PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN

A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

VOLUME 41, NUMBER 1, SPRING 1995
The Botanical Society of America: The Society for ALL Plant Biologists

Table of Contents

News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees
Report from Council of Scientific Society Presidents    2
BSA Symposia at the 1995 Meeting    4
Planning your estate?    4
BSA Committee Membership 1994-1995    5
Commentary
The INTERNET: Useful and interesting WORLD WIDE WEB servers    7
Announcements
Personalia    8
In Memoriam    8
Call for Applications: Rupert Barneby Award    9
Educational Opportunities    9
Funding Opportunities    11
Positions Available    11
Call for Nominations: Jesse M. Greenman Award    13
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings    14
Thanks Extended to Outgoing Editor    16
Book Reviews    16
Books Received    22
BSA Logo Items Available from the Business Office    24

Volume 41, Number 1: Spring 1995
ISSN 0032-0919

Editor: Joe Leverich
Department of Biology,
Saint Louis University
3507 Laclede Ave.,
Saint Louis MO 63103-2010
Telephone: (314) 977-3903
Fax: (314) 977-3658
e-mail: leverich@sluvca.slu.edu

News from the Society, the Sections and the Committees

President Harry Horner attends the COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY PRESIDENTS
Semi-Annual Meeting, December 3-6

Three years ago Dr. Gregory Anderson suggested that the BSA join CSSP (created in 1973), a Washington, DC based organization, that is composed of 59 national scientific societies spanning an array of disciplines, from the American Psychological Society (125,000 members) to the newest member society, the American Genetics Association (570 members). Dr. Anderson represented BSA for three years.

Of the 59 societies, there are five plant science societies that are presently active members: BSA, American Association of Plant Physiologists, The Horticulture Society, the American Society of Agronomy, and the Crop Science Society of America. Other allied societies are the Soil Science Society of America, Ecological Society of America, American Society for Microbiology and the American Institute of Biological Sciences. The remaining science societies are primarily in the physical, health-related, and zoological areas.

The goals and objectives of CSSP are to "foster scientific research, science study, and dissemination of scientific discoveries; provide a mechanism for communicating among the various scientific disciplines through the presidents of the scientific societies; develop an enduring network of past and present national leadership in science; facilitate cooperation among the various scientific disciplines; develop ways to enhance the public understanding and appreciation of science; deliberate and adopt public policy positions on science research and education issues of national or international scope; and improve the free flow of scientific information."

The four-day meeting consisted of initially being introduced to the staff and learning about how CSSP operates in Washington, DC. There also was ample time to meet and visit with the other society presidents, past presidents and president-elects. The action-packed, morning to evening agenda consisted of a number of task force and committee meetings dealing with major scientific issues, and listening to a variety of notable political and science policy-making individuals such as the following:

PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN

ISSN 0032-0919
Published quarterly by Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, 01-1 43210
The yearly subscription rate of $15 is included in the membership dues of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc. Second class postage paid at Columbus, OH and additional mailing office.
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to

Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293

Phone/Fax: 614/292-3519   email: KHISER@MAGNUS.ACS.OHIO-STATE.EDU

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Honorable Doug Walgren, past chairman of the House Science Committee; Author and futurist Joseph Coates; Lester Brown, President, Worldwatch Institute; Joseph Speidel, President, Population Action International; Bob Watson, Associate Director for Environment, White House-Executive Office President; Massie Greenwood, Associate Director for Science, Executive Office of the President, the White House; Mary Good, Undersecretary of Commerce for Science & Technology; Allen Womack, President, National Industrial Research Institute; Daniel Goldin, Director, National Aeronautical & Space Administration; Cornelius Pings, President, Association of American Universities; and Anne Petersen, Deputy Director, National Science Foundation.

On early Tuesday morning the CSSP members were bused to the "Hill" where we were served breakfast and listened to the Honorable Sherwood Boehlert (R-NY), House Science, Space & Technology Committee, who spoke on "Science and the 104th congress." Afterwards the CSSP members listened to and asked questions of staff members from the House and the Senate committees dealing with science and technology to learn about future directions and expectations for 1995 and beyond.

The CSSP members were concerned about what economic and policy changes could be expected and what impact these could have on science. The general impression was that, although major areas are being looked at such as the USGS and the National Biological Survey as possible hit areas, probably nothing disastrous will happen. However, it was clear that the discretionary portion of the federal budget will certainly level off and not keep up with inflation. As a result, there will be less money in many areas serving science, but no radical reductions or axing will occur. What all of this implies to me is that plant sciences will not he adversely affected but that we, as plant scientists, will generally have to "live" with the same level or a slightly lower level of funding over the next several years. Good or bad, there is a clear direction mandated by the public for ensuring fiscal responsibility, balancing the National budget and reducing the National debt. I also believe there will be more bi-partisan initiatives created and, hopefully, these will be supportive of science and science education.

In conclusion, the entire CSSP meeting was particularly timely and exciting because of the recent elections and the large changes that have recently occurred in Congress and on the congressional committees. The speakers and political personnel were cautious about what the future portends for science in the short and long-run. Even though the feelings were mixed, most people agreed that there probably would be less money available for scientific research and technology, in general, but that the political attitude toward science would remain positive. With respect to BSA's continued involvement in

PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN Editorial Committee for Volume 41

 

Donald S. Galitz (1995)

Robert E. Wyatt (1996)

James D. Mauseth (1997)

Dept. of Botany

Dept. of Botany

Dept. of Botany

North Dakota State University

University of Georgia

University of Texas

Fargo NC 58103

Athens GA 30602

Austin TX 78713

Allison A. Snow (1998)   Nickolas M. Waser (1999)

Dept. of Plant Biology   Dept. of Biology

Ohio State University   University of California

Columbus OH 43210   Riverside CA 92521

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CSSP, I believe it is a mechanism for our Society to have input into an organization that is located in Washington, CD and clearly has physical contact with and respect of Congressional members involved with science committees. In addition, CSSP has developed bridges with federal science agencies such as NSF and NAS. All of this can be meaningful to BSA and botany.

- Harry T. Horner

BSA Symposia for the 1995 AIBS Meeting

Insights from Recent Studies of Early Succession
Conservation Biology: Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice
Population Biology of Grasses
Genetic Engineering and the Conservation of Rare Plant Species
Morphological and Developmental Mutants of Maize
Medicinal Plants: The Importance and Impact of the Search for Plant Derived Drugs
Biology and Evolution of the Gnetales
Practical and Theoretical Aspects of Incorporating Fossils in Analyses of Modern Taxonomic Groups
Translating Phylogenetic Analyses into Classifications
Essential Botanical Knowledge at the College and University Level
Multimedia in Botany and Biology Classrooms: How to Pay for It and How to Build It into Courses
Alternatives to the Traditional Lecture Format in Undergraduate Biology Courses
Forensic Botany : Plant Sciences in the Courts

PLANNING YOUR ESTATE? REMEMBER THE BSA

Botanical Society of America members and their families are reminded that contributions to the BSA are tax-deductible. Gifts to special funds and to the Endowment help support current and future Society projects, including travel to international botanical congresses, the "Botany for the Millennium" project, botanical education materials for the K-12 classroom, a Washington D.C. presence for the BSA and coordination with other scientific societies.

Members and friends are also invited to remember the BSA when planning their estates. Memorial gifts and bequests are gratefully accepted and may be in the form of cash, stocks, bonds, and other real property. If you have questions about how to arrange such gifts, contact the Business Office, 1735 Neil Avenue, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 Telephone/FAX:614/292-3519

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COMMITTEES OF THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA 1994-95

Annual Meeting Committee

Carol C. Baskin (1996) (Chair) The Secretary of each Section

Archives and History Committee (2 members; 5 year terms)

Robert Kiger (1995)

James D. Mauseth (1998) (Chair)

Christopher Haufler (1997), Immediate Past Secretary, ex officio

Conservation Committee (6 members; 3 year terms) Christopher P. Dunn (1995) (Chair)

Timothy P. Spira (1997)

Margaret S. Devali (1997)

James Quinn (1995)

Jeffrey L. Walck (1996; student member) Kathleen Shea (1996)

Corresponding Members Committee (Past Presidents) Grady L. Webster (1997), ex officio (Chair) William L. Culberson (1995), ex officio

Gregory J. Anderson (1996), ex officio

Dal-baker Prize Committee (3 members; 3 year terms) Joby M. Chesnick (1996) (Chair)

Peter Siver (1995)

Jeffrey R. Johansen (1997)

Education Committee (6 members; 3 year terms) Stephen G. Saupe (1996) (Chair)

Lawrence J. Davenport (1997)

Gordon E. Uno (1995, a reappointment)

Thomas G. Lammers (1995)

Joby M. Chesnick (1995)

Ken Curry (1996)

Eugene G. Bozniak (1997)

Harry T. Horner (1995), President, ex officio Darleen A. DeMason (1997), Secretary, ex officio Donald S. Galitz, Secretary of the Teaching Sec-

tion (1997), ex officio

Meredith A. Lane (1995), Editor of the "Plant Science Bulletin," ex officio

Bruce K. Kirchoff (1996), Past Chair of the Education Committee, ex officio

Election Committee (3 members; 3 year terms) Gerald J. Gastony (1995)

Scott D. Russell (1996)

Linda E. Graham (1997)

Grady L. Webster (1995), Past President, ex officio (Chair)

Darleen A. DeMason (1997), Secretary, ex officio

Esau Award Committee (3 members; 3 year terms) Cynthia S. Jones (1995)(Chair)

Michael Christianson (1996)

Elizabeth M. Harris (1997) Executive Committee

Harry T. Horner (1995) President

Grady Webster (1995), Past President

Barbara Schaal (1995), President Elect

Darleen A. DeMason (1997), Secretary

Judith A. Jernstedt (1996), Treasurer

Carol M. Baskin (1997), Program Director Judy Verbeke, Council-representative (elected)

Financial Advisory Committee (3 members; 3 year terms)

Gary Floyd (1995)

Joeseph Armstrong (1996)

Harry T. Horner (1995), (Chair) President, ex

officio

Judith A. Jernstedt (1995), Treasurer, ex officio Darleen A. DeMason (1997), Secretary, ex officio

Membership and Appraisal Committee (5 members; 5 year terms)

Joseph E. Armstrong (1997)

Henry F. Howe (1995)

Pamela Soltis (1996)

James Hancock (1997) (Chair)

Marshall Sundberg (1998)

Judith A. Jernstedt (1995), Treasurer, ex officio Kim Hiser (1994), Business Office Manager, ex officio

Merit Awards Committee (3 members; 3 year terms) W. Hardy Eshbaugh (1995) (Chair)

Ann E. Antlfinger (1997)

Pat Holmgren (1996)

