PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
VOLUME 46 NUMBER
The Evolving Debate..........................................................................................110
News from the Society
Awards Presented at the Annual Meeting
Katherine Esau Award...................................................................114
Maynard F. Moseley Award..........................................................114
BSA/Karling Graduate Student
ASPT's Cooley Award...................................................................115
Edgar T. Wherry Award.................................................................115
Samuel N. Postlethwait Award.......................................................115
Physiological Section Award...........................................................115
Margaret Menzel Award.................................................................115
Isabel C. Cookson Paleobotanical
A.J. Sharp Award...........................................................................116
Henry Allan Gleason Award............................................................116
Lawrence Memorial Award -2000...................................................116
Did You Know?..............................................................................................116
News from the Sections
Leisman Gift to Paleobotanical
Genetics Section News....................................................................117
for Proposals: Karling Graduate Student Award........................................117
for Used/Damaged Teaching Supplies.................................................118
for Nominations - 2000 Young Botanists Award.......................................118
in 2001 (Highlands Biological Station)....................................118
of Research in 2001....................................................................118
C. Plowman Latin American Research Award.....................................120
for Applying to Graduate School...........................................................121
Plant Evolutionary Biologist, Univ.
Biology Faculty Positions, Univ. of
Faculty Position, Plant Physiology/Development.................................123
Collections Specialist, Dept. Botany, Field Museum...........................123
Land Steward Volunteer....................................................................124
Plant Developmental Biologist............................................................124
Journal of Botany Back Issues on JSTOR...........................................135
BSA Logo Items Available
from the Business office...............................................136
PLANT SCIENCESN 0032-0919
Editor: Marshall D. Sundberg
Department of Biological Sciences
Emporia State University
1200 Commercial Street, Emporia, KS 66801-5707
Telephone: 316-341-5605 Fax: 316-341-5607
Plant Science Bulletin
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil
Ave., Columbus, OH 43210
The yearly subscription rate of $15 is included in the membership dues
of the Botanical Society of America, Inc. Periodical postage paid at Columbus,
OH and additional mailing office.
Address Editorial Matters (only) to:
Marsh Sundberg, Editor
Dept. Biol. Sci., Emporia State Univ.
1200 Commercial St.
Emporia, KS 66801-5057
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to:
Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293
Plant Science Bulletin
Editorial Committee for Volume 46
Vicki A. Funk (2001)
Department of Botany
Washington, D.C. 20560
Ann E. Antlfinger (2002)
Univ. of Nebraska - Omaha
Omaha NE 681823
P. Mick Richardson (2000)
Missouri Botanical Garden
P.O. Box 299
St. Louis, MO 63166
Norman C. Ellstrand (2003)
Department of Botany and Plant Science
University of California
Riverside CA 92521-0124
James E. Mickle (2004)
Department of Botany
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7612
Ever since "A Nation at Risk" was published more than a decade ago,
scientists have become increasingly aware of the scientific illiteracy
of our students and of the general public. Simultaneously the public voice
of fundamentalism has grown louder. A scientifically illiterate public
is receptive to the simplicity of fundamentalism and "common sense" arguments
in its favor. A 1982 Gallup poll reported that "…over 80 percent of respondents
favored either parallel teaching or exclusive teaching of creationism."
This conservative onslaught led to a number of state laws ranging from
a prohibition to teach evolution (Arkansas); to disclaimer stickers on
textbooks identifying evolution as "a controversial theory…, not fact,"
(Alabama); to balanced treatment of evolution and "creation science" (Louisiana);
to last years decision by the Kansas School Board to delete major sections
of science from the curriculum. This antievolutionism has itself undergone
very rapid evolution during the past decade. "Creation science" of the
1980's has given way to "Intelligent Design" (ID) and the latter sees much
more than biological creation as its target (thus "big bang" was excluded
from the Kansas curriculum along with "macroevolution."). This new threat
is much more insidious because the nature of science and scientists themselves
are now under attack. Scientists are portrayed as deceitful and willing
to misrepresent data in order to support their theories (and examples are
given where oversimplification in textbooks can be interpreted as purposeful
misinformation by the proponents of ID).
In the following article, Randy Moore presents some of the background
necessary to understand why we find ourselves in the situation we are in.
He also makes a strong argument that it is time for us, botanical scientists,
to get involved and resist the fundamentalist attempts to subvert science
that increasingly are appearing in our school boards and our legislatures.
The recent revival of creationism in Kentucky, Kansas, Arizona, and
elsewhere has again refocused public attention on the evolution-creation
controversy. Given the often-emotional nature of the debate, it's not surprising
that many aspects of the controversy are misunderstood. Several of these
misunderstandings are important for botanists and other biologists. For
Although evolution applies to all organisms, the evolution of plants
has been largely irrelevant to the legal challenges, legislative debates,
and public discussions associated with the controversy. Most people _ creationists
included _ are not threatened by the fact that plants evolve. Even anti-evolution
activist and Scopes prosecutor William Jennings Bryan conceded that the
"evolution [of] plant life and animal life up to the highest form of
animal, if there were proof of it, be admitted" as fact (emphasis Bryan's).
For many creationists, evolution is acceptable as long as it applies only
to organisms such as weeds and algae.
By the same token, many creationists are not threatened by the evolution
of most other organisms; it's okay for organisms such as yeasts, nematodes,
and Paramecium to have descended from more-primitive forms of life.
As noted by Princeton Theological Seminary's Archibald Hodge, "About the
lower animals, we are willing to leave it to the scientists as outside
of immediate theological or religious interest." Similarly, when James
Woodrow (a University of South Carolina scientist and the South's most
notorious evolutionist in the late 1800s) was prosecuted by the Presbyterian
Church for his support of evolution, a participant in the controversy conceded
that "Neither party denies that descent with modification is probably the
law of the successive appearances of the animal tribes on this globe from
the beginning until we come down to man … We differ only upon one point,
the creation of the body of Adam."1
Figure 1. More than 75 years after the infamous Scopes
trial, evolution remains a controversial topic, even among many biology
teachers. As this article notes, many biology teachers do not include evolution
in their courses. This front-page headline was from the 3 October 1999
issue of The Courier-Journal in Louisville, KY.
Although most people are not threatened by the fact that weeds and worms
evolve, they are threatened by the fact that evolution applies to
humans just as it does to other organisms. This perceived threat is most
obvious in the various anti-evolution proposals that have been (and continue
to be) passed and debated in state legislatures and school board meetings
throughout the country. Since before the Scopes trial in 1925, virtually
all of these laws have been restricted to human evolution. Whereas
it may be acceptable to creationists to teach students that corn and wheat
descended from a common ancestor, it is not acceptable to teach that humans
descended from apes. As John Adger noted in 1886, "The point of discussion
is … not Evolution in general. For life below man this is conceded generally
… The controversy begins when the doctrine is applied to man." Creationists
demand that humans be exempt from the process of evolution, because the
scriptures say that humans descended directly from God.
Even Darwin's friend (and co-discoverer of natural selection) Alfred
Russel Wallace argued that natural selection applies to humans, but only
to a point. Our bodies, said Wallace, could be explained by natural selection,
but our brains could not, because Wallace believed that our brains have
powers that far exceed what could have been produced by natural selection.
Wallace concluded that "natural selection could only have endowed the savage
with a brain a little superior to that of an ape." Wallace claimed that
God must have intervened and given humans the "extra push" necessary to
produce our brains. When it came to humans, Wallace invoked the supernatural
to explain nature and reconcile religion and science.2 The emphasis
on human evolution continues today; for example, a bill was introduced
into the Kentucky legislature in 2000 that would have banned the teaching
of human evolution.
Although university faculty have occasionally spoken out against anti-evolution
laws and creationists' attempts to replace science with religious dogma,
all of the legal challenges to anti-evolution laws have been led by high
school teachers (e.g., John Scopes). Were it not for Susan Epperson (Epperson
v. Arkansas, 1968), it might still be a crime to teach evolution in
Tennessee, Arkansas, and Mississippi. Were it not for Don Aguillard (Edwards
v. Aguillard, 1987), biology teachers in Louisiana might be distributing
religious literature in their science courses. University faculty have
been little more than cheerleaders in these challenges.
At least 25% of biology teachers are creationists. Although many of
these and other creationists try to conceal their anti-evolution beliefs
by describing themselves with euphemistic labels such as "theistic evolutionist,"
others are died-in-the-wool believers who teach creationism (that is, their
version of creationism) in their science courses. Many of these biology
teachers were poorly trained in biology; some don't even recall hearing
the word evolution in their college biology courses. Ironically,
creationism is taught in John Scopes' school today. As Don Aguillard has
noted, " Creationism is alive and well among biology teachers."
Only slightly more than half of all biology teachers consider evolution
to be a unifying theme in biology, and almost half of all science teachers
believe that there is as much evidence for creationism as for evolution.
In states such as South Dakota, almost 40% of science teachers believe
that creationism should be taught in public schools.
Many biology teachers are afraid to include evolution in their courses
(e.g., Figure 1). The situation hasn't changed much since 1966 when George
Gaylord Simpson noted that "Through the power to select textbooks and to
hire and fire teachers, innumerable school boards and other officials can
and do de facto prevent the teaching of evolution without the aid
of state law." As an administrator in Tennessee noted recently, "Teachers
at my school try to avoid discussions of evolution … We don't need the
controversy … If I say the wrong thing, I could be looking for another
job." In these schools, the National Science Standards are meaningless.
Although many biology teachers claim that they "don't have time" to
cover evolution in their courses, they do nothing to make time to
correct the problem. These teachers simply do not want to teach
anyone about evolution. As a Kentucky high school biology teacher recently
said, "I teach creationism, but don't even talk about the theory of evolution."
This is an increasingly popular position for many high school biology teachers.
Anti-evolution statutes continue to be introduced into legislatures,
and the platforms of Republican parties in several states now endorse the
teaching of creationism. As the recent uprisings of creationism in Kentucky,
Kansas, Minnesota, and elsewhere have shown, creationism remains extremely
Creationists continue to vilify the teaching of evolution. In the 1920s,
William Jennings Bryan blamed the teaching of evolution for World War I,
and in 1981 Judge Braswell Dean of the Georgia State Court of Appeals claimed
that "The monkey mythology of Darwin is the cause of permissiveness, promiscuity,
pills, prophylactics, perversions, abortion, pornotherapy, pollution, poisoning
and proliferation of crimes of all types." In 1999, House Republican Whip
Tom DeLay continued the attack by claiming linking the teaching of evolution
with school violence, birth control, and abortion. To these and other people,
the teaching of evolution is a cause of many societal ills; this is why
states such as Kentucky and Louisiana have "sensitivity guidelines" that
group evolution with topics such as witchcraft, drug use, incest, death,
Many biology teachers present creationism and evolution as equally scientific
and equally meritous ways of understanding origins. This approach transforms
scientific "truth" into little more than an opinion poll (e.g., "What do
think?") and leads to truth in science being determined by a vote rather
than by an examination of evidence.
Many states and school districts explicitly ignore court cases that
restrict the teaching of creationism. For example, the Kentucky Board of
Education recently encouraged teachers to teach creationism by reminding
them that teachers who cover evolution in class can also teach "the theory
of creationism as presented in the Bible." Students who adhere to Biblical
literalism automatically get credit on all exams for their answers.
Although creationists have lost every legal challenge associated with
the creationism-evolution controversy, it hasn't mattered much; creationism
continues to be taught in many public schools, either explicitly as "creation
science" or euphemistically as "abrupt appearance theory," intelligent
design," or "evidence against evolution." People in other countries must
wonder how the most scientifically and technologically advanced country
in the world can harbor such support for the supernatural while rejecting
_ even condemning _ a foundation of modern science.
It's important for scientists and scientific organizations such as the
Botanical Society of America to aggressively resist creationists' attempts
to subvert science. Nevertheless, the public does not passively accept
the knowledge presented by scientific experts or professional societies.
Moreover, different intellectual communities use different criteria for
determining what is reasonable or "scientific"; this is why creationism
is considered differently by the public than by many scientists. At the
local level, technical and professional questions are of much less immediate
importance; teachers and local school boards do not have to look only at
proclamations issued by professional societies or professional definitions
of what science is or isn't. Rather, they must balance notions of scientific
integrity (however misunderstood) with local autonomy. School boards and
administrators do not need the sanction of state legislatures to implement
practices consistent with their ideological biases. Since creationism has
immense support by the public (almost 80% of Americans want creationism
taught in public schools), it's easy to see why evolution is often excluded
from high school biology courses.
Although we debate how evolution occurs, there is no doubt that
it does occur. Evolution is a fact of nature, and an understanding
of evolution is a central aspect of scientific literacy. Evolution is
what unifies biology. Not to teach evolution as the central concept of
biology is, as Joe McInerney has said, "educational malpractice."
