PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
VOLUME 47, NUMBER 1, 2001
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil
Ave., Columbus, OH 43210
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Marsh Sundberg, Editor
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SPRING 2001 VOLUME
47 NUMBER 1
The Botanical Society of America: The Society
for ALL Plant Biologists
Toward a Theory of Plant Blindness.............................................................................2
News from the Society
Call for Papers - BOTANY 2001............................................................................9
for Proposals - Karling Graduate Student Award.............................................11
Rupert C. Barneby.......................................................................................12
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings
Biodiversity to Biocomplexity, 2001 AIBS.................................................14
International Conference on Plants and Environmental Pollution ..............14
Native Plant Enthusiasts......................................................................15
Forest Excursion in China....................................................................16
Mexican Botanical Congress.........................................................................16
Rupert Barneby Award................................................................................16
Rupert Barneby Fund...................................................................................17
Grants for Botanical Gardens...............................................................................17
Bee Course 2001.........................................................................................17
Biodiversity and Conservation Biology.........................................................18
BSA Logo Items..........................................................................................................40
Editor: Marshall D. Sundberg
Department of Biological Sciences
Emporia State University
1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, KS 66801-5707
Telephone: 620-341-5605 Fax: 620-341-5607
Plant Science Bulletin
Editorial Committee for Volume 47
Vicki A. Funk (2001)
Department of Botany
Washington, D.C. 20560
Ann E. Antlfinger (2002)
Univ. of Nebraska - Omaha
Omaha NE 681823
Norman C. Ellstrand (2003)
Department of Botany and Plant Science
University of California
Riverside CA 92521-0124
James E. Mickle (2004)
Department of Botany
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7612
Andrew W. Douglas (2005)
Department of Biology
University of Mississippi
University, MS 38677
Many of us are employed at educational institutions and, at least on
occasion, are assigned to teach in the freshman courses. This is a challenging
assignment, and frequently a daunting one! How can so many students, the
future leaders of our communities and country, have so little knowledge
of and interest in plants? Why don't they realize how important plants
are in the ecosystem? Too many of them don't even realize that plants are
alive! It must be the fault of _____.
Did you fill in the blank as you were reading the previous sentence?
I know I have - on more than one occasion. The usual effect of this exercise
is to re-set my challenge to make a difference in the classroom. It is
the beginning of another crusade to "convert the ignorant masses" to the
beauty, wonder, and importance of plants. Occasionally there is that notable
success, the student who is "turned on" to plants and decides to pursue
a career in the botanical sciences. For the most part, though, my reward
is from the knowledge that I tried mightily, and my students really learned
at least some of the concepts we discussed. Maybe I set my expectations
too high. (Maybe my students are right - - my expectations are unreasonably
high). But maybe there's an underlying problem that I'm not seeing much
better than my fellow teachers at the pre-college levels.
In this issue I've asked James Wandersee to elaborate on some of the
work he and his students have been doing for the past several years. Jim
is a botanist and science educator whose interests and research specialization
are in the field of cognition - how students learn. Recently the lab has
been concentrating on visual learning and their results indicate that "there
may be more than meets the eye!" - editor
a Theory of Plant Blindness
Introduction to the Problem
We are two botanists and biology educators who are committed to exploring
and investigating why people in the US tend to be less interested in plants
than in animals, and why they often fail to notice the plants that are
present in their own environment (Wandersee & Schussler, 1999a). We
think such knowledge, once gained, may be useful in a variety of settings—from
teaching an introductory biology course, to planning a public education
program at a botanic garden, to writing a children's book about plants,
to pursuing new botanical research. We also hope that the answers to these
questions will ultimately lead to improvement of the nation's scientific
literacy level, and to greater public understanding of plants (Flannery,
1999). The future of US research in the plant sciences depends, to a large
extent, on the support of a botanically literate citizenry (Niklas, 1995).
Acknowledging Prior Work
Across the years, others, of much greater stature in the botany community
than we, have pondered these same questions. Much of what they have observed
and concluded has been both stimulating and helpful to us in beginning
our own quest—and we have great respect for the work that they have done
(cf. Bernhardt, 1999; Kramer, 1999; Sundberg, 2000). For example, prior
explanations for US students' disinterest and inattention to plants have
posited such underlying sources as zoochauvinistic introductory biology
instructors, zoocentric examples used to teach basic biological concepts
and principles, hypertechnical and uninteresting botany lessons, and underemphasis
(or utter neglect) of plants in students' biological laboratory and field
experiences (e.g., Darley 1990; Hershey, 1993, 1996; Nichols, 1919; Uno,
The Quest for a New Theory
However, the findings of our own research studies,including two recent
nationwide studies on public perception of plants (Wandersee & Schussler,2000a),
coupled with the general findings of other biology education and visual
cognition researchers, suggest to us that the aforementioned sources may
well be secondary factors, but the primary factor for explaining why people
in the US often have a greater interest in animals than plants, and why
they tend to pay little attention to the plants around them, is the way
that humans perceive plants—due to the inherent constraints of their visual
information processing systems. Theories are logical and principled systems
that describe, predict, and explain. What follows represents the current
state of our progress toward constructing a theory of plant blindness.
The Pathway Leading to the Introduction of a New Term
Following several years of preliminary discussions, library searches,
small-scale investigations, and a fair amount of trepidation, in 1998 we
decided to introduce a new term, plant blindness, to the US biology
education literature (1998a). We did this because we thought the current
state of inattention to and under-representation of plants—not just in
biology instruction, but in US society in general—might be better explained
by using research-based principles of human perception and visual cognition
than by earlier, instructional-bias/deficiency-related-hypotheses—such
as zoocentrism, zoo-chauvinism, and plant neglect. We also wanted the new
term to be free of accumulated and inappropriate connotations, and to serve
as a precursor term for use in explaining some of the resultant learning-related
problems (cf. the secondary terms mentioned previously).
Delimiting the New Term
We coined the term plant blindness by reasoning that most people
already linguistically familiar with the use of the word blind as
a metaphorical adjective suggesting missing visual information (e.g., blind
date, blind seam, blind chance, blind alley, blind spot, snow blindness,
need-blind admission). As for the limits of the word plant within
our new term, our work thus far has been focused on the US public's inattention
to and disinterest in understanding most angiosperms. So the term is most
appropriately used in reference to the flowering plants.
Defining the New Term
Subsequently, we defined plant blindness as: the inability to
see or notice the plants in one's own environment—leading to: (a) the inability
to recognize the importance of plants in the biosphere, and in human affairs;
(b) the inability to appreciate the aesthetic and unique biological features
of the life forms belonging to the Plant Kingdom; and (c) the misguided,
anthropocentric ranking of plants as inferior to animals, leading to the
erroneous conclusion that they are unworthy of human consideration (Wandersee
& Schussler, 1998a).
Possible "Symptoms" of Plant Blindness
We have proposed that persons afflicted with the condition known as
blindness may exhibit symptoms such as the following: (a) failing to
see, take notice of, or focus attention on the plants in one's daily life;
(b) thinking that plants are merely the backdrop for animal life; (c) misunderstanding
what kinds of matter and energy plants require to stay alive; (d) overlooking
the importance of plants to one's daily affairs (Balick & Cox, 1996);
(e) failing to distinguish between the differing time scales of plant and
animal activity (Attenborough, 1995); (f) lacking hands-on experiences
in growing, observing, and identifying plants in one's own geographic region;
(g) failing to explain the basic plant science underlying nearby plant
communities—including plant growth, nutrition, reproduction, and relevant
ecological considerations; (h) lacking awareness that plants are central
to a key biogeochemical cycle—the carbon cycle; and (i) being insensitive
to the aesthetic qualities of plants and their structures—especially with
respect to their adaptations, coevolution, colors, dispersal, diversity,
growth habits, scents, sizes, sounds, spacing, strength, symmetry, tactility,
tastes, and textures (Wandersee & Schussler, 1999a).
Angiosperms, Flowers, and Visual Signal Values
Raven, Evert, and Eichhorn (1986) have pointed out that "the angiosperms
make up much of the visible world of modern plants" (emphasis
added; p. 584). Ghillean Prance, past Director of Royal Botanic Gardens—Kew,
has said that his institution's research findings suggest that the earth
is home to approximately 320,000 flowering plant species (Tangley, 1998).
The key characteristic that sets the angiosperms apart from other plants
is the flower (Bernhardt, 1999). Unlike animals, flowering plants
cannot move from place to place to seek a mate; however, they have transcended
their rooted condition via a set of features embodied in their flowers.
Pollination by insects is basic in the angiosperms, and the first pollinating
agents were probably beetles. The more attractive the plants' flowers
were to the beetles, the more often they would be visited, and thus, the
more seeds they would produce. Any changes in the floral phenotype that
made such visits more frequent or more efficient offered an immediate selective
advantage. Flower-visiting animals are drawn there by visual and/or
olfactory attraction. Thus, plants were able to control their relationships
with their pollinators, in part, by modifying their visual signal value
through coevolution. To avoid or minimize herbivory, it is advantageous
for the plants in a population to blend together visually. So, it could
be said that, in effect, plants modify their visual signal values
in accordance with the survival values conferred.
Seeing Involves More Than Meets the Eye
Why do many people tend to overlook the plants in their own environment?
There is no simple scientific answer. First of all, most of us think that
we see all of our surroundings simply by opening our eyelids and looking
outward. Alas, there is much scientific evidence to reject that view (Catell,
1895; Nickerson & Adams, 1979). "No matter how hard we look, we see
very little of what we look at," concludes Elkins (1996, p.11). Norretranders
(1998, p. 126) has calculated that during visual perception, the human
eye generates in excess of 10 million bits of data per second as input
for visual processing, yet our brain ultimately extracts about 40 bits
of data per second from that immense data stream for our conscious vision
to consider—of which about 16 bits per second is ultimately fully processed.
This means that our sensory bandwidth "…is far lower than the bandwidth
of our sensory perceptors." Only .0000016 of the data our eyes produce
are actually considered consciously; it is assumed that the rest must somehow
subliminally affect our thoughts, feelings, and actions, and this means
that most of our mental life must take place subconsciously. It seems that
visual consciousness is like a spotlight, not a floodlight. And if that
is not shocking enough, we do not see events in real time (Norretranders,
p. 210). The computation time involved in processing the visual data we
receive has been shown by experiment to take approximately .5 second, making
present a self-delusion. Perhaps the most important take-home message
we have gleaned from Norretranders' (p. 242) analysis is that, although
large amounts of visual data are discarded, "…what is presented [to our
conscious attention] is precisely that which is relevant."
Factors That Affect People's Visual Attention
"We [humans] …tend to be surprisingly bad at recalling details of objects
we see or use daily," writes acclaimed memory researcher Alan Baddeley
(1982). For example, just because we have looked at a lot of pennies during
the course of our life doesn't mean we can draw an accurate picture of
one. Psychologist Stephen Kosslyn of Harvard University cautions us in
the very title of his article that "the mind is not a camera, the brain
is not a VCR." Rugg (1998, p. 1151) emphasizes that "all events are not
equal; they differ in how they are initially encoded into memory." He claims
that two critical factors determine whether or not we will remember an
event: the degree of attention we pay to it, and the meaning or importance
we assign to it. We think that appropriate botanical education and plant-growing
experiences can enhance the quality of both.
Vision as Explained by Gibson's Ecological Optics
Ware (2000, p. 35) urges us to think of the world as an "information
display." Human visual perception is about interpreting and understanding
patterns of light—light between 400-700 nanometers in wavelength—as absorbed,
reflected, refracted, diffracted, scattered, or transmitted within the
environment we occupy. Applying J. J. Gibson's (1986) framework for describing
our visual environment—a field he called ecological optics—it is the surfaces
within our environment that are the keys to understanding human visual
perception. Light + the environmental surfaces which present themselves
yields the ambient optical array—a term he coined to represent all
the light rays that are arriving from all directions at a particular point
in the environment, as structured in space and time. Gibson argues that
texture is one of the fundamental visual properties of an object and
it produces texture gradients that are very important, along with
boundaries and cast shadows, to our judging of space and distance
(Ware, 2000, p. 40).
The Surfaces of Plants Affect How We See Them
Plant surfaces are amazingly varied and complex: leaf microtextures,
for example, can yield irregular patterns of reflection—causing both the
amount and color of light to vary with ambient and source illumination
angles, and with viewing angle. Illumination level variations, such as
when the sun temporarily goes behind a cloud and then emerges, further
complicates visual information processing. Digital images of plants contain
much less information than is present in the ambient optical array, but
they can be very useful when linked in a meaningful way with actual laboratory
and field experiences (Wandersee & Schussler, 1999b). We think it prudent
to note that, when viewing works of art, experts recommend limiting one's
viewing of the images to no more than 1 hour per session, and to no more
than 150 images in a single session to avoid visual processing fatigue
Some Visual Principles That May Help Explain Plant Blindness
We continue to search the research literature to answer the question
of why humans often overlook plants, as opposed to animals, and why they
are often less interested in learning about and understanding plants than
animals. In seeking a better explanation for plant blindness than
biased learning approaches and gaps, we have compiled the following list
of relevant principles of human visual perception and visual cognition
(Wandersee & Schussler, 1999a).
1. People typically tend to know less about plants than animals. Less
than 2.5% of the US population is directly involved in raising farm crops
(Koning, 1994, p.7). Our research has shown us that persons who have had
few meaningful and mindful educational and cultural experiences involving
plants demonstrate little basis beyond popular culture for plant recognition.
Humans can only recognize (visually) what they already know. Psychologists
would say that plants have low signal value for many US citizens
today. Mack and Rock (1998) have proposed what they call inattentional
blindness, and they have found that once objects have acquired meaning
for an observer, they are more likely to be consciously perceived. Inattention
can become attention once an object or event has meaning. We often see
what we expect to see, not what's actually there—because seeing involves
not just the eye, but the eye-brain system (Solso, 1994, p. 31).
2. When flowering plants are not flowering or possess inconspicuous
flowers, the chromatic homogeneity, the spatial homogeneity, and the overlap
of their green leaves makes edge-detection difficult. When the azaleas
of the Deep South are not in bloom, they are perceived as quite non-descript
bushes. When they are covered with red,
pink, and white blossoms, no one can ignore them. Gopnik, Meltzof,
and Kuhl (1999, p. 65) claim that: "Paying attention to edges is the best
way of dividing a static picture into separate objects." Because green
plants are typically static objects in the observer's field of view, seeing
them and noticing them may pose much greater problems of visual detection
than dynamic objects do. In addition, humans tend to get bored and habituate
if they look at a relatively constant scene for too long a time (p. 27).
If the members of a set of objects are not sufficiently distinct from their
surroundings, they blend-in, and nothing is consciously perceived. We cannot
visually label them and they do not "pop out" chromatically from their
background. The visual cortex continuously filters out more of the data
it receives from the retina of the eye than it retains for conscious analysis.
Without our conscious intention, attention, and effort to preserve it,
most of the visual data our brain receives about plants is likely to be
3. The members of plant populations typically grow in close proximity
to each other, whether cultivated or natural, and they rarely move (except
in wind or rain). Static proximity is a visual cue that humans use to group
objects into bulk visual categories (Zakia, 1997). Thus, individual plants
may tend to be de-emphasized, with the totality being labeled simply as
"plants." If there are animals, especially large ones, moving on this living
environmental canvas, the animals may become the focus of our attention.
This helps to explain the "plants as backdrop" phenomenon. When we watch
a game of football, for example, we rarely think about the huge population
of grass plants the players are moving upon.
4. In most people's minds, plants are typically rather non-threatening
elements of an ecosystem and incidental contact with them can usually be
ignored without dire consequences. Visual habit and general familiarity
diminish the conscious attention we give to such objects. If our vision
operates to minimize expended energy, then low-priority-level attributes
may be discarded to make visual processing easier. Human-eating plants
do not exist, and we all know it. However, if we are warned that poison
ivy may be present in the woods where we are walking, we are quick to develop
and employ a template-like search image for compound leaves containing
three leaflets in order to screen incoming visual data. In this case, the
threat of bodily harm posed by its secondary plant substance, pentadecanedienyl
catachol, makes the possible presence of this species in our path intensify
our visual vigilance.
5. The brain uses patterns of space, time, and color to structure visual
experience (Zakia, 1997). Because they are immobile autotrophs, plants
generally offer fewer spacing-based, time-based, or color-based visual
cues for humans to observe than animals do—except, for example, during
periods of pollination and dispersal (cf. Wandersee & Schussler, 2000b).
The brain is fundamentally a difference detector, and when it finds none,
the perceptual field is not perturbed. For example, invasive plants, such
as kudzu, capture our visual attention and interest because they grow with
great vigor in places where we don't expect or want to see them.
We have argued that, instead of invoking zoological biases as the root
cause, there may well be a visual-cognitive-societal basis for why plants
(and thus, the plant sciences) are frequently ignored or undervalued by
the US public, under-represented in American biology courses, and considered
less interesting than animals. Our research suggests that a keen interest
in animals does not necessarily preclude an equal interest in plants, and
vice versa. In fact, many botanists, including us, are pet owners. In querying
students about the reasons they were more interested in learning about
animals than plants, they responded that animals: (a) can move quickly
via appendages; (b) have to eat regularly just as we do; (c) have human-like
eyes for vision, (d) have human-like faces, (e) exhibit many interesting
behaviors, (f) have dramatic and easily observable life cycles; (g) mate,
give birth, and raise their offspring; and, (g) can interact with, and
sometimes even play with, people (Wandersee, 1986).
Plants Versus Animals
Our own research studies (Wandersee, 1986; Wandersee & Schussler,
1998b) and that of other biology educators (Baird, Lazarowitz, & Allman,
1984) have found that, for the groups of school students that were studied,
the majority of students (both girls and boys) preferred to study animals
over plants. Our 1998 study of 274 US students drawn from grades 4-7 in
a major metropolitan area indicated that: (a) student interest in animals
led plants by approximately a 2:1 margin; (b) girls were more likely than
boys to express an interest in learning about plants; and (c) of the nearly
300 students we queried, only about 7% spontaneously expressed a scientific
interest in plants—and of that 7%, about two-thirds were girls.
The Dominance of Interest in Animals
Paradoxically, plants form the basis of most animal habitats and all
life on earth (Abbott, 1998). Although animals frequently steal the spotlight
when the specter of extinction is raised, one in eight plant species is
currently threatened by extinction. Intellectually, we may know that you
can't sustain pandas without bamboo for them to eat, but
culturally, facts like this are often forgotten (Abbott, 1998). Few
American children's cartoon characters, shaped candies, stuffed toys, team
mascots, songs, or games pay homage to plants rather than animals. Children
in the US seem to be primarily "animal-socialized."
Perhaps it's not just an American phenomenon, however. Visitors using
the main entrance of the world's most famous botanic garden, the Royal
Botanic Gardens—Kew (located near London) are greeted by The Kew Mural,
a great and stunningly beautiful, intricately carved, wall-mounted, wood-relief
sculpture depicting the Kew Gardens being assaulted by the powerful wind
storm that struck down or damaged over 1,000 trees on 16 October 1987.
The many kinds of wood used to make the sculpture came from actual timbers
felled by the tempest; the interplay of natural colors, polished wood grains,
flowing shapes, and visually palpable textures leave its viewer breathless.
