If your college or university is not represented and you have appropriate candidates, consider nominating your leading student or students (generally the top 6-8% of botany students) next year.
Each Young Botanist Awardee receives a letter of recognition and a certificate signed by the Past President. The BSA also sends letters, if requested, to the Dean of the appropriate college. A number of institutions cite the Young Botanist Award at graduation and some offer a year's membership in the Society to Awardees.
Writing An Effective Manuscript Review1
Reprinted with permission and minor revisions from BroScrr:xca 42:621-623, Sept. 1992.
Written dissemination of information is an essential part of science. As biologists, we all are or will be authors. But our commitment to publication does not end there; we also are or will be called on to provide peer review of manuscripts submitted to journals.
Our reviewing efforts are important. We have the opportunity to help authors improve the effectiveness of their messages and to strengthen analysis and interpretation of results. We can improve our own writing by critically scrutinizing that of others. The discipline benefits, because clearly articulated and interpreted results stimulate further productive research. And, finally, society benefits if accurate information is available to guide public policy. Indeed, the credibility of modern science and the value of science-based policy ultimately depend on the quality of peer review. The entire enterprise suffers when a rigorous peer review process is bypassed, as often occurs in the so-called gray literature that is produced by government agencies and consulting firms.
How can we improve the effectiveness of our re-views? Manuscript writing is learned by trial and error (who doesn't wince on re-reading an early publication?). We also imitate other writers and heed the advice of senior colleagues and how-to manuals (e.g., CBE 1983, Day 1983, McMillan 1988). Our training as reviewers relies on a smaller range of experiences. When articles that we reviewed appear in print, we see what our input has achieved. The reviews we receive of our own manuscripts illustrate styles that either encourage and educate or discourage and infuriate. Most writing manuals contain little or nothing about reviewing, and the confidentiality of the process restricts the opportunity to imitate or collaborate with senior colleagues. To help fill this void, this article offers suggestions, distilled from our own experiences and those of colleagues, that should enhance reviewing effectiveness without requiring any compromise of rigor. These suggestions complement those of Rosenzweig et al. (1994) and Gauglcr and Freckman (1990), who have addressed parallel issues in discussing the effect of the reviewers on funding of grant proposals.
1 Copyright 1992, American Institute of Biological Sciences
A nonconfrontational attitude
The review process all too often is needlessly antagonistic, for a variety of reasons. The explanation may lie with increased numbers of biologists competing for journal space and recognition, or just end-of-millennium testiness. Consider adopting the following nonconfrontational attitudes while reviewing.
Assume that you and the author share a common enterprise. The dictionary defines peer not only as a person of the same rank, but as a comrade and associate. Assume from the start that the author shares your enthusiasm for your scientific discipline, and allow yourself only reluctantly to be convinced otherwise.
Write to convince the author. Why be acidic or engage in personal attack behind a cloak of anonymity? Such tactics have much potential for harm (Packer 1989). At the least, nastiness will alienate the author (and the editor). Perhaps you have identified legitimate problems with the study, but, if your review is poorly received, the author may simply publish elsewhere or shelve a study that has value. To avoid writing such a failed review (the only correct description of one that is ignored), put yourself in the author's shoes and ask whether your review would be considered evenhanded and helpful. You can be direct in your criticisms, but be dispassionate and never engage in ad hominem attack.
Don't assume that your assignment is to sleuth out crimes. As authors, we three have received re-views of our own manuscripts that apologize for failing to find major flaws. Such apologies hint at a perhaps unconscious assumption that authors must be hiding something and that a reviewer's job is to unearth it. If no glaring flaws are evident, the temptation is to rail against "inadequate sample size," v aguely "inappropriate" analyses, or the like. Some journals explicitly instruct re-viewers to identify flaws, an unfortunate emphasis.
Assume that the author understands the study system. In your own work, you have spent hours puzzling over a theoretical problem or slaving in the laboratory or field. Assume, at least to begin with, that the author has done the same and thus probably knows his or her system better than you do. Your perception of a problem may be accurate, or it might reflect an incorrect understanding of the study system. Acknowledge this by using conditional, rather than condescending, wording in your review. It is more truthful to write "I am unfamiliar with details of the system, but I do not understand why nocturnal mating was expected" or "Perhaps I missed something, but I did not see the value
of the yeast system for studying chromosome structure." rather than "It is well known that these animals never mate at night" or "The yeast system has no value for a study of chromosome structure". Keep in mind that your entire review may be discredited in the eyes of author and editor if you take an overly firm position on an issue (for example by using unconditional wording) and your position is a matter of opinion or is shown to be incorrect.
Don't hold the author to an impossible ideal. Perhaps you perceive that the author did not use the best research design or analysis. Point out the alternative methodology, because the author may have missed it and may be able to use your insight in her or his next study. But avoid being too strident; the author may have been constrained by any number of factors unknown to you such as quirks of the study system or severely limited time and resources. Also keep in mind that the ideal design and analysis often are matters of debate. It is appropriate to ask the author to explain why a certain approach was used, but the ultimate issue is whether the approach yielded useful information.
Pinpoint the good as well as the bad. It is appropriate that scientists are trained to be critical. Unfortunately, we too often forget to make our criticism constructive. Most studies contain at least nuggets of good information and insight. As you read, point out the nuggets along with perceived weaknesses. Even when you advise rejection, suggest, if you can, how the nuggets might be made accessible in a restructured manuscript or other format.
