, Volume II. Subba
Rao, N.S. and Dommergues, Y.R. 2000. ISBN 1-57808-138-6 (Cloth US$88.00)
294 pp. Science Publishers, Inc., Post Office Box 699, Enfield, New Hampshire
Mistletoe: The Genus Viscum. Büssing, Arndt. 2000. ISBN
90-5823-092-9 (Cloth US$105.00) 265 pp. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsteldijk
166, 1st Floor, 1079 LH Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
The Monumental Impulse: Architecture's Biological Roots. Hersey,
George. 2001. ISBN 0-262-58203-1 (Paper US$27.95) 244 pp. The MIT Press,
5 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 0214201493).
Peppers: Vegetable and Spice Capsicums. Bosland, P. and E. Votava.
2000. ISBN 0-85199-355-4. (Paper US$45.00) 204 pp. CABI Publishing, 10E
40th Street, Suite 3203, New York, NY 10016.
Photosynthesis: Photobiochemistry and Photobiophysics. Advances in
Photosynthesis, Vol 10. Ke, Bacon. 2001. ISBN 0-79236-334-5 (Cloth
US$243) 763 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht,
Plant Disease Management. Singh, R.S. 2001. ISBN 1-57808-158-0
(Cloth US$85.00) 238 pp. Science Publishers, Inc. Post Office Box 699,
Enfield, New Hampshire 03748.
Plant Galls of India. Mani, M.S. 2000. ISBN 1-57808-131-9 (Cloth
US$112.00) 477 pp. Science Publishers, Inc. Post Office Box 699, Enfield,
New Hampshire 03748.
Plant Hormone Protocols. Tucker, Gregory A. and Jeremy A. Roberts
(eds). 2000. ISBN 0-896-03577-8 (Cloth US$69.50) 199 pp. Humana Press.
999 Riverview Drive, Suite 208, Totowa, NJ 07512.
Plant Life of the Quaternary Cold Stages: Evidence from the British
Isles. West, R.G. 2000. ISBN 0-521-59397-2. (Cloth US$105.00) 320 pp.
Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY
Poppies: A Guide to the Poppy Family in the Wild and in Cultivation,
Revised Edition. Grey-Wilson, Christopher. 2001. ISBN 0-88192-503-9
(Cloth US$37.95) 288 pp. Timber Press. 133 S. W. Second Avenue, Suite 450,
Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Rice Breeding and Genetics: Research Priorities and Challenges.
Nanda, Jata S. (Ed) 2000. ISBN 1-57808-086-X (Cloth US$75.00) 390 pp. Science
Publishers, Inc. Post Office Box 699, Enfield, New Hampshire 03748.
Solute Movement in the Rhizosphere. Tinker, P.B. and P.H. Nye.
2000. ISBN 0-19-512492-8 (Cloth US$95.00) 444 pp. Oxford University Press,
198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016-4314.
Terrestrial Global Productivity. Roy, Jacques, Bernard Saugier,
and Harold A. Mooney (eds). 2001. ISBN 0-12-505290-1 (Cloth US$99.95) 573
pp. Academic Press, 525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495.
Tobacco Use by Native North Americans: Sacred Smoke and Silent Killer.
Winter, Joseph C. (ed.) 2001. ISBN 0-8061-3262-0 (Cloth US$65.00) 379 pp.
University of Oklahoma Press, 4100 28th Avenue, N.W., Norman,
Trees of Indiana. Wampler, Fred (Paintings by Maryrose Wampler)
2000. ISBN 0-253-32885-3 (Cloth $49.05) 192 pp. Indiana University Press,
601 North Morton Street, Bloomington, IN 47404-3797.
The Trees of Sonora, Mexico. Felger, Richard Stephen, Matthew
Brian Johnson, and Michael Francis Wilson. 2001. ISBN 0-19-512891-5 (Cloth
$125) 391 pp. Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY
The Tropical Deciduous Forest of Alamos: Biodiversity of a Threatened
Ecosystem in Mexico. Robichaux, Robert H. and David A. Yetman. 2000.
ISBN 0-8165-1922-6 (Cloth US$50.00) 260 pp. The University of Arizona Press,
355 S Euclid Ave, Suite 103, Tucson, AZ 85719.
Tylenchida: Parasites of Plants and Insects 2nd ed.
Siddiqi, M.R. 2001. ISBN 0-85199-202-1 (Cloth US$225.00) 833 pp. CABI Publishing,
10 E 40th Street. Suite 3203, New York, NY 10016.
Variation and Evolution in Plants and Microorganisms. Ayala,
Francisco J., Walter M. Fitch, and Michael T. Clegg. 2000. ISBN 0-309-07075-9
(Cloth US$49.95) ISBN 0-309-07099-6 (Paper US$19.95) 300 pp. National Academy
Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055.
Vegetable Seed Production. George, R.A.T. 2000. ISBN 0-85199-336-2
(Cloth US$90.00) CABI Publishing, 10E 40th Street, Suite 3203,
New York, NY 10016.
Woody Plants and Woody Plant Management: Ecology, Safety, and Environmental
Impact. Bovey, Rodney W. 2001. ISBN 0-8247-0438-X (Cloth US$195) 564
pp. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Cimarron Road, P.O. Box 5005, Monticello, NY 12701-5185.
Wildflowers of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont: In Color. Bessette,
Alan E., Arleen Rainis Bessette, William K. Chapman, Valerie Conley Chapman.
2000. ISBN 0-8156-2803-X (Paper US$24.95) 167 pp. Syracuse University Press,
Syracuse, New York, 13244-5160.
American Journal of Botany back issues
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are available on the JSTOR web site http://www.jstor.org/.
Articles can be viewed as citations, graphics (scalable high quality gif
images), or downloaded into standard or high quality PDF reprints. Contents
can be browsed or searched. The JSTOR material is subject to a five year
moving wall; more recent on-line copies of the Journal will remain
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