Yet, inexplicably, about two-thirds of the sculpture's surface area is
devoted to images of animals being displaced by the storm. The plants
depicted in it are rendered as either fragile or marginalized; the animals
are central to the mural, and appear as either forceful opponents or agile
survivors. Plants are clearly the backdrop of the visual tale being told.
The Importance of Having a Plant Mentor
In our two national studies covering 27 states (the first, looking at
US "Generation Y" youth, and the second, at US mothers of young children)
focusing on each demographic group's attention to, interest in, and understanding
of plants—one of many interesting findings was that having early experiences
in growing plants under the guidance of a knowledgeable and friendly adult
was a good predictor of later attention to, interest in, and scientific
understanding of plants, as well as of the kinds of plant experiences a
young mother will provide for her children (Wandersee & Schussler,
Describing Plant Mentorship
But the adult who serves as a plant mentor need not necessarily
be the child's mother. Lewis (1996, p. xviii) writes: "I bonded with plants
at an early age. As a small, curious boy, I once watched my grandmother
crush a dried zinnia flower in her hand, then gently blow on the mixed
pile of fragments. Petals and other chaff flew off, leaving tiny brown
daggers on her palm. `Seeds to grow next year,' she said…I was awed and
excited by the chance to practice this magic, and, with her guidance
[emphasis added], soon started my own tiny garden." Your authors remember
similar "magic moments" as budding plant scientists—one of us recalls an
exciting, mentored, personal experiment during her 6th grade
year, comparing the germination rates of pea seeds that she placed in a
freezer for various intervals to pea seeds that were not frozen; the other
recalls using a small vial of gibberellic acid, obtained from a local greenhouse
by his father, in a supervised, personal attempt to grow giant bean plants
(ala' Jack and the Beanstalk) for a school science project during his 5th
A Possible Long-Term Solution to the Plant Blindness Problem
Based on the evidence we have gathered to date, we hypothesize that
early and iterative, well-planned, meaningful and mindful education (both
scientific and social) about plants —coupled with a variety of personal,
guided, direct experiences with growing plants—may be the best way to overcome
what we currently see as the human "default condition"—plant blindness.
Plants, Culture, and Plant Blindness
We also postulate that the greater the degree of value a culture ascribes
to plants, and the greater number of members within it who work directly
with plants or plant products, the more likely the prevalence of plant
blindness in that culture will be lower (cf. Balick & Cox, 1996). As
Charles Lewis (1996, p. 22) contends, "Those who live by hunting or gathering,
fishing or farming, must observe nature's signs….Changes in foliage color
would be a strong indication that preparation for surviving the long winter
In addition, Lewis (1996, p. 20) asks: "If dwellers in the savanna [of
Africa] did use tree shapes and the visual appearance of the terrain for
swift assessment of its potential as a habitat, could they not have evolved
innate preferences for particular landscape characteristics (preferences
that resonate within us today)? Investigators have found that Americans
like park settings that might be characterized as `savannas'…." Research
by Balling ( a psychologist) and Falk (an ecologist) found that younger
school children (ages 8-11) who were shown slides of five different biomes
expressed a significant preference for savanna-like settings, and later
found that only after people grow older do they begin to select more varied
landscapes—usually of the type familiar to them (1982).
A Botanical "Sense of Place"
Hollingsworth (2001) writes about the value of capturing one's sense
of place photographically—via a close-up, a detail, a panorama, or
a landscape scene that approximates a still- life painting of an importance
site in one's personal history. At the beginning of a graduate seminar
in botanical education, we also explored this idea, by asking the participating
science instructors to prepare and then give brief, 5- to 10-minute talks
describing their own botanical sense of place—reflecting upon salient
memories drawn from childhood days, and specifying several kinds of plants
which grew in their yard or neighborhood that played a role in their life
while they were growing up—and situating their hometown in its ecological
and economic botany settings. It seemed to be a worthwhile exercise in
self-discovery for them—realizing who their plant mentor was (if they had
one); which plants they often used for play, for shelter, for scent, or
for taste; what kind of bioregion they lived in; what kinds of area cash
crops became familiar to them; and so forth. More importantly, it brought
prior knowledge about and experiences with plants to the fore, and it provided
accessible, conceptual anchor points for linking the new botanical knowledge
they were learning to their existing knowledge structure about plants (Fisher,
Wandersee, & Moody, 2000; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1998, 2000).
Some Activist Approaches We Are Trying
"Prevent Plant Blindness." Those three simple words are emblazoned diagonally
across our 20" x 30", bulletin-board-sized, full-color, classroom poster
which is being distributed to more than 22,000 US science teachers and
botany instructors as part of our national campaign to increase students'
awareness of and interest in plants. We designed the poster to be initially
puzzling, and to elicit inferences about its meaning. This aligns with
Solso's (1994, p. 26) tenet drawn from visual cognition research which
says "…we gaze longer at interesting or puzzling things…." The poster shows
a tree-lined, riverine landscape. Hovering, Magritte-like, in the sky above
is a large pair of dark-red-tinted glasses. The implication is that someone
wearing those red glasses would not be able to see any of the green plants
shown in the scene below—that if one's vision is "filtered," either physically
or conceptually, one may actually miss seeing the plants that are present
in one's environment. The back of the poster provides a complete definition
of plant blindness, lists its symptoms, and offers directions for 20 simple,
plant-science-related activities. This poster was subsequently endorsed
by BSA's Education Committee.
Besides the plant poster project, we have also written, illustrated,
and published a 40-page children's science picture book which presents
a plant mystery to children between the ages of 4 and 8 (Schussler &
Wandersee, 1999). It is intended to be the first of a series of mystery
books involving the two main children's characters, who are portrayed as
being best friends, namely—Abby and Tate. The first book subtly introduces
its "readers" to some basic principles of plant care and encourages them
to try raising an African Violet plant. We have introduced the book to
a fair number of elementary teachers, parents, and grandparents, and have
made it available at cost on Amazon.com. It has just been translated into
Spanish by plant ecologist Sandra M. Guzman, and a Spanish version will
be available in about six months.
In addition, in 1998, we founded a science book award, now recognized
by children's literature libraries and authors worldwide, called the Giverny
Award. It is given each year to the author and illustrator of the book
selected by the Award Committee as the best children's science picture
book in our selection pool—with preference given to storybooks that teach
plant science concepts and principles in an indirect and engaging way.
Each year's winning book is described on our research group's web site
) We hope that our annual book award, children's plant mystery books, classroom
poster design and distribution, research publications, and regular presentations
at selected, science teachers' and scientific society meetings will, at
least in a small way, help increase the US public's awareness and interest
Brief Closing Remarks
If we are to liberate American students from the intellectual, perceptual,
and visual processing traps that can lead to plant blindness, those
of us who teach introductory biology and botany courses must work to expand
our students' botanical horizons. While biological science departments
may be currently reorganizing themselves along the lines of common research
themes rather than taxa of organisms studied, plants stand as distinctively
different life forms from humans, life forms that have, historically, rewarded
our focused study, observation, and investigation. We think there are sound
scientific reasons why botany, like the plants it studies, needs to maintain
its own visibility and identity (Greenfield,  1999).
In BSA's strategic plan, Botany for the Next Millennium (Niklas
1995, p. 11) we read that, "Functionally, plants are the primary mediators
between the physical and biological world." That is no minor feat; that
role alone calls out to those who teach biology and botany to help "Prevent
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Authors' Note: We have recently discovered that the adjective plant
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in reference to plants that had lost their apical shoot tips—either by
nature or by human intervention. However, its use is apparently quite uncommon
in horticultural publications today, and, to the best of our knowledge,
the term plant blindness has rarely been used in that literature.
James H. Wandersee, Louisiana State University
Elisabeth E. Schussler, Southeastern Natural Sciences Academy
CALL FOR PAPERS
August 12-16, 2001
Albuquerque Convention Center
The Botanical Society of America (BSA) will hold its annual meeting
in Albuquerque, New Mexico from August 12-16, 2001. The theme for the Botany
2001 meeting is "Plants and People." In addition to the BSA, other societies
participating in Botany 2001 include the: American Bryological and Lichenological
Society (ABLS), American Fern Society (AFS), American Society of Plant
Taxonomists (ASPT), and International Organization of Plant Biosystematists
(IOPB). This Call for Papers includes all members of the ABLS and
AFS in addition to those of the BSA.
You are invited and encouraged to present some aspect of your research
in a contributed paper, contributed poster, invited symposium, or special
lecture. The BSA hopes that you will be able to attend Botany 2001 and
participate in an exchange of formal and informal information and ideas
Contributed papers, or oral/podium presentations, will be 15 minutes
in length (inclusive of questions). Contributed posters will fit onto bulletin
boards that are 4 ft tall and 8 ft wide. Invited symposium contributions
and special lectures are arranged in advance and coordinated by the symposium
organizer(s) and/or the BSA section(s). Symposium presentations will be
30 minutes in length (inclusive of questions).
Submission of Abstracts (Deadline: March 9, 2001)
(note: "Recent Topics Posters" may be submitted through July or until
available slots are filled)
Each contributed paper, poster, symposium presentation, and special
lecture requires an abstract. The same individual should not be a first
author on more than three abstracts. The abstracts and final program will
be available on-line at the Botany 2001 website prior to the meeting and
hardcopies will be distributed at the meeting to registrants.
Submission of abstracts, titles, and other relevant information (e.g.,
keywords) for contributed papers, posters, symposia, and lectures should
be carried out on-line using the "Electronic Abstract Submission Form"
at the Botany 2001 website: <http://www.botany2001.org/>.
Copies of the titles and abstracts will be sent electronically to the sender,
the Program Chair of the BSA Section selected for submission (see reverse),
and the BSA Program Director. The submission site will open in January
2001, and the deadline for receiving abstracts is March 9, 2001.
`Hardcopy' submission of abstracts is highly discouraged, but acceptable.
Because camera-ready abstracts are no longer accepted by the publisher
of the Abstract Volume, please seek assistance if you have difficulty accessing
the World Wide Web. Please use the electronic submission process! If this
is impossible, you may contact the BSA Business Office no later than February
15, 2001 to obtain hardcopy forms: BSA-Meeting, 1735 Neil Avenue, Columbus,
OH 43210-1293. Tele: (614) 292-3519, Fax: (614) 292-3519, E-mail: <email@example.com>.
Questions about the scientific program for Botany 2001 should be directed
to the appropriate BSA sectional Program Chair listed on the reverse side,
or to the BSA Program Director: Jeffrey M. Osborn, Division of Science,
Truman State University, 100 E. Normal Street, Kirksville, MO 63501-4221.
Tele: (660) 785-4017, Fax: (660) 785-4045, E-mail: <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Registration, Housing & Events
A Meeting Circular for Botany 2001 will be mailed to members of participating
societies in spring 2001, and it will be available online at the Botany
2001 website. The Circular will contain detailed information about registration,
housing, social events, field trips, workshops, tours, and all costs. Additional
information can be obtained from the BSA Meetings Coordinator: Wayne Elisens,
Department of Botany & Microbiology, 770 Van Vleet Oval, University
of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. Tele: (405) 325-5923, Fax: (405) 325-7619,
Program Chairs for Botany 2001
Bryological And Lichenological Section - ABLS
William R. Buck, Institute of Systematic Botany, New York Botanical
Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126. Tele: (718) 817-8624, Fax: (718) 562-6780,
Developmental And Structural Section
Larry Hufford, Department of Biological Sciences, Washington
State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4236. Tele: (509) 335-2183, Fax: (509)
335-3184, E-mail: <email@example.com>.
Massimo Pigliucci, Department of Botany, University of Tennessee,
Knoxville, TN 37996-1100. Tele: (423) 974-6221, Fax: (423) 974-2258, E-mail:
Economic Botany Section
Felix G. Coe, Tennessee Technological University, Department
of Biology, Box 5063, Cookeville, TN 38505-0001. Tele: (931) 372-6257,
Fax: (931) 372-6257, E-mail: <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Stephen J. Novak, Department of Biology, Boise State University,
1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725. Tele: (208) 385-3548, Fax: (208)
385-4267, E-mail: <email@example.com>.
Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis, Department of History, 4131 Turlington
Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7320. Tele: (352) 392-0271,
Fax:(352)392-6927, E-Mail: <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Steven R. Manchester, Florida Museum of Natural History, Department
of Natural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7800.
Tele: (352) 392-6564, Fax: (352) 846-0287, E-mail: <email@example.com>.
Richard M. McCourt, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia,
1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, PA 19103. Tele: (215) 299-1157,
Fax: (215) 299-1028, E-mail: <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Denise M. Seliskar, Halophyte Biotechnology Center, College
of Marine Studies, University of Delaware, 700 Pilottown Rd, Lewes, DE
19958. Tele: (302) 645-4366, Fax: (302) 645-4028, E-Mail: <email@example.com>.
Emanuel L. Johnson, USDA ARS WSL, Building 001, Room 329 BARC-W,
10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705-2350. Tele: (301) 504-5323,
Fax: (301) 504-6491, E-mail: <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Pteridological Section - AFS
Christopher Haufler, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary
Biology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-2106. Tele: (785) 864-3255,
Fax: (785) 864-5321, E-mail: <email@example.com>.
Systematics Section - ASPT
Lynn G. Clark, Department of Botany, 353 Bessey Hall, Iowa State
University, Ames, IA 50011-1020. Tele: (515) 294-8218, Fax: (515) 294-1337,
E-Mail: < firstname.lastname@example.org
Rob Reinsvold, Department of Biological Sciences, 501 20th Street,
University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO 80639. Tele: (970) 351-2716,
Fax: (970) 351-2335, E-mail: <email@example.com>.
Tropical Biology Section
Susanne Renner, Department of Biology, 8001 Natural Bridge Road,
University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121-4499. Fax: (314)
516-6233, E-mail: <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
Proposals: Karling Graduate Student Research Award
Purpose and Eligibility
The purpose of this award is to support and promote graduate student
research in the botanical sciences. To be eligible, one must be a member
of the Botanical Society of America (BSA), a registered full-time graduate
student, have a faculty advisor who is also a member of the BSA, and not
have won the award previously.
The proposal shall consist of 1) a title page (must include: title of
proposal, name of student, student's institutional and departmental affiliation,
year of student's study, and student's sectional affiliation within BSA);
2) an Abstract; 3) a Narrative (must include: a description of the research,
including appropriate conceptual background, purpose or objective, brief
outline of methodology, and potential contribution or significance to an
area of the botanical sciences); 4) a Budget detailing how the funds will
be used (the Abstract, Narrative, Budget and any tables or figures should
not exceed five single-spaced pages); 5) a Bibliography (up to two pages);
and 6) a Biographical Sketch (up to two pages). Proposals should include
one inch margins all around and use a font size of not smaller than 12
point. In addition, proposals should be accompanied by a letter of support
from the student's advisor.
Award Level and Announcement
Each award provides $500. Award winners will be announced at the BSA
Banquet held in Albuquerque, New Mexico in August 2001. Funds for the awards
come from interest on the Karling and the BSA Endowment Funds, and from
the sale of BSA logo items. The award process can be quite competetive;
the funding level for the 1998 competition was about 22 percent.
Proposals and supporting letters should be postmarked no later than
March 15, 2001. Students should submit six (6) hardcopies of the complete
proposal and arrange to have the letter of support sent to the Chair of
the Karling Graduate Student Research Award Committee at the following
Kathleen A. Kron
BSA Karling Award Committee
Department of Biology
Wake Forest University
Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7325
Dr. Rupert C. Barneby, Botanical
Scholar, Recipient of the Millennium Botany Award, and Curator Emeritus
at the New York Botanical Garden, Dies at 89.
Dr. Rupert Charles Barneby, Curator Emeritus in The New York Botanical
Garden's Institute of Systematic Botany and one of the Garden's most senior
and distinguished scientists, died Tuesday, December 5, 2000. He was 89
Barneby's association with The New York Botanical Garden spanned nearly
a half -century. He arrived as a visiting scholar in the 1950s and shortly
thereafter accepted a staff position as Honorary Curator of Western Botany.
He went on to become a Research Associate and an Editorial Consultant for
the Garden's esteemed scientific journal covering systematic botany.
A self-taught botanist, Barneby rose to become a world expert in Leguminosae
(the bean family) and Menispermaceae (the moonseed family). He spent his
career at the Garden curating and studying the world's best collection
of New World Leguminosae.
Gregory Long, President of The New York Botanical Garden, said, "Rupert
Barneby was one of the most productive botanists of the twentieth century,
a giant in the field of botanical research. Over the last half century,
he has been an inspiriting mentor, a meticulous scholar, and a creative
editor who has made an enormous contribution to the botanical world. We
at The New York Botanical Garden are indeed fortunate that his kind, generous,
gentle manner graced our lives."
In 1999, the International Botanical Congress presented Barneby with
its prestigious Millennium Botany Award for a lifetime of contribution
to science. In 1980, he was the winner of the Henry Allan Gleason Award,
an annual award from The New York Botanical Garden for an outstanding recent
publication in the field of plant taxonomy, plant ecology, or plant geography.
In 1989, the American Society of Plant Taxonomists awarded Barneby with
the Asa Gray Award for his contributions to systematic botany. In 1991,
The Garden honored Barneby by institutionalizing his legacy through the
establishment of the Rupert C. Barenby Fund for Research in Legume Systematics.
The Engler Silver Medal, botanical sciences's highest honor for publications,
was awarded to Barneby in 1992 for his monographic work Sensitivae Censitae:
A Revision of the Genus Mimosa Linnaeus (Mimosaceae) in the new world.
Since the publication of his first botanical paper in 1941, Barneby
published more than 6,500 pages of papers, monographs, and journals. Among
his most influential works are: Atlas of North American Astragalus;
Daleae Imagines; Intermountain Flora, Volume 3, Part B; and Silk
Tree, Guanacaste, Monkey's Earring: A Generic System for the Synandrous
Mimosaceae of the Americas, (3 Volumes).
"Rupert Barneby was an incredible scholar and one of the nicest people
have known. He was one of the most productive and erudite students of botany
and horticulture on the staff of The New York Botanical Garden in its 109-year
history. He will be remembered by thousands of colleagues for his uncommon
generosity in sharing his inexhaustible knowledge and precise editorial
skills. He has left an authoritative legacy of publications and will be
sorely missed by botanists around the world," said Professor Sir Ghillean
Prance FRS, VMH, and former Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Barneby was known for his talent for discovering or rediscovering rare
and local species. In the course of his five decades of research, Barneby
described and named over 1,100 different plant species new to science.
A botanist is fortunate to have a new species of plant named in his honor.
Barneby had not only 25 different species named after him, but also three
genera (groups of species sharing common characteristics, such as roses
or oaks) of plants - - Barnebya, Barnebyella, and Barnebydendron.
Barneby was a member of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the
International Association for Plant Taxonomy, and the New England Botanical
Club, and a Fellow of the California Academy of Sciences.
"Rupert Barneby was a great student of plants in the style of George
Bentham and the other encyclopedic workers of the nineteenth century, who
would tirelessly analyze all we know about enormous groups of plants and
reduce that knowledge to lucid prose, working day after day, month after
month, and year after year. He always had time to encourage and help students
and colleagues, giving them the benefit of his extraordinary classical
education, friendly personality, and love for plants. He will be greatly
missed," said Dr. Peter Raven, Director of the Missouri Botanical Garden
and close friend and colleague.