Harry T. Horner (1995), President, ex officio

Moseley Award Committee

Edward Schneider (1995)(Chair) Pamela Digglc (1997)

Charles Daghlian (1996)

Pelton Award Committee (3 members; 3 year terms) Nancy G. Dengler (1996) (Chair)

Lewis Feldman (1998)

Todd J. Cooke (1997)

Committee on Committees (6 appointed members; 3 year terms)

Rebecca W. Dolan (1997)

Ann E. Rushing (1997)

Stephen G. Weller (1995)

Ann E. Antlfinger (1995)

David Dilcher (1996)

Alan R. Orr (1996)

Barbara Schaal (1995), President Elect, ex officio (Chair)

Darleen A. DeMason (1997), Secretary, ex officio

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PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY

The American Journal of Botany

Karl Niklas, Editor-in-Chief

Gregory J. Anderson, Editorial Committee Darleen A. DeMason, Editorial Committee Robert R. Essman, Editorial Committee Robert E. Wyatt, Editorial Committee

Special Paper Editorial Committee Darleen A. DeMason, Chair Norm Ellstrand

James Hancock

Pam Soltis

Randy Wayne

The Plant Science Bulletin

Joe Leverich, Editor

Donald S. Galitz (1995), Editorial Committee Robert Wyatt (1996), Editorial Committee James D. Mauseth (1997), Editorial Committee Allison Snow (1998), Editorial Committee Nikolas M. Waser (1999), Editorial Committee

AD HOC COMMITTEES

Search Committee for PSB Editor Judy Skog (Chair)

Thomas Rost

Nicholas Waser

Meredith Lane, ex officio

ASPP Joint Meeting Committee
Judy Verbeke (Chair)

Gregory Anderson

Darleen DeMason

BSA Business Office Implementation William L. Culberson (1995) (Chair) David L. Dilcher (1995)

Harry T. Horner (1995)

Gregory Anderson (1995)

Liaison with National Biological Survey Nancy Morin (1996) (Chair)

Brent Mishler (1996)

Stan Shetler (1996)

Herb Wagner (1996)

Liaison with Association of Systematic Collections John Kress

Revision of Careers in Botany Brochure Marshall Sundberg (1995) (Chair) James Wallace (1995)

Meredith Lane (1995) REPRESENTATIVES TO VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

AAAS Council

Ned Friedman (1995)

AAAS Professional Society Ethics Group

Brian M. Boom (1995, reappointed by HTH)

AIBS Meetings

Carol C. Baskin (1995, reappointed by HTH)

AIBS Council

Laurence E. Skog (1995, reappointed by HTH)

AIBS Government Relations

James L. Reveal (1995, reappointed by HTH)

Biennial Incorporation, State of Connecticut Kent E. Holsinger (1997)

Biological Stain Commission Graeme Berlyn (1995)

Botany for the Next Millennium (1995)

Michael L. Christianson

Ray F. Evert

Patricia G. Gensel Karl J. Niklas

William L. Stern Kent E. Holsinger Judith A. Verbeke

Council of Scientific Society Presidents (each third President-elect) Harry T. Homer (1997)

Liaison to American Society of Agronomy and Crop Science Society

Reid G. Palmer (1995) (established by Gregory J. Anderson)

National Research Council Commission on Life Sciences Board of Basic Biology

Darleen A. DeMason (1997), Secretary, ex officio

Local Representative - 1995 - University of San Diego Lisa Baird (1995)

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Commentary

 

Botany and the INTERNET:

Useful and Interesting WORLD WIDE WEB Servers

Editor:

As a relatively new user of the WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW) via NETSCAPE (MOSAIC), I thought that it would be helpful to other new, as well as experienced, WWW users to provide a list of WWW servers related to plant biology on the INTERNET. My list is far from complete but is meant to provide a launching point for "surfing the net".

Access to such sites on the INTERNET presents one answer to today's challenges facing research and teaching in the field of plant biology (Webster, G. L., PSB 39: 8-12; Bozniak, E. C., PSB 40: 42-46; Mathes, M. C., PSB 40: 115-117) as well as other sciences.

As David R. Hershey (PSB 39: 17) presented several examples of plant movies applicable to a wide range of botanical topics, many WWW sites are replete with image (e.g., JPEG, GIF) and movie (e.g., MPEG, QUICKTIME) files. The possibilities of using the World Wide Web in research and in the classroom are unlimited. My list of WWW sites which you may wish to visit is given below.

Anthony Robert Brach
Missouri Botanical Garden
& Harvard University Herbaria

Australian Environmental Resources Information http://www.erin.gov.au/

Australian National Botanic Gardens http://155.187.10.12/anbg.html

The Bartlett Arboretum http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/ b artl ett\bartlett. htrn

Biodiversity and Biological Collections WWWs http://muse.bio.cornell.edu/

Botany Department (University of Georgia) http://dogwood.botany.uga.edu:80/

British Trees http://www.u-net.com/trees/

California Academy of Sciences WWW Server http://www.calacademy.org/

California State University Stanislaus Botany 3700 Home Page http://130.17.2.215/

Connecticut College Herbarium http://herbarium.conncoll.edu/

Dendrome Project http://s27w007.pswfs.gov/

Detailed Family Descriptions http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/ FAM DESC\ fdlist.htm

Field Museum of Natural History http://www.bvis.uic.edu/museum/

International Organization of Paleobotany http://sunrae.uel.ac.uklpalaeo/index.html

International Organization for Plant Information http://Iife.anu.edu.au/biodiversity/iopi/iopi.html

Kids Web - A World Wide Web Digital Library http://www.npac.syr.edu/textbook/kidsweb/

McMaster University Department of Biology http://www.science.mcmaster.ca/Biology/ Dept.html

Missouri Botanical Garden http://straylight.tamu.edu/MoBot/

The Natural History Museum (London) http://www.nhm.ac.uk/

Natural History Museum (Switzerland) http://www-nmbe.unibc.ch/

New Mexico Museum of Natural History http://www.aps.edu/HTMLPages/NMMNH.html

OEB Home Web Page (Organismic & Evolution-

ary Biology, Harvard University; including

herbarium and arboretum gopher servers) http://oeb.harvard.edu/

Palynology & Paleoclimatology http://life.anu.edu.au/landscape_ecology/ pollen.html

Plant Genome Server http://probe.nalusda.gov:8000/plant/index.html

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew http://www.rbgkcw.org.uk/

(Continued, p. 8)

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Announcements

 

Persona/la

Regis Miller Honored by USDA

Regis Miller, a botanist at the USDA Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), has received a USDA Honor Award for public service during the agency's annual ceremony in Washington D.C. USDA Secretary Mike Espy presented the award Aug. 12 to Miller for his "leadership and dedication in serving the public by per-forming wood identifications.

For more than 25 years, Miller has been identifying wood sent to FPL from a variety of federal agencies, private companies and individual citizens. The identifications can range from helping an individual identify the origin of an antique to helping the U.S. Justice Department solve crimes. During the past decade, Miller has helped the Justice Department in several cases. In 1993 he testified for the department that pieces of wood in a murder defendant's home matched that of the sawed-off shot gun found in the defendant's car, thereby proving that the defendant owned the gun. In 1992, Miller testified in a case that hinged on determining the difference between hardwoods and softwoods: a company was illegally listing the imported species as a duty-free species.

Miller is recognized as a leading authority of wood anatomy throughout the world for his research into the macro- and microscopic characteristics of wood and the methods for identifying wood. In 1993, Miller con-ducted a basic wood identification class for several U.S. Custom agents, who needed to have the ability to distinguish between duty-free and non-duty free species in order to enforce trade laws.

(continued from p. 7)

Smithsonian Natural History Home Page http:/mmnhwww.si.edu/mmnhweb.html

Swedish Museum of Natural History http://www.nrm.se/

The Tree of Life Home Page http://phylogeny.arizona.edu/free/phylogeny.html

TROPICOS via Remote Managing Gigabytes http://keck.tamu.edu/cgi/MG/ wwwRMG.mobot.html

UC Berkeley Museum http://ucmpl.berkeley.edu/

Bill Jacobs

Bill Jacobs, Professor Emeritus of Biology, Princeton University, and a life member of the Botanical Society, was a plenary speaker at the Ninth Congress of the Federation of European Societies of Plant Physiology, which was held last summer in Brno, the Czech Republic. He was also awarded a medal by the Agricultural University of Brno.

Nelson Zamora Receives 1994 Rupert Barneby Award

The New York Botanical Garden is pleased to announce that Ing. Nelson Zamora, of the Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio), Costa Rica, is the recipient of the 1994 Rupert Barneby Award. Ing. Zamora will be working on several groups of Mimosoid and Caesalpinioid legumes for Costa Rica.

In Memoriam

Robert M. Lloyd

Dr. Robert M. Lloyd died on December 6, 1994, at the age of 55. He was a Professor in the Department of Environmental and Plant Biology at Ohio University, where he spent the last 23 years of his academic career. He had previously taught botany at the University of Hawaii. Bob's combination of intellect, wit, perseverance and grit made him a valuable and cherished colleague and friend to many students and faculty. Bob received a bachelors degree from Pomona College in Claremont, a masters degree from Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden and the Ph.D. in Botany from the University of California at Berkeley. Bob was a member and Past-President of the American Fern Society, a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London, a member of the Botanical Society of America, American Society of Plant Taxonomists, AAAS and several

University of Connecticut Greenhouses http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/homepage.html

University of Delaware Botanic Gardens gopher://bluehen. ags.udel.edu:71 /hh/ .botanic_garden/botanicg.html

University of Toronto Botany Server http://www.botany.utoronto.ca/

Utah State University/College of Natural Re-sources

http://www.nr.usu.cdu

Vatican Exhibit - Herbals http://www.ncsa.uiuc.cdu/SDG/Experimental/ vatican.exhibit/cxhibitlg-nature/Botany.html

8

other professional organizations. Bob's research interests focused on the systematics and population biology of pteridophytes. His pioneering papers on fern reproductive and population biology were foundation in this area of evolutionary biology. In addition to two books, "The Flora of the White Mountains" and "Systematics of the Onocleoid Ferns," he was an author on numerous research articles, the most recent of which (with R. Cruden) will appear in an upcoming issue of the American Journal of Botany.

Because of his dedication to teaching, a fund in honor of Bob's contributions has been established to assist graduate students in plant science at Ohio University. Contributions to the fund may be made to: Dr. Robert Lloyd in care of Ohio University Foundation, Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Porter Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701.

Submitted by: Leslie Hickok, Dept. of Botany, University of Tennessee, Knoxville TN 37996

The Botanical Society has been notified that the following members have passed away:

Tsan lang Chuang

of the Biology Department. Illinois State University, Normal, a member since 1967.