1 Woodrow was eventually acquitted by a vote of 14-9 by the
Presbytery of Augusta, but the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church
in the United States adopted a hard-line position against human evolution:
"The Church remains at this time sincerely convinced that the Scriptures,
as truly and authoritatively expounded in our confession of Faith and Catechisms,
teach that Adam and Eve were created, body and soul, by immediate acts
of Almighty power, thereby preserving a perfect race unity. That Adam's
body was directly fashioned by Almighty God, without any natural animal
parentage of any kind, out of matter previously created of nothing. And
that any doctrine at variance therewith is a dangerous error …"
2 To his credit, Wallace was one of the few nineteenth-century
naturalists who did not conclude that so-called "primitive" humans (e.g.,
Australian aborigines, American Indians, etc.) were inferior. Wallace realized
that even if "primitive" humans did not actually write poetry or do geometry,
they nevertheless had the mental ability to do such things.
Randy Moore, a botanist and former officer in the Botanical Society
of America, is a professor at the University of Minnesota. His recent
book In the Light of Evolution: Science Education on Trial (Reston,
VA: National Association of Biology Teachers) resulted from his highly
acclaimed series of articles about the evolution-creationsim controversy
that appeared in The American Bilogy Teacher, "Creationsim in the
United States: I. Banning Evolution in the Classroom [60(7):486-507] II.
Aftermath of the Scopes Trial [60(8): 568-577]; III. The Ban on Teaching
Evolution Reaches the U.S. Supreme Court [60(9): 650-661]; IV. The aftermath
of Epperson v. Arkansas [61(1):10-16]; V. The McLean decision
destroys the credibiliyt of "creation science" [61(2): 92-101]; VI Demanding
"balanced treatment" [61(3): 175-180]; VII. The lingering impact of Inherit
the Wind [61(4):246-251); VIII. The lingering threat [61(5): 330-340].--
Randy Moore, General College _ Appleby Hall, University of Minnesota, 128
Pleasant Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455, Phone 612-626-4458, Fax 612-625-0709,
News from the Society
Awards Presented at the Annual Meeting
The Botanical Society of America's Merit Awards are the highest honors
bestowed by the Society. They are given in recognition of outstanding contributions
in research, teaching, and service. This year the Society presents a Merit
Award to Leslie Gottlieb of the University of California - Davis.
Dr. Leslie Gottlieb has had a profound impact on the direction of plants
systematics and has been one of the most influential plant evolutionary
biologists over the past several decades. His 1977 paper in the Annals
of the Missouri Botanical Garden, laid the foundation for the intelligent
application of allozyme data in plant systematics. His 1982 paper in Science
is a classic study of the duplication and conservation of isozyme loci
in plants. His 1984 paper in the American Naturalist has been called
one of the most important papers in plant evolutionary biology during the
past half century. However, his greatest contribution may have come through
his influence on the careers and research of a substantial number of plant
evolutionary biologists, including many of the people most active in this
field today. Despite the fact that his research has often been more genetic
or molecular in nature, Leslie has remained a botanist at heart.
- John Doebley, Chair, Merit Award Committee.
KATHERINE ESAU AWARD
This award, established in 1985 with a gift from Dr. Esau, is given
to the graduate student who presents the outstanding paper in developmental
and structural botany at the annual meeting. This year's award goes to
Meloche from The University of Colorado for his talk, co-authored with
Pamela Diggle and entitled, "Patterns of carbon allocation in Acomstylis
rossii (Rosaceae), an alpine plant exhibiting extreme preformation".
MAYNARD F. MOSELEY AWARD
The Maynard F. Moseley Award was established to honor a career of dedicated
teaching, scholarship, and service to the furtherance of the botanical
sciences. The award recognizes a student paper that best advances our understanding
of the anatomy and/or morphology of vascular plants within an evolutionary
context. Two awards will be presented this year. The awardees are:
1. Sandra Floyd, University of Colorado, for her paper,
co-authored with Ned Friedman, and entitled, "Endosperm development in
trichopoda implications for the origin and early evolution of angiosperm
2. Elizabeth Hermsen, Cornell University, for her paper,
co-authored with William Crepet and Kevin Nixon and entitled, "A new fossil
saxifragoid from the Upper Cretaceous of New Jersey."
STUDENT RESEARCH AWARDS
This award was given for the first time in 1997 to support student research.
The awards are made possible by a gift from the late John Sidney Karling
and through contributions from the BSA membership. Dr. Karling's research
interests were in cytology, marine fungi, and tropical biology. He was
an active member of both the Torrey Botanical Club and the BSA. Each awardee
receives a certificate and a check for $500. This year, Karling Awards
are presented to the following 15 students:
1. Ms. Nicole Andrus
Department of Biological Sciences
Florida International University
Miami, FL 33199
2. Mr. James S. Boyer
Department of Biological Sciences
State University of New York at Binghamton
Binghamton, NY 13902-6000
3. Ms. Jutta Buschbom
Field Museum of Natural History
1400 S Lakeshore Dr.
Chicago, IL 60605
4. Mr. Matthew H. Collier
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Cincinnati
PO Box 210006
Cincinnati, OH 45211-0006
5. Ms. Jennifer Ott Geiger
Department of Environmental, Population, & Organismic Biology
University of Colorado - Boulder
Boulder, CO 80309
6. Mr. Andrew Hipp
Department of Botany
University of Wisconsin - Madison
132 Birge Hall, 430 Lincoln Dr.
Madison, WI 53706
7. Ms. Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond
Department of Plant Biology
Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ 85287-1601
8. Mr. Frank Landis
Department of Botany
University of Wisconsin - Madison
132 Birge Hall, 430 Lincoln Dr.
Madison, WI 53706
9. Ms. Lucia Garcez Lohmann
Department of Biology
University of Missouri - St. Louis
8001 Natural Bridge Rd.
St. Louis, MO 63121-4499
10. Ms. Kendra Millam
Department of Botany
University of Wisconsin - Madison
132 Birge Hall, 430 Lincoln Dr.
Madison, WI 53706
11. Mr. David A. Moeller
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Ithaca, NY 14853
12. Mr. Sasa Stefanovic
Department of Botany
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195-5325
13. Mr. Dorset W. Trapnell
Department of Botany
2502 Plant Sciences Building
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602-7271
14. Mr. Brian Vanden Heuvel
Section of Integrative Biology
University of Texas at Austin
Austin, TX 78712
15. Mr. Mark Vellend
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Ithaca, NY 14853
The Pelton Award Committee of the Botanical Society is pleased to announce
that Dr. Ben Scheres from the University of Utrecht in The
Netherlands is the recipient of the 2000 Pelton Award for his exceptional
research and commentary in plant morphogenesis. Dr. Scheres is an outstanding
analyst and researcher of plant development, especially of roots where
he has made seminal contributions. He demonstrated the dominance of position
over lineage in determining root cell fate, and has established the significance
of signaling between different populations of cells in the root. He has
shown that quiescent cells in the center of the root meristem play an important
role in preventing surrounding cells from differentiating prematurely and
thus function in root development. His identification and analysis of several
mutants have significantly advanced our understanding of the genes that
control root architecture and cell specification. He is the author of numerous
influential reviews. Dr. Scheres has had a major impact on the field of
morphogenesis and is deeply deserving of this award.
ASPT'S COOLEY AWARD
The Cooley Prize is awarded for the best paper given at the annual meeting
of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists by a botanist in the early
stages of his/her career. Members of ASPT who are graduate students or
in their first five years port-conferral of the Ph.D. are eligible. Excellent
talks presenting research that is substantially complete, synthetic, and
original have been received positively be Cooley Award judges. The research
presented, even if collaborative, should be significantly that of the eligible
individual, who will be the senior author in most cases. Only one talk
per person may be judged in each annual competition, and an individual
may win the award only once. The winners of this year's Cooley Award are
Lutzoni, Mark Pagel, and Valerie Reel for their talk entitled,
" Contribution of the lichen symbiosis to the diversification of ascomycetes:
A new approach to determining confidence levels for ancestral character
EDGAR T. WHERRY AWARD
This award is given for the best paper presented during the contributed
papers session of the Pteridological Section. This award is in honor of
Dr. Wherry's many contributions to the floristics and patterns of evolutions
of ferns. This year's award goes to Patricia Sanchez-Baracaldo,
University of California _ Berkeley, for her talk entitled, "A recent radiation
of Neotropical fern genera in paramo ecosystems".
SAMUEL N. POSTLETHWAIT AWARD
The Teaching Section presents the Samuel Noel Postlethwait award for
exceptional teaching on behalf of the Teaching Section of the BSA. This
award for 2000 is presented to Rob Reinsvold of The University of
PHYSIOLOGICAL SECTION AWARD
Each year the Physiological Section acknowledges the best presentation
made by any student, regardless of subdiscipline, at the annual meeting.
The award this year goes to Suneetha Alokam, University of Calgary,
for a talk entitled, "Red/Far red light-mediated shade avoidance stem elongation
response and anthocyanin accumulation in alpine and prairie ecotypes of
longipes" with coauthors Chandanda Chinnappa and David Reid.
MARGARET MENZEL AWARD
This award is given by the Genetics Section for the outstanding paper
presented in the contributed papers sessions of annual meetings. This year's
award goes to Joel Duff, University of Akron, for his talk co-authored
by Mark Davis and Angela Boyle and entitled "The fate of conserved ribosomal
DNA and protein-coding gene clusters during the evolution of land plant
ISABEL C. COOKSON
Each year the Isabel C. Cookson Award is given for the best contributed
paper in paleobotany or palynology presented at the annual meeting. The
award this year is presented to Michael G. Riley, University of
Alberta, for his paper co-authored with Ruth Stockey and entitled, "A new
aquatic angiosperm with a floating rosette of leaves from the St. Mary
River formation of southern Alberta."
A.J. SHARP AWARD
Each year The American Bryological and Lichenological Society presents
the A.J. Sharp Award to the best student presentation. Named in honor of
the late Jack Sharp, the award encourages students of bryophtes and lichens,
just as Dr. Sharp did during his lifetime.
This year, in addition to the winner, we had two honorable mentions:
Yahr of Duke University for her paper "Post-fire recovery of terrestrial
lichens in Florida scrub, with emphasis on Cladonia perforata" and
Jessica Lucas of Southern Illinois University for her paper "Anatomy,
ultrastructure and physiology of hornwort stomata: an evaluation of homology."
The winner of this year's A.J. Sharp Award is Shanti Berryman
of Oregon State University for her presentation "Differences in epiphytic
lichen communities and biomass among forest stand types in the Blue River
watershed of western Oregon."
HENRY ALLAN GLEASON AWARD
Each year The New York Botanical Garden presents the Henry Allan Gleason
Award for an outstanding publication in the field of plant taxonomy, plant
ecology, or plant geography, The Gleason Award for 2000 is presented to
Simon Mayo, Dr. Josef Bogner, and Dr. Peter Boyce for their
book, The Genera of Araceae, published by the Royal Botanic Gardens,
Kew. This publication represents THE BOOK on Aroids in covering
all aspects of aroid biology, including cultivation, conservation, the
fossil record and plant pathology as well as superb germane illustrations.
It serves as a model for how monographic works can interface with all botanical
LAWRENCE MEMORIAL AWARD -
The Lawrence Memorial Fund was established at the Hunt Institute for
Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, to commemorate the
life and achievements of its founding director, Dr. George H. M. Lawrence.
Proceeds from the Fund are used to make an annual Award in the amount of
$1,000 to a doctoral candidate to support travel for dissertation research
in systematic botany or horticulture, or the history of the plant sciences.
The recipient of the Award is selected from candidates nominated by
their major professors. Nominees may be from any country and the Award
is made strictly on the basis of merit _ the recipient's general scholarly
promise and the significance of the research proposed. The Award Committee
includes representatives from the Hunt Institute, The Hunt Foundation,
the Lawrence family, and the botanical community.
The Lawrence Memorial Award for 2000 goes to Ms. Anne Katherine Hansen,
a student of Professor Robert K. Jansen at The University of Texas at Austin.
For her dissertation research, Ms. Hansen has undertaken a study of the
genus Passiflora with a special emphasis on the large group of species
with a basic chromosome number of 9. The proceeds of the Award will help
support her travel in Brazil for field research.
DID YOU KNOW?
Did you know that 86 year old Charles Heimsch, retired from Miami University
_ Oxford, OH, attended the 2000 annual meeting marking the 8th
straight decade in which he has attended the summer botanical meetings
of the Society? He first attended in 1937. That is remarkable! Here's a
man who loves plants, still likes to learn, and is devoted to the Society
(remember, he's been Society President, VP, Treasurer (I think), and ABJ
Editor); Charlie is truly remarkable.
News from the Sections
Leisman Gift to Paleobotanical
The Gilbert and Marie Leisman trust has contributed $5000 to the Paleobotanical
Section Endowment of the Botanical Society of America. Gil, who was an
internationally recognized paleobotanist specializing in carboniferous
lycopods, served on the faculty of Emporia State University from 1955-1989.
He earned his Bachelor's degree from the University of Wisconsin, Madison,
and his Master's and PhD degrees from the University of Minnesota.