He lived among literati as easily as he did among scientists. Considered
his close friends were W. H. Auden, Christopher Isherwood, Julian Huxley,
Rupert Barneby was born October 6, 1911, in Monmouthshire, England.
He attended Cambridge University where he received his B.A. in History
and Modern Languages in 1932. He come to the United States in 1937 and
established permanent residency in 1941. In 1978, he was awarded an honorary
Doctorate of Science degree from The City University of New York. In accordance
with his wishes, there was no funeral. The Garden held a memorial celebration
Photo Courtesy Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation with permission
of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Dr. Gamal El-Ghazaly, 1947-2001
Gamal El-Ghazaly, Director of the Palynological Laboratory at the Swedish
Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, died on 13 January 2001 in Stockholm
following complications from an illness. He is survived by his wife Polixeni
Kotzamanidou and their three sons, Amr, Tarek, and Sammy.
Professor El-Ghazaly was born on 17 June 1947 in Alexandria, Egypt.
He graduated from the University of Alexandria, Egypt in 1969 with B.Sc.
degrees in both Botany and Chemistry and then completed an M.Sc. in Palynology
from the same University in 1974. His master's research focused on the
paleopalynology of the Nubia Sandstone of the Kharga Oasis. He earned a
Ph.D. in Palynology from Stockholm University, Sweden in 1979, where he
conducted a comprehensive palynological investigation of Hypochoeridineae
and Scolyminae (Asteraceae) under the direction of Siwert Nilsson. Upon
completion of his doctorate, he joined the Faculty of Science at the University
of Alexandria, Egypt. In 1982 he began an 18-month Postdoctoral Fellowship
at the University of California, Berkeley where he studied pollen ontogeny
in Triticum with William Jensen. After returning to the University
of Alexandria, Egypt, he was promoted to Associate Professor. In 1984,
he moved to the University of Qatar, Qatar, where he was promoted to Professor
of Palynology and appointed Head of the Botany Department. He also served
as Director of the Herbarium, Head of the Electron Microscopy Unit, and
Acting Dean of the Faculty of Science at the University of Qatar. In 1989,
he was recruited to the Palynological Laboratory of the Swedish Museum
of Natural History to serve as First Curator and, in 1998, was appointed
Director of the "Pal Lab." While serving as First Curator, he also received
a D.Sc. (Docent) in plant systematics from Stockholm University.
Dr. El-Ghazaly's research involved both basic and applied aspects of
palynology, including studies of pollen wall development and histochemistry;
pollen and tapetum ultrastructure; pollen morphology, systematics and phylogeny;
and aeropalynology. In recent years, he focused much of his research on
allergen localization. His work on tapetal orbicules of Betula and
their allergenic effects added a new dimension in studying airborne allergens.
Another important component of his recent research involved the improvement
and development of techniques to answer palynological questions. In addition
to his work with cytochemistry and immuno-labelling, he had been achieving
excellent results using low temperature fixations for conventional microscopical
applications, as well as cryo-scanning electron, atomic force, and scanning
He was the author/co-author of more than 70 research articles and five
books, including Pollen Flora of Qatar (1991) and Medicinal and
Poisonous Plants of Qatar (1995), and he had recently co-edited Plant
Systematics for 21st Century (2000).
Professor El-Ghazaly was an excellent teacher and mentor to his students.
He taught a variety of Palynology, Aerobiology, and Botany courses at universities
in Egypt, Greece, Qatar, Sweden, Italy, Cuba, Ecuador, and Kuwait. He had
recently established a formal teaching collaboration between the Palynological
Laboratory and Stockholm University and had developed an outreach Palynology
course designed for beekeepers in Sweden. He had also completed a comprehensive
collection of CD-ROMs covering Nordic plants and pollen. Each taxon included
a color image of the plant, light and electron micrographs of its pollen,
and a brief palynological description.
He was active in several national and international organizations and
professional societies. At the time of his death he served as Editor-in-Chief
of Grana, the "International Journal of Palynology and Aerobiology,"
as Editor of the monographic series The World Pollen and Spore Flora,
and as Head of the Swedish Aeropalynological Council. In the latter role,
he had recently proposed a major plan to unify the pollen reporting service
for all of Sweden. The goal of the plan was to ensure that the countrywide
pollen service was maintained and improved into the future to help allergy
Gamal was an incredibly vibrant person whose general optimism and overall
love of life was evident to everyone with whom he interacted. He was a
well-respected and influential palynologist, whose death is a significant
loss to the fields of palynology and botany, as well as a personal loss
felt deeply by all who knew him. I feel fortunate to have had the opportunity
to work with Gamal and to know him. He was a good friend to many of us,
and we shall miss him dearly.
_ Jeffrey M. Osborn
Photo courtesy of Jeffrey M. Osborn
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings
From Biodiversity to Biocomplexity
2001 AIBS Annual Meeting
Register Now for the 2001 AIBS Annual Meeting, „From Biodiversity to
Biocomplexity" Continuing a tradition established last year, the American
Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) 2001 Annual Meeting, From Biodiversity
to Biocomplexity: A Multidisciplinary Step Toward Understanding our Environment,
will again bring together preeminent scientists to discuss themes on the
forefront of biology. Set for 24-26 March 2001 at the Key Bridge Marriott
in Arlington, Virginia (across the bridge from Georgetown, DC), the meeting
will feature plenary sessions, workshops, panel discussions, and an array
of poster presentations, exhibits, and field trips. Distinguished plenary
speakers will include Rita Colwell (National Science Foundation), James
H. Brown (University of New Mexico), Sandra Postel (Global Water Policy
Project), Jane Lubchenco (Oregon State University), Paul Ehrlich (Stanford
University), Kathryn Cottingham (Dartmouth College), Simon Levin (Princeton
University), Nancy N. Rabalais (Louisiana University Marine Consortium),
and Joy B. Zedler (University of Wisconsin). Panel sessions and workshops
will cover topics in research, education, public policy, media relations,
and public outreach.
Meeting events will also include a Town Meeting on Teaching Evolution,
hosted by AIBS in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education
and the National Association of Biology Teachers. The session will focus
on how U.S.-based educators can meet the challenges of teaching about evolution
and keeping up-to-date with state-wide and nation-wide events affecting
science education. The importance of building grass-roots communication
networks among educators and researchers will be discussed, and the new
U.S.-wide AIBS evolution listserver network will be featured.
Attendance is limited to 350 so register early. To learn more, or to
register online now and/or submit a poster abstract, go to http://www.aibs.org/
. For more information contact Sue Burk at 703/790-1745, ext. 14, e-mail
.— Casey E. Moulton
American Institute of Biological Sciences
1444 I (Eye) St., NW, Ste. 200
Washington, DC 20005
202/628-1500, ext. 261
International Conference on Plants and Environmental Pollution
15-19 November, 2001
The Second International Conference on Plants and Environmental Pollution
will be held at the National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI), Lucknow,
November 15-19, 2001. The Conference will be jointly organized by the International
Society of Environmental Botanists (ISEB) and the NBRI. The NBRI is one
of the most prestigious and internationally reputed multidisciplinary plant
science research institutes of India, under the aegis of Council of Scientific
and Industrial Research, Govt. of India. ISEB is also permanently based
Lucknow, a city of over 2.5 million people, is the capital of the north
Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located 500 km South-east of Delhi
and is connected directly by air with New Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai,
Bangalore, Hyderabad, Patna, Varanasi, and Sharjah (U.A.E.); and be rail/road
with all major Indian cities. Besides being a historical sity, it is a
major research and educational center with a big concentration of biological,
biomedical, agricultural, horticultural, paleobotanical, engineering, technological,
and management institutes which are existing in harmony with equally prestigious
centers of art, culture, music, literature and education.
Detailed scientific/technical programme will bedrawn up by a committee
of experts and communicated to interested individuals through the Second
Circular. The Conference is expected to cover the following broad themes/areas
of R&D. The participants, while filling the preregistration form are
required to indicate the serial number of one or more themes/areas in which
they are interested.
Registration fee is payable, by Bank Draft drawn in favour of "International
Society of Environmental Botanists Luchnow (ICPEP-s)" at State Bank of
India, Lucknow, Main Branch, NBRI Extension Counter. A 10% concession in
registration fee has been granted to all bonofide members of ISEB and will
also be admissible to non-members who make payment on or before 30 April,
2001. Fees are as follows:
Indian (Rs.) Foreign/NRIs (US
Members of ISEB
Student members of ISEB 900
RaDelegates are required to arrange their own accommodation and transport
during their stay in Lucknow. The organizers will try to arrange accommodation,
on request, for a limited number of delegates, in guest houses/hostels
of local R&D institutes for which the delegates will have to intimate
in advance. The charges for guest house/hostel accommodation for a period
of five days are: Rs. 500=00 (US $100) in their bank draft.
Intending participants should send the information mentioned in the
pre-registration form by mail/e-mail/fax to: Dr. K.J. Ahmad, Organizing
Secretary, ICPEP-2, National Botanical Research Institute, na Pratap Marg,
Phone: +91-(0)-522-205831-35 Ext 223
Northeast Native Plant Enthusiasts
We are pleased to announce that the annual Joint Field Meeting of the
Botanical Society of America (N.E. Section), the Philadelphia Botanical
Club and the Torrey Botanical Society will be held at Wesley College in
Dover Delaware on June 24-28, 2001.
On Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday there will be all-day field trips to
areas of botanical interest rhoughout the Delaware and Maryland coastal
plains. Destinations include a cypress swamp, a Carolina bay, coastal dunes,
ponds, fields, riparian forest and upland woods. On Sunday through Wednesday
there will be evening programs of botanical and ecological interest plus
a tour of the Phillips Herbarium at Delaware State University.
The registration fee for the meeting will be approximately $230.00:
which includes all events, room (double occupancy), meals (Sunday dinner
- Thursday breakfast) and field trip transportation.
Everyone interested in native plants is welcome to attend. The meeting
is designed for both professional and amateur botanists. To request a registration
form or for further information contact:
415 Poplar St.
Lancaster, PA 17603
Department of Biology
1871 Old Main Drive
Shippensburg, PA 17257-2299
Subtropic Forest Excursion
This 11-day excursion in China will begin on July 10 and end on July
20, 2001. It consists of two parts. The first part is a 3-day Beijing tour
for visiting the world famous resorts, including the Forbidden City, the
Great Wall, Ming Tomb, Summer Palace, the Temple of Heaven, etc. (July
11-July 13). This part is arranged through an international tourist company
arranges the first part in Beijing. The second part is a 6-day subtropical
Forest Excursion in Longqishan Nature Reserve Fujian Province China (July
14-July 19). Local tourist company arrange the second part in Longqishan.
We are responsible for the arrangement of the scientific activities and
prepare necessary data of Longqishan Flora for participants and have plant
taxonomists as guides of the Subtropical Forest Excursion in southeast
China (abbreviated as SFEC).
This forest is distributed in the area of Longqishan Nature Reserve
(117°1'E and 26°3'N). The local name of Longqishan includes three
Chinese characters, Long is dragon, Qi is living, Shan is mountain. In
this forest, we will observe many endemic genera in China, such as Cunninghamia,
Pseudolarix, Cyclocarya, Bostrychanthera, Eomecon, Sargentodoxa, and
some plants living in East Asia as Cryptomeria, Houttuynia, Rhynchospermum,
Skimmia, Vernicia, Cardiandra, Corchoropsis, Euscaphis, Kerria, Macleaya,
Platycarya, Serissa, Tripterygium, Choerospondias, Siphonostegia and
so on. No collecting is permitted in the Nature Reserve but there will
be ample opportunities for photography. Longqishan is located within the
subtropical monsoon climatic region. The area below 1000m elevation enjoys
a mean annual temperature of 14.6-18.8°. In July, it is hot and humid
in SE China, but it is cool and comfortable in Longqishan in summer. The
SFEC, now in its second year, is organized by Dr. Cheng-Sen Li, Insititute
of Botany, Academia Sinica, Beijing in conjunction with the Palaeobotanical
Association, Botanical Society of China. Before and after the Conference
of International Organisation of Palaeobotany in China in the summer of
2000, we organized a similar tour and the expedition of subtropical forest
in southeastern China. All participants made excellent comments on both.
Many palaeobotanists and botanists recommended strongly that the both tours
would be organized once more for other interested participants. Detailed
information about the SFEC with A REPLY FORM is available at<http://paleonews.dartmouth.edu/html/-183691048$103.nsd
>. The total package, including registration ($50), lodging, meals, and
the travel within China is US $1400. The registration deadline is Deadline
for registration: April 15, 2001. Those who would like to participate in
the SFEC,please contact Mr. Pinghui Yan directly at the following address:
Mr. Pinghui Yan
Department of Palaeobotany
Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences
No.20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan
Beijing 100093 China
Tel and Fax: 86-10-62593385
Botanical Congress, October 14-19, 2001.
The XV Mexican Botanical Congress will be held October 14?19, 2001 in
Queretaro, Mexico. The scientific program includes symposia on ecology,
systematics, education and ethobotany. Contributed posters are encouraged.
Field trips are being planned. For further details please check the website
THE RUPERT BARNEBY AWARD
The New York Botanical Garden is pleased to announce that Dr. Colin
E. Hughes, currently a Royal Society University Research Fellow at the
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, UK, is the recipient
of the Rupert Barneby Award for the year 2001. Dr. Hughes will be
studying the systematics of Andean Lupinus as part of a larger monographic
study to establish a new infrageneric classification of the genus and investigate
a number of more fundamental biogeographic, domestication, and evolutionary
The New York Botanical Garden now invites applications for the Rupert
Barneby Award for the year 2002. The award of US$ 1,000.00 is to assist
researchers to visit The New York Botanical Garden to study the rich collection
of Leguminosae. Anyone interested in applying for the award should submit
their curriculum vitae, a detailed letter describing the project for which
the award is sought, and the names of 2-3 referees. Travel to the NYBG
should be planned for sometime in the year 2002. The application should
be addressed to Dr. James L. Luteyn, Institute of Systematic Botany, The
New York Botanical Garden, 200th Street and Kazimiroff Blvd.,
Bronx, NY 10458-5126 USA, and received no later than December 1, 2001.
Announcement of the recipient will be made by December 15th.
BARNEBY FUND FOR RESEARCH IN LEGUME SYSTEMATICS
The Rupert Barneby Fund for Research in Legume Systematics was
established at The New York Botanical Garden in 1991 to honor Rupert by
institutionalizing his legacy. The Fund has three purposes specifically
chosen to reflect Rupert's wishes: first, to support legume research at
The New York Botanical Garden; second, to provide monies to bring legume
researchers from around the world to the Garden for extended visits to
study the collections Rupert so painstakingly worked to improve; and third,
to eventually provide an endowed chair for a legume researcher at the Garden.
Annually since 1991, the Fund has sponsored the competitive "Rupert
Barneby Award" in the amount of $1000 to bring one or more visiting scientists
to the Garden for the study of our collection of legumes.
The money for the Fund comes from a variety of sources, but primarily
through private gifts. Anyone interested in making a contribution, large
or small, to THE RUPERT BARNEBY FUND FOR RESEARCH IN LEGUME SYSTEMATICS,
which supports this award, may send their check, payable to The New York
Botanical Garden, to Dr. James L. Luteyn, The New York Botanical Garden,
200th Street & Kazimiroff Blvd., Bronx, NY 10458-5126, USA.
The New York Botanical Garden is a not-for-profit, tax-exempt organization.
Each gift to THE RUPERT BARNEBY FUND FOR RESEARCH IN LEGUME SYSTEMATICS
will be duly acknowledged by the Garden for its intent and for tax purposes.
Grants for Botanical Gardens
The Stanley Smith Horticultural Trust awards grants of up to $20,000
to support teaching and research in horticulture in botanical gardens,
arboreta, and other appropriate institutions. Awards are made annually,
in December, and the next deadline for applications is 1 September, 2001.
Guidelines for the preparation of applications are available from the Grants
Director, William Louis Culberson, Ph.D., PO Box 51759, Durham NC 27717-1759.
He may also be reached by telephone: (919) 660-7303.
THE BEE COURSE 2001
A Workshop for Conservation Biologists, Pollination Ecologists, and
Southwestern Research Station (SWRS), Portal, Arizona, August 17-27,
Jerome G. Rozen, Jr. (American Museum of Natural History). Ronald J.
McGinley (Illinois Natural History Survey).
Again in 2001, we are offering THE BEE COURSE, a ten-day workshop to
be presented at the Southwestern Research Station, near Portal, Arizona.
The main purpose of the course is to provide participants with sufficient
knowledge and experience to use effectively The Bee Genera of North and
Central America by Michener, McGinley and Danforth, 1994. This book provides
well-illustrated keys to all genera of bees found in that geographic region
and information about their morphology, distribution, and classification.
Persons equipped with the information from this course will be capable
of using Charles Michener's magnum opus, Bees of the World, published in
2000 by Johns Hopkins University Press. This new book deals with the classification,
evolution, and distribution of bees on a worldwide basis and, for the first
time, presents keys to genera, subgenera, and higher taxa for the entire
COURSE OBJECTIVES.—THE BEE COURSE is designed primarily for botanists,
conservation biologists, pollination ecologists, and other biologists whose
research or teaching responsibilities require a greater understanding of
bee taxonomy. It emphasizes the classification and identification of more
than fifty bee genera of North and Central America (both temperate and
tropical), and the general information provided is applicable to the global
bee fauna. Lectures include background information on the biologies of
bees, their floral relationships, their importance in maintaining and/or
improving floral diversity, and the significance of oligolecty (i.e., taxonomic
floral specialization). Field trips acquaint participants with collecting
and sampling techniques; associated lab work provides instruction on specimen
identification, preparation, and labeling. Information on equipment/supply
vendors, literature, and people resources is also presented.
COURSE SIGNIFICANCE.—The field of pollination ecology explores the reproductive
biology of plants in general, including the biotic and abiotic agents associated
with pollination and seed-set. This is of interest for basic research and
world communities and also has significant practical impact as it relates
to pollination of economically important crop plants, to survival of endangered
plants, and to plant reproduction in threatened habitats. Pollen is moved
between receptive flowers by wind, water, birds, bats, beetles, flies,
etc., but the 21,000 species of bees worldwide play a dominant role in
the sexual reproduction of most terrestrial plant communities. This course
will empower students with 1) the confident use of The Bee Genera of North
and Central America, 2) an appreciation for the biological diversity of
bees, and 3) sufficient background to learn more about bees and investigate
pollination and conservation problems with greater insight.
Robert G. Goelet Bee Workshop Fund, American Museum of Natural History.
Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, American Museum of Natural History.
Disney Wildlife Conservation Fund. Herbert F. Schwarz Fund, American Museum
of Natural History. The Bee Works.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION.—THE BEE COURSE was presented for the first time
in 1999 at the SWRS, and two similar workshops, held in Mexico in 1985
and 1986, involved most current instructors. The Southwestern Research
Station is centered amid the richest bee fauna in North America, and its
collections include exemplars of almost all of the local bee fauna. This
is an ongoing course, offered annually or every other year.
PARTICIPANT ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA.—THE BEE COURSE is open to all interested
individuals. Priority will be given to those biologists for whom the course
will have significant impact on their research and/or teaching. An entomological
background is not required. THE BEE COURSE, presented in English, is limited
to 20 participants.