R. Merton Love

of the Department of Agronomy and Range Science, University of California, Davis, a member since 1961.

Sherman J. Preece

of Bigfork, Montana, a member since 1950.

Call for Applications:

1995 Rupert Barneby Award

The new York Botanical Garden invites applications for the 1995 Rupert Barnehy Award. The award of $1,000 is to assist researchers planning to come to The New York Botanical Garden to study the rich collection of Leguminosae. Anyone interested in applying for the award should submit their curriculum vitae, a letter de-scribing the project for which the award is sought, and how the collection at NYBG will benefit their research. Travel to NYBG should be planned between January 1, 1996 and January 31, 1997. The letter should be addressed to Dr. Enrique Forero, Director, Institute of Systematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 1 0458-5 1 26 USA, and received no later than December 1, 1995. Announcement of the recipient will be made by December 15th. Anyone interested in making a contribution to The Rupert Barneby Fund in Legume Systematics, which supports this award, may send their check, payable to The New York Botanical Garden, to Dr. Forero.

Educational Opportunities

Managing the Modern Herbarium 5-6 June 1995

The Education and Training Committee of the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections (SPNHC) is offering a discipline-specific workshop entitled "Man-aging the Modern Herbarium" June 5 and 6, 1995, in Toronto. The workshop will immediately follow the SPNHC 10th anniversary annual conference, which is being held at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 3-4, 1995. This workshop is de-signed for all those concerned with the maintenance of botanical or mycological collections. Through instruction, focused discussion, hands-on participation, and publication, the program will strive to:

- promote dialogue on conservation and collection management issues,solutions and resources;

- establish a discipline consensus on policies and procedures for the uses of collections in molecular re-search, with emphasis on extant collections and the making of new collections;

- exhibit and demonstrate a range of specimen preparation and field techniques;

- facilitate communication among institutions and professional societies.

A preliminary list of topics includes: adhesives, bar-coding, care of botanical prints and illustrations, collecting techniques, cryo-preservation, destructive sampling, papers, pest management, specimen preparation, storage... Reserve these dates, and look for a detailed announcement in your society newsletters in the fall. For input, or for more information contact: Deborah Metsger, Department of Botany, Royal Ontario Museum , 100 Queen's Park , Toronto, Ontario , Canada M5S 2C6 (email: DMETSGER@BOTANY.UTORONTO.CA fax: (416) 586-5516).

Tropical Botany

12 June - 8 July 1995

Harvard University summer School, in collaboration with Fairchild Tropical Garden, offers an intensive in-residence graduate-level course in tropical hotany, centered in Miami, Florida at Fairchild Tropical Garden. The course (4 weeks) will be given completely in Miami and has been offered on a regular basis since 1972. Pre-requisites: A reasonably extensive training in the hotanical sciences and familiarity with the major groups of plants. Students will be chosen according to whether their experience and interests will allow them to benefit from the course and the significance the course may have in their further professional development. Enrollment: Limited to 10 students, with preference given to graduate students. Applicants will be selected on the basis of their previous experience, their academic needs and their ability. Scholarships: Partial tuition and partial travel support are available for qualified students. Applications: Should he made to the Summer School of Arts and Sciences,

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Harvard University, but with the earlier deadline of March 31, 1995 (Environmental and Field Biology, Dept. FB, Harvard summer School, 51 Brattle Street, Cambridge, MA 02138). Admission is made on the basis of a Supplementary Application available at the above address or from the instructor. The Course: Instruction is carried out within the educational facilities of Fairchild tropical Gar-den whose living collections, the largest collection of tropical plants in the Continental United States, provide the main focus of teaching reproductive biology, morphology and anatomy within a strong systematic frame-work. Groups (both systematic and biological) of special interest include cycads, palms, tropical monocotyledons, epiphytes, Hanes, mangroves, seagrasses as well as breeding mechanisms and architecture of tropical trees. The objective of the course is to provide advanced students of botany with a guided introduction to the diversity of plant form and function in the lowland tropics — hopefully a preparation for the overwhelming experience of further contact with the tropics themselves. Dormitory Accommodation: Students will be houses collectively in comfortable and reasonably inexpensive accommodation, close to Fairchild Tropical Garden. The Main Obstacle (Estimates only): Application fee - $35; laboratory fee - $75; tuition - $1,325. Cost of food and accommodation in Miami - $25 per day.

Biology S-105: "Biodiversity of Tropical Plants" Instructor: P.B. Tomlinson, Harvard Forest, P.O. Box 68, Petersham MA 01366

June 12 - July 8, 1995 - Half-course 4 units

Indiana University Offers Recombinant DNA Lab Courses

During the summer of 1995, Indiana University's Department of Biology, in cooperation with the I.U. Division of Continuing Studies, will offer two week-long laboratory courses focusing on the techniques and procedures used in recombinant DNA research and their application. Participants also have the opportunity to work with a DNA sample of their own research organism. Both courses will be taught on the Indiana University campus in Bloomington.

Recombinant DNA Technology - The first course, "Recombinant DNA Technology," will introduce participants to procedures involved in recombinant DNA work and to the molecular aspects of genetic engineering. Most of the procedures that are taught to biology graduate students in the recombinant DNA section of a graduate techniques course at Indiana University will be covered. Participants can make arrangements to isolate genomic DNA from their own research organisms during the course. The following techniques will be included: DNA and cloning vector manipulation, PCR technology, preparation of recombinant DNA, transformation of bacterial cells, selection and assay of cloned and amplified fragments of "foreign" DNA, transfer of DNA for probing (Southern blot) and preparation of nonradioactive DNA probes. "Recombinant DNA Technology" i s designed for those with a basic understanding of the structure of DNA and elemental genetics and with a minimal understanding of enzymes and biochemistry. The course is scheduled for June 4-9, 1995. Registration deadline is May 19.

Application of Recombinant DNA Technology: RFLP and Fingerprinting Analysis, RAPD Analysis and DNA Sequencing - This course will provide participants with the opportunity to learn about the materials and techniques used in recombinant DNA research. Participants may bring a DNA sample to sequence during the course. This course will emphasize the following techniques: DNA sequencing using non-radioactive methods, RAPD analysis of genomic DNA, Fingerprinting and RFLP analysis of genomic DNA, Electroporation of bacterial cells, chemiluminescent detection of nucleic acids, application of computers to DNA sequencing data analysis, preparation of random fragment sequencing libraries and double-stranded DNA for sequencing, and use of bioneb cell and bipolymer disruption systems.

A basic understanding of the structure of DNA and elemental genetics is assumed for participants in this short course, as is a minimal understanding of enzymes and biochemistry. Previous experience with PCR or RFLP analysis and DNA sequencing is not a prerequisite, nor is completion of "Recombinant DNA Technology."

This course is scheduled for June 11-17, 1995. Registration deadline is May 26. The instructor for both courses is Dr. Stefan J. Surzycki, associate professor of biology at Indiana University. Fees for these courses include all instruction, laboratory supplies, use of equipment, and lab manuals. For additional information, con-tact Jane Clay, Division of Continuing Studies, Owen Hall 204, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, phone 812/855-6329; Internet: JCLAY@ 1NDIANA.EDU.

Workshop in Plant-Animal Interactions 10-24 August 1995

The National Science Foundation has funded, through its Undergraduate Faculty Enhancement Program, a work-shop designed for faculty who teach undergraduate students and who are interested in learning research techniques that they can then incorporate in classes and laboratory exercises at their home institutions. This workshop will use flowers and pollinators to investigate a variety of perspectives on plant-animal interactions. The workshop will be taught 10 - 24 August at the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory in Gothic, Colorado, by Drs. David Inouye, Carol Kearns, James Thomson, and Nick Waser, with assistance from other researchers in pollination biology who work at the Laboratory. All workshop expenses will be paid for participants by the NSF grant. For more information, please contact Dr. David Inouye, Rocky Mtn. Biological Laboratory, P. O. Box 519, Crested Butte, CO 81224. 303-349-5801; e-mail: di5@umail.umd.edu. Women, minorities, and per-sons with disabilities that are not incompatible with field research are encouraged to apply.

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Funding Opportunities

Fulbright Scholar Awards for U.S. Faculty and Professionals: 1996-97 Competition Fulbright lecturing and research opportunities are avail-able in nearly 1 40 countries. Awards range from two months to a full academic year. Virtually all disciplines and professional fields participate. The basic eligibility requirements for a Fulbright Scholar award are U.S. citizenship and the Ph.D. or comparable professional qualifications (for certain fields such as the fine arts or TESOL, the terminal degree in the field may be sufficient). For lecturing awards, university or college teaching experience is expected. Language skills are needed for some countries, but most lecturing assignments are in English. Funding for the Fulbright Program is provided by the United States Information Agency, on behalf of the U.S government, and cooperating governments and host institutions abroad. The deadline for lecturing or research grants for 1996-97 is August 1, 1995. Other deadlines are in place for special programs: distinguished Fulbright chairs in Western Europe (May 1) and Fulbright seminars and academic administrator awards (November 1). For further information and application materials, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, 3007 Tilden Street, N.W., Suite 5M, Box GNEWS, Washing-ton DC 20008-3009. Telephone 202/686-7877. email (application requests only):

CIES1 @CIESNET.CIES.ORG.

National Research Council 1995 Research Associateships

The National Research Council announces the 1995 Resident, Cooperative, and Postdoctoral Research Associateship Programs to be conducted on behalf of federal agencies or research institutions whose 120 participating research laboratories are located throughout the United States. The programs provide opportunities for Ph.D. scientists and engineers of unusual promise and ability to perform research on problems largely of their own choosing yet compatible with the research interests of the sponsoring laboratory. Initiated in 1954, the Associateship Programs have contributed to the career development of over 7000 scientists ranging from recent Ph.D. recipients to distinguished senior scientists. Approximately 400 new full-time Associateships will be awarded on a competitive basis in 1995 for research in: chemistry; earth and atmospheric sciences; engineering, applied sciences and computer science; life, medical, and behavioral sciences; mathematics; space and planetary sciences; and physics. Most of the programs are open to both U.S. and non-U.S. nationals, and to both recent Ph.D. degree recipients and senior Associates. Financial sup-port is provided for allowable relocation expenses and for limited professional travel during duration of the award. The host laboratory provides the Associate with programmatic assistance including facilities, support services,

necessary equipment, and travel necessary for the con-duct of the approved research program. Applications submitted directly to the National Research Council are accepted on a continuous basis throughout the year. Those postmarked no later than January 15 will be re-viewed in February, by April 15 in June, and by August 15 in October. Initial awards will be announced in March and April — July and November for the two later competitions — followed by awards to alternate candidates later. Deadlines for application: January 15, April 15 and Au-gust 15, 1995. Information on specific research opportunities and participating federal laboratories, as well as application materials, may be obtained from the: National Research Council, Associateship Programs (TJ 2094/ D3), 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20418; FAX: 202/334-2759.