In addition to his botanizing, Gil was an artist and wood worker. Both
he and Marie also were accomplished musicians participating in several
local ensembles. Below is an image of his 4'X6' wood marquetry of their
sting quartet performing. Gil is on cello at the rear and Marie is the
violinist at right.
Genetics Section News
R. Joel Duff received the 2000 Margaret A. Menzel Memorial Award at
the BSA banquet in Portland, OR, for his paper entitled "The fate of conserved
ribosomal DNA and protein coding gene clusters during the evolution of
land plant mitochondrial genomes." The paper was co-authored by Mark Davis
and Angela Boyle at the University of Akron.
The 2000 Menzel Award Committee consisted of Vance Baird, Jeri Higginbotham,
and Richard Whitkus who followed the recommendation of the vote. Thanks
to all who voted. Those interested in serving on the 2001 Menzel Award
Committee should contact the Section Chair. Those interested in being eligible
for the Menzel award must present their genetics research in a Contributed
Papers Session of the Genetics Section. Next year, the award increases
to $200.00. Sorry Joel.
In other business, there will be a $100.00 award for the best genetics
poster presented in the Poster Session of the Genetics Section at our next
Additional items of interest to members of the Section including reports,
minutes, and announcements are now available through the BSA Website on
Respectfully Submitted, Jeri W. Higginbotham, Section Chair
for Proposals: Karling Graduate Student Research Award
Purpose and Eligibility
The purpose of this award is to support and promote graduate student
research in the botanical sciences. To be eligible, one must be a member
of the Botanical Society of America (BSA), a registered full-time graduate
student, have a faculty advisor who is also a member of the BSA, and not
have won the award previously.
The proposal shall consist of 1) a title page (must include: title of
proposal, name of student, student's institutional and departmental affiliation,
year of student's study, and student's sectional affiliation within BSA);
2) an Abstract; 3) a Narrative (must include: a description of the research,
including appropriate conceptual background, purpose or objective, brief
outline of methodology, and potential contribution or significance to an
area of the botanical sciences); 4) a Budget detailing how the funds will
be used (the Abstract, Narrative, Budget and any tables or figures should
not exceed five single-spaced pages); 5) a Bibliography (up to two pages);
and 6) a Biographical Sketch (up to two pages). Proposals should include
one inch margins all around and use a font size of not smaller than 12
In addition, proposals should be accompanied by a letter of support
from the student's advisor.
Award Level and Announcement
Each award provides $500. Award winners will be announced at the BSA
Banquet held in Albuquerque, New Mexico in August 2001. Funds for the awards
come from interest on the Karling and the BSA Endowment Funds, and from
the sale of BSA logo items. The award process can be quite competetive;
the funding level for the 1998 competition was about 22 percent.
Proposals and supporting letters should be postmarked no later than
March 15, 2001. Students should submit six (6) hardcopies of the complete
proposal and arrange to have the letter of support sent to the Chair of
the Karling Graduate Student Research Award Committee at the following
address: Kathleen A. Kron, BSA Karling Award Committee, Department of Biology,
Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109-7325 firstname.lastname@example.org
Request for Used/Damaged
Over the past few years, enrollment in our general botany course at
U. Chile has more than tripled that is good news. Unfortunately, resource
allocation remains at the level it was during the Pinochet years, and it
is not likely to increase. As a result, for all intents and purposes, we
do not have prepared slides of such standard examples of diversity and
structure as illustrated in the Raven and Evert text. For some things,
we might have one old, locallyprepared slide, lacking color and with barely
recognizable content to be shared by 80 students until it is broken. The
funds for research here are not all that bad, but there is very little
overhead to the institutions, and the institutions receive very little
for teaching. It does not help that scientific supplies (including prepared
slides) cost more than twice what they do in the U.S. Contrary to what
one might expect, living costs here are quite high, mainly because of high
energy costs (you are paying ONLY $2 for a gallon of gas?) And stiff duties
and taxes on manufactured items.
I recall from my years at Davis that practically every lab session,
we would discard slides that were damaged but reparable. It was cheaper
to buy new slides than repair old ones. I would like to solicit for damaged/reparable
or surplus materials. Even if we could amass a few slides of such things
as an Equisetum strobilus, a dinoflagellate, or an Ectocarpus sporophyte,
it would help our course tremendously.
Dr. Mary Kalin Arroyo (foreign member of BSA)
Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias
Universidad de Chile, Cassila 653, Santiago, Chile
A. Hershkovitz email@example.com
Call for Nominations
2000 Young Botanists
The Botanical Society of America requests nominations for the Young
Botanist recognition awards for 2000-2001. The purpose of these awards
is to offer individual recognition to outstanding graduating seniors in
the plant sciences and to encourage their participation in the Botanical
Society of America. All nominees with strong records of achievement (at
least a B average and other activities) will receive a Certificate of Recognition
and have their names published in Plant Science Bulletin. The top 25 nominees,
whose selection will be based primarily on the accomplishments described
in recommendation letters, will receive a Certificate of Special Achievement
from the Society.
Nominations should document the student's qualifications for the award
(academic performance, research projects, and individual attributes) and
be accompanied by two or more letters of recommendation from faculty who
know the students well. The selections will be made by a committee chaired
by the Past-President, Doug Soltis. Nominations should be sent to: Dr.
Doug Soltis, Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond,
Surrey TW9 3DS, UK no later than 1 March, 2001.
COURSE OFFERINGS IN 2001
The Highlands Biological Station, located in the Southern Appalachian
Mountains in southwestern North Carolina, is pleased to announce its summer
course offerings for 2001. These courses are taught at the advanced undergraduate-graduate
level, and credit for all courses is available through either Western Carolina
University or UNC-Chapel Hill.
Taxonomy and Natural History of Southern Appalachian Mayflies, Stoneflies,
and Caddisflies. 21 May-2 June. Three semester hours. John C. Morse
Natural history and taxonomy of mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies
(Plecoptera), and caddisflies (Trichoptera), including systematics, ecology,
and behavior of larvae and adults, with emphasis on those aspects important
in ecological studies, biological monitoring of water quality, and sport
fishing. Insects will be collected from mountain stream habitats, and identifications
will be done in the laboratory. Prior training in zoology, but not necessarily
entomology, is expected.
Prerequisite: general zoology or permission of the instructor.
Southern Appalachian Flora. 4-16 June. Three semester hours.
Michael Baranski (Catawba College).
The vascular flora and plant communities of the Southern Appalachian
region are extremely rich and varied. This course will explore the floristic
diversity of the region. Identification skills will be stressed, but the
course will also cover systematics, distribution, and communities. Students
will become acquainted with the flora in representative plant communities
within walking or driving distance of the Station. A variety of keys and
regional floras will be used. There will be lectures, lab activities, and
field trips to sites in the Blue Ridge Mountains and Great Smoky Mountains
National Park. Field trips will involve some moderate hiking. Some
background in plant identification and some familiarity with plant families
Prerequisites: General botany (or equivalent), one other advanced course
in field botany, plant taxonomy, or plant ecology, or permission of the
Conservation Biology — Principles for Conservation Illustrated by
the Diverse and Dynamic Landscape of the Southern Appalachians. 18-30
June. Three semester hours. Peter S. White (University of North Carolina
at Chapel Hill).
This course presents the major biological principles that are important
in our efforts to conserve biological diversity. The setting of Highlands
Biological Station will allow us to examine and illustrate those principles
through field work in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the Blue Ridge
Parkway, and the Highlands area. Topics to be covered include: the history
and philosophy of conservation goals, the definition and measurement of
biological diversity, island biogeography and preserve design, habitat
fragmentation, conservation genetics, populations, ex situ conservation,
communities and ecosystems, natural disturbance and patch dynamics, the
special problems of islands, exotic species, and ecological restoration.
Students will explore computer simulations of ecosystem and population
dynamics, population genetics, and island biogeography.
Prerequisites: courses in ecology or permission of the instructor.
Forest Ecosystems of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. 2-14
July. Three semester hours. Thomas R. Wentworth, (North Carolina
State University), J. Dan Pittillo (Western Carolina University), Peter
S. White (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill).
The purpose of this course is to introduce students to patterns and
processes in forested ecosystems of the Southern Appalachian Mountains.
The focus is on natural vegetation, with an emphasis on vascular plants.
Through lectures, readings, and discussions, students will be introduced
to a series of topics, including biogeography, paleoecology, recent history,
classification of vegetation, regional environmental patterns, succession
and community dynamics, vegetation/environment relationships, and current
threats to the integrity of these systems. Trips to a variety of natural
areas will illustrate these topics in the field. Students will be expected
to participate fully in all group activities and to maintain personal journals
summarizing the information presented.
Prerequisites: Courses in botany and ecology, or permission of the
Mammals of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. 16-28 July. Three
semester hours. Wm. David Webster (University of North Carolina at
The Southern Appalachian Mountains support the richest mammalian fauna
in eastern North America, from tiny shrews and bats to large carnivores
and ungulates. This advanced zoology course focuses on the biology of mammals
in the Southern Appalachians, including their habitat requirements, reproductive
and foraging behaviors, evolutionary relationships, and roles in regional
ecosystems. The course combines lectures with field and laboratory exercises
designed to expose advanced students to the remarkable diversity and importance
of mammals in the Southern Appalachians.
Prerequisites: General zoology, ecology, or permission of the instructor.
Bryology — an Introduction to Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts of
the Southern Appalachian Mountains. 30 July-11 August. Three
semester hours. Paul G. Davison (University of North Alabama).
The Highlands area is the wettest place in eastern North America and
harbors an incredible diversity and abundance of bryophytes. This course
examines the systematics, morphology, and ecology of this diverse, but
overlooked, group of plants. Field trips to collect specimens will
be followed by microscopic examination in the laboratory to identify these
to species. A collection will be required.
Prerequisites: General botany (or equivalent), one other advanced course
in field botany, plant taxonomy, or plant ecology, or permission of the
Costs include a course fee of $400 per 2-week course, charged to all
students. Students who wish to register for credit can enroll either through
Western Carolina University, $35 application fee and $54 registration fee,
or UNC-Chapel Hill, $80 registration fee. Courses may be taken without
credit, but degree-seeking students receive higher priority. Housing costs
The Highlands Biological Foundation, Inc., offers limited financial
aid (usually one-half of the cost of tuition and fees) to qualified students.
Further information on specific courses, financial aid, and application
forms can be obtained by writing to Dr. Robert Wyatt, Executive Director,
Highlands Biological Station, P.O. Box 580, Highlands, North Carolina 28741.
Alternatively, application forms can be downloaded at http://www.wcu.edu/hibio/
GRANTS-IN-AID OF RESEARCH
The Highlands Biological Station, an interinstitutional center
of the University of North Carolina, is pleased to announce the availability
of scholarships and grants-in-aid of research for the 2001 field season.
The Station is located in the Southern Appalachian Mountains in southwestern
North Carolina at an elevation of 4,000 feet. The region receives 80-100
inches of rain per year and supports a remarkable diversity of life. A
recent article in BioScience identified the region as a hotspot
for diversity of, among others, salamanders, land snails, trees, and fungi.
There is a long and distinguished history of biodiversity studies at the
Facilities include research labs with refrigerators, freezers, ultracold
freezers, microscopes, and field sampling equipment; a research library
with a reprint collection and subscriptions to many ecological, systematic,
and evolutionary journals; an aquatics lab with several outdoor artificial
streams and six large indoor aquariums; two large, walk-in environmental
chambers; and dormitories and kitchens for use by researchers. The Station
operates the Highlands Nature Center and the Highlands Botanical Garden,
which includes a 5-acre lake. There are numerous tracts of Forest Service
land in the area, and the Station cooperates with the Coweeta Hydrologic
Laboratory, a Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site, which is located
18 miles away.
Grants-in-aid and scholarships are available to predoctoral graduate
students and postdoctoral investigators for the support of research on
the habitats and organisms of the Southern Appalachians. Awards are made
for projects that involve residence at the Station for one to twelve weeks.
Applications for grants are reviewed by the Board of Scientific Advisors,
representing the 34 colleges and universities in the Southeast that belong
to the Highlands Biological Foundation, Inc. Application forms can be obtained
from Dr. Robert Wyatt, Executive Director, Highlands Biological Station,
P.O. Box 580, Highlands, NC 28741. Alternatively, forms can be downloaded
They must be returned before 1 March 2001. Applicants will receive notification
of the decision of the Board by 1 April 2001. Awards are based on the period
of residency at the Station in accordance with the following schedule:
predoctoral, $250/week; postdoctoral, $400/week. Recipients of scholarships
and grants-in-aid are provided research space without charge.
C. Plowman Latin American Research Award
The Botany Department at The Field Museum invites applications for the
year 2001 Timothy C. Plowman Latin American Research Award.
The award of $1,500.00 is designed to assist students and young professionals
to visit the Field Museum and use our extensive economic botany and systematic
collections. Individuals from Latin America and projects in the field of
ethnobotany or systematics of economically important plant groups will
be given priority consideration.