Dr. Robert W. Brooks
Snow Entomological Museum
University of Kansas
Lawrence, KS 66045
Dr. Stephen L. Buchmann
The Bee Works
18070 W. Prince Rd., Suite 16
Tucson, AZ 85705
Dr. Bryan N. Danforth
Department of Entomology
Ithaca, NY 14853
AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
The Department of Plant Biology seeks to fill a tenure-track position
at the Assistant Professor level in the area of Plant Biodiversity and
Conservation Biology. The successful candidate must have a Ph.D.,
a strong record of research accomplishments, and will be expected to develop
an externally funded research program in his/her area of expertise.
Post-doctoral research training and demonstrated excellence in undergraduate
and/or graduate teaching is desirable. The research should focus
upon some aspect of applied conservation biology, such as (but not limited
to) rare plants, invasive plants, or reproductive biology and should utilize
modern genetic techniques applied at the species and/or population level.
The research may involve any group of plants or fungi but should have a
strong field component. The primary teaching responsibility at the undergraduate
level will be in our new program Teaching Excellence in Math and Science
(TEMS), specifically a course entitled Integrated Science. Development
of upper-level courses in the area of expertise is also expected.. For
more information on the Department, visit our website at:
http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/index.html . The
deadline for receipt of applications is March 15, 2001 and the position
is available starting July 15, 2001. Applications should include a curriculum
vitae, detailed statements of research goals and teaching interests, representative
publications, and three letters of reference sent to:
Dr. Daniel Nickrent, Chair of Search Committee,
Department of Plant Biology
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL 62901-6509
Southern Illinois University Carbondale is AA/EOE. Qualified women
and minorities are encouraged to apply.
Updated Positions Available Listings
At BSA Website
Current position announcements are maintained on the Botanical Society's
website Announcement page at URL http://announce.botany.org/.
Please check that location for announcement which have appeared since this
issue of Plant Science Bulletin went to press. To post an announcement,
contact the webmaster: <email@example.com.
(Book title at beginning of each review is hot-linked to Amazon.com
for "Amazon Associates" purchase - ed.)
Development and Structure
p. 20 Embryology
of Flowering Plants: Terminology and Concepts (in three volumes).
T. Batygina (ed). 2000. - John G. Carman
p. 20 Methods
in Plant Electron Microsopcy and Cytochemistry. Dashek, William
V. 2000. - Todd A. Kostman
p. 21 Root Hairs: Cell
and Molecular Biology. Ridge, R.E. and A.M.C. Emons (eds). 2000.
- John Z. Kiss
p. 22 North
American Terrestrial Vegetation, 2nd ed. Barbour, Michael G. and
William Dwight Billings. 2000. - Leah Larkin
p. 22 The Redwood Forest. Noss, Reed
F. (ed). 2000. - Laurent M. Meillier
p. 23 Terrestrial
Ecoregions of North America: A Conservation Assessment. RIcketts,
Taylor H., Eric Diner stein, David M. Olson, Colby J. Louks et al. 1999.
- Scott Ruhren
p. 24 Bromeliaceae:
Profile of an Adaptive Radiation. Benzing, D.H. 2000. - Aaron M.
p. 25 Pollination
Ecology and Evolution in Compositae (Asteraceae). Mani, M.S. and
J.M. Saravanan. 1999. - Scott Ruhren
p. 25 Ethnobotany: A Reader. Minnis,
P.E. (ed). 2000. - Dorothea Bedigian
p. 26 From
Ethnomycology to Fungal Biotechnology: Exploiting Fungi from Natural Resources
for Novel Products. 1999. - Robert A. Blanchette.
History of Botany
p. 27 Australia: 300
Years of Botanical Illustration. Hewson, Helen. 1999. - Douglas
p. 28 Orchid
Fever: A Horticultural Tale of Love, Lust and Lunacy. Hansen, E.
2000. - Joseph Arditti
p. 32 The View from Bald Hill.
Bock, Carl E. and Jane H. Bock. 2000. - H. Jochen Schenk
p. 32 Physiology
of Plants under Stress. Volume 2. Soil and Biotic Factors. Orcutt,
David M. and Erik T. Nilsen. 2000. - Mary E. Musgrave
p. 33 Plant
Tissue Culture: Techniques and Experiments, 2nd ed. Smith, Roberta
H. 2000. - Dou glas Darnowski
p. 34 Aquatic
and Wetland Plants of Northeastern North America. Crow, G.E. and
C.B. Hellquist. 2000. - Donald J. Padgett
p. 35 Chromosomes Today, Volume
13. Olmo, Ettore and Carlo A. Redi (eds). 2000. - Neil A. Harriman
p. 35 Flora of Steens Mountain.
Mansfield, Donald H. - Neil A. Harriman
p. 35 Legume
(Fabaceae) Fruits and Seeds: Interactive Identification and information
Retrieval (CD-ROM) Kirkbride, J.H., C.R. Gunn, A.L. Weitzman, and
M.J. Dallwitz. 2000. - Michael A. Vincent
p. 36 Orchids (rev. ed). Stewart,
Joyce. 2000. - William Louis Stern
p. 37 Orchids of Southern Africa.
Linder, Hans Peter and Hubert Kurzweil. 1999. - William Louis Stern.
p. 38 The Photo Atlas
of Vascular Plants CD-ROM. Woodland, Dennis. - Douglas Darnowski
of Flowering Plants. Terminology and Concepts (in three volumes). ed:
T. Batygina, Russian Academy of Sciences, World and Family Press, St. Petersburg.
- Encyclopedic treatments of angiosperm embryology, with unique contributions
in classical embryology mostly from competent Russian embryologists, are
presented in the three volume set, Embryology of Flowering Plants: Terminology
and Concepts, published in 1994, 1997 and 2000 (in press). During
the past 10 to 15 years, major funding priorities in embryology worldwide
have emphasized molecular embryology. However, progress in molecular embryology,
and in many areas of plant breeding, genetics, taxonomy and physiology,
rely heavily on accurate cytoembryological characterizations (see 1996
resolution of the International Congress of Sexual Plant Reproduction,
Austria). Such accuracy is found in the Embryology of Flowering Plants.
The quality of classical Russian embryology is highly respected worldwide
and is based on many fundamental findings and cytoembryological elucidations
by embryologists such as Navashin, Arnoldy, Baranov, Poddubnaja-Arnoldy,
Romanov, Gerassimova-Navashina, Khokhlov and Yakovlev. Their traditions
continue to the present day. From 1981 through 1990, findings of these
and other embryologists were published in the five volume series Comparative
Embryology of Flowering Plants (edited by M.S. Yakovlev, vol 1-3, and
T.B. Batygina, vol 4-5). The more recent three-volume set, Embryology
of Flowering Plants: Terminology and Concepts, contains additional
significant contributions detailed by scientists intimately associated
with the contributions. Most contributors of this set represent the best
plant embryologists of the former Soviet Union. Hence, these volumes synthesize
a wealth of embryological detail and theory not previously available outside
of Russia. Timely contributions by internationally recognized scientists
outside the former Soviet Union are also included.
Embryology of Flowering Plants: Terminology and Concepts combines
terminology with morphological descriptions of specific structures and
processes. These are well documented by photo and electron micrographs.
At the same time, the traditional scope of embryology is enlarged. Problems
of seed dormancy and germination, ecological aspects of plant reproduction
and many other issues are addressed. Care was taken to assure terminological
correctness by including concept chapters dealing with specific structures
and processes. In each, definitions are given, semantic and historical
backgrounds are clarified, and genesis and function information are detailed.
Conceptual chapters were reserved for the more complicated embryological
Volume 1, Generative Organs of Flowers, represents the work of
35 scientists. It contains 320 pages of test, 186 pages of plates, and
additional diagrams within the text that illustrate embryological concepts.
Subjects treated include microsporangium, microsporogenesis, microspores,
pollen grains, megasporangium, integuments, chalaza, funiculus, embryo
sacs, and nutrient
transport in ovules. Volume two, Seeds, represents the work
of 40 scientists. It contains 823 pages of text and 335 pages of plates.
Subjects detailed include many processes involved in double fertilization,
endosperm formation and embryony. Volume three, Systems of Reproduction,
represents the work of 51 scientists and over 4000 bibliographic citations.
This volume includes detailed descriptions of the many forms of plant reproduction,
pollination and breeding systems, seed propagation mechanisms (both amphimictic
and apomictic), forms of vegetative propagation, molecular and genetic
aspects of reproduction, population and ecological aspects of reproduction,
and embryological aspects of reproductive strategies.
Though wonderfully illustrated, most of the chapters are in Russian,
and until these chapters are translated, the detailed concepts and thoughts
of the various scientists will remain enigmatic to many. Nevertheless,
this encyclopedia is one of a kind in its field, and scientists conducting
basic and applied research requiring well illustrated descriptive cytoembryological
detail will find it invaluable. - John G. Carman, Utah State University,
Logan, UT 84322-4820, USA
in Plant Electron Microscopy and Cytochemisty. William V. Dashek,
(ed). 2000. ISBN 0-90603-809-2 (comb US$89.50) 312 pp. - Very few books
focus on the methodology required for successful plant science research
compared to the huge number of tomes dedicated to animal science. In this
volume, Dashek brings together a collection of methods useful for a variety
of plant science research topics from better visualization of Golgi apparatus
to effective use of tissue printing for protein localization in plant tissues.
First, let me give you some overall impressions of this book before
getting into detail about the contents. The book will be very useful to
researchers just beginning to delve into plant research. It is written
for the most part in a very easy to understand way and is not filled with
jargon. There are many tables that contain concise summaries of pertinent
information about methods, structures, stains, etc. I also found the lists
of needed chemicals and equipment in some chapters useful (though I feel
that listing a TEM as a needed piece of equipment to do TEM a bit
much!). Unfortunately, I feel that many experienced microscopists and plant
biologists will find very little new information in the book and in some
cases find the methods at odds with established procedures in their laboratory.
Another thing that distressed me about the book was the frequency at
which readers are referred to the original sources to obtain details about
described methods. I feel that a book with "methods" in the title should
provide just that….methods, not references. I want to be able to open up
to a chapter of interest and find the necessary recipes and the detailed
procedures I need to use that method. In some parts of the book, this is
done. My problem is that the entire book is not written in this way.
A positive aspect of this book is the introductory chapter. In this
chapter, Dashek describes the basic structures found within plant cells,
including the size ranges of the organelles. This information is very helpful
to those of us who sometimes forget how big a ribosome should be. The included
micrographs are nice in that they show the reader what certain structures
should look like on the TEM. Again, this information would be of special
value to those just starting to do plant science research. I do have a
couple of criticisms of this chapter. One is that the micrographs should
be bigger, with more detailed labeling of cell structures to help identify
them for the reader (especially novice plant scientists). A second criticism
regards some of the information presented about basic plant cell biology.
Some of the printed "facts" are downright wrong; for example, that microtubules
are composed of microfilaments of actin. This kind of error could cause
serious harm to researchers using this book as a reference source.
All of the criticism aside, I did find some of the chapters particularly
interesting. The chapter written by Herman regarding electron microscope
immunogold localization contains good information about the structure of
antibodies, how they work, and the methods for employing them at the TEM
level, as well as some of the artifacts that need to be watched for. This
chapter, in conjunction with the general immunohistochemistry information
provided in Chapter 6, will give beginners enough information to get started
using this technique.
I was also happy to see the chapter(s) on microautoradiography. I feel
this is a very useful technique that is underutilized by current researchers
due to the fact that radioactive compounds are used. With some common sense
and good lab practices, it is as safe as any other method and provides
a wealth of useful biochemical information. The same is true of some of
the traditional histochemical and cytochemical techniques listed by Dashek
in Chapter 2. These are valuable methods that merit use even though they
have been around for many years. They provide good information on "the
big picture" of what is happening in plant cells and tissues.
Finally, another easy yet overlooked procedure, tissue printing, is
well described by Taylor in Chapter 7. Once again, I feel this is a very
useful technique that again is rarely used in modern laboratories since
it does not involve molecular techniques per se. The method is described
in good detail, making it easy to be followed in any laboratory.
To re-cap, my overall impressions of the book are that it would be a
useful addition to the library of a beginning plant researcher. I have
some reservations about recommending this book to experienced microscopists
and plant scientists, as they will find very little new information. I
found that some lack of attention to detail during editing annoying, such
as "ER," "SER," and "RER" being shown in small case; and Coplin jars being
referred to as "Copland" jars. These kinds of errors detract attention
from what otherwise is a nice collection of methods for plant biology research
for beginning researchers. - Todd A. Kostman, University of Wisconsin,
Oshkosh, Oshkosh. WI 54901-8640.
Hairs: Cell and Molecular Biology. Ridge,
R.E. and A.M.C. Emons (eds.). 2000. ISBN 4431702822 (cloth US$225.00)
336 pp. SpringerVerlag. - Root hairs exhibit the localized process of tip-growth.
The deposition of new plasma membrane and cell wall is limited to the extreme
apex of the cell, and this growth pattern leads to a tubular morphology.
Other tip growing cells include pollen tubes, fungal hyphae, moss and fern
protonemata. Of these, pollen tubes have received the most attention from
cell and molecular biologists, but this new book provides a good overview
of the less-studied, but equally interesting, root hair system.
The book consists of 18 chapters that are a series of review articles
written by experts in their fields. Both editors are well-respected authorities
in the field of root hair biology. The four main topics covered in Root
Hairs are cell biology, physiology, genetics, and symbiosis. The latter
subject is important because root hairs play a key role in symbioses with
rhizobial bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi.
Each chapter has a comprehensive list of primary literature references,
and, in most cases, these are current to 1999. The half-tone illustrations
(e.g., light and electron microscopy, fluorescence, and confocal images)
are of the good quality that one expects in Springer scientific publications.
This is critical in some of the chapters such as the one on ultrastructure
and the two on the root hair cytoskeleton. While most of the authors have
done a good job in synthesizing literature for a thorough review, a few
of the chapters appeared to be hastily put together. However, this does
not detract from the overall high quality of the book.
Root Hairs is written for advanced researchers in plant development
and morphology. It would serve as an ideal supplemental text in graduate
courses in development and cell biology. Because of the high price, the
book probably will be purchased only by workers in the field of tip growth.
However, I recommend it for acquisition by research and universities libraries.
- John Z. Kiss, Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH.
American Terrestrial Vegetation, 2nd edition. Michael G. Barbour
and William Dwight Billings (eds). 2000. ISBN 0 521 55986 (paper US$50).
708pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.
- The second edition of North American Terrestrial Vegetation is a valuable
resource for field biologists of all flavors. The breadth of vegetation
types covered is apparent in the titles to the 18 chapters: Arctic Tundra
and Polar Desert Biome, Taiga and Boreal Forest, Forest and Meadows of
the Rocky Mountains, Pacific Northwest Forests, Californian Upland Forests
and Woodlands, Chaparral, Intermountain Valleys and Lower Mountain Slopes,
Warm Deserts, Grasslands, Eastern Deciduous Forests, Vegetation of the
Southeastern Coastal Plain, Freshwater Wetlands, Saltmarshes and Mangroves,
Alpine Vegetation, Mexican Temperate Vegetation, The Caribbean, Tropical
and Subtropical Vegetation of Mesoamerica, and Vegetation of the Hawaiian
Islands. Five of these chapters are new to the second edition.
Each chapter begins with a frontispiece map highlighting the distribution
of the area under discussion. In addition to summarizing the composition
of communities in each biome, from the bogs of the boreal forest region
to the alpine habitats of Hawai'i, each chapter integrates information
on the physical environment (e.g., topography, climate, soils, etc.), history,
and community dynamics to present a comprehensive picture of the ecosystem.
A welcome addition to this edition is a discussion in each chapter of habitat
loss and conservation goals for each biome. Finally, each chapter concludes
with suggestions for future research. These last should provide inspiration
for new graduate students for years to come.
Having toted this book along on 15,000 miles of field collecting this
past fall, I found it to be the intellectual equivalent of a Swiss army
knive; there is almost always a tool that will prove handy, no matter the
situation. However, almost daily use revealed the book's major flaw: finding
the needed tool isn't always easy! The problem lies mainly in a lack of
coordination between the generalized map of the major vegetation formations
of the continent, opposite the title page, and the actual coverage of the
chapters. Thus, as one travels from biome to biome, it is difficult to
follow along in the book and turn to the appropriate new chapter. This
could easily be rectified with an introductory map of the North American
biomes, as treated in this book, with direct reference to the relevant
chapter numbers. - Lea Larkin, University of Texas, Austin, TX.
Redwood Forest. Noss, Reed F. (ed). 2000. ISBN 1-55963-726-9 (paper
US$30.00) 339 pp. Island Press, 1718 Connecticut Avenue, N. W., Suite 300,
Washington, D.C. 20009. - Misty January 1989 Eureka, Calif.,
the moving view on US-101 from Carl¹s Diner is mind boggling.
Caravan of tractor trailers hauling ancient redwoods south to the sawmill
is a surprising sight for a European. Why would we farm these living
fossils and modify their associated ecosystems? Indeed, small isolated
redwood ecosystems lose biodiversity in human altered landscapes.
Luckily since 1918, the Save-the-Redwoods League has been preserving the
redwood forests of California. The league commissioned Reed Noss
to edit the contributions of thirty two authors in crafting a book essential
to environmental professionals, planners, policy makers, and the public
at large sharing a commitment to the conservation and the understanding
of this unique world bioregion. The nine chapters cover paleocology,
human history, flora, fauna, forest ecology, stream ecology, conservation
planning, and forest management. This book provides a wealth of cutting
edge research findings on redwood ecosystems.
The introductory chapters deal with the history of the redwood lineage,
from the Triassic Period to the present, along with the recent history
of redwoods conservation. Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is
actually the sole surviving species of the genus Sequoia.
This genus has been traced back to the Cretaceous. Mid-latitude tertiary
records for redwood show that their extent was far ranging. The paleobotanical
section would have benefited from fossil documentation as well as a lineage
"tree". After looking at how the bioregion stretches today from the
coast of Santa Cruz to the northwestern edge of California, chapter three
focuses on the botanical wealth of redwood communities. An extensive
Van Damme State Park (Mendocino County) botanical checklist provides information
on habitat and conservation status. This is actually not representative
of the whole redwood range. The redwood ecosystem is not monolithic
and varies depending on latitude and longitude (distance from the Pacific
coast). Actually the author distinguishes three major areas: northern,
central and southern regions. Little coverage is given to the southern
redwood region (East Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, and the Monterey Coast).
Chapter four takes a closer look at redwoods from their crowns down to
their genetic diversity. It addresses questions such as what are
old growth redwoods? How does water reach the top of a 112 m high
giant? How does coastal fog sustain redwood forests? Chapter
five treats the wide diversity of terrestrial fauna found in these ancient
forests. Actually, the flora and fauna of the redwood region varies considerably
from north to south, with the San Francisco Bay acting as a distributional
barrier for many species. No species or subspecies are actually endemic
to the redwood forest though several are only found in the region at large
such as the Point Reyes mountain beaver or the California giant salamander.