Positions Available

Postdoctoral Research Associate The University of Arizona

Postdoctoral research associate position is anticipated to study the biological and genetic characteristics of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses of cotton. The position requires a background in virus-vector work with persistently transmitted viruses, and experience with molecular biology techniques. The position is avail-able June 1, 1995; applications will be acepted until the position is filled. Starting salary is approximately $25,000 plus benefits. Submit a resume plus three letters of recommendation to Dr. Judith K. Brown, Department of Plant Sciences, Forbes Bldg, Rm. 303, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721.

The Univcrsity of Arizona is an AA/EEO/ADA employer.

Systematic Botanist

California Academy of Sciences

The California Academy of Sciences is re-opening its search for an Assistant Curator of Botany. Applications are solicited from individuals with primary interest in and commitment to active, field- and collection-oriented research in vascular plant major herbarium. Candidates must have a Ph.D., an active research program with demonstrated interest and competence in a particular group of vascular plants, and be prepared to participate in a variety of curatorial, administrative, and public educational activities at the Academy. Information about the Academy and its research departments is available on the Academy's gopher server (gopher.calacademy.org) or WWWserver (http:// www.calacademy.org). Applicants should forward a curriculum vitae, description of research goals, copies of significant publications, and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of three references to: Human Resources, No. ACB, California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118-4599. Deadline for applications is 15 September 1995. EOE.

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Applications should include the identification of an appropriate faculty mentor(s), a complete curriculum vitae, reprints of published works, and a proposal (limited to five pages) of the research that would be carried out under this program. Applicants are required to provide three letters of reference and a letter of commitment of laboratory space from the proposed UC David faculty mentor.

Please send your completed application to Dr. William J. Lucas, Chair, Faculty Advisory Committee, Esau Fellowships Program, Section of Plant Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. (FAX: 916/752-5410) Fellowships will be awarded on a biannual basis. Dead-lines for this ongoing program are June 30 and December 31.

The University of California is an equal opportunity employer.

Plant Molecular Systematist Michigan State University

The Department of Botany and Plant Pathology at Michigan State University invites applications for a tenure track Assistant Professor position (academic year appointment) in molecular systematics. Responsibilities will include teaching undergraduate and graduate courses and maintaining an active research pro-gram. A Ph.D. in Botany or a related field is required and post doctoral experience is desirable. Candidates should have expertise in molecular methods as applied to the study of vascular or non vascular plant systematics or evolution. The successful candidate will be expected to develop programs that complement and enhance the botanical collections of the Department and the University. Women and minorities are particularly encouraged to apply. Applicants should send a curriculum vitae, a statement of teaching and research interests and reprints of significant publications, and have four letters of recommendation sent to:

Dr. Frank Ewers Chair of Search Committee Plant Molecular Systematist Position Department of Botany and Plant Pathology Michigan State University East Lan-sing, MI 48824.

Michigan State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. Review of applications will begin on April 1, 1995 and will continue until a suit-able candidate is found.

Graduate Research Assistantship University of Southwestern Louisiana

A Predoctoral Research Assistantship is available immediately for a Ph.D. student to conduct research on pollen development in the orchidaceae as part of a project funded by the National Science Foundation (USA). The research will use a wide variety of techniques to analyze development mechanisms and evolutionary diversification of orchid pollen types. Excellent facilities include TEM, field emission cryostage SEM, and confocal laser microscopes. The stipend is $12,000/year renewable for three years. Cereal Endosperm. Students interested in pursuing studies in molecular, cellular and developmental biology of cereal endosperm may wish to apply for competitive fellowships for the Ph.D. program in Evolutionary and Environmental Biology. Fellows receive $16,000/year for a Board of Regents Fellowship and $12,000/year for a University Fellowship. Fellowships are renewable for up to four years and include waiver of tuition and most fees. The Board of Regents Fellowship is restricted to US citizens, but the University Fellowships are open to all. There is no deadline for application for either opportunity cited above. For information and application materials, send a letter of interest with de-tails of qualifications and experience together with the names, addresses and telephone numbers of three referees to: Dr. Roy C. Brown or Betty E. Lemmon, Department of Biology, University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, Louisiana 70504-2451; e-mail: rcb@usl.edu. Members of recognized minority groups are particularly encouraged to apply.

Curatorial Assistant Longwood Gardens

Longwood Gardens, world-premier horticultural display garden, has an outstanding employment opportunity for a horticultural taxonomist. Responsibilities include identifying plants, especially cultivars; continued development of computerized plant records, mapping and labeling programs; and teaching botany and plant taxonomy. Duties include processing data for plant accessions, plant record changes, maps and labels. Applicants should have a Ph.D. in Botany or Plant Sciences with experience and interest in systematics of cultivated plants, be proficient in data base computer software (CAD helpful), and should be able to interact with a diverse staff on plant identification and plant records-related issues. An excellent starting salary and outstanding benefits package is offered. Resume and salary requirements sent to: Mr. Kiran Taunk, Business Division Manager, Longwood Gardens, Inc., P.O. Box 501, Kennett Square PA 19348. Longwood Gardens, Inc. is an equal opportunity employer.

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Katherine Esau Postdoctoral Fellowships University of California - Davis, California

Applications and nominations are invited for Katherine Esau Postdoctoral Fellowships which will be awarded to outstanding young scientists interested in developing careers in structural aspects of plant biology, including studies in which plant structure is integrated with function. (Preference will be given to candidates who have completed their Ph.D. within the past 5 years). Esau Fellowships will be awarded for a period of two years to enable successful candidates to work under the mentorship of a University of California, Davis faculty member. The Esau Fellowship stipend is commensurate with the NSF plant postdoctoral fellow-ship program.

Plant Taxonomist / Ecologist Vassar College

Plant Taxonomist / Ecologist (research associate) to conduct floristic inventory of campus and ecological preserve. Master's degree, herbarium experience, and familiarity with regional flora and computerized data-bases required. Experience with similar biotic inventories desirable. Two year project starting May 1995 (or earlier if successful applicant is available). Salary low 20's, commensurate with qualifications. Send resume with contact information for at least three references to: Mark A. Schlessman, Professor of Biology, Box 187, Vassar College, 124 Raymond Ave., Poughkeepsie, NY 12601-6198. phone: 914-437-7417. FAX: 914-437-7315. email: schlessm@vassar.edu. Vassar College is an AAIEO employer.

Herbarium Positions

New York Botanical Garden

Curatorial Assistant Position Announcement #SC-1261 Requirements: Experience with data entry or ability to learn to use the computer for databasing, some knowledge or work experience with fungi or bryophytes preferable, herbarium experience prefer-able, minimum of a Bachelor Degree in biology, with some course(s) in botany and/or mycology. Duties and Responsibilities: Enter specimen data into a computerized specimen database, prepare specimens for insertion in the herbarium (fungi, bryophytes, algae), file specimens into the herbarium, miscellaneous herbarium tasks, some involving retrieving specimens from shelves as high as 15 ft. and as low as ground level. Salary commensurate with experience. Application deadline for this position is until filled.

Database Manager Position Announcement #SC-1263 Requirements: Experience with databasing, preferably from plant specimens, knowledge of plant no-

menclature and familiarity with botanical literature, previous experience working in a herbarium, BS or MS in Botany or Biology with emphasis on plant taxonomy. Duties and Responsibilities: Supervise her-barium specimen catalogers, maintain authority files, train new users of the NYBG specimen database system, enter specimen data into a computerized specimen database. Salary commensurate with experience. Application deadline for this position is until filled.

Curatorial Assistant Position Announcement #SC1264 Requirements: Experience with data entry from herbarium specimens, knowledge or work experience with vascular plants, herbarium experience prefer-able, BS in Botany or Biology, with some courses in Botany, or equivalent experience working with a computerized specimen database. Duties and Responsibilities: Enter data from vascular plant herbarium specimens into a computerized database, train staff to enter data from herbarium specimens into a computerized database, miscellaneous herbarium tasks, some involving retrieving specimens from shelves as high as 15 ft. and as low as ground level. Salary commensurate with experience. Application deadline for this position is until filled.

Chemist/Laboratory TechnicianPosition Announcement #SC-1267 Requirements: Laboratory experience and database experience. M.Sc. or B.S. in Chemistry, Biochemistry or related field, Duties and Responsibilities: Participate in the extraction of secondary metabolites from a broad range of plant taxa, manage the ex-traction database, and general laboratory maintenance. Salary commensurate with experience. Application deadline for this position is until filled.

NY Botanical Garden Bronx, NY 10458-5126; Telephone No.: 718/817-8700, FAX No.: 718/220-6504. The NY Botanical Garden is an Affirmative Action/ Equal Opportunity Employer.

Call for Nominations Jesse M. Greenman Award

The Greenman Award, a certificate and a cash prize of $1,000, is presented each year by the Missouri Botanical Garden. It recognizes the paper judged best in vascular plant or bryophyte systematics based on a doctoral dissertation published during the previous year. Papers published during 1994 are now being accepted for the 27th annual award, which will be presented in the summer of 1995. Reprints of such papers should be sent to Dr. P. Mick Richardson, Greenman Award Committee, Missouri Botanical Garde, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A. In order to be considered for the 1995 award, reprints must be received by 1 June 1995.

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Symposia, Conferences, Meetings

Interplay of Cells With Their Environment 20-24 May 1995

1995 Congress on In Vitro Biology; Radisson Denver Hotel, Denver, Colorado. Contact: Tiffany McMillan; telephone 410/992-0946; FAX 410/992-0949.

Wildland Shrub Symposium

23–25 May 1995

The Shrub Research Consortium in concert with New Mexico State University is sponsoring the Ninth Wild-land Shrub Symposium, May 23-25, 1995 at the Hilton Hotel in Las Cruces, New Mexico. The symposium theme is "Shrubland Ecosystem Dynamics in a Changing Environment." For information contact: Katie Dunford, Office of Conference Services, Box 30004, Dept. CCSU, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003-8004.

Paleobotany / Coal Science Symposium 28 May – 1 June 1995

The first W. A. Bell Symposium on Paleobotany and Coal Science will be held at the University College of Cape Breton, Sydney, Nova Scotia. Please register early. For information contact: Dr. Erwin L. Zodrow, University College of Cape Breton, P.O. Box 5300, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada B 1P 6L2 (Fax: 902/562-0119) or Dr. Paul C. Lyons, U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston Virginia 22092, USA (Fax: 703/ 648-4227.

Bahamian Natural History Symposium 9-13 June 1995

6th Symposium on the Natural History of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Contact: P.J. Godfrey, Biology Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 01003. 413/545-6606, or N. Elliot, Biology Department, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211, 518/783-2440.