Applicants interested in the award should submit their curriculum vitae
and a detailed letter describing the project for which the award is sought.
The information should be forwarded to the Timothy C. Plowman Award Committee,
Department of Botany, The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago,
IL 60605-2496 USA and received no later than 30 November 2000. Announcement
of the recipient will be made no later than 31 December 2000.
Anyone wishing to contribute to The Timothy C. Plowman Latin American
Research Fund, which supports this award, may send their checks,
payable to The Field Museum, c/o Department of Botany, The Field Museum,
1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496 USA. Make certain to
indicate the intended fund.
The year 2000 recipient of the Timothy C. Plowman Latin American Research
Award, presented by the Department of Botany of the Field Museum, was Maria
Iracema Bezerra Loiola, of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco
in Recife, Brazil. Her project was entitled „Taxonomic Revision of Erythroxylum
sect. Rhabdophyllum (Erythroxylaceae)."
Ms. Loiola used her award to visit the Herbarium of the Field Museum
from 11 May to 2 June, 2000. During this time, she reviewed our holdings
of Erythroxylum, identified undetermined material, selected a loan
for futher study, and reviewed literature and unpublished work of the late
Dr. Timothy Plowman.
de investigación Latinoamericano Timothy C. Plowman
El departamento de Botánica en "The Field Museum" invita aplicaciones
para el premio de investigación Latinoamericano Timothy C.
Plowman 2001. Este premio de $1,500.00 fue diseñado para
apoyar a estudiantes y profesionales jóvenes en visitas al museo
de Field y utilizar sus extensas colecciones de botánica económica
y sistemática. Se les dará consideración especial
a individuos de Latinoamérica y a proyectos en los campos de etnobotánica
ó sistemática de plantas económicamente importantes.
Las personas interesadas en aplicar a este premio deberán proveer
su curriculum vitae y una carta detallando el proyecto para el cual el
premio se utilizará. Esta información debe ser enviada al
Timothy C. Plowman Award Committee, Department of Botany, The Field Museum,
1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496 USA y ser recibida
antes del 30 de Noviembre de 2000. El ganador del premio será anunciado
antes del 31
de Diciembre de 2000.
Cualquier persona que desee contribuir al Fondo de investigación
latinoamericano Timothy C. Plowman, el cual apoya este premio,
puede enviar su cheque, pagadero a "The Field Museum, c/o Department of
Botany, The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496
USA". Asegúrese de indicar el fondo al cual se destina su contribución.
Advice for applying
to graduate school.
In an recent issue of the Bulletin of the Ecological Society America
(1999, 80:246-250), there is an article entitled "A primer on how to apply
to and get admitted to graduate school in ecology and evolutionary biology"
by Walter Carson. This article describes in a step by step fashion how
to go through the application process and much of the information applies
to graduate programs in the plant sciences. This article is now on the
Ecological Society of America's webpage and can be found at http://esa.sdsc.edu/gradschoolprimer.htm.
The Auburn University Research Instrumentation Facility (AURIF) in Auburn,
Alabama has an immediate vacancy for a biological researcher. The AURIF
consists of two main laboratories: the Advanced Microscopy & Imaging
Laboratory (AMIL) which contains a variety of electron and light-based
workstations; and the Genomics & Sequencing Laboratory (GSL) which
contains an ABI 3100 DNA Sequencer, and other molecular support equipment.
This position is funded from external sources. Continuation of employment
is contingent upon availability of funds and satisfactory performance.
This is a professional job responsible for providing sequencing and
DNA research support for the Genomics & Sequencing Laboratory. The
primary goal of this position will be to maintain this laboratory at high
standards which include, but is not limited to the manufacturing of PCR
and cycle sequencing products to reproducibly high quality standards; to
produce sequences and fragment data with the aid of a high throughput sequencer;
the ordering of supplies and maintaining financial documents; to supervise
students and researchers in other molecular methods. In addition, the person
filling this position will be expected to help build and improve both facilities
by developing handouts and web-pages, along with other associated duties.
A minimum of a Bachelor's degree in the biological sciences or a related
subject is required. A Master's or Ph.D. degree in the biological sciences
is desired, as well as work experience in a molecular biology laboratory.
Applicants should have experience with the operation of sequencing equipment
and databases, spreadsheets, and e-mail.
Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.
Candidates should submit a letter of application, resume, curriculum
vita (transcripts), and three letters of reference to:
Log Number 15690
Auburn University, AL 36849
Ph: (334) 844-4145
TDD: (334) 844-1612
FAX: (334) 844-1617
Review of applications will begin after December 1, 2000.
Auburn University is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.
The Department of Biology at the University of Louisville, http://www.louisville.edu/a-s/biology/
, invites applications for an Assistant Professor position in the
area of Plant Biology to begin fall 2001. Ph.D. or equivalent
required. Successful candidates are expected to contribute to both
the undergraduate and MS and Ph.D. training programs. Preference will be
given to candidates with an excellent record of research productivity as
evidenced by publications in leading journals. The use of physiological,
molecular/genetic and ecological approaches in any area of Plant Biology
will be considered. Applicants should submit curriculum vitae, statements
of research and teaching interests, up to 3 reprints and contact information
for 4 references to Dr. Arnold J. Karpoff, Department of Biology, University
of Louisville, Louisville, KY. 40292. Review of applications will begin
immediately and will continue until the position is filled. Women and minorities
are encouraged to apply. The University of Louisville is an Affirmative
Action, Equal Opportunity employer.
PLANT EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGIST
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, TWIN CITIES
The Department of Plant Biology is participating in the University of
Minnesota's major new initiatives in Evolutionary Biology and
Molecular and Cellular Biology. These initiatives will involve the
addition of as many as 13 new faculty to the Department during a four-year
span, including four faculty members added in the past year. In addition,
a new Microbial and Plant Genomics building will be completed in 2002.
As part of these initiatives, the Department of Plant Biology now invites
applications for one or two tenure-track positions in Evolutionary Biology
at the Assistant Professor level. Applications also will be considered
from outstanding senior scientists at the Associate/Full Professor level.
All candidates must have a Ph.D. or international equivalent and two years
relevant postdoctoral experience. Desired experience includes a strong
publication record, evidence of effective teaching, demonstrated research
emphasis in plant biology, and success in obtaining extramural research
Successful candidates will be expected to develop a strong, externally
funded research program in plant evolutionary biology. Research areas may
include, but are not limited to: genome evolution, evolution of higher
taxa, molecular evolution, and evolutionary aspects of plant development.
Responsibilities also include contributing to the undergraduate and graduate
teaching mission of the Department of Plant Biology; advising undergraduate,
graduate, and postdoctoral students; and participation in professional
service. Please send a curriculum vitae, statement of research and teaching
interests, five reprints, and three letters of recommendation to: Plant
Evolutionary Biology Search Committee, Department of Plant Biology, University
of Minnesota, 220 BioSciences Center, 1445 Gortner Ave. St. Paul, MN 55108.
Review of applications will begin December 1, 2000, with applications accepted
until the position has been filled. For more information visit cbs.umn.edu
The University of Minnesota is committed to the policy that all persons
shall have equal access to its programs, facilities, and employment without
regard to race, color, creed, religion, national origin, sex, age, marital
status, disability, public assistance status, veteran status, or sexual
BIOLOGY FACULTY POSITIONS
UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA AT OMAHA
Assistant Professor - Plant Physiology
PhD required, postdoctoral experience desirable. Teaching responsibilities
include a team-taught biology course for non-science majors and plant physiology
for undergraduate and graduate majors. Advanced or specialty courses may
Associate/Assistant Professor - Environmental Biology
PhD, teaching and/or postdoctoral experience required. The successful
candidate will teach introductory and advanced courses for students majoring
in Biology and Environmental Studies and act as Director of the multi-departmental
Environmental Studies Program.
All candidates will develop active research programs. The university
and department are strongly committed to achieving diversity among faculty
and staff. We are particularly interested in receiving applications from
members of under-represented groups and strongly encourage women and persons
of color to apply for these tenure-track positions. Screening of applications
will begin 1 NOV and continue until positoins are filled. Send CV, statements
of teaching and research objectives, and 3 letters of recommendation to:
Chair, Department of Biology, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 6001 Dodge
Street, Omaha, NE 68182-0040. See http://www.unomaha.edu/~wwwbio.
The College of William and Mary invites applicants for a tenure track
position at the ASSISTANT PROFESSOR level in plant physiology and/or plant
development. Teaching responsibilities will include a plant physiology
course with laboratory, a large course in general botany to be taught in
alternate years, and another course in the area of the candidate's expertise
(perhaps plant development) to alternate with general botany. Candidates
must possess skills in communicating with and motivating undergraduates
in both large and small courses, and must demonstrate the potential and
motivation to achieve excellence in teaching. The successful candidate
will be expected to maintain an extramurally-funded research program involving
both undergraduate and master's-level students. Previous experience teaching
undergraduate courses would be viewed favorably, and postdoctoral research
experience is expected. Information on the College of William and Mary
may be obtained at our web site: http://www.wm.edu/. Review
begins January 5, 2001, and will continue until an appointment is made.
Submit a letter of application, curriculum vitae, statements of research
plans and teaching philosophy, and three names of references with contact
information to Plant Physiology/Development Search Committee, Department
of Biology, The College of William and Mary, P. O. Box 8795, Williamsburg,
VA 23187-8795. The College of William and Mary is an EEO/AA employer.
DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY
THE FIELD MUSEUM
The Field Museum's Department of Botany is searching for a Collections
Specialist, Flowering Plants. The successful applicant should possess a
MS or preferably a PhD in botany or plant systematics, a thorough knowledge
of tropical plant families, and experience in plant identification. The
Collections Specialist duties are focused on building and maintaining quality
flowering plant collections. Collections are at the heart of our enterprise
and the Collections Specialist is asked to provide determinations for research
endeavors by Field Museum staff and researchers worldwide. Large quantities
of delicate, unmounted, dried plant material requires careful sorting,
preparation for mounting, dataentry and database management, routing duplicate
material to taxonomic experts, and management of incoming determinations.
A basic level of computer word processing, database and dataentry skills
is desirable. The Collections Specialist will work closely with the Curators,
Collections Manager of Flowering Plants, Herbarium Assistants, Plant Preparators,
and visitors to the herbarium.
The Field Museum is an equal opportunity employer and actively encourages
applicants from diverse backgrounds. Send application letter, C.V. and
names of three references to: Plant Collections Specialist Search, Department
of Botany, The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 606052496.
The position is now open, and it will be filled as soon as an appropriate
candidate is found. Email inquiries: firstname.lastname@example.org.
For more information on the Museum visit: http://www.fieldmuseum.org/.
Virginia Tech University
A twoyear postdoctoral position is available to study molecular evolution
of protein multigene families in grasses and address questions in flowering
plant evolution using DNA sequencing. A Ph.D. degree and experience in
molecular systematic techniques is required. The position will be open
until it is filled with a suitable candidate. Preferable starting date
is January 5, 2001. Please send a cover letter describing your research
interest, vita, and names and addresses of three references to: Dr. K.
W. Hilu, Department of Biology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 24061. For
additional information you may call (5402315407) or email: email@example.com.
Virginia Tech is an Equal opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.
LAND STEWARD VOLUNTEER
Help protect and preserve Washington's natural heritage while enjoying
an opportunity to see diverse plant communities and local endemic species!
Volunteer stewardship opportunities are now available to help care for
state-owned Natural Areas preserves throughout Washington. These sites
have been established to protect habitat for rare, endangered or threatened
plant and animal species or they have outstanding scenic and ecological
value. In a rapidly changing Washington, these are islands of our state's
past. They contain the highest quality examples of Washington's natural
heritage _ what was common but now is rare.
Don't miss this NEW opportunity to protect rare plant communities as
a Land Steward. Volunteers will visit these Department of Natural Resources
natural areas once a month from spring through fall and a commitment of
at least one year is required. Training and equipment will be provided.
our natural heritage while contributing to the care of our public lands!
Call or Email Janet at 1-888-895-2460/ firstname.lastname@example.org
for additional information.
PLANT DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGIST
The Department of Biological Sciences invites applications for a tenure-track
position at the ASSISTANT PROFESSOR level with a starting date of fall
2001. Final administrative approval for this position is pending. We are
especially interested in candidates using cellular and molecular techniques
to investigate the interaction of genetics and the environment on development.
Such research could encompass comparative phylogenetic, evolutionary, and/or
ecological approaches. The successful candidate will be expected to pursue
a vigorous, independent, externally funded research program and participate
in the undergraduate and graduate teaching goals of the Department, including
courses in the candidate's specialty. Applicants must have a Ph.D. or equivalent
degree; postdoctoral experience will be advantageous. Applicants should
submit a curriculum vitae, statement of research and teaching interests,
and three letters of recommendation by January 10, 2001 to Search Committee,
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati,
OH 45221-0006. The University of Cincinnati is an equal opportunity/affirmative
action employer. Women, minorities, veterans and persons with disabilities
are encouraged to apply.