The authors provide a fairly thorough description of biological communities
of epiphytes and invertebrates found in the canopies of old-growth trees,
although little focus is placed upon the biological and geochemical edaphic
characteristics of old growth redwoods. As well as more depth could
have been dedicated to how downed logs have an essential role in fostering
forest regeneration and habitat? Chapter six reviews the aquatic
ecosystem of the redwood region drawing specific attention to the effects
of logging upon this component of the ecosystem. The authors
conclude that much work is needed to protect the aquatic and riparian communities
often functioning as biological health warning indicators. Chapter
seven and eight review landscape-scale conservation planning and management
applied to redwood forests. These two chapters are a must read for
any researcher, official, involved in the conservation of this ecoregion.
The authors advocate that conservation priorities could be determined by
following guidelines adopted in the adjacent Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion:
1) research focused on rare species, critical watersheds and old growth
stands 2) citizen involvement. Alternatives relating to silviculture
and management of state and county parks are considered in chapter eight.
The last chapter integrates holistically the information presented in the
previous chapters. The editor encourages such comprehensive case
study for other endangered ecosystem found on the earth.
Some improvements could be suggested. The index found at the end
of the book is incomplete in allowing quick retrieval of information on
many topics. For example, there is no entry on burls/ snags though
it was treated in the book. A helpful tool in this book is the case
study feature outlined as boxes throughout the chapters. These studies
review a particular component of redwood ecosystems. Conclusions
at the end of each chapter are helpful in synthesizing the wealth of information
presented. Moreover, the author is forward in presenting research
areas that would gain from further work. This book might be an excellent
resource for students interested to pursue graduate research in redwood
Despite some minor improvements needed, this book is a tremendous achievement
in describing this precious unique ecosystem. The redwood bioregion
has benefited from recent public attention with Julia Butterfly camping
for two years atop a giant redwood (Luna) in the midst of the old growth
Headwaters Forest. This book attempts precariously to balance the
demand for red wood lumber and the necessity to protect these living fossils
for the seventh generation. The key to perpetuating the redwood magic
lies in fostering a profound respect for our natural heritage. Twelve
years later there are less logging trucks driving past Carl¹s Diner.
Is it due to our maturity as a nation in enacting sustainable policies
from our forests to the redwood desk you might be reading this review from?
— Laurent M. Meillier, U.C. Santa Barbara, Department of Geological
Sciences, Santa Barbara, CA. USA.
Ecoregions of North America: A Conservation Assessment.
Taylor H., Eric Dinerstein, David M. Olson, Colby J. Louks et al. 1999.
ISBN 1-55963-722-6 (paper US $75.00) 485 pp. Island Press, 1718 Connecticut
Avenue, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20009 _ This book is an indispensable
addition to the conservation literature. In the synthesis of much information
from papers, books, discussions, and workshops on conservation, there is
a sense of urgency pervading this work. The authors, a team from World
Wildlife Fund, present the awesome diversity of life and the concomitant
vulnerability of this diversity. This is all intended to present an idea
that is gaining acceptance by conservation ecologists - ecoregion-based
conservation. Conservation based on an ecoregion, "…relatively large area
of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of
natural communities," is an improvement from the politically charged state-by-state
strategy. Although many readers are familiar with the plight of the world's
biodiversity, few books have attempted what is presented in Terrestrial
Ecoregions of North America: A Conservation Assessment. This carefully
written volume deserves attention.
This work is separated into two major sections. In the first third of
Terrestrial Ecoregions of North America, the authors establish the rationale
for the ecoregion approach, prioritize targets for conservation, and justify
procedures. Each component of an ecoregion is thoroughly introduced. Key
points and essays from conservation practitioners, an effective textbook
style, highlight interesting side notes. For example, Kartesz and Farstad
discuss the importance of plant endemism for conservation. Culver describes
the special considerations for organisms of cave and karst habitats. Common
and rare habitat features are adequately addressed by the ecoregion approach.
In most of the remaining two thirds, Appendix F, the 116 ecoregions of
North America are described. The descriptions are excellent, concise guides
that include information on ecoregion size, distinctiveness, conservation
status, activities to enhance conservation, conservation partners, and
relationship to other classification schemes. If the work is read cover-to-cover,
which I recommend, the components of the ecoregions
The richly colored illustrations are just one of the many virtues of
this fine volume. In fact I was struck by the clarity and utility of the
many maps illustrating a panoply of ideas from ecoregion locations and
biological distinctiveness of habitats to percentage of introduced species
per region. Often, a picture told a story. For example, when looking at
a pair of maps the reader is reminded of the human influence on biodiversity
- the greatest percentage of total introduced vascular plants are found
near the megalopoli of both coasts. Additional figures and tables are clear
Finally, the well-edited book is completed with an effective glossary,
thorough index, and a list of contacts and participating agencies (geared
toward North America). This facilitates the search for information and
provides a foundation for future projects. Although dismissing political
boundaries from conservation makes ecological sense, it will be interesting
to see if non-scientists accept the ecoregion approach and incorporate
it into lasting policy changes. This work should aid in the process.
For readers outside of North America this book will still be useful
as a reference for people interested inconserving biodiversity. Although
some of the habitat types are localized, the phenomena and threats experienced
"Terrestrial Ecoregions of North America: A Conservation Assessment"
is a timely compendium of information relevant to conservation practitioners,
teachers and anyone interested in the status of a continent's biodiversity.
It would be useful as a companion text in courses on conservation and habitat
restoration or could be the basis of a semester course for advanced undergraduate
or graduate students. Actually, this book should be on the shelf of anyone
concerned with preserving our natural heritage. - Scott Ruhren, Department
of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, The State University
of New Jersey, New Brunswick,NJ08901-1582.
Profile of an Adaptive Radiation. Benzing, D. H. 2000. ISBN 0-521-
43031-3 (cloth US $120.00) 690 pp. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
UK. This vast compendium of information on the Bromeliaceae is a thorough
review of the evolutionary physiology and ecology of this principally Neotropical
family. David Benzing (along with several collaborators) have done a tremendous
service to botanists, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists in pulling
together a huge amount of natural history information and existing experimental
data on the bromeliads. This book will undoubtedly serve as the benchmark
reference on this family for many years to come.
According to the preface, Benzing originally envisioned this book as
an edited volume. However, the book evolved into a more integrated monographic
work with Benzing as the sole author of seven of the 9 core chapters, and
senior author on the remaining two. Following a brief introduction to the
family, the reader is taken on a detailed run through the vegetative and
reproductive structures of the bromeliads, their disparate modes of photosynthesis
(C3, various types of CAM), mineral nutrition, life history and reproduction,
relationships with fauna, and their overall phytogeography and evolution.
These topics, each to a core chapter, are viewed through an adaptationist
framework that spans the entire book. This framework is "how and why one
family of flowering plants, and a truly exceptional one by virtue of adaptive
specialization to counter drought, came to assume such extraordinary importance
in the Neotropics" (pp. xi-xii).
Benzing is largely successful in hanging the available information on
this adaptive framework. The overwhelming majority of these data are descriptive,
and focused on a relatively small subset of the nearly 3000 species in
the family. Because of the descriptive nature of the data, it is relatively
easy to develop adaptive explanations for observed patterns; the experiments
to test these adaptive hypotheses, in almost every instance, have yet to
be done. Every chapter (and most pages) provides many open questions about
the functional evolutionary ecology of the Bromeliaceae, any one of which
could form the basis of a doctoral dissertation.
Throughout the core chapters, the material is well-integrated, but in
some ways almost too well- integrated. References are constantly made to
figures, tables, and text of chapters already read or chapters to come.
I found myself thumbing backwards and forwards through the text to find
points referred to (usually by figure or table number, as opposed to page
number), which had a tendency to interrupt the reading flow. In many ways,
this book would be ideally produced as a web-based, hyper- linked document,
where figures and tables could be called up at will in separate windows
on a computer screen. Chapters 2-8 are more encyclopedic than synthetic;
only chapter 9, on the history and evolution of the family, is a true synthesis
of existing information. Given its high price (almost 20 per page), I was
surprised that all the photographs of bromeliads are produced in black
& white, often with inadequate contrast to discern the relevant details
(an electronic version could, perhaps, have color digital photographs).
The line-drawings are adequate, but again, given the book's cost, it seems
that a gentle artistic hand could have improved them substantially.
In addition to the core chapters, there are also six chapters on "special
topics", four on systematics of especially difficult groups (Neoregelia
subgenus Hylaeaicum, and Cryptanthus by I. Ramrez; Tillandsioideae, and
Tillandsia and Racinaea by W. Till) that provide a "snapshot of the more
traditional approach to plant systematics and evolution as applied to the
Bromeliaceae" (p. xi). The remaining two special topics chapters, Ethnobotany
of Bromeliaceae by B. Bennett; Endangered Bromeliacae by M. Dimmitt are
contemporary hot-topics. None of these special topics chapters are well-
integrated into the rest of the volume, and they might better have been
published on their own either as a second volume, or as a special issue
of a journal.
Overall, Bromeliaceae is a must-have book for researchers actively studying
this family or other epiphytes. Its high price tag will limit its sales,
and one can only hope for either a paperback edition or (better) a CD-ROM
version. Bromeliacea is a valuable reference book for any science library,
and it will provide the foundation for the next generation of study in
this exceptional group of angiopserms. - Aaron M.Ellison, Department of
Biological Sciences, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA 01075-6418.
Ecology and Evolution in Compositae (Asteraceae). M.S. Mani and
J.M. Saravanan. 1999. ISBN 1-57808-058-4 (paper US $49.50) 166 pp. Science
Publishers, Inc. P.O. Box 699, May Street, Enfield, New Hampshire 03748
_ Despite a long fascination with pollination, botanists and ecologists
have so much yet to discover, for example describing trends in ecology
and evolution of pollination within a plant family. As one of the largest
angiosperm families, Compositae (Asteraceae), with some 19,000 species,
possesses great floral diversity yet a unifying feature of Compositae floral
biology is the organization of flowers into a head (capitulum) subtended
by an involucre of bracts. Mani and Saravanan argue that Compositae floral
head evolution is driven by the relationship with pollinators. Despite
an apparent abundance of visitors to the inflorescences, what is fascinating
is the limited effectiveness of many of these floral visitors. According
to the authors, bees and butterflies perform most Compositae pollination
and in fact butterflies, not bees, are the most effective. Finally, bee-Compositae-butterfly
relationships are driving floral evolution, Mani and Saravanan's main point.
This assertion is revisited repeatedly with great effect.
Mani and Saravanan state early on that there has been an overemphasis
on structure in Compositae research yet present 6 (of 13) chapters and
more than half of the book on the head complex, florets, stamens, style,
stigma, nectary, sex polymorphism and pappus. This is probably unavoidable
when making the case for floral and pollination syndrome evolution and
highlights the wonderful diversity of this plant family. These chapters
are dense with morphological terminology but the reader is aided by the
helpful illustrations and glossary. Within these chapters their thesis
develops: bee-flower relationships have driven Compositae evolution yet
butterflies are seen as the ultimate pollinator of this diverse family.
Though there is some subjectivity in the use of terms nectar and pollen
robbers by other authors, these concepts are not synonymous with ineffective
pollinators as implied repeatedly by Mani and Saravanan. In the glossary
(but unfortunately not listed in the index) nectar and pollen robbers are
"insects that collect nectar/pollen from the florets with great damage
to the latter and playing no role in pollination." By their definition,
bees do not fit this "great damage" criteria though they are occasionally
listed as robbers in the text. Nectar and pollen robbing which may have
detrimental effect on pollination usually involves behavior modified from
typical pollination and may or may not leave damage or signs of visitation
(e.g., Kearns and Inouye 1993).
Several production concerns are worth noting. As indicated earlier,
the index is incomplete. For example, we find "nectary" but no nectar,
while "amino acids" and "beetles" are mentioned in the text, but missing
from the index. This flaw hinders this book's function as an otherwise
useful reference. The numerical referencing system within the text (rather
than author/date) chosen by the publisher is frustrating. The more traditional
referencing system provides readily available support, context and accessibility.
This is not garnered from numbers. Nor are irregularities. For example
two works cited as "recent" when checked randomly, dated from 1983 and
1938. Several times the same data is duplicated in a table and accompanying
figure. Though the line drawings are wonderful and an indispensable part
of the text on morphology, the text and lines within other figures are
not always sharp, perhaps a printing problem and Fig. 12 and its labels
appear to be hand-drawn. Finally, occasional typographical errors are found
Despite the incomplete index, Pollination Ecology and Evolution in
Compositae (Asteraceae) is most effective as a synthesis of years of
research on Compositae pollination by the authors and others. In fact the
book's greatest utility is as a reference tool; for example, I quickly
found many new and interesting points about Centaurea, a genus I
have worked with.
The readability and clarity improved in the later, concluding chapters
dealing with pollination and evolutionary trends. Mani and Saravanan have
compiled a daunting amount of information about a complex plant family
and present an interesting theory about butterfly-driven Composite floral
evolution. Compositae systematists and comparative morphologists will benefit
from this book. Other readers will need to pick and choose chapters while
wading through the terminology and would probably not benefit from a cover-to-cover
reading. - Scott Ruhren, Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources,Rutgers,
The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1582.
Kearns, C.A. and D.W. Inouye. 1993. Techniques
for Pollination Biologists. University Press of Colorado, Niwot,
Colorado. ISBN: 0-87081-281-5
a reader. P. E. Minnis, ed. 2000. ISBN: 0-8061-3180-2, 327 + vi
pp. (paper $18.95). University of Oklahoma Press, 4100 28th Ave. N.W.,
Norman, OK 73069-8218. _ When botany meets anthropology, art, history or
linguistics, the blend is expansive. That is an apt description of
this book. The field of Ethnobotany has evolved during recent decades,
diverging from its parent Economic Botany, a subject that grew along with
colonial practices of gathering samples of economically useful specimens
from abroad. Recently, the attention of the discipline has evolved to the
kind of examination that is more than a mere cataloging of uses and those
are the outlooks represented here.
Designed for use as a textbook in upper division undergraduate and graduate
courses, this is a volume devoted to a humanistic view of botany. Culture
and ecology are the lenses focused here, rather than the traditional disciplines
of genetics and systematics. Among other distinctive messages that are
sent by this collection of essays, the authors acknowledge all those native
folks who contributed to the compilation and the interpretation of their
data: a virtual celebration of indigenous knowledge and the information
providers from villages and hamlets. These offerings give voice and texture
to under-represented citizens in remote locations around the world, accessible
to just a determined few willing to undertake the difficulties to travel
the distances, attempt to learn new languages, and encounter new cultures.
The text brings together previously published articles from the Journal
of Ethnobiology that provide diverse perspectives on a wide variety of
topics in Ethnobotany. The contents are organized into four sections: Ethnoecology,
Folk Classification, Foods and Medicines, and Agriculture. Tangible themes
range from edible greens to famine foods, while abstract areas under discussion
include evolution in a man-made habitat and botanical resource perception.
The editor admits that no single volume devoted to Ethnobotany can possibly
cover all fields within the discipline, as he acknowledges regretfully
that there is no coverage of ancient plant use here. Nevertheless, this
is a substantial new contribution to the growing number of new textbooks
in Economic Botany, because these are reports of original research. The
writing is skillful and engaging. There are few illustrations and maps;
undoubtedly each author could have supplied many more of each, but elaboration
of these would have increased the cost. The publisher should be commended
for pricing the reader at a level affordable for students. One minor criticism
is that the book covers a limited geographic area, primarily the Americas,
and one would wish for more contributions from the Middle East and Africa,
the Indian subcontinent, and the Far East.
The readings in this book offer a rich resource for discussions in Ethnobotany,
as well as a concentrated mine of ideas for those teaching a course, or
leading a graduate seminar about crop evolution and origins of agriculture.
For those planning to undertake fieldwork, it can stimulate new questions
for investigation. - Dorothea Bedigian, Washington University, St. Louis,
Ethnomycology to Fungal Biotechnology: Exploiting Fungi from Natural Resources
for Novel Products, Singh, Jagjit and K.R. Aneja (eds). 1999. ISBN
0-306-46059-9 (Cloth US$125.00) 305 pp. Kluwer Publishers, P.O. Box 358,
Accord Station, Hingham, MA 02018-0358. - This is an edited volume that
contains 26 short reviews on diverse topics. The five main sections included
in the book are ethnomycology, fungal biotechnology, biological control,
mycorrhizal fungi and fungal pests. I was surprised that the editors tried
to include all of these broad areas of applied mycology into one small
volume. While there are many excellent contributions in the book, no one
area is given comprehensive coverage. Instead, the chapters contain a wide
assortment of unrelated topics. The largest section, consisting of 8 chapters,
is on fungal biotechnology. Each contribution focuses on a very different
aspect of biotechnology. The range of topics includes overviews on the
improvement of insecticidal fungi, applications of thermophilic molds,
mushroom compost preparation, strategies for straw utilization, bioactive
products for pharmaceutical utility, and mycoherbicides. Chapters that
appear to have a more limited focus include the use of lytic enzymes to
produce protoplasts from Trichoderma, and potential use of natural
products for timber preservation. In general, each of these chapters provides
a fine basic review of the specific topic but readers will wonder why these
particular topics were selected and so many others were left out. Biotechnological
advances involving fungi are rapidly being published and the most useful
books on this subject are those that contain up-to-date information. The
latest references in these chapters are a few citations to research published
2 to 3 years ago indicating the book has been in preparation or in press
for some time.
Chapters in this book on biological control include the use of fungal
antagonists to control root-knot nematodes, fungal pathogens, and decay
in stored bamboo. An unusual combination of topics but information on mechanisms
of biocontrol and achievements in these particular areas are covered well.
The section on mychorrizal fungi is different from the rest of the book
since most of the contributions are about versicular arbuscular (VA) fungi.
They include applying VA mycorrhizae to control fungal pathogens, increasing
the yield of aromatic plants, improving reforestation, and for general
use as a "biofertilizer".
The most unusual mix of topics can be found in the section on fungal
pests. From a plant pathologist's perspective, a book containing only a
few chapters that discuss extremely diverse topics of limited scope is
disappointing. Short reviews on storage fungi of edible commodities, seed-borne
mycoflora of two under-explored legumes from northeastern India, association
of patulin with dried fruit slices of quinces, and a comparison of a wood
decay fungus found in the Indian Himalayas with a similar fungus in California
make up this section. The last chapter on "wild dry rot" in America and
the Himalayas is actually one of the more intriguing chapters among this
wild assortment of topics in the book.
The section on ethnomycology is also a disappointment. The title of
the book suggests an emphasis on ethnological aspects of mycology, but
the book contains only 2 chapters that can be considered to have significant
information on ethnomycology. One of these chapters, "Ethnomycology and
Folk Remedies: Fact and Fiction", is informative, interesting and contains
appropriate material. A chapter on ethnological studies from Madhya Pradesh,
India is comprehensive for that region and there should have been similar
chapters describing studies from a number of other areas. Another chapter
included in the ethnomycology section on antimicrobial properties of some
Indian spices seems to be an unusual addition for the theme of the book.