Apical Meristems and Primordia

11–16 June 1995

The Gordon Research Conference on Plant Cell Genetics and Development at Wolfeboro, New Hampshire, will have sessions on: Shoot and Leaf Primordia, Root Apices, Meristem Diversity and Evolution, Induction of Flowering, Reproductive Morphology, Evolution of Reproductive Morphology, Methods in Cell Genetics, and Heritable Epigenetic States. Application forms available from: Gordon Research Conferences, University of Rhode Island, PO Box 984, West Kingston, RI 02892-0984. Send poster abstracts by e-mail to: Joachim Messing (Vice-Chair and Poster Organizer) at

MESSING@MBCL.RUTGERS.EDU, AND to: Rich Jorgensen (Chair) at RAJORGENSEN@ucDAVIS.EDU. Program avail-able from Chair.

NT-27

8–12 July 1995

The 27th International Numerical Taxonomy Conference (NT-27) will be held in conjunction with the annual meetings of the Society of Systematic Biologists, the Society for the Study of Evolution, and the American Society of Naturalists, 8-12 July 1995 at McGill Umiversity, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. For additional information about NT-27, contact Francois-Joseph Lapointe (Department de sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale centreville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada; tel: 514-343-7999, fax: 514-343-2253, e-mail: lapoinf @ere.umontreal.ca) or Richard Jensen (Department of Biology, Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, IN 46556; tel: 219-284-4674; fax: 219-284-4716; e-mail: rjensen @saintmarys.edu). For additional information about the SSB/SSE/ASN meetings, contact Evol Secretariat, Conference Office, McGill University, 550 Sherbrooke St. W., West Tower, Suite 490, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 189, Canada (tel: 514-398-3770; fax: 514-398-4854; e-mail: evol@550sherb.lan.mcgill.ca).

Plant Growth Substances

14-19 July 1995

15th International Congress, Minneapolis, Minnesota. For further information contact: Gary Gardner, Dept. of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota, 305 Alderman Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108 USA, FAX (612)624-3606, e-mail: ggardner@maroon.tc.umn.edu.

Pteridology in Perspective

17–21 July 1995

International symposium to commemorate Prof. R.E. Holttum, pre-eminent pteridologist of the 20th Century. All aspects of pteridology may be covered in relation to both extant and fossil pteridophytes world-wide. The circular, with registration and accommodation booking forms, is available from: Pteridophyte Symposium '95, Miss J.M. Ide, c/o R.J. Johns, The Herbarium, The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9

3AE, UK. email P.EDWARDS@RBGKEW.ORG.UK Or fax +44 81 332 5197.

Plant & Fungal Cytoskeleton

23-28 July 1995

The Gordon Research Conference on Plant & Fungal Cytoskeleton will be held July 23-28, 1995. Meeting organizers: Sue Wick, chair, David Drubin, vice-chair. Session topics include: Actin & Actin-Binding Proteins; Motors & Associated Proteins; Organelle Movements in Development; Polarity, Development & Morphogenesis; Cytokinesis; Plant Sexual Reproduction (round-table discussion); Microtubule Organization and Organizing Centers; Cell Wall-Membrane Links to Cytoskeleton; Cell Cycle and Signal Transduction;

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Send half-page poster abstracts to vice-chair: David_Drubin@maillink.berkeley.edu (Dept. Molec. & Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 455 LSA, Berkeley, CA 94720). Some funds will be avail-able to help defray meeting expenses for senior graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty within the first three years of their faculty appointment who plan to present a poster. To apply for funding, contact chair: swick@molbio.cbs.umn.edu (Dept. Plant Biol., University of Minnesota, 220 BSC, 1445 Gortner Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108; 612 625-4718 or 612 625-1738 fax). Application form in February 3, 1995 issue of SCIENCE or from Gordon Research Conferences, PO Box 984, West Kingston, RI 02892-0984.

1995 ABLS Meeting

29 July - 3 August 1995

The 1995 meeting of the American Bryological and Lichenological Society will be held 29 July -3 August at the Palisades Environmental Centre in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. Field trips in the Rocky Mountains will visit alpine and subalpine areas, foot-hills montane zones, interior cedar temperate rain forests, and central ranges, with side trips to the Columbia Ice Field and Miette Hot Springs. Field trip leaders: Dale Vitt and Rene Belland (bryophytes; Bernard Goffinet and Trevor Goward (lichens). The meeting also includes papers, posters, photography workshops, and a symposium "The Application of Modern Molecular Tools to Classic Bryological and Lichenological Questions." Registration US$50 ($35 students). Lodging: From US$52 (at the meeting site, food included) to US$80 in Jasper townsite (food not included). Transportation: Van from Edmonton to Jasper (about 4 hours). For information and registration form, contact Dale H. Vitt, Biological Sciences, CW 405 Bio. Sci. Bldg., University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E9; Telephone 403/492-3380; FAX 403/492-1899, or Chicita F. Culberson, Dept. of Botany, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0338, USA; FAX 919/ 684-5412; E-mail: cculb@acpub.duke.edu. Registration deadline: 1 May 1995.

IOPB Sixth International Symposium 29 July - 2 August 1995

"Variation and Evolution in Arctic and Alpine Plants." Correspondence: VI IOPB-Symposium, the Bergius Foundation, P.O. Box 50017, S-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden; fax +46 8 612 9005.

Ecological Modeling

6-10 August 1995

The meeting of the North America Chapter of the Inter-national Society for Ecological Modeling will be held 6–10 August 1995 in San Diego, California with the annual meetings of the AIRS. Papers and symposium proposals are invited on all aspects of ecological modeling, systems analysis, and system simulation in ecol-

ogy. Deadline for receipt of symposium proposals is 30 January 1995. Deadline for receipt of abstracts for contributed papers is 10 February 1995. Send symposium proposals, abstracts, and requests for further in-formation to: Anthony W. King, Environmental Sciences Division, Bldg. 1000, MS 6335, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335, Phone: (615) 576-3436, email: awk@ornl.gov, Fax: (615) 574-2232

Multimedia in Botany and Biology Classrooms

8 August 1995

Demonstrate Your Uses of Multimedia..The Teaching Section of the Botanical Society of America and the AIBS are co-sponsoring a symposium, "Multi-media in Botany and Biology Classrooms" which will be presented on August 8 at the AIBS meetings in San Diego. The symposium is being organized by Neil Campbell, University of California at Riverside and David Kramer, Ohio State University at Mansfield. The morning session will consist of presented papers on ways multimedia can be built into biology courses and ways you can pay for it! The afternoon session will consist of hands-on demonstrations in the format of a poster session; i.e., using a computer lab at University of California San Di-ego, presenters will be demonstrating their software/ hardware to those who are interested. If you would like to be a presenter in the hands-on session, please contact Dr. Kramer at (419) 755-4344, FAX (419) 755-4367, or by e-mail: kramer.8@osu.edu. Dead-line for abstracts is February 1.

Evolution of Terrestrial Plants

4-8 Sep 1995

International Conference of Diversification and Evolution of Terrestrial Plants in Geological Time (ICTPG) will be held in Nanjing, China, organized by Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Academia Sinica and Palcobotanical Society of China, Sept. 4-8, 1995, with paleobotanical excursions Sept. 9-18. The Chairman of the organizing committee is Prof. Xingxue Li. The registration fee before March 1, 1995 is $200 US (students: $100 US), late registration is $250 (students: $150 US). Abstracts should be sent to the secretariat before December 31, 1994. For further information contact: Secretariate of ICTPG or Prof. G. Sun, Dept. of Palaeobotany, Nanjing Institute of Geol. & Paleont., Academia Sinica, Chi-Ming-Ssu, Nanjing, 210008, PR CHINA. Telephone: 86-25-6637208/FAX 86-25-3357026.

Chromosome Conference

4-8 September 1995

Information: Dr. M.J. Puertas, Departmento de Genetica, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

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Rare and Endangered Plant Conference 11-14 September 1995

The Second Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference will be held 11-14 September, 1995, in Flagstaff, Arizona. Authors with topics concerning rare plants in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah are invited to submit abstracts of papers that they would like to present at this symposium. Topics may include survey and impact assessment, population biology, demographic studies, reproduction, seed biology, distribution, genetics and systematics, monitoring, recovery strategies, and strategies for protection in an ecosystem context. Proceedings will be published. For further information contact Dr. Joyce Maschinski, The Arboretum at Flagstaff, P.O. Box 670, Flagstaff, AZ 86002. Telephone 602/774-1441; email - jmm@nauvax.ucc.nsu.edu.

Rubiaceae Conference

12-14 September 1995

The Second International Rubiaceae Conference is scheduled for September 12-14, 1995 in Meise (Brussels). For further information you may contact Professor E. Robbrecht, Conference secretariat, National Botanic Garden, Domein van Bouchout, B-1860 Meise (Belgium). Telephone: (32 2) 269 39 05; FAX (32 2) 270 15 67.

Harnessing Apomixis

25-27 September 1995

College Station Hilton Hotel and Conference Center, College Station, Texas. Invited speakers and contributed posters will cover various genetic, molecular, physiological, cytological, and evolutionary aspects of asexual seed reproduction and its application to crop improvement. Related topics in plant sexual reproduction will also be presented. Some financial support for international attendees will be available. For further information and circulars, please contact Dr. David M. Stelly, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2474. Phone: (409)-845-2745, fax: (409)-862-4733, I ,-MAIL: monosom@rigcl.tamu.edu.

Engineering Plants

1-4 October 1995

International Symposium on "Engineering Plants for Commercial Products/Applications", University of Kentucky, Lexington KY, USA. Co-organizers: Glenn B. Collins and Robert J. Shepherd. To be added to the conference mailing list, send your name and address to: International Symposium on Engineering Plants, c/o Conferences and Institutes, 218 Peterson Service Building, Lexington KY 40506-00005, USA. Email: monica.stoch@ukwang.uky.edu, phone: 606/257-3929; FAX: 606/323-1053.

Thanks Extended to Outgoing Editor

As the brand new editor of the Plant Science Bulletin, and on behalf of its many readers around the world, I wish to express our sincere graditudc to Meredith Lane for her tireless service as editor for the last four years. I think we all agree that both the appearance and the content of this newsletter matured significantly under her leadership. Meredith's contribution to the Botanical Society is greatly appreciated.

On a personal note, I offer my own thanks to Meredith for helping me get started on this issue of PSB. I hope I can learn as quickly as she did, and serve the Botanical Society as well.

— Ed.