Steven H. Rogstad, Biological Sciences ML6, University of Cincinnati,
Cincinnati, OH, U.S.A. 45221-0006
PHONE: (513) 556-9744, FAX: (513) 556-5299
Emporia State University
A graduate research assistantship is available to study the morphology/development
of Lespedeza cuneata, a statewide noxious weed in Kansas. The recipient
will be part of a team investigating the basic biology of the plant and
biological control methods. For additional information on the biological
sciences program at Emporia State, including graduate application materials,
see: http://www.emporia.edu/biosci/biology.htm For
additional information on the project contact: Marshall Sundberg, Department
of Biological Sciences, Emporia State University, Emporia, KS 66801, (316)
Updated Positions Available Listings At BSA
Current position announcements are maintained on the Botanical Society's
website Announcement page at URL http://announce.botany.org/.
Please check that location for announcement which have appeared since this
issue of Plant Science Bulletin went to press. To post an announcement,
contact the webmaster: email@example.com.
"Amazon Associate" links in the online version of the Plant Science
Bulletin and on the BSA site earn a sales commission (from 5% to up to
30%) for BSA that we intend to use for ongoing activities, including research
grants for students and K-12 outreach. This does not increase the usual
discounted cost of books ordered at Amazon.Com. Sales links have been added
for book-related pages of the Plant Science Bulletin Online, including
the `Books Received` section and `Book Reviews`.
Please note: Amazon.Com requires that links be made directly to specific
book pages. The referral data is kept within one click of the original
reference. If you are intending to benefit BSA by your purchase,
you should immediately add the book to your shopping cart if you are considering
buying it. To buy additional titles, be sure to access the book through
a BSA page. Accessing additional pages during the time that you are browsing
on the Amazon site does not qualify it as a BSA sale. (If the book does
not have a link at the site, likely Amazon does not sell it.)
We are hoping to extend Amazon links to all authors who are BSA members.
This would be a convenient site to locate current botanical works and particularly
those of our member authors! More will be available regarding this at the
BSA web site at URL: http://www.botany.org/
-Scott Russell, Webmaster
In this issue:
(Hot links to "Amazon Associates" are on titles at the beginning of
p. 126 A Naturalist's Guide
to the Tropics. Lambertini, Marco. 2000. - Laurent M Meillier
p.127 Origin and
Evolution of Tropical Rain Forest. Morley, Robert J. 2000. - Marecel
History of Botany
p. 128 Botanical
Results of the Sesse & Mocino Expedition (1787-1803). VII. A Guide
to Relevant Scientific
Names of Plants. McVaugh, Rogers. 2000. - Grady Webster
p. 129 Plant Secondary Metabolism.
Seigler, David S. 2000. - P. Mick Richardson
p. 130 Plant
Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory Exercises. Trigiano, Robert
N and Dennis J. Gray (eds). 2000. -Douglas Darnowski
p. 130 The Silviculture of Mahogany.
Mayhew, J.E. and A.C. Newton. 1998. - Michael Wieman
p. 131 A
Garden of Bristlecones: Tales of Change in the Great Basin. Cohen,
Michael P. 1998. - Marshall Sundberg
p. 132 The Rose's
Kiss: A Natural History of Flowers. Bernhardt, Peter. 1999.
- Alyson Lee-Fox
p. 132 Britain's Rare Flowers.
Marren, Peter. 2000. -Suzanne Koptur
p. 133 The Flora
of Mount Rainier National Park. Biek, David. 2000. -Sonja N. Weeks
p. 133 Shaking the Tree. Gee, H.
(ed) 2000. - Suzanne Renner
A Naturalist's Guide to
the Tropics. Lambertini, Marco (John Venerella,Translator).
2000. ISBN 0226468283 (Paper US$ 25) 338pp. The University of Chicago Press,
5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL, 606371496. The author dedicated his
guide to a curious young orangutan living in the tropical forests of Borneo
or Sumatra. From the preface, the reader is immediately lifted out of his
environment into the biological, geological, ecological marvels of the
earth¹s tropics. Ambitious endeavor that might run the risk of being
a colossal work impossible to log around in the virgin Amazon forest or
too superficial in its scope. Well the author strikes the right balance,
the book is an easy read and will not burden your waterproof pack (338
pages in a 5.5x 7.5 inches format). The author succeeds in promoting our
knowledge by describing the principal natural laws and essential aspects
of the tropical diversity. How does he achieve such a feat?
There are twelve chapters to the book interspersed with helpful color
plates/ case studies illustrating the logical progression of our intellectual
tropical journey of discovery. Biogeography, climate and soils introduce
us to this torrid environment. The tropics are lodged between the two latitudes
of 23ƒ27¹ that the equator cuts at latitude 0ƒ. The equatorial, tropical
and subtropical zones are traditionally included within the tropical concept.
The biogeographical evolution of the tropics would have benefited from
the use of a geological timescale illustrating the major periods and events
key to the current tropical environment. More precise maps linking the
various climates found within the tropics to altitude and latitude would
have been very helpful as well. Why is altitude and its relationship with
habitat and climate found in the chapter on forests? On the short section
on tropical soils the author presents a fundamental characteristic such
as the absence of humus and surface decay or litter. I was also looking
for a typical soil horizon description and how it does compare with northern
latitude soils. It might be recommendable to use scientific references
when he cites for example that in some tropical forests about 99% of the
products of decomposition at the soil level return into the faunal and
floral biomass. This drawback is partly redeemed by an exhaustive suggested
reading section found at the end of the guide.
The tropics boast an amazing wealth of floral and faunal diversity.
In two square km (the author uses the SI and British units systems) of
forest in Brazil 300 different species of trees can be found. Though the
botanical treatment falls short of a comprehensive review on the diversity
across families and ethnobotanical uses. I wish the color plate had not
presented only bananas, pineapples and other fruits of commercial importance.
The faunal treatment is much more complete as well as in its dedicated
chapter and throughout the book. Primates are obviously playing a large
role in the faunal section. Interesting inserts on fruit bats and leaf
cutting ants are found in this chapter. These case studies as well as the
color plates and beautiful photographs enliven the book tremendously.
For example, parrots species were presented within the section on forests
beautiful plates on fishes and shells were found in the coral reef
sections. Organization is probably not one of the forte of this guide.
This guidebook is probably not recommended for the academically inclined
or the serious naturalist in need of a precise well delineated species
key. The organization chosen by the author will probably suffice for the
amateur naturalist. The reader needs more complete captions on the photographs.
Where were they taken? What is the species name of that palm? The use of
statistics throughout the book is helpful in relating the various tropical
ecosystems to each other. For example a table on the extent of tropical
forests in a variety of nations or a global distribution of tropical saurians
enable the reader to set a frame of reference in the immense biodiversity
found in these ecosystems.
Mangroves and forests ecosystems were dedicated to separate chapters.
Did you know that the archer fish (Toxotes jaculator) resident of the mangrove
and coastal forests of Asia capture its preys with a jet of water? Coral
reefs are among the most spectacular environment of warm water tropical
ecosystems. The author gives a detailed and comprehensive presentation
on coral reefs spanning from their distribution to their structural evolution
and biology. The author does well at keeping the readers fed in their curiosity.
For example, the bright colors that fishes of coral reefs harbor correspond
to different functions such as: species differentiation, warning signals,
predation avoidance. Before treating the threats and dangers associated
with tropical ecosystems the author dedicates two sections to savannas
and deserts. We are reminded that savannas are almost exclusively tropical
environments where xeromorphic plants dominate: the kingdom of grasses
and herbivores. Fire and rain are actually the principal determining factors
in the ecology of savannas. The author limits his presentation to the African
savannas, the Asian, Australian and Americans savannas are omitted. The
section on deserts is also mainly focused on the African deserts such as
the Sahara and Kalahari.
The rises of ecotourism, the overexploitation of natural resources,
are some of the threats faced by our tropical Eden. The guide ends with
the treatment of these renewed stresses. The author brushes upon the myriad
of these problems facing our interconnected economies. In the wake of these
alarming trends numerous reserves and natural parks have been instituted
in the last decade with tropical Africa leading the trend (444 areas with
a total of 86,090,000 ha). Though many tropical nations have low population
densities compared to the more northern countries, their birth rates are
one of the highest in the world. With these population and economic pressures
the author quantifies the impacts it has upon deforestation and loss of
habitat. Specific case studies on the drug and tropical animal trades as
well as on the „hamburger connection" are well presented. This disheartening
chapter ends with a positive note in the form of a code of behavior to
be adopted by us living outside or inside the tropical Eden. The author
advocates the wise consumption of goods and services that might be linked
directly or remotely to the tropical ecosystems.
Any traveling ventures come with precautions and danger awareness. The
author recommends a spirit of caution without obsession. He answers such
fears as „handling African large animals". He gives a list of vaccinations
not to omit as well as animals to avoid at all cost both in the seas and
on land. There is even a case study on plant poison types and their phytochemistry.
In a nutshell, I recommend this book as a primer for the curious orangutan
in us interested to brush off with the tropics in their studies or their
travels. Bon voyage!Laurent M. Meillier, U.C. Santa Barbara, Department
of Geological Sciences, Santa Barbara, CA. USA.
Origin and Evolution
of Tropical Rain Forest. Robert J. Morley. 2000. ISBN 0-471-98326-8(cloth,
US$140.00) 362 pp. John Wiley & Sons, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY
10158. _ This is an extremely ambitious book. It covers the geological
history of tropical rain forests from the first records of angiosperms
(ca 125 Ma ago) up to latest Quaternary vegetation dynamics and contemporary
trends in deforestation. Morley's main domain is the Late Quaternary and
Tertiary palynology of Southeast Asia. Inevitably, the book is somewhat
biased towards these epochs and this area. However, while admitting this
bias, the author very skillfully places his story from the Far East into
a global perspective. The only other book of this kind (Flenley 1979) covers
almost exclusively the Quaternary history of tropical rain forests. Compared
with Flenley's book and a few other similarly oriented publications, Morley's
book is amazingly balanced.
After reviewing major features of present-day tropical rain forests
(35 pages), the geological time framework and paleoecological definitions
are introduced (5), an essence of the geological evidence for the existence
of rain forests is presented (12), and important data on early angiosperm
evolution and the first angiosperm-dominated megathermal (frost-free) forests
are summarized (36). The main text of the book reviews the evolution of
tropical rain forests on a continent by continent basis: South and Central
America (27), Africa (31), India (12), Southeast Asia and Eastern Pacific
(49), Australia (27), and the ancient Northern Hemisphere megathermal rain
forests (13). A separate chapter is dedicated to the interplate dispersal
paths and land bridges (6). The whole-earth story of tropical rain forests
is then beautifully summarized (20). Finally, after this marvelous voyage
through over 100 million years of Earth history, rather gloomy comments
on the future of rain forests (6) close the book. It is this perspective
that sets the stage for reading the latest book by John Terborgh ("Requiem
for Nature") and, hopefully, for some radical steps towards the uncompromising
protection of the most valuable remnants of tropical forests.
Morley's book is abundantly illustrated with instructive diagrams, maps,
and drawings of pollen and leaves. I am sure that some of the original
synthetic diagrams (e.g., Fig. 14.1: latitudinal distribution of tropical
rain forests during different global climate scenarios) will find their
way into textbooks of ecology and geography. Yes, this is a well-balanced
treatment of a very extensive body of material. It is not surprising, however,
that some relevant topics are not covered. For example, it would be interesting
to discuss the environments associated with Early Cretaceous Chloranthaceae
(Friis et al. 1994) and Platanaceae (Hickey and Doyle 1977, Crane
al. 1993) or habitats of Amborella _ the earliest-branching
living angiosperm (Qiu et al. 1999). As for more recent history,
I miss a consistent use of summary diagrams of Late Quaternary vegetation
changes as they were presented by Flenley (1979) for individual regions.
In fact, an updated version of these diagrams (Flenley 1998) could serve
as supplementary material to Morley's book. At the same time, the recent
review article by Burnham and Graham (1999) provides some additional information
on the history of vegetation in the Neotropics. Whether, or how much, the
rain forest in Amazonia was fragmented into refugia during the Pleistocene
is still an open question (Burnham & Graham 1999 and p. 127 in Morley).
However, the answer will have serious implications for the design of protected
areas (Bush 2000). Whether the high species richness of tropical forests
is a result of long-term stability (p. 129) or instability (Bush 1994)
is yet another unresolved (or inadequately formulated) question. Paleoecology
of tropical rain forests is an exciting and consequential discipline. All
tropical ecologists and evolutionary biologists should read this book or,
at least, the last two chapters. _ Marcel Rejmánek, Section of Evolution
and Ecology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Burnham, R.J. and Graham, A. 1999. The history of neotropical vegetation:
new developments and status. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 86:
Bush, M.B. 1994. Amazonian speciation: A necessarily complex model.