This book may contain information that will be useful to individuals
with specific interests but I suggest you carefully check the contents
to make sure it covers an area of fungal biotechnology that is of interest
to you. - Robert A. Blanchette, Department of Plant Pathology, University
300 Years of Botanical Illustration. Hewson, Helen. 1999. ISBN
0-643-06366-8 (Cloth US$89.50) 228 pp. Antique Collector's Club, Ltd.,
Market Street Industrial Park, Wappinger's Falls, NY 12590. - Hewson gives
the reader a comprehensive introduction to the history of botanical art
dealing with the flora of Australia. From the first explorations during
the seventeenth century to the present day, Hewson recounts and illustrates
the work done, first largely by European explorers and more recently by
Australians themselves, to help describe the astounding plants of the Island
The author displays a good appreciation of the dual role of botanical
art: "While botanical illustration is the subject of this story it will
soon be evident that there is no clear difference between botanical illustration
and botanical art." (p.3) This agrees with the insight of the standard
work on botanical art, Blunt and Stearn's The Art of Botanical Illustration—good
botanical art serves both scientific and aesthetic purposes.
Hewson begins with a brief examination of who is involved in producing
botanical art—e.g. in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, painter,
engraver, and colorist—and the role of each. Throughout, the quality of
images is excellent. Usefully, a number of examples of both picture and
engravings made from them are shown to help the reader appreciate changes
that occur at different stages of botanical illustration.
She then proceeds to consider the art and artists of several periods,
from the first recorded European exploration of Australia in the seventeenth
century up to the present day. Along the way, many important names from
botany and botanical art shine forth, from Banks to Hooker, from Dampier
to von Mueller. Continental workers are given their due, even though the
history of the exploration and settling of Australia naturally emphasizes
the role of the British and those who they hired.
More recent names include those of Celia Rosser and Margaret Stones.
Images are recent enough even to include a Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis;
Araucariaceae), the living fossil discovered in 1994.
The exploration of Australia occurred at an almost ideal time for botanical
illustration, before photography took a preeminent place in illustrating
new plants and after some of the finest techniques had been devised and
mastered. As a result, some of the finest botanical illustrators of all
time are represented in Australia 300 Years of Botanical Illustration,
though two of the best known names, Ehret and Redouté, do not figure
most prominently. Most prominent of the painters emphasized in this work
is Ferdinand Bauer, brother of two other noted illustrators of natural
history, and accomplished in painting, engraving, and coloring, and unusual
trio to find in one artist. Bauer has been the subject of two other fine
books in recent years which have emphasized his Australian work, Exquisite
Eye The Australian Flora and Fauna Drawings 1801-1820 of Ferdinand Bauer
by Watts et al. and Ferdinand Bauer The Nature of Discovery by Mabberley.
Those books also cover the zoological work of Bauer. While the copies
of paintings are generally superior in those works, this is not surprising
since they were produced to accompany exhibitions of paintings. That the
figures in Australia 300 Years of Botanical Illustration reach the number
and quality that they do is a credit to author and editor.
One unfortunate flaw, readily overlooked, is seen in the brief Preface
which states that prior to the Renaissance "...scientific inquiry was stultified
by myth and superstition." (p. 1) This small minded view ignores differences
between the cultures of the times and the work of such botanists as Albert
Who should buy a copy of Australia 300 Years of Botanical Illustration?
Certainly institutional libraries and art lovers, as well as anyone who
would like to see through the eyes of botanists from an age of great discoveries.
Students need more exposure to works like these, and this work would serve
well on reading lists in introductory classes. Many institutions have decreased
the amount of drawing required by students taking laboratory courses, which
is unfortunate since skills involved in careful illustration can make for
careful scientists. Exposure to a work such as this might help to inspire
students in such work, or perhaps even their instructors. _ Douglas Darnowski,
Department of Biology, Washington College, Chesterton, MD 21620.
Fever, A Horticultural Tale of Love, Lust and Lunacy.
Hansen. 2000. ISBN 0-679-45141-2 (Cloth US$35.00) x + 272 pp. Pantheon
Books, New York, USA. - Orchids, with flowers ranging from bizarre and
grotesque to beautiful and lascivious (Fig. 1A - 1E) have captivated humans
since antiquity (Berliocchi, 1966; Lawler, 1984; Stoessl and Arditti, 1984;
Hew Arditti and Lin, 1997). Some species have been used medicinally. However
sex (Fig. 1F, 1G) and allure are the properties most often associated with
orchids as plants which produce seductive flowers that are pollinated through
pseudocopulation, aphrodisiacs, birth control agents, determinants of gender,
and in the case a Lissochilus species in Transvaal as a foreshadow
of Viagra. (for a review see Lawler, 1984). Only few orchids have been
or are consumed in large quantities with salep (see below) and vanilla
being the most important among these (Lawler, 1884). The most important
uses of orchids are as cut flowers, potted ornamentals and plants for collectors
and hobby growers. The latter have been responsible for amazing tales,
dark intrigues, juicy scandals, occasional corruption, and black humor.
deals with these and that is what makes it a fascinating read and a remarkable
Over the years orchids have beguiled the nobility and upper classes
in several countries; intrigued notable writers (Marcel Proust and Raymond
Chandler equated them with prostitutes, but George Bernard Shaw was more
tactful with a comparison to courtesans; for a review see Hoffman Lewis,
1990); captivated leaders in the business world (Dunsterville and Dunsterville,
1982; Grove, 1995); enchanted at least two Nobel laureates, chemist Harold
Urey and physicist Maria Mayer (for a recollection see Arditti, 1998);
and found their way into the hearts of many growers. Orchid Fever
describes the interactions between orchids and people and tries to fathom
the hold these plants have over humans.
Andrée N. Millar, the legendary Long-Long Misis Bilong Plaua
(Millar, 1978, 1998; Arditti, 1996a; Warren, 2000) was given this Pidgin-English
nickname (which means "slightly mad but not dangerous white woman who collects
useless plants you can't eat") by the people of Papua New Guinea (Millar,
1994) simply because they, like residents of other orchid-rich areas, consider
most orchids to be useless and view those who collect them as being irrational.
Hansen sets the tone of his book (which can be best summarized as being
"can you believe these guys?", or perhaps "are these weirdos for real?")
by recounting the amazement of Penan-tribe guides in the Malaysian state
of Sarawak on Borneo when they learned that two Americans spent about $3,500
each for a trip just to see Paphiopedilum sanderianum (Rcb. f.)
Stein in its native habitat: "`They have come twelve thousand miles to
look at a flower?'. . . `It is true.'. . . `Can you eat this flower?'.
. . `No.'. . . `Is it used for medicine?'. . . `No.'. . . `What do they
want to do with this flower?'. . . `Take photograph . . . '"When the explorers
finally found a flowering plant after days of arduous trekking through
the Borneo rain forest [which is not basically different from other jungles
or rain forests I walked through], "a chaotic, steaming green hell of leeches,
biting insects, giant cockroaches, bad smells, and [vastly exaggerated
possibility of] certain death"there was a disaster: "OH, MY GOD . . . WHERE'S
MY CAMERA . . . [and] HIGH-SPEED FILM?" Welcome to the wacky world of orchid
Orchid shows can be thought of as zoos not only because some species
resemble birds, insects, other animals and assorted strange beings (Fig.
1B - 1D), but also due to the enthusiasts who attend them. Hansen describes
these gatherings as well as orchid collectors, growers, traders, judges
and other devotees in chapters 2-4, 8 with a touch of subtle irony and
a dollop of sarcasm which leave no doubt that he meant what he wrote at
the end of chapter 2: "after three days with the orchid people . . . it
was time to be around normal human beings . . . "It probably was. I have
often had the same feeling.
Salep, made from Orchis tubers (Fig. 1F, 1G) and known since
time immemorial, is second to vanilla (derived from Vanilla fruits
which are capsules, not beans or pods) in the quantities which are consumed
by humans. It has also been used extensively as an aphrodisiac and a medicinal
preparation (Lawler, 1984; Sezik, 1984; Arditti, 1992). Salep is also responsible
for a biochemical term that is now part of everyday language, "carbohydrate"(Kohlenhydrat).
The German biochemist C. Schmidt coined the term to name a precipitate
containing carbon plus hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as in water
(CH2O), he obtained while studying the composition of salep
(Schmidt, 1844; Ernst and Rodriguez, 1984). At present salep is consumed
in the Middle East and Turkey where large amounts of tubers are collected
from natural habitats. Hansen followed the salep trail (chapter 6), partook
of several ice creams made with it, and even inquired about over-collection,
but seems to have been satisfied with an explanation that the mountains
are "still covered with the plant."Really? Export alone of the orchid tubers
used to make salep is in the tens of metric tons per year (Lawler, 1984).
For plants that grow and multiply as slowly as orchids these are very large
amounts and I doubt if the relevant orchid species can keep up with the
collectors. Hansen should have raised the question more forcefully, if
not with his Turkish hosts at least in Orchid Fever.
Collectors and explorers, some of which have lost life and limb (Arditti,
1992) in far away, strange and/or dangerous places, have been part of the
orchid scene for a long time. Over the years they have included pirates,
adventurers and dedicated plant scientists. A few wrote about their exploits
(Millican, 1891; Burdett, 1930; MacDonald, 1939; Matschat, 1939; Lohndorff,
1956; Dunsterville and Dunsterville, 1982), but it was not uncommon for
them to be less than honest in an effort to magnify their achievements
, mislead competitors and/or protect endangered populations. Rudyad Kipling
wrote a comic story about the tragic end of a German collector (Kipling,
1951). There is also a light hearted "report" regarding the exploits of
an orchid collector in space (Adams and Nightingale, 1976).
All of chapter 5 of Orchid Fever deals with a collector (chapter
5), but the story is sinister. This collector, "a very complex character
. . . Armenian . . . a diplomatic aide in Tehran during the time of the
of the Shah . . .,"is named Henry Azadehdel (but also referred to as Armen
Victorian in WWW reports regarding his involvement in UFO matters). He
was convicted by a British court of smuggling, having been caught with
orchids and other contraband at Heathrow airport. Fever portrays
him sympathetically, but my experience with Azadehdel suggests that this
is not warranted. After we developed an effective method for the germination
of Paphiopedilum rothschildianum (Haas-von Schmude et al., 1986)
and advised growers to buy only laboratory-produced plants, Azadehdel called
me angrily to complain that our advice hurt his business and was not necessary.
His claim that the species was abundant in its native habitat and not in
danger of extinction was then and still is inaccurate according to a Malaysian
orchid expert I respect. I replied none too kindly with a few pithy suggestions
that cannot be repeated here or in polite company.
In the 1800s and early 1900s wealthy growers depended mostly on professional
collectors who roamed the world. Orchid taxonomists often collected their
own plants at considerable risk. For example, Rudolf Schlechter (1872-1925)
engaged carriers; trained "a detachment of 90 . . . inclusive of 10 soldiers";
was attacked by and fought hostile tribesmen; suffered from severe fever,
painful foot sores, and serious boils; arranged for canoes to be built;
put up with bad weather; and climbed mountains to collect his own plants
in German New Guinea (Schlechter, 1982). Perhaps there are orchid systematists
who collect their own specimens in our days, but if Hansen allegations
are correct, at least some present day prolific taxonomists seem willing
to classify and name plants collected by others even if there are uncertainties
about origins and legality. Would a taxonomist who named one plant of uncertain
legality name another? Anything is possible in the nether world of big-time
international orchid taxonomy where naming a new species seems to be a
goal that justifies dealings which evoke echoes of exploits not unlike
the ones generally associated with Blackbeard, the gnomes of Zürich,
and Bonnie's Clyde.
Some years ago on the Fijian island of Vanua Levu I walked through a
field strewn with orchid-festooned trees that were cut down to prepare
the land for sugar cane. When I suggested that the orchids should be stripped
and exported since they will die anyway the answer was that this was against
the law. The result: thousands of orchid plants died. More recently near
the city of Fortin de las Flores in the Mexican state of Veracruz I watched
smoke rise from a forest across a canyon from the pleasant verandah while
my hostess served lunch. Her husband explained that part of the forest
was being cut and burned to allow for a project. "And, the orchids"? I
asked, "Why are they not being collected and exported. "The answer was
the same as in Fiji. On a dreary rainy day in the 1970s I visited a government
owned orchid nursery in Rangoon, Burma. Their idea was to gather doomed
orchids from forests that were being logged and save them through local
and export sales. I don't know what happened to the Burmese nursery, but
a similar plan would probably run afoul of the law presently.
There may be silly local laws of course, but the real culprit is CITES
(Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna
and Flora), a godsend for: 1) the vast bureaucracy which inhabits its secretariat
in Switzerland despite claims to the contrary (van Vliet, 1994), 2) countless
national bureaucracies and law enforcement organizations throughout the
world, 3) a nightmare for at least one highly respected taxonomist (chapter
14) and many honest law abiding orchid dealers everywhere, 4) a gold mine
for orchid smugglers and pirates, 5) an impediment for some orchid conservation
schemes, 6) a panacea in the minds of dedicated but not necessarily well
informed orchid conservationists, 7) a holocaust for orchids, 8) and a
means of controlling access to new species for a handful of self appointed
(mostly European) power brokers in the orchid world who also happen to
be plant taxonomists bent on glorifying themselves by naming as many new
species as possible.
Orchid Fever shows CITES for the abomination it is and
tackles it boldly and imaginatively. It also exposes the real motives of
some of its major supporters and leaves no doubts about their aims. And
so: 1) innumerable orchids on felled trees die, 2) law abiding dealers
cannot do business while saleable plants rot, 3) local people cannot supplement
meager income with doomed species, 4) poachers and pirates get rich, and
5) legitimate taxonomists are denied access to new species. Hansen makes
the point, but I wonder if Orchid Fever will create a strong enough
momentum to overcome the self-interest of the powerful few and bring about
a rational revision of CITES.
Exceptions exist, of course, and Orchid Fever concludes with
the story of Tom Nelson and his salvage of Cypripedium acaule Aiton,
calceolus L. and C. reginae Walter in Minnesota. The Minnesota
State Departments of Agriculture, Transportation and Natural Resources
and the U. S. Department of Agriculture there should be congratulated for
their enlightened approach. Tom Nelson should be beatified. There is hope
it seems, and its magnitude appears to be directly proportional do the
distance from the selfish orchid power centers in Europe.
Orchid Fever is not free of weaknesses. Sometimes Hansen seems
naive. One example is the salep incident. Another is Hansen's reliance
for much of his horticultural information on interviews with commercial
and hobby growers whose bloated egos are matched only by the size of their
wallets and/or extent of self-interest. Stalwarts of horticultural
science of orchids (like Prof. Emeritus Thomas Sheehan at the University
of Florida, for example) are not among his sources. He interviewed
several orchid breeders but not the dean of scientific orchid hybridizers,
Prof. Emeritus Haruyuki Kamemoto of the University of Hawaii. The third
weakness is that several marginal scientists served as sources for Hansen.
Not having made many major contributions to basic science through publications
in mainline peer reviewed scientific journals these individuals sometimes
offer platitudes and/or vituperations and/or argumentation rather than
solid science and worthwhile opinions. Hansen interviewed a number of recognized
and respected authorities, but should have relied only or at least mostly
on high caliber established scientists. Fourth, Hansen seems to assume
that some of his sources (unfortunately the wrong ones) are more reliable,
impartial and knowledgeable than they really are. In other instances he
is less trusting and demands more proof and substantiation. The result
of these shortcomings is a book which is somewhat skewed in the wrong direction
despite the fact that Hansen also interviewed Gunnar Seidenfaden, a major,
highly respected and very credible authority on the orchids of south east
Asia. Orchid Fever is an important, believable and generally well
documented book, but its impact could have been even stronger had Hansen
consulted weightier sources, stayed way from questionable characters or
at least put them in proper perspective and taken a more jaundiced view
of several of the informants who guided him through the orchid world.
In balance, the Orchid Fever has many more strengths than weaknesses.
It is a fascinating read that is as enlightening as it is entertaining
and as frightening as it is convincing. -Joseph Arditti, Department
of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA
Adams, P., and C. Nightingale. 1976. Planting time.
Pages 129-142 in P. Strick (ed.), Antigrav. Taplinger Publishing
Company, New York.
Arditti, J. 1992. Fundamentals
of orchid biology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Arditti, J. 1996a. Andrée Norma Millar (ca
1914-1995). Malayan Orchid Review (Singapore) 30: 35-38.
Arditti, J. 1996b. Flora Zambesiaca, Orchidaceae
(a book review). Taxon 45: 581-582.
Arditti, J. 1998. Reminscenses II. Graduate school
at the University of Southern California and assistant professor at the
university of California, Irvine. Malayan Orchid Review (Singapore)
Berliocchi, L. 1966. Il fiore degli dei, l'orchidea
dal mito all storia. Stampa Alternativa, Rome.
Burdett, F. D. 1930. The odyssey of an orchid
hunter. Herbert Jenkins Ltd., London.
Crane, P. R. 2000a. Orchid Fever allegations
rejected by Kew. Orchids 69: 766.
Crane, P. R. 2000b. Orchid Fever allegations
rejected.. OrchidsAustralia 12: 47.
Crane, P. R. 2000c. Orchid Fever allegations
rejected by Kew.
The Orchadian 13: 235.
Crane, P. R. 2000d. Letter. The Orchadian
de Wit, H. C. D. 1977. Orchids in Rumphius'Hetbarium
Amboinense. Pages 47-94 in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology,
reviews and perspectives I. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
Dunsterville, G. C. K., and E. Dunsterville. 1982.
Auyán-tepui: Reminiscences of an orchid search. Pages 19-38 in
J. Arditti (ed.),
Orchid biology, reviews and perspectives I. Cornell
University Press, Ithaca, New York.
Ernst, R., and E. Rodriguez. 1984. Carbohydrates
of the Orchidaceae. Pages 223-260 in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid
biology, reviews and perspectives III. Cornell University Press,
Ithaca, New York.
Grove, D. 1995. Vanda and ascocendas and
their combinations with other genera. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
Haas-von Schmude, N.F., E. Lucke, R. Ernst, and
J. Arditti. 1986. Paphiopedilum rothschildianum. Amer. Orchid Soc.
Bull. 55: 579-584.
Hansen, E. 2000. Eric Hansen replies. Orchids
Hew, C. S., J. Arditti and W. S. Lin. 1997. Three
orchids used as herbal medicines in China: A attempt to reconcile Chinese
and Western pharmacology. Pages 213-283 in J. Arditti and A. M.
Pridgeon (ed.), Orchid
biology, reviews and perspectives VII. Kluwer Academic Publishers,
Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Hoffman Lewis, M. W. 1990. Power and passion: The
orchid in literature. Pages 207-249 inn J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid
biology, reviews and perspectives V. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
Kipling, R. 1951. Reingelder and the German flag.
Pages 179-182 in R. T. Bond (ed.), Handbook for poisoners.
Rinehart & Co., Inc., New York.
Koopowitz, H., and P. Cribb. 1986. Paphiopedilum
emersonii _A remarkable new slipper orchid from China. Orchid Advocate
Lawler, L. J. 1984. Ethnobotany of the Orchidaceae.
Pages 27-149 in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology, reviews and
perspectives III. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
Lohndorff, E. 1956. The forest of fear. Souvenir
MacDonald. N. 1939. The orchid hunters, a jungle
adventure. Farrar & Rinehart Inc., New York.
Matschat, C. H. 1939. Seven grass huts. Farrar
& Rinehart, Inc., New York.
Millar, A. N. 1978. Orchids of Papua New Guinea_An
introduction. University of Washington Press, Seattle.
Millar, A. N. 1998. Orchids
of Papua New Guinea_An introduction. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Millar, A. N. 1994. Long-long misis bilong plaua.