Book Reviews

 

In this Issue:

Developmental/Structural:

p. 17 The Development of Flowers. Greyson (1994) — U. Smith

p. 18 Plant Allometry: The Scaling of Form and Process. Niklas (1994) — C. Wilson

Ecological:

p. 19 Ecology and Management of Invasive Riverside Plants. deWall et al. (1994) — C. Daehler and D. Strong

Economic Botany:

p. 20 Citrus. Davies and Albrigo (1994) — S. Hammer

Genetics:

p. 20 Oenothera. Harte (1994) — D. Mulcahy

The Development of Flowers. R.I. Greyson, with a contribution by C.N. McDaniel, 1994. ISBN 0-19-506688-X, 314 pp. (cloth US$65.00) Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016. — This is an attractive, fairly slim book, laid out and partly written in the familiar style of comparative morphology texts: separate chapters are devoted to the perianth, androecium, gynoecium, and inflorescence, and within these chapters each component of the angiosperm flower is treated in sequence. However, this is not a comparative morphology text.

The author states in the middle of Chapter 1 that "In the traditional literature of flower structure, two different intellectual objectives, quite distinct from ontogeny, can often be identified. These are: (a) comparative morphology . . . and (b) phylogeny" (p. 8). Judging by various elements in the two introductory chapters (on principles of developmental biology and general aspects of angiosperm morphology) and the summary chapter, it is my impression that the author considers comparative morphology, systematics, and evolutionary biology to be fields of research that derive information from develop-mental biology, but do not contribute useful information to developmental studies. He deliberately avoids using a comparative approach, stating that "developmentalists find that traditional flower literature can be a difficult basis for their investigations" (p. 8). Regarding homology, he explains that "For now, our lexicon of structural terminology, derived from traditional sources, is assumed to be one of convenience, largely based on overall similarity" (p. 14). This book will probably infuriate those readers who appreciate the "traditional" literature.

Despite the author's disavowal of the comparative method, the four chapters on the perianth, androecium, gynoecium, and inflorescence are written in the style of comparative morphology, with data from various taxa treated together under topical headings. Without a systematic or otherwise comparative framework to work from in this book, I was lost among the details until I turned to some classic systematic references (e.g., Cronquist) to provide a few landmarks.

I had a much easier time with the two introductory chapters, which lay out principles of developmental biology and general aspects of angiosperm morphology. An additional, free-standing chapter by Carl N. McDaniel is devoted to photoperiod induction of flowering, and related topics. A second free-standing chapter outlines recent work on the development of floral structures in grasses (Poaceae). This chapter is written around specific taxa, and I found it quite intelligible. A summary chapter touches on several major themes in developmental biology as applied to flowering plants.

There is a very brief glossary (under two pages); many terms are defined at the start of some chapters, in the text. I found it confusing to find some terms defined in the text in bold typeface, some listed in the glossary (but not flagged in the text), and others not explained at all. There are two useful appendices on growing protocols and sources for genetic stocks of the more popular experimental model species; these section might have been greatly improved through last-minute addition of pointers to the numerous plant biology mailing lists and other resources that became available via the Internet in 1992 and early 1993. The bibliography is solid (I counted 918 references, 102 after 1989: 49 from 1990, 34 from 1991, 16 from 1992, and three from 1993). The index is perhaps the weakest part of the book: I found it to be missing some key terms, not rigorous about citing listed terms through-out the text, and poorly cross-referenced. It does not include authors, and although cited taxa are listed by genus, they are not listed by family. Cross-references are scant in the text as well, and usually refer the reader to a chapter instead of the relevant page number. Images, drawings, diagrams, and graphs are both plentiful and attractive; most are reprinted from the literature, and all original sources are cited.

This book should provide a useful introduction, for advanced students trained in disciplines other than botany, to the vast and still rapidly increasing literature on the many old and fascinating problems posed by the angiosperm flower. —Una Smith, una.smith C yale.edu, Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8104 USA.

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Plant Allometry: The Scaling of Form and Process. Niklas, Carl J. 1994. ISBN 0-226-58081-4 (pb US$60.00), 395 pp. University of Chicago Press, 5801 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago IL 60637.-In the epilogue to his most recent book, Plant Allometry: The Scaling of Form and Process, Karl Niklas states two aims: to describe and summarize the kinds of biological phenomena that are correlated with size and to discuss the difficulties associated with trying to express "the behavior of living things" solely in terms of mathematics. The first he does well in five chapters filled with data and reviews of current and classical literature. The difficulties he means to examine are both practical and philosophical, and his treatment of them is spread throughout the chapters in connection with specific examples and case studies. Those seeking a theoretical analysis of allometry, in general or specifically concerning plants, should be pre-pared to work through the text closely.

There is a third goal that Niklas pursues, and it provides the most satisfying aspect of the book. He is not willing to accept recurrent patterns of size-dependent correlations or allomorphic rules as evidence of some sort of genetic inertia or hereditary continuity, but rather sees them as products of continuous natural selection. This is not a new point of view to biologists, but this theme, consistently developed throughout the book, provides a wonderfully unifying thread binding together discussions of development, physiology, environment, reproductive biology, and paleobotany. Niklas implicitly argues this point frequently, using inertia and selection as alternative explanatory hypotheses. As one might expect, he generally decides in favor of selection. This integrating element gives the book a strength that enables it to resist a dangerous potential to dissolve into a number of articles only loosely related to one another.

In his brief prologue Niklas reviews various ways we use the term "allometry" and suggests the expression "scaling analysis" for his specific application of physical, chemical, and mathematical investigation of biological forms. Scaling analysis "refers to the proportion that a representation of an object or system bears to the prototype of the object or system." (p. vii) Thus, variation in plant form and process becomes "potentially accountable in terms of the consequences of absolute and relative size." (p. vii) Niklas uses "scaling analysis" in an effort to avoid confusion resulting from the numerous meanings biologists give to "allometry", but in addition to this tactical advantage the use of such a descriptive term facilitates fairly precise and narrow questions that pro-vide the basis for testable hypotheses about changes in the relationship between structure and function of plants as their size changes.

In part, the first chapter continues the definitions of the prologue, but it also introduces the distinguishing features of the plant kingdom in the context of allometry. Growth and development are presented as changes in size and shape, and the importance of these changes on metabolism are discussed. Multicellularity, modular construction, photosynthesis, and the need for a botanist to distinguish between organs and organisms all play central roles in Niklas' application of allometry to plants. This leads to summaries of "scaling principles", "dimension analysis", and other techniques. Statistical methodology dominates the discussion. Well organized tables and a thorough methodological appendix ease digestion of the material, but is advisable to study the appendix carefully and to keep a detailed statistics manual (specifically regression) handy.

The book contains many references to historical and current statistical publications for further reading, but it also has a mistake in one citation. In chapter 1, the citation to a particularly intriguing recent paper (Peters 1989, p 24) was either incorrect in the text or completely missing from the bibliography. There are several other typo-graphical errors scattered through the text (none that I found in the equations, thankfully), but this bibliographic error was the only vexing one.

The other four chapters contain the bulk of the book's empirical work. Niklas presents a huge amount of data, but he does not cite any sources. I assume the data stems from his lab, and if so, I would have liked some explanation of how the data were gathered. Several times his data either excited me to try his approach for my own purposes, or else incited me to question his results and want to re-examine them. Without knowing his methodology, how-ever, it is difficult to assess his analysis or to replicate it.

The four chapters cover aquatic plants, terrestrial plants, reproduction, and evolution. They are more descriptive than the first, and much easier reading, but their full value depends upon the first chapter and the methodological appendix, so resist any temptation to skip immediately to a favorite topic. Each of the four can be read independently of the other three, however. As might be expected, the chapters on aquatic and terrestrial plants interpret the relationships between plants' morphology and anatomy and their physiology in terms of the physical conditions of life in their respective environments. While bringing plant morphology and physiological ecology together is a valuable endeavor, it is not especially novel.

The chapters on reproduction and evolution, on the other hand, contain much original interpretation and underscore the great value that scaling analysis holds for botanical research in these areas. The allocation of resources between vegetative and reproductive functions and structures, patterns of sex expression, and the morphology of reproductive structures, for example, have been studied intensively by botanists of various special-ties, but our understanding of each of them could benefit from an allometric approach. The same is true for evolutionary topics. Specifically, topics such as heterochrony and life histories, mainly studied from an evolutionary point of view in animals, are nicely covered by Niklas. I greatly enjoyed seeing this kind of integrating, developmental, and functional morphological work being done by a botanist, and heartily recommend it to botanists of all specialties. — Chester Wilson Biology Department University of St. Thomas St. Paul, MN 55105

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Ecology and Management of Invasive River-side Plants L.C. de Waal, L.E. Child, P.M. Wade, and J.H. Brock, eds. 1994. ISBN 0-471-94257-X (cloth US$95.00), 217 pp. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY 10158 — The scope of this book is narrower than its title suggests. Nineteen chapters discuss the distribution, autoecology and control of 4 species - Crassula helmsii (swamp stonecrop), Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan balsam), Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed), and Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed), in Europe, with most chapters emphasizing the British Isles. One chapter summarizing the taxonomy, spread and management of Tamarix spp. (saltcedar) in Western North America is included, since future environmental changes may elevate Tamarix spp. to pest status in the British Isles. Several chapters are case studies that indicate which herbicides, mechanical disturbance, or grazing regime worked best for control. A few chapters discuss the potential for biological control using insects or pathogens, although actual screening of biocontrol agents has not yet begun for any of these invasive species.

At times, chapters overlap significantly. For example, although interesting at first, descriptions in five separate chapters of watery skin blisters, induced by contact with H. mantegazzianum, became tiresome to read. The chap-ter by Dodd et al. on the control and management of H. mantegazzianum effectively summarizes most of the in-formation and conclusions from six earlier chapterson H. mantegazzianum in just 15 pages. Symbolic of the over-lap between chapters, fig. 15.1 (p. 162) and fig. 20.2 (p.202), both full-page figures, are identical. This book could be streamlined significantly by eliminating redundant information.

One chapter we found particularly interesting was on the reproductive biology of invasive F. japonica in the British Isles, by Bailey. Apparently, only a male-sterile genotype of this pest has been introduced in the British Isles. In rare instances where seed set was observed, the seeds were found to be hybrids between F. japonica and another introduced Fallopia species. Hybrid individuals were only rarely found established in nature. The implications of this study are that F. japonica populations in the British isles have spread almost exclusively through vegetative propagation; any future introduction of a male-fertile genotype might dramatically increase spread by this species.