J. Biogeogr. 21: 5-18.
Bush, M.B. 2000. Ecology of a changing planet. 2nd ed.
Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Crane, P.R., Pedersen, K.R., Friis, K.R. and Drinnan, A.N. 1993. Early
Cretaceous (early to middle Albian) platanoid inflorescences associated
with Sapindopsis leaves from the Potomac Group of eastern North
America. Syst. Bot. 18: 328-344.
Flenley, J. 1979. The equatorial rain forests: a geological history.
Flenley, J. 1998. Tropical forests under the climates of the last 30,000
years. Climate Change 39: 177-197.
Friis, E.M., Pedersen, K.R. and Crane, P.R. 1994. Angiosperm floral
structures from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal. Plant Syst. Evol.
(Suppl.) 8: 31-49.
Hickey, L.J. and Doyle, J.A. 1977. Early Cretaceous fossil evidence
for angiosperm evolution. Bot. Rev. 43: 1-104.
Qiu, Y-L., Lee, J., Bernasconi-Quadroni, F. et al. 1999. The
earliest angiosperms: evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear
genomes. Nature 402: 404-407.
Results of the Sessé & Moçiño Expedition (1787—1803).
VII. A Guide to Relevant Scientific Names of Plants.— Rogers McVaugh.
2000. ISBN 0-913196-68-1 (cloth, US$55.00). 626 pp. Hunt Institute for
Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. —
The Real Expedición Botánica a Nueva España (informally
called the Sessé and Moçiño Expedition) was one of
four major scientific expeditions to the New World launched by the Spanish
government during the last quarter of the 18th century. In 1786
the Spanish crown approved the expedition to Nueva España (Mexico
and adjacent Central America), responding to the initiative of Martín
de Sessé y Lacasta, a botanically oriented physician, who proposed
to found a botanical garden in Mexico City, along with supporting programs
in teaching and plant exploration. In 1790 Sessé recruited a talented
creole student, José Mariano Moçiño, who became a
collaborator not only in botanical exploration, but also in writing a monumental
ilustrated flora of New Spain. After sixteen years of work under conditions
now difficult to image, the Expedition returned to Spain, but by 1809,
before the text and illustrations ("icones") of the floras could be assembled
for publication, the Expedition project was effectively ended by the death
of Sessé and the invasion of Spain by Napoleon's armies. The manuscripts,
drawings, and specimens were dispersed, and the flora of New Spain languished
in obscurity until Mexican botanists arranged for publication (between
1887 and 1894) of two floras, Plantae Novae Hispaniae and Flora
Mexicana. After nearly a century of delay, these two floras were hopelessly
out of date, but still of historical interest; a considerable literature
on the Expedition to New Spain has accumulated in the 20th century.
This meticulously edited and handsomely produced volume of A Guide
to Relevant Scientific Names of Plants is the seventh, and presumably
final, part of a series of publications by Rogers McVaugh appearing in
a span of over 30 years and addressing a variety of aspects of the ill-fated
Botanical Expedition to New Spain. In addition to being a very detailed
reference book, it has to be seen in context as the final capstone of a
protracted, fugal, explication of the complex history of one of the key
scientific expeditions to the New World during the age of the Enlightenment.
In the beginning segment published in 1977 (like the subsequent five, in
the Contributions of the University of Michigan Herbarium), McVaugh
reviewed the travels of the Sessé and Moçiño expedition
in Mexico, especially the three major expeditions or "excursions" of 1787-88,
1789, and 1792, and the subsequent travels of the two expedition leaders
(when they no longer travelled together). The second installment, published
in 1980, dealt with the complicated history of the Icones Florae Mexicanae:
the collection of paintings made by several artists under Sessé
and Moçiño's direction (mainly from 1787 to 1791). Because
of a variety of unfortunate circumstances that awaited the expedition after
its return to Spain in 1803, the paintings and accompanying texts— assembled
with dedication under trying and hazardous conditions— were fated not to
be published under the names of the two expedition leaders. The greater
part of the paintings, in fact, were lost for a century and a half, until
they unexpectedly surfaced in Barcelona—where Moçino tragically
died in 1820 while trying to return them to Madrid. McVaugh's tracking
of this tangled history, and his tabular correspondence of the Icones
with the corresponding names in the Plantae Novae Hispaniae and
Mexicana, provide an erudite concordance that permits considerable
insight into how the field work, descriptions, and illustrating, were carried
out by the Expedition to New Spain.
When H. W. Rickett published in 1947 the first detailed account in English
of the Sessé and Moçiño expedition, he had little
to say about the herbarium collections or drawings, apparently because
it was thought that most of them had been irretrievably lost. At that time,
Rogers McVaugh had already begun to study some of the specimens that had
been loaned from the Botanical Garden in Madrid to the Field Museum (originally
for identification by Paul C. Standley). In 1960 he began work on a guide
to the the names applied to the specimens, drawings, and descriptions;
probably he didn't expect that it would take 40 years to complete his task!.
During this long period of "botanical archeology", the unfolding of new
information revealed a greatly amplified understanding of the attainments
of the Sessé and Moçiño team, in a dramatic way that
mirrored the vicissitudes of the Expedition itself. In the early 1960s,
McVaugh examined Sessé and Moçiño specimens at the
Conservatoire Botanique in Geneva, many of which were types of over 300
species described by De Candolle and collaborators. He also studied the
copies of the Sessé and Moçiño Icones made
for De Candolle in Geneva, and published a review of them in 1980, just
as the original (and much larger) set of 1,800 drawings was unexpectedly
discovered intact in a private library in Barcelona. In 1981 the drawings
were acquired by the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation in Pittsburgh,
and McVaugh went "back to the well" again.
To those who will use this book as a reference for identification of
species proposed by Sessé and Moçiño, it will serve
as a highly useful complement to The Torner Collection of Sessé
and Moçiño Biological Illustrations, published in CD-ROM
format in 1998 by the Hunt Insitute for Botanical Documentation. That beautifully
produced electronic work also includes a very readable historical introduction
by Rogers McVaugh that covers much the same ground as his earlier essays,
but provides a heightened insight into the significance of the Expedition
as reflected in the current much improved appreciation of the paintings
in the Torner Collection. Examining the beautiful colored Icones
on the Torner Collection CD disk in conjunction with the McVaugh commentaries
provides a superb introduction to the modus operandi of the Expedition,
and a heightened appreciation of the artistic talents of the neglected
artists Echeverría and Cerda.
McVaugh's Introduction to the Guide provides in 38 pages a succinct
summary of the history of the specimens, manuscripts, and drawings that
were produced by the participants of the expedition to Nueva España.
The next 587 pages contain an enumeration of, and index to, the taxonomically
"relevant" plant species. For each species, the literature citation (including
synonyms) and type locality (and typifications) are given, followed by
detailed interpretations of the labelling and annotations of the herbarium
specimens. The quoted comments of botanists from Spain (Cavanilles, Lagasca,
Ortega), Mexico (Cervantes, Ramírez), and other countries provide
valuable information about type localities, relation of the specimens to
the Icones, and also indicate the history of varying usages of names
by taxonomists during the past two centuries.
Those who want to find out more about the impact of the Botanical Expedition
to New Spain on contemporary botany in Europe may profitably consult the
third installment of the series of McVaugh's publications on the Sessé
and Moçiño Expedition , The impact of this and other expeditons
on contemporary botany in Europe, published in 1987. It has to be remembered
that prior to Sessé and Moçiño, little taxonomic field
work had been accomplished in Mexico. Botanists describing Mexican species
in the mid-18th century, such as Linnaeus, in his Species
Plantarum of 1753, and Philip Miller, in the 8th edition
of his Gardeners Dictionary (1768), had been dependent almost entirely
on the limited collections of Houston from coastal sites in Veracruz and
Campeche. As a result of the intense activity of himself, Moçiño,
and their collaborators, Sessé repeatedly sent seeds from Mexico
to the his supportive colleague Casimiro Gómez Ortega, Director
of the Royal Botanical Garden in Madrid (who had been instrumental in expediting
royal approval of the Expedition). During a single decade—1791-1801—Ortega
and his nemesis Cavanilles described and illustrated over 300 species of
Mexican plants. Although, as a result of the feud between Ortega and his
nemesis (and successor) Cavanilles, together with the Napoleonic upheavals
in Spain, Sessé and Moçiño saw their plans for publishing
a flora of New Spain frustrated. However, although their manuscripts gathered
dust in Madrid for the better part of a century, other botanists such as
De Candolle and his collaborators published many of the genera and species
they discovered; and the seeds from the Expedition that were sent from
Madrid to other European botanical gardens resulted in the introduction
into horticulture of many well-known species of characteristic Mexican
species of genera such as Cosmos, Dahlia, Salvia, and Zinnia.
Perusing the many pages of McVaugh's highly detailed culminating volume
leads to an awestruck sensation of a sort of extra-sensory perception on
his part. It is almost as though he is recalling, as in a kind of cinema
vérité, everything that happened day by day in New Spain
from the day in August 1787 when Sessé met his colleagues in Mexico
City for the inaugaration of the Expedition, to the death of Moçiño
in Barcelona in May 1820. This McVaughian obsession reflects his fascination
with the remarkable saga of the Real Expedición Botánica
a Nueva España, combining as it does Homeric travel adventure with
Aeschylean tragedy . The trails (and trials) of Sessé and Moçiño
in Mexico, the West Indies, and finally in Spain are strewn with minefields
of ironies. If Sessé had not dawdled in Mexico until 1803—nine years
after the expiration of the original deadline for the completion of the
expedition—it is possible that his work in Spain might not have been forestalled
by the Napoleonic invasion of Spain. That cataclysmic event disrupted all
scientific work in Spain, deprived the expedition of the funds for publication
of their flora, and snapped the threads of financial and political support
for all three of the major Latin American botanical expeditions (Nueva
España, Nueva Granada, and Peru). The Guide to Relevant Scientific
Names of Plants, the seventh and concluding part of this extraordinary
project of Rogers McVaugh, provides with its antecedent studies an appropriate
tribute to the dedicated tenacity of Sessé and his companions, who
now find posthumous vindication nearly two centuries later for their daring
peregrinations that could have established Spain as one of the leading
centers for exploration in systematic botany. The author, and the Hunt
Institute for Botanical Documentation, deserve the congratulations of the
scientific community for the publication of this landmark book in botanical
history.—Grady L. Webster, Herbarium, Sect. Plant Biology, University
of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Plant Secondary Metabolism. David
S. Seigler. 1998. ISBN 0-412-01981-7 (cloth US$460.00) 759 pp. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Boston - I should begin this review by mentioning that I was
a postdoc with the author twenty years ago. Indeed I even gave one or two
lectures in his Plant Secondary Metabolites course that was no doubt the
basis for the book.
The stated goal in the Preface of the book "... is a readable, integrated
text that will be suitable for instruction at the advanced undergraduate
level as well as at the graduate level." In my opinion the author would
have met this goal but the publishers have unfortunately made it unreachable.
First, the ridiculously small font chosen by Kluwer makes the book almost
unreadable, at least to my eyes. Second, the price tag of $460 surely puts
it beyond the reach of any student. However, if your professor or the library
happens to have a copy, you will readily see that Seigler has written a
The book is divided into 37 chapters based on the major chemical structural
types of the secondary metabo
lites found in plants. There is a useful introductory chapter about
plant secondary compounds, and the terpenes and alkaloids also have their
own introductory chapters. Multiple chapters are devoted to phenolics,
terpenes, and alkaloids, with most of the other groups being covered in
single chapters. A typical chapter has the following sections: Introduction,
Biosynthesis, Chemosystematic Use or Distribution, Biological Activity,
and Uses by Humans. Each chapter has its own list of references, a format
I found useful here.
The chemical structures are beautifully reproduced. They are certainly
more legible than the text. Structures are named and also have a number
if they are referred to in the text. In the text, these numbers are in
a bold font, making them easy to spot. Also, a new set of numbers is used
in each chapter, so the numbers do not become confusingly large.
I would love to use this book for my Biochemical Systematics class next
semester. The price and the diminutive print make this decidedly unlikely.
I suspect mine will not be the only class unable to use this book. Nevertheless,
the author is to be commended for the massive amount of information he
has compiled and digested. In contrast, the publishers deserve a trip to
the woodshed! - P. Mick Richardson, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box
299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299.
Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, edited by Robert
N. Trigiano and Dennis J. Gray, arrives from CRC Press, the source of so
many excellent works that summarize basic data and procedures for entire
fields of scientific inquiry. This work is no exception to that fine tradition,
though a few improvements can be made.
Plant Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory Exercises aims to provide
a thorough grounding in all aspects of plant tissue culture, from establishing
a commercial laboratory to performing experiments on developmental topics:
"...the mission of the entire book is to introduce, define, and provide
This volume begins with a brief but complete "Introduction" followed
by a clear and concise "History of plant tissue culture." A variety of
procedures not directly involved in culture in vitro are explored, followed
by sections that provide a grounding in basic or applied concepts of plant
tissue culture. Then comes detailed protocols for illustrating those concepts.