Pages 1-32 in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid biology, reviews and perspectives
VI. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Millican, A. 1891. Travels and adventures of
an orchid hunter. Cassell & Company Ltd., London.
Ospina, M., and R. L. Dressler. 1974. Orquídeas
de las Américas. Litografia Arco, Bogotá, Colombia. Schlechter,
R. 1982. The Orchidaceae of German New Guinea . English translation
by R. S. Rogers, H. J. Katz and J. T. Simmons. The Australian Orchid Foundation,
Schmidt, C. 1844. Über Pflanzenschleim und
Bassorin. Annales der Chemie 51: 29-62.
Schulze, M. 1894. Die Orchidaceen Deutschlands,
Deutsch-Oesterreichs und der Schweiz. Fr. Eugen Köhler's Verlag,
Sezik, E. 1984. Orkidelerimiz, Türkiye'nin
orchidleri. Sandos Kültür Yayinlari, No . 6 [city not given],
Stoessl, A., and J. Arditti. 1984. Orchid phytoalexins.
in J. Arditti (ed.), Orchid Biology, Reviews and
Perspectives III. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.
van Vliet, G. 1994. CITES and orchids _a conflict
between conservation and international trade? Pages 188-194 in A.
Pridgeon (ed.), Proceedings of the 14th World Orchid Conference,
Galsgow 1993. Her Majesty's Printing Office, London.
Warren, D. 2000. Orchids of Papua New Guinea. American
Orchid Society Bulletin 69: 772-773.
View from Bald Hill. Carl E. Bock and Jane H. Bock. 2000. ISBN
0-520-22184-2 (paper US$16.95) 197 pp. University of California Press,
Berkeley, California. — Less than an hour's drive southeast from Tucson,
Arizona, the Sonoran Desert vegetation with its saguaros, chollas, and
palo verde trees gives way to rolling grasslands, which form the southwestern
edge of the formerly immense North American steppes and prairies that reached
from Mexico to Canada. Like other places at the transition between biomes,
the grasslands of southeastern Arizona are special in many ways. Flora
and fauna are influenced by both the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts and
include many endemic species. Several mountain ranges contribute not only
to the unique scenery but also their share of species to the semi-arid
grasslands below. Even more important for the ecology of these grasslands
is the fact that large grazers, such as the bison, never inhabited this
landscape since the last ice age, at least certainly not in great numbers
and for prolonged periods of time. It is therefore not a great leap of
the imagination to assume that the large-scale introduction of cattle in
the early 1800s must have had a strong impact on the ecology of this land.
In this landscape lies a 7800 acre sanctuary managed by the National Audubon
Society, which has been protected from cattle grazing since 1968.
This book is about the ecology and natural history of this sanctuary,
known as the Research Ranch. Ecological research by the authors and their
students and colleagues spans over 25 years and includes both plants and
animals. Naturally, much of their work has addressed the general question
how cattle grazing affects these grasslands today, and the Research Ranch
has provided the control for many grazing impact studies. But the book
goes far beyond the grazing issue and discusses questions such as the impact
of climatic variability, fire, and other disturbances on the grasslands,
the behavioral ecology of herps and birds, and the impact of alien plant
species on native plants and animals.
The book is beautifully written in a style that avoids scientific jargon.
One of its strengths is the juxtaposition of the presentation of facts
and results of scientific experiments with strongly personal statements
by the authors at the end of each chapter that relate their specific findings
to more general environmental and ecological questions. This book is a
must read for anyone like myself who has had the pleasure and privilege
to spend some time at the Research Ranch. That being said, I am not quite
sure who else this book was written for. It is clearly not primarily addressed
to the scientific community, who would appreciate more specifics, graphs,
and tables than this book provides. But being essentially a summary of
scientific findings it also does not fit into the niche of popular nature
writing. To anyone looking for a book in that genre about the natural and
human history of southeastern Arizona I greatly recommend Richard Shelton's
beautiful book "Going back to Bisbee" (Tucson, The University of Arizona
Press, 1992). But if you are interested in cases studies in grassland ecology
you will enjoy this book, and its many references will help you to follow
up on specific questions. The book would also make good supplemental reading
for a course on range management or grassland ecology. — H. Jochen Schenk,
Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708.
of Plants under Stress. vol. 2. Soil and Biotic Factors. David
M. Orcutt and Erik T. Nilsen. 2000. ISBN, 0-471-17008-9 (cloth, US$ 125)
683 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158.
- Crops are limited to approximately 25% of their potential yield due to
environmental stress. However, the physiology of plants under stress has
broad significance beyond this staggering importance for agricultural productivity.
Recognizing this, the authors have crafted a set of volumes that will inform
and inspire students with broad backgrounds in the plant sciences.
Volume 1 of the set, published in 1996, dealt with plant responses to
abiotic stresses. The recently released Volume 2 covers soil and biotic
factors, including nutrient deficiency, salinity stress, plant pathogens
and parasitic plants, herbivory, heavy metals, pesticides, and atmospheric
pollution. Additional chapters on mycorrhizae, allelochemistry, and weeds,
contributed by guest authors, provide special depth in these biotic factors
that is not to be found in other stress physiology texts.
Choosing a textbook for a Stress Physiology course is difficult. This
type of course usually attracts a wide variety of students from majors
as disparate as ecology, agronomy, horticulture, biochemistry, physiology,
entomology, landscape architecture, and forestry. The authors recognize
the importance of communicating the broader field of plant stress physiology
to these specialized students, and have examined how stresses affect plants
at all levels of organization. Toward this end they have endeavored to
meld the disciplines of physiological ecology and agricultural plant physiology
in the text—a very attractive approach.
This volume explores three broad topics: soil processes, biotic factors,
and anthropogenic stress, all of which have generally been neglected in
previous stress physiology texts. Despite this emphasis, however, the treatment
of topics tends to be uneven. Mycorrhizae, for example, are reviewed in
an extensive, 68-page chapter; parasitic plants rate 54 pages; and yet
SO2 injury is covered in just 2 pages. Study outlines and questions,
which constitute 10-25% of the chapters' text, seem excessive, and I would
worry that their presence in the text might actually discourage careful
reading and synthesis by students.
The text succeeds in enunciating the need for broad training if a scientist
is to work in plant stress physiology research. While all students will
come to the field with different holes in their backgrounds, this text
is probably more useful for broadening the experience of students who are
well-trained in physiology and biochemistry but less familiar with agronomy
and ecology. The treatment of physiological and biochemical aspects of
plant response to stress could be more extensive in order to enhance learning
by students who are weaker in these areas.
The goals and scope of the text are admirable and the authors should
be commended for their dedication to a huge project. However, one wonders
if editing has gone out of style at Wiley. Grammar, spelling, and usage
problems in this text are so frequent that they are distracting.
For ten years I have been looking for a textbook that would work well
in my graduate level Plant Stress Physiology class. I would happily give
this one (#4) a try if I could use it in concert with Volume 1 of the set,
which covers abiotic stresses. However, given the combined price tag of
the two volumes ($315), this seems unrealistic. —Mary E. Musgrave, Biology
Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003
Tissue Culture: Techniques and Experiments, Second Edition, Roberta
H. Smith, 2000. ISBN 0-12-650342-7 (paper US$49.95) 231pp. Academic Press.
525 B Street, Suite 1900, San Diego, CA 92101-4495. - This book covers
the same ground as several similar works. It seeks to provide for the "need
for plant tissue culture laboratory exercises that demonstrate major concepts
and that use plant material that is available year round...yet give the
student the opportunity to work on a wide array of plant materials." (p.
ix). In this goal, the book succeeds, though there are a number of obvious
faults that lessen the usefulness of this volume.
Smith begins with an historical introduction, and then turns quickly
to chapters dealing with the setup of a tissue culture laboratory, the
components of various formulations of media and their preparation, and
preparation of explants for culture. Then she considers contamination of
cultures and its prevention or elimination, followed by a number of chapters
which each deal with a single concept that is covered by several exercises
for students. These concepts include a range of topics that will be very
useful, from callus induction to generation of haploid plants to protoplast
fusion. This is good in that Roberts covers some topics omitted elsewhere—e.g.
in the recently-reviewed Plant Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory Exercises
from CRC Press, embryo rescue is not covered, though it is covered in the
work considered here. The range of experiments presented for student use
is good, from basic to applied, and the exercises themselves are concise
and clear, with useful questions to stimulate the thoughts of students.
The book ends with useful appendices on common measurements for tissue
culture and conversion factors, solution preparation, a complete list of
suppliers, and a glossary of useful terms commonly used in plant tissue
culture. The appendix on the logic of preparing solutions is an especially
good idea for use with students, including practice problems that they
can use for calculating the contents of different solutions.
Nevertheless, there are several flaws that reduce the value of this
work. Overall, Plant Tissue Culture Techniques and Experiments possesses
a choppy tone which will not be helpful for students new to this discipline.
This tone is less evident in the exercises, but the smooth flow of writing
is most obviously absent in the first few chapters. It is in these general
explanatory chapters that clarity is most important. Also detrimental to
comprehension, complete reliance on line drawings, and not those of the
highest quality or clarity, also detracts from the value of this book.
Photographs of tools and explants along with relevant micrographs, e.g.
of plant embryos, are badly needed.
In part due to the choppiness noted above, the consideration of the
history of plant tissue culture is rather dry. For students, especially
undergraduate students, this will hurt comprehension. The chapter needs
to be made more interesting, which will require either lengthening the
chapter or reduction of the number of events considered in future editions
to allow these events to be brought to life.
Some technical means are clearly preferred by the author, but other
means ought to be mentioned. For example, "wash hands, fingernails, and
arms with warm soapy water with a fingernail brush" (p.75) is not something
that is always, or perhaps often, done in plant tissue culture laboratories,
and in some circumstances may not be practical. The section on adjustment
of pH lists NaOH, though many laboratories use KOH instead since many plant
cultures dislike exposure to Na+. p. 75 suggests using "hair nets, masks,
and a clean laboratory coat" for improving aseptic technique, though these
might be dangerous to use in a laboratory full of students who are working
with flames. These are often, perhaps usually, omitted in working tissue
culture laboratories. Bunsen burners are to be replied upon for flames
in sterilizing tools according to Plant Tissue Culture Techniques and Experiments,
while unmentioned alcohol lamps and other devices might sometimes be the
only available means of providing a flame in a hood.
The most glaring error is, however, the citation of messages from email
listservers. While pointing students to these resources is a good idea,
citing the unreviewed and informally presented opinion of one or a few
persons is a poor idea, whether or not the emails are archived.
Plant Tissue Culture Techniques and Experiments will be useful for a
range of institutions, from those using plant tissue culture to demonstrate
plant physiology and development to those preparing students for a technical
field. The limited number of technical possibilities sometimes mentioned
will limit the value of this book for amateurs—e.g. those who might wish
to perform their own work with orchids in a home laboratory. Instructors
should use another volume on plant tissue culture or their own experience
to supplement this book, and libraries might buy a copy, though if several
similar volumes in recent editions are already in a collection, this book
could be bypassed. - Douglas Darnowski Department of Biology, Washington
College, Chesterton, MD 21620.
and Wetland Plants of Northeastern North America. G.E. Crow and
C.B. Hellquist. 2000. Volume 1. 536 pp. ISBN 0-299-16330-X (US$ 90.00 hardcover).
Volume 2. 446 pp. ISBN 0-299-16280-X (US$ 90.00 hardcover). Madison, WI:
University of Wisconsin Press. - Aquatic vascular plants comprise an intriguing
biological group of species. Their proper identification has become increasingly
important with the rise of problematic exotic species introductions. Garrett
Crow and Barre Hellquist's work with aquatic and wetland plants is well
known and appreciated in the northeastern States, thanks largely to their
series of New England aquatic plant identification booklets published in
the 1980's. Their latest collaboration offers an exhaustive field manual
of aquatic and wetland plant species covering ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms
of northeastern North America.
This new treatment represents a long-awaited improvement of Norman Fassett's
(1957) classic reference that has been sorely outdated for decades. In
comparison to the earlier manual, this new one has been broadened to treat
1186 taxa (only 752 taxa in Fassett's manual), adding species of peatland
and coastal tidal marsh habitats, as well as an expanded northeastern coverage
(adding Newfoundland and all of Virginia). Although being a complete re-write,
the authors have retained the useful features of Fassett's original manual—keys
that focus largely on vegetative features and an extensive use of illustrations.
The manual is divided into two volumes, each covering native or naturalized
species of the region. Volume 1 is dedicated to pteridophytes, gymnosperms,
and dicots while Volume 2 is concerned with the monocots. A five-page review
of nuisance aquatic genera and species of the region is offered in Volume
1 (and repeated in Volume 2). The general keys are well constructed and
frequently reference helpful illustrations of key features. These early
figures help the user recognize unfamiliar organ modifications that represent
adaptations to the aquatic habitat.
The distinguished benefit of this manual is its comprehensive make-up,
which offers full family and genus descriptions, discussions of taxonomy
where necessary, species habitat and range information, and plentiful literature
references. Another prominent, attractive feature of the manual is its
generous use of illustrations. More than 90% of the taxa are illustrated
in some way amounting to over 600 full-page plates.
The only criticisms of this manual are those attributable to the publisher.
The quality of reproduction of some illustrations is variable. The large
size format (8.5 X 11) and price make its potential to be carried into
the field low. Nevertheless, this identification manual is essential for
anyone needing to identify and understand higher plants in aquatic ecosystems.—Donald
J. Padgett, Department of Biological Sciences, Bridgewater State College,
Bridgewater, MA 02325.
Fassett, N. C. 1957. A Manual of Aquatic Plants. 2nd ed.
University of Wiscosin Press, Madison.
Today, Volume 13. Ettore Olmo and Carlo A. Redi, editors. 2000
Birkhäuser Verlag, P.O. Box 133, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland. ISBN
3-7643-5799-1. Hardbound, 320 pages; US$139 at amazon.com. — This volume
is the proceedings of the 13th International Chromosome Conference, Numana
and Ancona, Italy, 8-12 September 1998. There are in all 80 contributors
listed in the front of the book. The papers comprise all but one of the
invited lectures. The title implies this is a kind of serial, but it isn't.
Very few of the authors have English as their first language; nonetheless,
the English is grammatical and colloquial throughout. The editors surely
deserve much credit for this. Sentences like the following are to be found
on the back cover, but not in the text itself: "The cytogenetical studies
have been greatly increased in the last years also for a progressive improvement
of the methods that have consented a deeper analysis of the molecular organization
of the eukaryotic chromosomes and a precise in situ localisation of specific
This is in no sense a primer on chromosomes. The papers are technical,
larded with the jargon of the field, laden with unexpanded abbreviations
known only to the cognoscenti.
There is little botany here. But the literature citations are very extensive
and of course run to 1998. There are numerous color plates, and photographs
of many of the authors. There is an index, but a number of Latin generic
names are not included. There are "snurposomes" on page 307, but they didn't
make it into the index, either. Yes, I am mystified as to what these may
be. I've no doubt those in attendance at the conference were familiar with
the term; but once the spoken words are in print and available to a wider
audience, the language needs explication.
There were presumably twelve earlier volumes with this title; a quick
survey of the references accompanying each of the 23 papers revealed one
citation for vol. 7 and one for vol. 12. Evidently, these volumes are not
major primary sources in the field. _ Neil A. Harriman, Biology Department,
University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh, Oshkosh, WI 54901, USA; firstname.lastname@example.org
of Steens Mountain. Mansfield, Donald H. Oregon State University
Press, 101 Waldo Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331. Paperback, ISBN 0-87071-471-6,
410 pages, US$29.95 - The author is professor of biology at Albertson College
of Idaho and curator of the Harold M. Tucker Herbarium. The college is
in Caldwell, Idaho, just west of Boise, and within reasonable driving distance
of Steens Mountain in SE Oregon. The college's website, www.albertson.edu,
includes some fine photographs of the author. The college is not a major
research institution, and is to be congratulated for having supported the
efforts of the author over many years.
The coverage of the flora is the southern half of Harney County, Oregon.
Steens Mountain is a fault-block mountain range. If you visit the Malheur
National Wildlife Refuge, there it is, the eastern horizon. It lures you
on. And there is a gravel loop road out of Frenchglen, that makes much
of it accessible. There are at least 6 taxa endemic to Steens Mountain
and nearby ranges.
Because Steens Mountain (and the neighboring area, including the Alvord
Desert) is botanically so diverse, the author provides an extensive series
of keys. A mere picture book could not possibly do the area justice. I
haven't tried the keys yet, but they appear to be entirely conventional
and very workable. Because the author is first a teacher, he gives the
derivation of each generic name; but the epithets are not translated. This
was surely a compromise, to keep the book within reasonable bounds. When
you get to "your species," the author gives a capsule description of it,
a very usable feature of the book. The sequence of families and genera
is alphabetical, an eminently sensible arrangement.
There are abundant line-drawing illustrations, plus 8 unnumbered pages
of color photographs inserted between pages 218 and 219. Not every species
is illustrated, or you would need a wheelbarrow to carry the book along
on field trips. There is an ample glossary, and illustrations of the common
terminology of descriptive botany. The index is thorough and complete.
Some of the color pictures give an indication of the terrain. The cover
picture probably best illustrates its ruggedness and unspoiled beauty.
_ Neil A. Harriman, Biology Department, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh,
Oshkosh, WI 54901 USA; email@example.com
(Fabaceae) Fruits and Seeds: Interactive Identification and Information
Retrieval. J.H. Kirkbride, C.R. Gunn, A.L. Weitzman, and M.J. Dallwitz.
2000. CD-Rom. ($75.00). Parkway Publishers, Inc. Box 3678, Boone, NC 28607.
-This publication is a gold mine for those interested in fruit and seed
characters of legume genera. There is a wealth of information provided
in the CD, and, once the user becomes familiar with how to use it, it may
be a very important publication indeed. This is the first solid attempt
to present information on fruits and seeds of all legume genera, and this
alone makes it extremely important.
The authors accept 685 genera for the family, with fruit character data
included for 647 genera, and seed character data for 634 genera. Fruit
data only are available for 12 genera, and no data at all for 20 remaining
genera. A total of 142 fruit characters and 138 seed characters are included
in the database. Distributional information and cultivation status are
also included. A very thorough bibliography is provided. Illustrations
(line drawings and photographs) are presented for almost all genera, and
although these are of differing quality, most are very good.
If one is looking for a source of information on legume genera, this
is a very good source. When one chooses a genus on which to gather data,
the screens are laid out, for the most part, in a clear and easy to use
manner. However, the many problems of presentation and utility make this
a less than perfect product.
First, the genera are arranged in a systematic fashion. While this arrangement
may be clear to some users, I suspect that most of us would find this difficult
to use. If the genera were arranged alphabetically, the "user friendliness"
of the product would increase dramatically. I spent a great deal of time
searching for generic information, in order to compare it with specimens,
and was frustrated by the difficulty this presented.
Second, the characters of the fruits and seeds themselves were presented
in what appeared (to me, at least) a random fashion. The utility of the
product could be dramatically improved if the characters themselves were
Third, the keying process itself is difficult. The degree of subjectivity
necessary for one to use the keys makes getting a correct answer challenging.