The management of invasive riverside plants involves some obvious practical problems besides deciding among chemical, mechanical, or biological control methods. Rivers can act as rapid dispersal corridors, traversing political boundaries, and some property is usually privately owned. In these situations, a successful management program must gather strong public support and involve multiple local/ regional governing groups and land owners. While a few chapters in this book mention in passing the need for coordination, only that by Hill, outlining a practical approach to the control of F. japonica, clearly illustrates how important coordination can be to a control project. But how does one go about building up a coordinated plan and gaining public support for such activities as herbicide spraying? Might management pro-grams be designed to not only control pests, but also to educate the public about problems caused by invasive exotic plants, while also increasing public awareness of native plants? After all, many invasive riverside plants were introduced through horticulture, and this is a likely route for the introduction of future invasive plants. In southern California, a model example of a coordinated management effort is Team Arundo, a 20 member group that includes local organizations like fire departments and public works departments, state-wide agencies like the California Department of Fish and Game and California Department of Transit, and national- level groups like the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Nature Conservancy, all working together to control and eliminate invasive Arundo donax (European giant reed) from California's rivers. The team starts from a river's origin, and with local cooperation, works its way to the ocean. We anticipate that the future successful management of invasive riverside plants will depend not only on the type of herbicide or control regime used, but perhaps even more on building integrated teams, a matter that this book only cursorily addresses.

This book primarily provides information on the autoecology, spread and control of C. helmsii, I. glandulifera, F. japonica, and H. mantegazzianum, invasive riverside plants that are problems in the British Isles and Europe. This information should also be of use to land managers in other parts of the world where these same plant species have been introduced - even if these species have not yet become invasive. A species' past invasion record is one of the better predictors of future invasion potential, and the ideal time to begin a control or eradication program is before an introduced species has become a problem. —Curtis C. Daehlerand Donald R. Strong, University of California, Davis

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Citrus. Frederick S. Davies and L. Gene Albrigo. 1994. ISBN 0-85198-867-9 (paper). CAB INTER-NATIONAL, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE UK. — There are no surprises in this volume. The authors provide a succinct yet thorough account of citrus horticulture with an emphasis on practical, economically important issues. Citrus agriculture is a giant industry. One cannot fault the authors for their concern with juice content, rootstocks, and tonnage per continent. Yet some-thing seems to be missing. Could it be some essential oil; some exotic ingredient used in perfumery, some twist of fate that lends romance to the history of the golden apples in the garden of The Hesperides'? This is not to say that the hook lacks appeal. The figures and maps are presented clearly. The tables are simple to read. The typeset is attractive. The authors have dutifully included chapters on the history and taxonomy of Citrus. There are abundant references and the hook seems to be carefully indexed. The sections on embryony, physiology, and husbandry are interesting.

As the introductory page states, this is a source of information for "students and staff...involved in courses in horticulture...agriculture, plant science, food science and applied biology." I recommend the book for libraries whose aim it is to serve these disciplines, but it would tend to be superfluous in a botany library. It is less the authors, who have done a good job, whom I criticize than CAB International, which has chosen the format for this series in Crop Production Science and Horticulture. The book is too general for specialists and too broad for specific applications. Surely the plant science material here is available in journal format. Although "keen gardeners" are targeted, the topics in the hook may be too wide-ranging for their concerns. Ultimately I am not sure whom this book serves. I beg my readers to forgive me if I seem acerbic. I teach Growth and Form to adult students in a night course, and with every difficult chapter we note how well D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson incorporated humanistic thought into this most scientific of books. For that matter, so did Darwin. But to learn about oranges and lemons one must go back to Tolkowsky's classic work. He taught us that the source of the word paradise was probably a Persian citrus orchard. Everyone knows that in crop production we are more concerned with parasites than paradise, and we cannot drink history for our break-fast juice. But there is only so much O.J. we can hold. Our libraries need to offer us an alternative. — Samuel Hammer, College of General Studies, Boston University.

Oenothera, Contributions of a Plant to Biology Harte, C. 1994 ISBN 3-540-53114-9 (cb) 261 pp. Springer-Verlag GambH & Co., KG, Tiergartenstrasse 17, D-69121, Heidelberg, Germany—"What should you do if you are a plant and want to become famous?" As an opening sentence, this one is hard to beat. Not only is it charming, but it tells us something essential about this book on Oenothera. It says that, finally, the mysteries of Oenothera, including its reproductive biology, genetics, cytogenetics, rings of chromosomes and all, are about to be made thoroughly comprehensible. Of course, you may be thinking that you already have more than enough to think about, so why should you concern yourself with this unusual plant? There is a twofold answer to this question. First of all, for nearly one half century, some of the best minds in botanical sciences devoted much of their careers to Oenothera, puzzling out extraordinary topics, describing them in detail and then preparing germplasm for subsequent investigators. The exponential growth of productivity in areas such as Drosophila, Arabidopsis, and Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrates what happens when extensive knowledge of an experimental organism provides the foundation for the application of new technologies. The present volume demonstrates that the availability of fundamental knowledge of Oenothera is already vast. The second answer to the question of why we might reexamine Oenothera is that, as early investigators have already shown, this system provides an unusually powerful insights into the reproductive biology of the angiosperms.

To see why this might be so, please allow me to digress to Drosophila for just a moment. Some years ago, several investigators sought evidence for single locus heterosis in their crosses, but surprisingly, without much success. Wills and Nichols (1972) however, succeeded by reasoning that, in highly heterozygous families, the small effects of most individual loci would be difficult to detect amongst the variance generated by many segregating loci. They therefore used nearly isogenic lines and were indeed successful in demonstrating the logically expected effect. Isogenic lines are not quickly produced but there are other systems for restricting genetic variance. Oenothera has an unusual one. There, a series of reciprocal chromosomal translocations force chromosomes into rings during meiosis and crossing over is thus constrained. The presence of balanced lethals, among other mechanisms, further tightens the constraint. As a result, only one or two genotypes of gametes are produced by a plant, and these same genotypes are reproduced, virtually unchanged, in each subsequent generation. Phenomena which are generally obscured in a great cloud of genetic variance, as was single locus heterosis in Drosophila, can thus be demonstrated with ease in Oenothera.

Consider, for example, what some might view as fairly unusual characteristics of Oenothera: biparental

20

inheritance and megaspore competition. Although we have long known about biparental inheritance of cytoplasmic organelles in several angiosperm species, it is certainly considered to be atypical in the angiosperms. Only recently has evidence suggested that biparental inheritance could be far more common than was previously thought (Corriveau and Coleman, 1988). In fact, investigations of a new example, Medicago sativa, are producing extraordinary insights into how this system operates and varies in both sexes (Zhu et al. 1991). Megaspore competition is another phenomenon, even more obscure than biparental inheritance, but exhibited in Oenothera. Text books invariably state that survival among members of a megaspore tetrad is determined exclusively by position within that tetrad. However, megaspore competition is exhibited in Arisaema and in Ranunculus (Buchholz, 1922) and enen in the now closely investigated Arabidopsis (Redei, 1965). In fact, Schnarf (1929) suggests that megaspore survival is determined independently of position in 53 families of angiosperms. Why should these phenomena, biparental inheritance and megaspore competition, be so quickly and clearly observed in Oenothera , but largely over-looked in many other taxa? I believe that the answer is that Oenothera is one of the few taxa in which the obscuring effect of genetic variance is naturally limited. Phenomena which are often difficult to detect, as was single locus heterosis in genetically variable Drosophila, become obvious when variation is restricted. Given our new methodologies, we can return to Oenothera and examine phenomena which very likely exist, unseen, in many other taxa. How many botanists have heard about selective fertilization, the nonrandom interactions between different ovule and pollen genotypes? This phenomena is clearly demonstrated in Oenothera (Schwemmle, 1964). Are we to believe, as we did with biparental inheritance and megaspore competition, that this is an-other rare phenomenon, limited largely to Oenothera and a few other unusual species? And what about competition between developing microspores, or between pollen grains on stigmatic surfaces, or between pollen tubes within the style? What about style/pollen interactions? Each of these phenomena can be studied very effectively in Oenothera.

Easier said than done, one might say. The early papers, and many subsequent major works are all written in German. Furthermore, linguistic problems aside, Oenothera studies very quickly became quite sophisticated and, for the would be investigator, technically daunting. This is where the book by C. Harte makes its greatest contribution. In one comprehensive, slim, and easily understood volume, she opens the gates of Oenothera to all. Her two introductory chapters survey, only to the extent necessary for orientation, the history of Oenothera investigations, mainly in taxonomy and morphology. The third chapter, 110 out of the book's 261 pages, is devoted to genetics, and here some special features of Oenothera are explained. "How to be a constant hybrid" presents a thoroughly understandable explanation of the ring chromosome systems which make this plant uniquely useful. A large part of the genetics chapter is devoted to extrachromosomal inheritance, and here too the introductory material is peppered with some extraordinary observations. For example, there is good evidence that, in addition to the mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA, there are other extrachromosomal factors! Could these be like the Spiroplasma which distorts sex ratio in Drosophila (Hackell, 1986)? The other major chapter, 81 pages, is devoted to reproductive (and developmental) biology. In admirable but always accessible detail, it covers the development of embryos, seeds, vegetative and floral structures, and the nuclear and cytoplasmic aspects of each. C. Harte's book is an extraordinary one, clearly the work of some-one who has devoted much of her career to this organism. Her own contributions to the literature are numerous and important. Her skill as a communicator is exceptional. Ten percent of the volume is bibliography and yet it reads (well, almost) like a novel. Armed with this volume as background and reference, it will be possible to deal other great English language Oenothera classics. Who knows, perhaps machine translation is just around the corner, but, until then, Cornelia Harte deserves the gratitude of all who would enter into this extraordinary field of exploration. — David L. Mulcahy, Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts

References

Buchholz, J. T. 1922. Developmental selection in vascular plants. Bot. Gaz. 73:249-286.

Corriveau, J. L., and A. W. Coleman. 1988. Rapid method to detect potential biparental inheritance of plastid DNA and results from over 200 angiosperm species. Amer. Jour. Bot. 75:1443-1458.

Freeling, M. and V. Walbot. 1994. The Maize Hand-book. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Hackell, K. J. 1986. Cultivation of the Drosophila sex-ratio Spiroplasma. Science 232:1253-1255.

Redei G. P. 1965. Non-mendelian megagametogenesis in Arabidopsis. Genetics 51:857-872.

Schnarf, K. 1929. Embryologic der Angiospermen. Handb. Pflanzenanat. II.

Schwemmle, J. 1968. Selective fertilization in Oenothera. Adv. in Genet. 14:225-324.

Wills, C., and L. Nichols. 1972. How genetic back-ground masks single-gene heterosis in Drosophila. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 69: 323-325.

Zhu, T., H. L. Mogensen, and S. E. Smith. 1991. Quantitative cytology of the alfalfa generative cell and its relation to male plastid inheritance patterns in three genotypes. Theor. Appl. Genet. 81:21-26.

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Books Received

If you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February, 15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). Send E-MAIL, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in

this list, because they go quickly!—Ed.