The section which describes "Supporting methodologies," such as histology
or photography, shines as a section which belongs in many technical works
but which is missing in other books. These technically-oriented chapters
could be used as an introduction to the basics of techniques even for an
audience not interested in plant tissue culture. For example, photography
is discussed, using examples from plant tissue culture, in a way helpful
for most biological scientific work performed below the organismal level.
So too the information provided in protocols is detailed and quite easy
to follow. Anyone with basic knowledge of chemistry and plant biology
could begin work in plant tissue culture using this volume. The exercises
cover basic techniques for a wide range of plants used in vitro, both those
that are used more commonly for basic plant biology, such as tobacco, and
those which are typically employed in commercial settings, such as Syngonium.
The material on various species is divided into "Propagation techniques,"
"Crop improvement techniques," and a catch-all called "Special topics."
Many clear diagrams and figures illustrate the chapters, though some photographs,
such as Figure 31 are dark and lack sufficient contrast.
In spite of the fine quality of Plant Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory
Exercises, some points need improvement. While plant hormones, called "plant
growth regulators" in this volume, are discussed, material on the use of
plant tissue culture for the discovery of novel plant hormones is difficult
to find. Given that, as this volume points out, cytokinins were discovered
as a result of work with cultures of tobacco callus, this should be remedied
in future. Some additional techniques and species ought to be added, even
if briefly covered, such as thin cell layer culture and embryo rescue or
orchids and carnivorous plants. These additions would help to cover some
commonly-used plants which receive no coverage or insufficient coverage
in the present edition.
Such a need for more information on some commonly used species brings
up the question: what is the audience for Plant Tissue Culture Concepts
and Laboratory Exercises? Given its excellent generality and clarity, this
work would serve as an excellent text for introductory classes in plant
tissue culture. The editors themselves note this early in the book when
they write that they "...have taken a `minimalist' approach to development
of definitions and use of terminology for the simple reason that this serves,
in part, the role of an introductory textbook...Rather than confuse the
beginning student (and ourselves) with `verbal gymnastics,' we chose to
simplify terminology." (p.3) The various authors even note important facts
that may not be obvious to the beginner, such as the preferability of KOH
over NaOH in adjusting the pH of media for plant tissue culture (p.30,
in "Getting started with tissue culture").
The detailed protocols would be a great aid to any instructor using
tissue culture as part of a course. Given the developmental orientation
of many experiments described, this work might be useful in the study of
developmental biology. In any case, it belongs in the professional libraries
of those working in plant tissue culture, and many interested amateurs
will find it helpful in culturing their own plants in vitro. Finally, college
and university libraries should obtain copies for their users. -Douglas
Darnowski, Washington College
The Silviculture of Mahogany. J.E.
Mayhew and A.C. Newton. 1998 - This volume is an very comprehensive monograph
on all aspects of the management of Swietenia macrophylla, with
a strong emphasis on plantationgrown trees. The emphasis is warranted,
since mahogany has been eliminated from much of its natural range since
the publication of F.B. Lamb's monograph
Mahogany of Tropical America
in 1966. Furthermore, the authors point out that silvicultural treatments
rarely improve the quality of mahogany in natural forests, typically because
prescriptions are not carried out. Short-term economic incentives to cut
too soon or too heavily often have been more persuasive than the possible
long-term benefits of carefully managing mahogany in natural forests.
As is the case with some other valuable timber species, mahogany plantations
are more extensive outside the natural range of the species, especially
in Asia. The authors list 46 countries that have established mahogany plantations,
but few of these actually produce commercial quantities of timber. Many
of the failures can be attributed to low genetic variability in the seed
In addition to the interesting historical accounts of mahogany production,
the authors also include prescriptions and suggestions for collecting,
storing, and preparing seed, producing planting stock in nurseries (from
seed or vegetatively), selecting appropriate plantation sites (taking into
account climate, weather, soil, topography, and competing species), management
of insect pests, growing mahogany together with agricultural crops, and
maintenance of plantations once they have been established (including weeding,
fertilizing, pruning, and thinning).
Many growth curves were presented, but I had trouble trying to discern
consistent patterns. Although to some extent this was due to lack of standardization,
the high variability in growth rates among sites was apparent.
I would have liked to see a more thorough treatment of the properties
of plantation-grown mahogany wood, although it may be that this information
is simply lacking. My specimens of plantation-grown mahogany are quite
inferior in properties to naturalgrown wood, and the limited comparisons
presented by Mayhew and Newton suggests that inferior quality is typical
of plantationgrown mahogany. A likely explanation for the difference in
quality is that harvested plantation trees are younger and smaller than
trees from the natural forests. However, the authors doubt that the slower
growth and longer rotations that produce higher quality timber will be
acceptable to plantation managers.
I would strongly recommend this book to those interested in preserving
mahogany as a timberproducing species. The comprehensive treatment of both
successful and unsuccessful attempts to grow the species under natural
and plantation conditions is a guide for the profitable production of one
of the world's most valuable timber species. -Michael Wieman, USDA Forest
Sciences Laboratoroy, Princeton, West Virginia
Garden of Bristlecones: Tales of Change in the Great Basin. Cohen,
Michael P. 1998. ISBN 0-87417-296-9 308 pp. University of Nevada Press,
Reno, Nevada 89557-0076. Bristlecone pines: the world's oldest living things!
Statements similar to this can be found in virtually every introductory
textbook of biology and botany. The great age of bristlecones, and the
manner in which their age can be determined by counting growth rings in
the wood, are probably retold by must of us in all of our introductory
courses. Cohen places these "facts" in a much broader perspective that
begins with the earliest explorations of the Great Basin and the collectors
who made "first contact" with the species. The backbone of the work is
a chronology of the botanical discoveries relating to the tree. Some of
these are familiar. Andrew Douglass, an astronomer, who founded the Laboratory
of Tree-Ring Research and the field of dendrochronology as a tool in his
study of sunspots. Edmund Schulman, a Douglass student, who discovered
living bristlecones nearly 5000 years old. Wesley Ferguson, a Schulman
student, who extended the chronology back 8,686 years using living and
dead trees. We also get the infamous story of Donald Currey, a graduate
student interested in studying climatic change, who had the misfortune
of being given permission to cut down a large bristlecone to study its
rings. Unfortunately it turned out to be the oldest known living tree to
The book is much more than an account of the biology related to the
tree, however, and that is its greatest strength. We hear the words of
naturalists, and everyday people, who ventured to walk in the old groves.
"[O]n the roughest ledges of crumbling limestone are lowly old giants,
five or six feet in diameter, that have braved the storms of more than
a thousand years. But whether old or young, sheltered or exposed to the
wildest gales, this tree is ever found to be irrepressibly and extravagantly
picturesque, offering a richer and more varied series of forms to the artist
than any other species I have seen." - John Muir, 1878
"Forty centuries of living in this high wind-swept and inhospitable
land _ and yet the bristlecone pine continues its vigil." - Russ Johnson
and Anne Johnson, 1978.
We are treated to a wide selection of images, running from line drawings
and prints, through watercolors and a selection of classic photographs
of the "Prometheus Tree," the "Money Tree," and others. Particularly interesting
was a comparison of Forest Service brochures. In a pre-1970 example, hikers
are nearly as prominent as the trees; humans have disappeared from the
Finally, there is the impact of the forest on the local human population
_ and the human influence on the forests. Today we have a national park,
Great Basin National Park, that includes several large bristlecone groves
in eastern Nevada. There was, and is, controversy concerning the establishment
of the park and its past and present role in the economy of the part of
Garden of Bristlecones is a good read for a winter evening. It may fill
in some of the gaps in your knowledge of plant anatomy, and plant ecology.
It will be an interesting story in the history of biology, and it will
provide warm visions and thoughts and get you thinking about the trip you
must take to the southwest next year! - Marshall Sundberg
The Rose's Kiss:
A Natural History of Flowers. Bernhardt, Peter. 1999. ISBN 1-55963-564-9
(cloth US$24.95) 267 pp. Island Press, 76381 Commercial Street, PlOl Box
7, Covelo, CA 95428. -This book's title leads one to believe that this
may be a romantic fiction work. It is, however, a text written by a man
with a great deal of knowledge and his own brand of romance for the subject
of flowers. Peter Bernhardt knows enough about all aspects of plants, most
specifically flowers to bring an old world charm to what could be dry topics
for readers not versed in the subject.
The layout of this book gives even a novice flower lover a thorough
overview in small, specialized sections. These chapters have wonderfully
visual names such as; Unloved but Efficient, Psychoanalysis and Serenades
and Into Thin Air. With titles like these, the reader feels that they need
to find out what could possibly be contained in between the pages
The actual layout of The Rose's Kiss is somewhat sporadic; the
order of topics are presented does not always seem logical. This could
lead to some confusion, especially to those with little background knowledge.
For example, Bernhardt launches directly into the technical and detailed
world of flower reproduction and reproductive organs. This may not have
been a wise choice, the challenge of making a flowers' sometimes elaborate
reproductive system understandable to a layperson is a daunting task that
would have been better tackled after the reader had more of the information
presented later in the book.
The vast store of folklore, mythology and ancient history that Bernhardt
possesses and weaves into the text at appropriate places were a constant
delight to me as the reader. Many of the stories and bits of information
were new even to an educated botanist, I found myself thinking " wow",
or " that's interesting", as I read some of the more obscure tales. I do
think that this book's readers (both the novice and the professional alike)
would have benefited from a family tree of sorts to show family relationships
between different flowers discussed in the text. This way, the reader could
flip back and forth to the taxonomic tree when scientific names of various
flowers are given.
The coverage that was given to the pollen manufacturing and distribution
process was at the same time highly technical and easy to read and understand.
This is a credit to Peter Bernhardt as an educator; he manages to put the
difficult into a format that reaches all. In addition, the chapter that
discusses pollination would make an entomologist proud. Bernhardt's treatment
of the importance of insect pollinators gives the flower lover a new insight
into the world where flowers and insects cohabitate, and have since the
beginning. I think that too often insects are seen as pests instead of
tiny creatures that helped diversify the plant life on earth. Bernhardt
does a wonderful job of bringing this to the forefront.
I did find that many times when Bernhardt tries to explain a subject
with an analogy he went off track and what could have been explained quite
simply became hard to understand. For example in the chapter entitled the
Pig in the pizza, his explanation of floral whorls was more complicated
to follow than the actual set up of a flower's parts. I do appreciate Bernhard's
attempts to bring the information to the level of all readers, but he is
not always successful.
In closing, I found Peter Bernhardt's The Rose's Kiss to be an
overall enjoyable treatment of the world of flowers. He succeeds in turning
what could be a dry text over the heads of many lay people into a charming
trip where flowers take on a "rosy" glow. - Alyson Lee-Fox, Comstock Park,
Whilst reading Britain's Rare Flowers
(T & AD Poyser Natural History, ISBN 0-85661-114-X), a lovely book
by natural historian Peter Marren, I was transported to the many wonderful
wild and bucolic places of the English countryside (oops, I was starting
to wax into the accent!). There are many public and apparently natural
areas in that country, but Marren reminds us that the entire landscape
has long been under the influence of human beings, and some of the most
picturesque and beautiful things thrive only in the midst of regular human
Marren describes his own early interests and growing passion for finding
rare flowers, and takes us on a number of searches for elusive and rarely
seen plants. He discusses what is rarity, and the many ways that a species
may enter that situation. He considers the role that life history may play,
as well as the potentially negative role of overly enthusiastic collectors.
Included is a sad chapter on lost flowers (there are some twenty nationally
extinct species), followed by a chapter on new natives _ some overlooked
in the past, others obviously new from hybrid origin. When one looks at
Clapham, Tutin and Warburg's Flora of the British Isles, indeed a large
proportion of the flora is naturalized. Certain species (such as the corn
cockle) have all but disappeared due to different techniques employed by
farmers; in fact these rare plants may have been introduced initially as
weeds and naturalized. Marren includes in an Appendix the first records
of rare and Red Data Book flowers and ferns, quite an interesting summary.
This immensely readable book was written for the lay audience, but there
is much to commend it to botanists and ecologists who are interested in
rare species and their conservation. It is beautifully illustrated, with
color photos of plants, maps of distributions, and also some drawings of
plants. The illustrations dwindle as the book progresses, perhaps a measure
of economy. There are many good citations of the primary scientific literature,
though not exhaustive. I recommend it to all who love flowers and are concerned
about their continued existence. -Suzanne Koptur, Florida International
University, Miami, FL 33199
The Flora of Mount
Rainier National Park. Author David Biek, provides thorough descriptions
and detailed drawings of both native and exotic vascular flora found in
Mount Rainier National Park, Washington. Biek covers flora from ferns to
wetland species to grasses. A definitive key guides the reader to the plant
effortlessly using language easily understood by even amateur botanists.
Once identified, Biek includes interesting and accurate descriptions of
each plant, including habitat, range, and some interesting "trivia".