I chose specimens of 11 genera, with fruits or seeds, with which to try
the key, and was only able to key out 1 genus easily. The remaining 10
were keyed out (narrowed down) to within a few genera, which required me
to read the descriptions of those genera, and compare my specimens to descriptions
to arrive at a conclusion. I also tried keying out several unknown legume
seeds, to see if the process would be possible for those wanting to use
it for that purpose (e.g., seed quality control agents, customs officials,
and so on...). I was able to arrive at a range of possibilities for each
sample, but the level of difficulty of the process was high, and required
further comparisons with the descriptions and previously identified samples
to come to firm conclusions. While a true expert in the family might be
able to use the key with relative ease, most people, I suspect, would not
find it so easy.
All of this would change if uncertain characters were well explained
clearly, but this is not always the case, and I was unable to get to some
of the explanatory options to respond.
Overall, the CD is definitely worth the $75 (plus shipping) price tag,
merely as a reference. It is not, unfortunately, the final word in keying
out unknown legume fruit and seeds; if thoughtful revisions are made after
many test runs, it could become just that. - Michael A. Vincent, Department
of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, 45056.
Orchids, Revised edition. Stewart,
Joyce. 2000. ISBN 0-88192-381-4 (cloth, US$19.95) 124 pp. Timber Press,
Suite 450, 133 SW Second Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97204. _ This is a book
for beginning orchid fanciers. It contains a wealth of information to start
the novice along the right track in orchid culture. The author is eminently
suited to guide the beginner because of her long experience with orchids,
in the field, greenhouse, and home, in Africa and in the United Kingdom.
Joyce Steward is President of the World Orchid Conference Trust, was the
first Sainsbury Orchid Fellow at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and the
recipient in 1999 of the Victoria Medal of Honour. Currently she serves
as Director of Horticulture, Science, and Education at the Royal Horticultural
Society's gardens at Wisley.
One moves gracefully and logically through chapters on orchid history
and conservation, orchid names, terrestrials and epiphytes, to the principles
of orchid growing, cultivation, and propagation. There is a section on
pest and diseases, and finally brief descriptions of commonly grown orchid
genera, species, and some hybrids. A useful glossary is followed by a helpful
bibliography and index. A high point of Stewart's book is the excellent
colored illustrations of orchid flowers and the instructive line drawings
that complement the text.
Stewart's writing flows evenly, and the "how to" sections are clear
and understandable. Although the book is designed to interest orchid newcomers,
there is much of relevance for experienced growers as well. This revised
edition of the 1988 publication is substantially similar to that work,
although a few additions have been made. Name changes have been kept to
a minimum, the bibliography has been updated as have dates and figures.
The only fault I find is in the persistent use by horticulturists, Joyce
Stewart among them, of the term "feeding," as thought green plants need
to ingest food instead of being fertilized. This small quirk, however,
should not deter any budding orchid enthusiast from purchasing this fine
volume. _ William Louis Stern, Department of Botany, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611-8526.
Orchids of Southern Africa.
Hans Peter Linder and Hubert Kurzweil. 1999. ISBN 90 5410 445 7 (cloth,
US$97.50). 492 pp. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.—This is a
glorious book by two eminent South African botanists. It encompasses the
orchid flora of southern Africa in comprehensive detail. The most recent
predecessor of this work was Wild orchids of southern Africa, but
Linder's and Kurzweil's book should not be considered a revision of that
study. For numerous reasons, outlined in their Preface,
Orchids of southern
Africa is a new book, standing entirely on its own. The authors have
shared the composition of the text between them, Kurzweil being responsible
for the extensive introductory sections including such topics as phytogeography,
systematics, pollination, history, and cultivation. Kurzweil also edited
the taxonomic text, drew up the glossary and literature references, searched
for photographs, and coordinated all parts. The first author, Linder, completed
most of the taxonomic accounts, the major portion of the volume. Specialists
on certain genera were called in to help, and they are recognized appropriately
at the head of each treatment.
Orchids of southern Africa treats every orchid species, subspecies,
and variety recorded in South Africa, Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland, and
Botswana. There are 466 species indigenous to the region. The Cape is the
area of greatest diversity and most of its species are confined to the
region. The astounding diversity of orchids, most of which are terrestrial,
in southern Africa is related to the topographic and climatic variation
characteristic of the district that varies from near alpine highlands and
hot deserts to subtropical rain forests and great stretches of sandy beaches
and rocky coasts.
The introductory chapters by Kurzweil could well serve as a separate
book. There are chapters on geography, geology, and soil and on climate
and vegetation, all accompanied by clearly drawn maps and magnificent color
photographs of the landscape. An entire chapter is devoted to the orchid
flora with statistics on numbers of genera and species. The origin and
affinities of the orchids are discussed as well as life forms and habits
of the plants, the latter aided by pen and ink drawings. The biology and
structure are treated in some detail together with references for further
reading and illustrations of floral parts as line drawings and close-ups
in color. Pollination is examined in detail, tribe by tribe.
An extensive section deals with classification and nomenclature, hybrids,
synonyms and name changes. There is a piece on the history of orchid classification
and, finally, a detailed outline of the classification adopted by the authors
based on Robert L. Dressler's 1993 Phylogeny and classification of the
orchid family. In this section the pertinent features of each subfamily
and tribe of orchids represented in southern Africa are outlined.
Last among the introductory chapters are those on the history of southern
Africa orchidology, preservation and conservation with a list of species
ranked according to conservation status, economic uses, and special cultivation
methods for these difficult-to-grow terrestrials. The introductory chapters
and front matter occupy 64 pages.
Most of the book, 428 pages, is the taxonomic account mostly by Linder,
leading off with an artificial key to the subfamilies and genera of southern
Africa. Following this are descriptions of the taxa beginning with subfamily
Spiranthoideae. Each genus is described in detail starting with an enumeration
of synonyms and their places of publication. The species descriptions come
next. Each binomial is followed by the name of the author, and again, the
pertinent literature citations and places of publication. Synonyms are
organized with authors and places of publication. Citations of voucher
deposits with collectors' names and field numbers follow each species description.
Species descriptions are associated with distribution maps showing where
collections have been made in southern Africa based on actual herbarium
specimens. More than 14,800 specimens were used to compile these maps.
Color photographs, mostly taken in the field, of 397 species are associated
with the descriptions and line drawings of most species accompany the text.
Most of the color photographs are of outstanding quality and complement
the line drawings. Where available, cladograms appear showing putative
There is an extensive list of references, a glossary of terminology,
biodata for all contributors, and two indices, one to the introductory
matter and a second to the taxonomic part with lists of taxa.
It would not be an exaggeration to state that Orchids of southern
Africa is a monumental study, destined to last for decades as the sine
qua non of southern African orchids. It belongs on the shelves of serious
orchid researchers, and hobbyists will also benefit by reading this book,
especially the introductory chapters. The authors are to be congratulated
for turning out a masterpiece. _William Louis Stern, Department of Botany,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8526.
The Photo Atlas
of Vascular Plants CD-ROM. Woddland, Dennis. (CD US$20.00) University
of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Botany, Attn: Mike Clayton, 430 Lincoln
Dr., Madison, WI 53706. This disk, which runs on either Mac or PC platforms,
presents a wide variety of photographs of seedbearing and non-seedbearing
vascular plants. Its many attractive photographs and easy searching make
it a valuable tool, though there are a few drawbacks, some related to available
The various contributors to this CD-ROM give access wide variety of
species, in views ranging from artwork to micrographs to pictures of hillsides.
There are over 4,700 ful-color pictures drawn from over 270 families
and 1,150 genera. This breadth makes the Photo Atlas of Vascular Plants
a valuable resource for educators, by whom the images may be "copied and
used in such instructional contexts as lecture presentations or course-specific
tutuorials" (liner notes), though they may not use the images for web pages
and similar purposes. Some more obscure families such as the Stylidiaceae
are represented, and a few remarkable images are offered such as the tuberous
sundew Drosera neesii (Droseraceae), which is difficult to find
even in Australian field guides. There are even ten photographs to illustrate
what may be the most recently discovered botanical living fossil, the Wollemi
pine (Wollemia nobilis; Araucariaceae)
In general, several stages of the lifecycle are represented for a family,
often for a particular genus. These can be found using the simple, fast,
and effective search tool that comes as part of the software. It should
also be mentioned that a copy of the software, "Portfolio," which was used
to create this CD-ROM, is included with a free sixty-day trial. It proves
to be an easy-to-use program and might be of real value. An instructor
might combine images from this CD-ROM with locally generated images to
produce a mini-directory for use during one particular week of a laboratory
course.Coverage, while excellent, is not truly encyclopedic. For example,
the contributors depict the Citrus family (Rutaceae) with a dozen fine
photographs. Dictamnus albus, dittany, and the Australian Eriostemon
spicatus are depicted, though no representative of the more numerous
Australian genus Boronia occurs in the catalog. More complete coverage
during a laboratory in taxonomy might be found in a volume such as Tropica.
Also, the images while typically having very nice brightness and contrast,
do not possess very high resolution. This may be a result of the authors
aiming for fast searching or a maximum number of images to be included,
but this can limit the usefulness of these images. This may be due to technological
limitations which could be resolved in future. When enlarged to half-screen
size on a 17 inch monitor, pixellation becomes apparent, and would be more
obvious if used with a video projector, though it would not render the
CD-ROM useless, just less than optimal.
In future editions, non-vascular plants ought to be added. Given that
many of the photographs on this edition of the CD-ROM represent multicellular
gametophytes of vascular non-seedbearing plants, inclusion of mosses and
their cousins would fit well, and would make this CD-ROM even more complete
and valuable for teaching. Given the results of molecular taxonomy, certainly
at least some of the green algae might also be added to this list. Higher
resolution for the images ought also to be a high priority.
The Photo Atlas of Vascular Plants would be of value for those teaching
general biology, botany, taxonomy, and perhaps some horticultural courses.
It would be of value for students in such courses. High schools and colleges
with limited teaching collections might profitably use it to enlarge the
experience of their students. Buy a copy. _ Douglas Darnowski, Department
of Biology, Washington College, Chesterton, MD 21620
American Journal of Botany back issues
American Journal of Botany back issues from 1914 (volume 1)
are available on the JSTOR web site http://www.jstor.org/.
Articles can be viewed as citations, graphics (scalable high quality gif
images), or downloaded into standard or high quality PDF reprints. Contents
can be browsed or searched. The JSTOR material is subject to a five year
moving wall; more recent on-line copies of the Journal will remain
If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor,
stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed
(1 February, 1 May, 1 August or 1 November). Send E-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org,
call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list because
they go Quickly! Ed.
The Berry Grower's Companion. Bowling, Barbara L. 2000. ISBN
0-88192-489-X (Cloth US$29.95) 308 pp Timber Press. 133 S. W. Second Avenue,
Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Crop Responses and Adaptations to Temperature Stress. Basra,
Amarjit S. (ed) 2000 ISBN 1-56022-890-3 (Cloth US$94.95) ISBN 1-56022-906-3
(Paper US$49.95) 302 pp Food Products Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton,
New York 13904-1580.
Delivery and Perception of Pathogen Signals in Plants. Keen,
Noel T., Shigeyuki Mayama, Jan E. Leach, and Shinji Tsujumu (eds) 2001.
ISBN 0-89054-259-7. (Cloth US$59.00) 268 pp. APS Press, 3340 Pilot Knob
Road, St. Paul, MN 55121-2097.
Emanuel D. Rudolph's Studies in the History of North American Botany
with an appendix on the relationships between science and religion.
Stuckey, Ronald L and William R. Burk (eds) 2000. ISSN 0883-1475, ISBN
1-889878-05-7. (Paper US$45.00) 376 pp. SIDA/Botanical Research Institute
of Texas, 509 Pecan Street, Fort Worth, TX 76102-4060.
The European Garden Flora: A manual for the identification of plants
cultivated in Europe, both out-of-doors and under glass. Volume VI. Dicotyledons
(Part IV). Cullen, J., J. C. M. Alexander, C. D. Brickell, J.R. Edmondson,
P. S. Green, V. H. Heywood, P.-M. Jørgensen, S. L. Jury, S. G. Knees,
H. S. Maxwell, D. M. Miller, N. K. B. Robson, S. M. Walters and P. F. Yeo
(eds). 2000. ISBN 0-521-42097-0. (Cloth US$175.00) 739 pp Cambridge University
Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.
Flora of China, Volume 24, Flagellariaceae-Marantaceae. 2000.
ISBN 0-915279-83-5 (Cloth US$85.00) 431 pp Science Press (Beijing) and
Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110.
Flora of China Illustrations, Volume 18, Scrophulariaceae-Gesneriaceae.
ISBN0-915279-84-3 (Cloth US$95.00) 423 pp Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri
Botanical Garden Press, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110.
Floristics in the New Millennium: Proceedings of the Flora of the
Southeast US Symposium. Lipscomb, Barney L., John J. Popoly III, and
Roger W. Sanders (eds). 2000. ISSN 0883-1475, ISBN 1-889878-04-9. (Paper
US$20.00) 135 pp. SIDA/Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 509 Pecan
Street, Fort Worth, TX 76102-4060.
Gardening in the Desert. Irish, Mary. 2000. ISBN 0-8165-2057-7
(Paper US$17.95) 210 pp. The University of Arizona Press, 355 S. Euclid
Ave., Suite 103, Tucson, AZ 85719.
Generic Conspectus of the tribe Astereae (Asteraceae) in North America,
Central America, the Antilles, and Hawaii. Nesom, Guy. 2000. ISSN 0883-1475,
ISBN 1-889878-06-5 (Paper US$25.00) 96 pp SIDA/Botanical Research Institute
of Texas, 509 Pecan Street, Fort Worth, TX 76102-4060.
The Ghosts of Evolution: Nonsensical Fruit, Missing Partners, and
other Ecological Anachronisms. (Advance Uncorrected Proof) Barlow,
Connie. 2001. ISBN 0-465-00551-9 (Cloth US$26.00) 224 pp Basic Books, 10
East 52rd St., New York, NY 10025.
Green Plants: Their Origin and Diversity (2nd ed).
Bell, Peter R. and Alan R. Helmsley. 2000. ISBN 0-521-64673-1 (Paper US$31.95)
349 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street. New
York, NY 10011-4211.
Handbook of Psychotropic Herbs. Russo, Ethan. 2001. ISBN 0-7890-0718-5
(Cloth US$84.00) ISBN 0-7890-1088-7 (Paper US$36.00) 352 pp The Haworth
Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, New York, 13904-1580.
Icones Pleurothallidinarum XX: Systematics of Jostia, Andinia, Barbosella,
Barbrodria, and Pleurothallis and Subgenera Antilla, Effusia and Restrepiodia
with addenda to Lepanthes, Masdevallia and Pleurothallis. Luer, Carlyle.
2000. ISBN 0-815279-09-6 (Paper US$51.95) 140 pp Missouri Botanical Garden
Press, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110.
Index of Plant Chromosome Numbers 1996-1997. Goldblatt, Peter
and Dale E. Johnson (eds) 2000. ISBN 0-915279-88-6 (Paper US$20.00) 188
pp Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO
Index of Mosses, 1996-1998. Crosby, Marshall (ed) 2000. ISBN
0-915279-10-X (Paper US$19.95) 65 pp Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 4344
Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110.
Integrative Plant Anatomy. Dickison, William C. 2000. ISBN 0-12-215170-4
(Cloth US$ ) 533 pp Academic Press. 525 B Street. Suite 1900, San Diego,
Introduction to the Exploration of Multivariate Biological Data.
Podani, Janos. 2000. ISBN 90-5782-067-6 (Paper US$52.50) 407 pp Backhuys
Publishers b.v. P.O. Box 321, 2300 AH Leiden, The Netherlands.
Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Bossard, Carla C.,
John M . Randall, and Marc C. Hoshovsky (eds) 2000. ISBN 0-520-22546-5
(Cloth US$60.00) ISBN 0-520-22547-3 (Paper US$29.95) 360 pp The University
of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720.
Laboratory Guide to the Identification of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria,
3rd ed. Schaad, N.W., J.B. Jones, and W. Chun. 2001. ISBN
0-89054-263-5 (Comb US$55.00) 373 pp APS Press, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St.
Paul, MN 55121-2097.
Medicinal Plants of Brazil. Mors, Walter B., Carlos Toledo Rizzini,
Nuno Alvares Pereira (Edited by Robert A. DeFilipps). 2000. ISBN 0-917256-42-5
(Cloth US$60.00) 550 pp Reference Publications, Inc. P.O. Box 344, Algonac,
Metabolic Engineering of Plant Secondary Metabolism. Verpoorte,
R. and A.W. Alfermann (eds). 2000. ISBN 0792363604 (Cloth US$147.00) 286
pp Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
The Origin, Expansion, and Demise of Plant Species. Levin, Donald
A. 2000. ISBN 0-19-512729-3 (Paper US$35.00) 230 pp Oxford University Press,
2001 Evans Road, Cary, NC 27513.
Plant Gene Silencing. Matzke, M.A. and A.J.M. Matzke (eds). 2000.
ISBN 0-7923-6382-5 (Cloth US$135) 298 pp Kluwer Academic Publishers. P.O.
Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Roadside Use of Native Plants. Harper-Lore, Bonnie, and Maggie
Wilson (eds). 2000. ISBN 1-55963-837-0 (Paper US$25.00) 665 pp Island Press76381
Commercial Street, P.O. Box 7, Covelo, California 95428.
Sage: The Genus Salvia. Kintzios, Spiridon E.(ed). 2000. ISBN
90-5823-005-8 (Cloth US$110.00) 296 pp Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsteldijk
166, 1st Floor, 1079 LH Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Seagrass Ecology: An Introduction. Hemminga, Marten A and Carlos
M Duarte. 2000. ISBN 0-521-66184-6 (Cloth US$80.00) 298 pp Cambridge University
Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.
Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature. Bejan, Adrian.
2000. ISBN 0-521-79049-2 (Cloth US$110.00) 0-521-79388-2 (Paper US $39.95)
324 pp Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New
York, NY 10011-4211.
Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plantsm Vol 6. Jain, S. Mohan,
Pramod K. Gupta, and Ronald J. Newton (eds). 2000. ISBN 0-792-36419-8 (Cloth
US$336.00) 746 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers. P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht,
Strawberries. Hancock, J.F. 2000. ISBN 0-85199-339-7 (Cloth US$45.00)
237 pp Oxford University Press, 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016-4314.
Succulent Flora of Southern Africa (revised edition) Court, Doreen.
2000. ISBN 90-5809-323-9 (Cloth EUR75.00) 300 pp A.A. Balkema B.V., Postbus
1675, 3000 BR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
The "Takhtajania issue", Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden,
Volume 87 (3)297-434. 2000. (Paper US$35.00) Missouri Botanical Garden
Press, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110.
The Tropical Deciduous Forest of Alamos: Biodiversity of a Threatened
Ecosystem in Mexico. Robichaux, Robert H. and David A. Yetman. 2000.
(Cloth US$50.00) 260 pp The University of Arizona Press, 355 S. Euclid
Ave., Suite 103, Tucson, AZ 85719.
Wetland Ecology: Principles and Conservation. Keddy, Paul A.
2000. ISBN 0-521-78367-4 (Paper US$52.95). 614 pp Cambridge University
Press, 40 West 20th Street. New York, NY 10011-4211.
A World Synopsis of the Genus Grimmia. Munoz, Jesus and Francisco
Pando. 2000. ISBN 0-915279-92-4 (Paper US$22.00) 133 pp Missouri Botanical
Garden Press, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110.
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