* = book in review or declined for review ** = book reviewed in this issue

Ecological

Tropical Alpine Environments: Plant form and function Runde], P.W., A.P. Smith & F.C. Meinzer, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-521-42089-X (cb US$100.00) 376 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

A Naturalist's guide to the Arctic Pielou, E.C. 1995 ISBN 0-226-66814-2 (pb US$I9.95) The University of Chicago Press, 5801 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago IL 60637

Biotic Communities - Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico Brown, D.E. 1994 ISBN 0-87480-459-0 (pb US$24.95) 342 pp. University of Utah Press, 101 University Services Bldg., Salt Lake City UT 841121

Pattern and Process in a Forested Ecosystem Bormann, F.H. & G.E. Likens 1994 ISBN 0-387-94344-7 (pb US$39.95) 253 pp. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 175 - 5th Ave., New York NY 10010

*Principles and Practice of Plant Conservation Given, David R. ISBN 0-88192-249-8 (cb US$39.93)292 pp. Timber Press, 133 SW 2nd Av., Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527

Biological Diversity, The Coexistence of Species on Changing Landscapes Huston, Michael A. 1994 ISBN 0-521-36930-4 (pb US$34.95) 681 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

Economic Botany

The Chocolate Tree, A Natural History of Cacao Young, A.M. 1995 ISBN 1-56098-357-4 (cb US$24.95) 240 pp. Smithsonian Institution Press, 470 L'Enfant Plaza, Suite 7100, Washington DC 20560

Ethnobotany and the Search for New Drugs Chadwick, Derek J. & J. Marsh, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-471950246 (cb US$76.00) 280 pp. John W. Wiley & Sons, 605 - 3rd Ave., New York NY 10158

Money Trees on Your Property Fitzpatrick, D. 1994 ISBN 0-4093-0867-6 (pb US $49.95) 174 pp. Butterworth-Heinemann Australia, PO Box 5577, West Chatswood New South Wales 2057

Diseases of Tropical Pasture Plants Lenn6, J.M. & P. Trutmann, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-85198-917-9 (cb US$108.00) 404 pp. The University of Arizona Press, 1230 N Park Ave., Suite 102, Tucson AZ 85719

*Key to Common Woody Landscape Plants in the Midwest Stidd, B.M. & R.D. Henry 1995 ISBN 0-87563-508-3 (pb US$14.80) 130 pp. Stipes Publishing L.L.C., 10-12 Chester St., P.O. Box 526, Champaign IL 61824-0526

Genetics

Genetic Control of Self-Incompatibility and Reproductive Development in Flowering Plants Williams, E.G., A.E. Clarke & R. B. Knox, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-7923-2574-5 (cb US$214.00/UK£142.50/ Dt1375.00) 540 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The

Netherlands

Homologous Recombination and Gene Silencing in Plants Paszkowski, J., ed. 1994 ISBN 0-7923 2704-7 (cb US$ 162.00/Dfl275.00/UK£107.00) 385 pp. Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P.O. Box 989. 3300 AZ Dordrecht. The Netherlands

**Oenothera, Contributions of a Plant to Biology Harte, C. 1994 ISBN 3-540-53114-9 (cb) 261 pp. Springer-Verlag GambH & Co., KG, Tiergartenstrasse 17, D-69121, Heidelberg, Germany

Historical

Historical Perspectives in Plant Science Burris, R.H., J. Dudley, B. Griffing, N. Jensen, A. Kelman, C.S. Levings III, R. Riley & G.L. Stebbins; Frey, J.J., ed. 1994 ISBN 0-8138-2284-X (cb), 203 pp. Iowa State University Press, Ames IA 50014

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The Correspondence of Charles Darwin: Vol. 9: 1861 Burkhardt, F, DM Porter, J. Harvey and M. Richmond, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-521-45156-6 (cb UKS$59.95) 609 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

Physiological

Biochemical Mechanisms Involved in Plant Growth Regulation Smith, CJ, J. Gallan, D. Chiatante, & G. Zocchi, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-19-857764-8 (cb US$83.00) 282 pp. Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016

Handbook of Phytoalexin Metabolism and Action Daniel, M. & R.P. Purkayastha, cds 1994 ISBN 0-8247-9269-6 (cb US$195.00) 615 pp. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016

Environment and Plant Metabolism: Flexibility and Acclimation Smirnoff, N., ed 1995 ISBN 1-872748-93-7 (cb US$120.00/UK £60.00) 286 pp. BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd., 9 Newtec Place, Magdalen Rd., Oxford OX4 IRE, UK

Introduction to Plant Physiology Hopkins, W.G. 1995 ISBN 0-471-54547-3 (cb US$75.95) 464 pp. John Wiley & Sons, 605 - 3rd AV., New York NY 10158

Plant Physiology Mohr, Hans, & P. Schopfer 1995 ISBN 0-540-58016-6 (cb US$59.95)629 pp. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386

Structural/Developmental

Plant Cell Biology Harris, N. & K.J. Oparka, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-19-963398-3 (cb US$96.00)/ISBN 0-19-963399-1 (pb US$52.00) 327 pp. Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016

Inducible Gene Expression, Vol. 1-Environmental Stresses and Nutrients Baeuerle, P.A., ed. 1995 ISBN 0-8176-3728-1 (cb US85.00) 284 pp. Birkh~user Boston, 160 Imlay St., Brooklyn NY 11231

Inducible Gene Expression, Vol. 2-Hormonal Signals Baeuerle, P.A., ed. 1995 ISBN 0-8176-3734-6 (cb US$85.00) 284 pp. Birkhiiuser Boston, 160 Imlay St., Brooklyn NY 11231

Systematics

Flowering Plants of the Gambia Jones, M. 1994 ISBN 90-5410-1970 (pb US$40.00), 199 pp.

A.A. Balkema Uitgevers B.V., Postbus 1675, NL-3000 BR Rotterdam, Nederland

Grasses of the Trans-Pecos and Adjacent Areas Powell, A. Michael 1994 ISBN 0-292-76553-3 (cb US$75.00)/0-292-76556-8 (pb US29.95) 377 pp. University of Texas Press, PO Box 7819, Austin TX 78713-7819

Guide to Flowering Plant Families Zomlefer, W.B. 1994 ISBN 0-8078-4470-5 University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC 27515-2288

Scientific and Common Names of 7,000 Vascular Plants in the United States Brako, L., A.Y. Rossman & D.F. Farr 1994 ISBN 0-89054-171-X (pb US$29.00) 294 pp. APS Press, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul MN 55121

Caryophyllales, Evolution and Systematics Behnke, H.-D. & T.J. Mabry, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-378-56695-3 (cb) 334 pp. Springer-Verlag GambH & Co., KG, Tiergartenstrasse 17, D-69121, Heidelberg, Germany

*Vascular Plants of Russia and Adjacent States 1995 Czerepanov, S.K. ISBN 0-521-45006-3 (cb US$100.00) 516 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W. 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

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The Correspondence of Charles Darwin: Vol. 9: 1861 Burkhardt, F, DM Porter, J. Harvey and M. Richmond, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-521-45156-6 (cb UKS$59.95) 609 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

Physiological

Biochemical Mechanisms Involved in Plant Growth Regulation Smith, C7, J. Gallan, D. Chiatante, & G. Zocchi, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-19-857764-8 (cb US$83.00) 282 pp. Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016

Handbook of Phytoalexin Metabolism and Action Daniel, M. & R.P. Purkayastha, eds 1994 ISBN 0-8247-9269-6 (cb US$195.00) 615 pp. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016

Environment and Plant Metabolism: Flexibility and Acclimation Smirnoff, N., ed 1995 ISBN 1-872748-93-7 (cb US$120.00/UK £60.00) 286 pp. BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd., 9 Newtec Place, Magdalen Rd., Oxford OX4 1 RE, UK

Introduction to Plant Physiology Hopkins, W.G. 1995 ISBN 0-471-54547-3 (cb US$75.95) 464 pp. John Wiley & Sons, 605 - 3rd AV., New York NY 10158

Plant Physiology Mohr, Hans, & P. Schopfer 1995 ISBN 0-540-58016-6 (cb US$59.95)629 pp. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. P.O. Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386

Structural/Developmental

Plant Cell Biology Harris, N. & K.J. Oparka, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-19-963398-3 (cb US$96.00)/ISBN 0-19-963399-1 (pb US$52.00) 327 pp. Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016

Inducible Gene Expression, Vol. 1-Environmental Stresses and Nutrients Baeuerle, P.A., ed. 1995 ISBN 0-8176-3728-1 (cb US85.00) 284 pp. Birkhauser Boston, 160 Imlay St., Brooklyn NY 11231

Inducible Gene Expression, Vol. 2-Hormonal Signals Baeuerle, P.A., ed. 1995 ISBN 0-8176-3734-6 (cb US$85.00) 284 pp. Birkhkuser Boston, 160 Imlay St., Brooklyn NY 11231

Systematics

Flowering Plants of the Gambia Jones, M. 1994 ISBN 90-5410-1970 (pb US$40.00), 199 pp.

A.A. Balkema Uitgevers B.V., Postbus 1675, NL-3000 BR Rotterdam, Nederland

Grasses of the Trans-Pecos and Adjacent Areas Powell, A. Michael 1994 ISBN 0-292-76553-3 (cb US$75.00)/0-292-76556-8 (pb US29.95) 377 pp. University of Texas Press, PO Box 7819, Austin TX 78713-7819

Guide to Flowering Plant Families Zomlefer, W.B. 1994 ISBN 0-8078-4470-5 University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill NC 27515-2288

Scientific and Common Names of 7,000 Vascular Plants in the United States Brako, L., A.Y. Rossman & D.F. Farr 1994 ISBN 0-89054-171-X (pb US$29.00) 294 pp. APS Press, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul MN 55121

Caryophyllales, Evolution and Systematics Behnke, H.-D. & T.J. Mabry, eds. 1994 ISBN 0-378-56695-3 (cb) 334 pp. Springer-Verlag GambH & Co., KG, Tiergartenstrasse 17, D-69121, Heidelberg, Germany

*Vascular Plants of Russia and Adjacent States 1995 Czerepanov, S.K. ISBN 0-521-45006-3 (cb US$100.00) 516 pp. Cambridge University Press, 40 W. 20th St., New York NY 10011-4211

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always available to contributors to the
BSA Endowment Fund

T-shirts (100% cotton), adult sizes (S, M, L, XL) Short sleeves: Grey with small green logo on front, large purple and green logo on back -$13.00

Cloisonnē pin

White with kelly green logo and gold border-$6.00

All prices include $2.00 for postage and handling.
Specify item(s), style(s) and size(s).
Make checks payable to BSA Endowment Fund. Mail to:

Kim Hiser, Business Manager
Botanical Society of America
1735 Neil Ave.
Columbus OH 43210-1293


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