David Biek gives an overview of Mount Rainier at the beginning of the
book that covers a range of topics from "Forest and Plant Communities"
to "Explanations and Studies". The overview is an excellent resource for
readers otherwise unfamiliar with the Hemlock forests and alpine meadows
of the park. His descriptions are fascinating, although amateurs and hobbyists
might find them a bit daunting because of the lengthy lists of scientific
names without common names to accompany them. Biek gives a short description
of the history of park exploration and floral identification, and includes
more recent studies, including thesis and dissertation descriptions.
Most illustrations found in the book were beautifully rendered and were
very detailed. Some were a bit small, however, probably in the interest
of saving space. I found that I almost needed a hand lens for some of the
drawings. The majority of the illustrations in the book were black and
white. As a field scientist, I find myself partial to color photographs
accompanied by drawings, as they make for quick field identification, especially
for students and hobbyists. The illustrations in "The Flora of Mount Rainier
National Park" were certainly sufficient for identification when paired
with the well-written descriptions, but would not make for quick use in
the field. To his credit, Biek did include some small color photographs
of the park's more familiar species in a four-page center insert.
Illustrations aside, I was thrilled to discover the inclusion of rare
species found in the Park, and a description and discussion of exotic species.
It is often difficult to find a field guide that includes a region's rare
plants as well as familiar species. I was also impressed with the number
of species represented in the field guide, although the bulk of material
makes for a heavy carry into the field, and necessitates leaving out features
like the aforementioned color photos.
Overall, David Biek's "The Flora of Mount Rainier National Park" is
an excellent resource for enthusiasts, professionals, or students studying
the park. The book would not be a useful one to readers outside of the
park, as Biek points out in his introduction. Hobbyists might find a smaller,
less comprehensive guide more enjoyable to use for a singular visit to
the park, while a student would appreciate the detailed descriptions of
plant and habitat -Sonja N. Weeks, Associate Scientist, Breedlove, Dennis,
Young & Associates Environmental Consultants
Shaking the Tree. H. Gee (ed). 2000.
ISBN 0-226-28496-4 (cloth), 0-226-28497-2 (paper, US$27.50), 411 pp. The
University of Chicago Press, Chicago.— This collection of 19 papers originally
published in Nature
between 1991-1997 had is genesis in a 1991 paper
by Michael Novacek entitled "Is the Guinea Pig a rodent?" This manuscript
came across the then editor's, Henry Gee's, desk and clearly struck a chord.
After its appearance, Gee was regularly called up by specialists, offering
reviews on their own groups of interest. Many of these Novacek-inspired
reviews appear here, alongside the archetype. Thus, one can re-read Novacek's
1992 "Mammalian Phylogeny: Shaking the Tree," Bob Martin's 1993 "Primate
Origins: Plugging the Gaps," Bernard Wood's 1992 "Origin and Evolution
of the Genus
Homo," and eight other papers on the evolution and
phylogenies of arthropods, Bilateria, animals with limbs, metazoa, jawed
vertebrates, tetrapods, birds, and Hominoidea. All but one of the reviews
concern macroevolution; the exception is Gould and Eldredge's 1993 paper
"Punctuated Equilibrium Comes of Age." About plants, there are two papers,
Crane, Friis, and Pedersen's 1995 "The Origin and Early Diversification
of Angiosperms," and Kenrick and Crane's 1997 "The Origin and Early Evolution
of Plants on Land." Both papers in the original had color plates illustrating
morphological diversity and showing, for example, Gnetales (the then-favored
sister group to the flowering plants), Magnolia, Sacandra,
and various basal living land plants. In the current book, all illustrations
are reproduced in black and white, which would be acceptable if the reproductions
had not been made from the glossy Nature paper. As it is, many are near
illegible due to moiré effects. In two reproductions, on pp. 195
and 336, of some fossils and skulls photographed on what must have been
black backgrounds, fractal designs appear that are more striking than the
objects themselves. Names at the tips of phylogenies, which in Nature
are small to begin with, cannot be read in several of the reproductions
and would not photocopy well, say for use in teaching. However, the standard
paperback page size and binding would make photocopying difficult anyway.
The book has been reviewed favorably in prominent places (e.g., Trends
in Ecology and Evolution 15: 428-429, October 2000) as was to be expected
given the status of its editor. The latter has written five brief (3-page)
introductions to sets of related papers and for each set added references
to more recent publications (up until 1999), not all of them from Nature.
- Suzanne Renner, University of Missouri, St. Louis
(Titles hotlinked to "Amazon Associates.")
If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor,
stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed
(1 February, 1 May, 1 August or 1 November). Send E-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org,
call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list because
they go Quickly! Ed.
Actin: A Dynamic Framework for Multiple Plant Cell Functions. Staiger,
C., F. Baluska, D. Volkmann, and P.W. Barlow. 2000. ISBN 0-79236-412-0
663 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The
Aroids: Plants of the Arum Family (2nd ed) Bown, Deni.
2000. ISBN 0-88192-485-7 (cloth US$34.95) 392 pp. Timber Press, Inc., 133
S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
The Biology of Lower Plants: Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Mosses, Ferns.
Willemse, M.T.M. 2000. CD-ROM (US$80.00) Wageningen UR Library, P.O. Box
9100, 6700 HA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
A Book of Blue Flowers. Geneve, Robert. 2000. ISBN 0-88192-487-3
(cloth US$34.95) 328 pp. Timber Press, Inc., 133 P.W. Second Avenue, Suite
450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Breeding Ornamental Plants. Callaway, Dorothy J. and M. Brett
Callaway (eds). 2000. ISBN 0-88192-482-2 (cloth US$34.95) 359 pp. Timber
Press, Inc., 133 P.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Bryophyte Biology. Shaw, A. Jonathan and Bernard Goffinet (eds).
2000. ISBN 0-521-66794-1 (paper US$35.95) 476 pp. Cambridge University
Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211.
Christopher Lloyd's Garden Flowers: Perennials, Bulbs, Grasses, Ferns.
Lloyd, Christopher. 2000. ISBN 0-88192-492-X (cloth US$54.95) 448 pp. Timber
Press, Inc., 133 P.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
The Color Encyclopedia of Daylilies. Petit, Ted L. and John P.
Peat. 2000. ISBN 0-88192-488-1 (cloth US$49.95) 296 pp. Timber Press, Inc.,
133 P.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
The Color Encyclopedia of Ornamental Grasses on CD-ROM. Darke,
Rick. 2000. ISBN 0-88192-479-2 (CD, US$59.95) Timber Press, Inc., 133 P.W.
Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Dendrobium and its Relatives. Lavarack, Bill, Wayne Harris and
Geoff Stocker. 2000. ISBN 0-88192-490-3 (cloth US$39.95) 288 pp. Timber
Press, Inc., 133 P.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Discoveries in Plant Biology, Volume III. Kung, Shain-Dow and
Shang-Fa Yang (eds). 2000. ISBN 981-02-3882-7 (cloth US$103) 473 pp. World
Scientific Publishing Co., Suite 1B, 1060 Main Street, River Edge, NY 07661.
Dream Plants for the Natural Garden. Gerritsen, Henk and Piet
Oudolf. 2000. ISBN 0-88192-493-8 (cloth US$34.95) 144 pp. Timber Press,
Inc., 133 P.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Elsevier's Dictionary of Plant Names and their Origin. Watts,
D.C. 2000. ISBN 0-444-50356-0 (cloth US$209.50) 1001 pp. Elsevier Science
B.V. Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Flora de Murcia: Claves de identificación e iconografía
de plantas vasculares. Gomez, Pedro Sánchez, Juan Guerra Montes,
Ernesto Coy Gómez, Antonio Hernández Gonzáles, Santiogo
Fernández Jiménez and Antonio Félix Carrillo López.
1998. ISBN 84-89820-60-0 (paper) 439 pp. DM, Merced, 25. 30001, Murcia.
Food as a Drug. Poston, Walker S. Carlos and C. Keith Haddock
(eds) 2000. ISBN 0-7890-0977-3 (paper US$24.95) 166 pp. The Haworth Press,
Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, New York 13904-1580.
Gifts of Winter: Catalogue of an exhibition. White, James J.
and Eugene B. Bruno. 2000. ISBN 9-913196-69-X (paper US$16.00). 72 pp.
Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University,
5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890.
Herbal Medicine 2nd ed. Weiss, Rudolf Fritz and Volker
Fintelmann. 2000. ISBN 0-86577-970-8 (cloth, US$59.00) 448 pp. Thieme,
333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001.
Illustrated Dictionary of Mycology. Ulloa, Miguel and Richard
T. Hanlin. 2000. ISBN 0-89054-257-
0 (cloth, US$99.00). 448 pp. American Phytopathological Society, 3340
Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121-2097.
Invasive Species in a Changing World. Mooney, Harold A. and Richard
J. Hobbs. 2000. ISBN 1-55963-782-X (paper, US$30.00) 457 pp. Island Press,
76381 Commercial Street, P.O. Box 7, Covelo, California 95428.
The Louisiana Iris: The Taming of a Native American Wildflower (2nd
ed). The Society for Louisiana Irises. 2000. ISBN 0-88192-477-6 (cloth
US$34.95) 254 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 P.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450,
Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Mosses and other Bryophytes: An Illustrated Glossary. Malcolm,
Bill and Nancy Malcolm. 2000. ISBN 0-473-06730-7 (cloth US$39.95). 220
pages. Micro-Optics Press, available from Timber Press, Inc. 133 P.W. Second
Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
The Natural History of Medicinal Plants. Sumner, Judith. 2000.
ISBN 0-88192-483-0 (cloth, US$24.95) 252 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 P.W.
Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Nature's Government: Science, Imperial Britain, and the "Improvement"
of the World. Drayton, Richard. 2000. ISBN 0-300-05976-0 (cloth, US$40.00)
346 pp. Yale University Press. P.O. Box 209040, New Haven, CT 06520-9040.
The Orchid in Lore and Legend. Berliocchi, Luigi. 2000. ISBN
0-88192-491-1 (cloth US$29.95) 200 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 133 P.W. Second
Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Passion Flowers, 3rd ed. Vanderplank, John. 2000.
ISBN 0-262-72035-3 (paper US$29.95) 224 pp. The MIT Press, 5 Cambridge
Center, Cambridge, MA 02142-1493.
Photosynthesis: A Comprehensive Treatise. Raghavendra, A.S. 2000.
ISBN 0-521-78444-1 (paper US$47.95) 376 pp. Cambridge University Press,
40 West 20th St., New York, NY 10011-4211.
Prairie Wetland Ecology: The Contribution of the Marsh Ecology Research
Program. Murkin, Henry R., Arnold G. van der Valk, and William R. Clark
(eds). 2000. ISBN 0-8138-2752-3 (cloth US$79.95) 413 pp. Iowa State University
Press, 2121 State Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50010-0570.
A Rum Affair: A True Story of Botanical Fraud. Sabbagh, Karl.
2000. ISBN 0-374-25282-3
(cloth US$24.00) 276 pp. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 19 Union Square
West, New York, NY 10003.
Spatial Pattern Analysis in Plant Ecology. Dale, Mark R.T. 2000.
ISBN 0-521-79437-4. (paper US$35.95) 326 pp. Cambridge University Press.
40 West 20th Street. New York, NY 10011-4211.
Tropical Ecosystems and Ecological Concepts. Osborne, Patrick
L. 2000. ISBN 0-521-64523-9 (paper US$ 39.95) 464pp. Cambridge University
Press. 40 West 20th Street. New York, NY 10011-4211.
Wildflowers of the Fairest Cape. Goldblatt, Peter and Manning,
John (eds). 2000. ISBN 0-620-24787-8 (paper US$34.95) 316pp. Timber Press,
Inc. 133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450, Portland, OR 97204-3527.
Journal of Botany Back Issues Will Soon be Posted at JSTOR
American Journal of Botany back issues from 1914 (volume 1)
will soon become available on JSTOR web site http://www.jstor.org/.
JSTOR will be storing AJB using combination of digital scanning of all
journal pages, and conversion of some of the text into characters to facilitate
full-text searches. When this is online, the contents can be browsed or
searched. Articles can be viewed as citations, graphics (scalable high
quality gif images), or downloaded into standard or high quality PDF reprints.
The material on JSTOR will be subject to a five-year moving wall, so the
most recent online copies of the AJB will remain at http://www.amjbot.org/.
The exact date that the archival AJBs will be available is not currently
known as JSTOR will be coordinating the introduction of a number of other
journals at the same time. JSTOR is a non-profit organization founded in
1995 that encodes old literature using a combination of digital scanning
of journal pages and full-text searchable contents to archive major scholarly
journals. If your university or institution is a member of JSTOR (680 in
the US are), you will have access to all of these back issues! Many thanks
are due to Karl Niklas, Editor-In-Chief of AJB, who coordinated this effort,
located an archival quality copy of the Journal to be scanned and to the
Ecological Society of America and JSTOR for asking to include us. -Scott
Russell, University of Oklahoma
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