Writing a review requires time, thought, and energy. There are several ways to expend these scarce commodities most efficiently to maximize the chance that your review is effective.
Focus on the aspects of a manuscript that you are competent to judge. Editors try to choose re-viewers whose expertise complements their own and that of other reviewers. In the process, they may intentionally send you a manuscript that falls outside your specialty. If the manuscript is so foreign that you cannot do it justice, return it promptly. Consider, however, that an outside perspective can he invaluable in identifying strengths and weaknesses that the "experts" miss. If you feel comfortable only with some parts of a manuscript, your review still can be valuable. Clearly state what parts are outsideyour expertise. You will do much for the field and your own credibility by admitting where you feel knowledgeable and where you do not.
Discuss your reactions with colleagues. Your firstreactions to a manuscript may be strong and difficult to articulate. Allow them to gestate before writing the review. In the process, you can gain new perspectives (and share your own ideas about reviewing) if you confer with graduate student, postdoctoral, or faculty colleagues. Be aware that manuscripts are privileged communications. Some reviewers maintain author anonymity by talking to colleagues about issues raised in a manuscript without mentioning specifics or authors' names. Others pass on the manuscript or parts of it to recipients who can be trusted to maintain confidentiality. Any wider distribution and discussion of manuscripts should be done only with extreme care and after consulting the journal editor.
Read the manuscript both for the forest and the trees. The single most important service you can pro-vide is to approach a manuscript with a global perspective. Is the conceptual framework clear and appropriate? Does the study actually address the questions it poses? Do the conclusions follow? Keep in mind the journal in question and its audience, because amanuscriptinappropriate for one journal may be perfectly appropriate for another. Because authors have a notoriously hard time keeping enough distance from their writing to see it as a nonspecialist would, another valuable service is to read as a naive reader and to pencil editorial suggestions on the manuscript itself. Purge unnecessary jargon and insist on definitions for necessary technical terms. Authors whose native language is not English merit special effort.
Demand scholarship in citations. Scientific papers include citations to acknowledge similar ideas and to provide the proper conceptual framework for a study. It is all too easy, however, to bypass the scholarship entailed and to cite narrowly or inappropriately. At the worst, this ploy may make a study seem more novel by minimizing the contributions of others (see also Maddox 1990). In reviewing, insist on solid scholarship just as you insist on appropriate analysis of results. Suggest appropriate citations that have been missed, including historical ones (Jackson 1981 gives a good example of the pitfalls of ignoring older studies). Point out citations that incorrectly portray previous results. Do not hesitate to correct citations to your own work; after all, you know it best. Making such corrections is most efficient if you identify yourself (see below).
Write to assist the editor. A journal editor often handles manuscripts outside his or her expertise. Here, especially, the editor relics on the reviewer for more than a list of comments to the author, which may take the form of a cryptic in-group conversation. Be sure to provide separate comments for the editor, in which you explain what contribution the manuscript makes, what audience would read it, and what revision is necessary. Also provide a candid overall recommendation with supporting argument. Conditional wording can help ("If this manuscript can be revised to broaden the message and address the concerns listed in my review, it would make an important contribution; otherwise it may be better for a more specialized journal"). Above all, do not simply state in your review that "This manuscript should be accepted" or "This manuscript must be rejected". Such unsupported positive or negative recommendations are basically useless in a rational decision process.
Write with economy, clarity, and precision. A fine journal correctly makes this demand of authors. The reviewing situation is symmetrical: just as you attempt to understand a manuscript, the author and the editor will attempt to understand your review. Revise and proofread it before you send in the final product.
Be prompt. Authors hate long turnaround times. Some delay is unavoidable, but you also are an author, so observe the golden rule and make reviewing a high priority. If you are snowed under—apep; asive condition that needs no apology—promptly decline to review and suggest alternate reviewers.
Don't be shy!
Here are some unorthodox, even bone-chilling, ideas to consider as you review. They involve the actual or potential loss of anonymity.
Contact the author directly. Suppose that a critical passage in the manuscript you are reviewing strikes you as absolutely cryptic. For your review to be accurate, you 'must determine whether the passage represents a major flaw in logic or analysis for just a piece of had writing. You should at least write a conditional review that considers both these possibilities, and you should recommend that the author re-think the logic or clarify the passage as appropriate. A much faster option that works well with some authors is to pose your question directly via telephone or e-mail. Be sure to inform the editor of your contact with the author and of what you learned.
Sign your review. Along with the preceding suggestion, this directive may appear foolhardy. But there are major potential benefits. If your identity is known, you are likely to write a more careful and constructive review, and the possibility of direct communication with an author is opened. Indeed, you may wish to foster such communication by inviting the author to contact you, giving your phone number or e-mail address. If you are skeptical of this suggestion, undertake an experiment. Identify yourself in your next few reviews and ask in retrospect whether these reviews were more judicious than others you have written and whether unexpected benefits of communication and collaboration ensued. If not, or if you feel compromised in your ability to be frank, you can always return to anonymity. We especially urge this change in procedure on those biologists whose jobs are secure. Where those with tenure lead, others can follow.
Resist being threatened by competition. A manuscript may echo your own unpublished ideas or results. This situation is touchy and tempts you to he especially critical. But, follow the example of Darwin when presented with Wallace's work, and keep in mind that no two studies are identical and that all solid studies make a contribution. Rather than taking any action that might quash a colleague's work, you should welcome confirmation of your ideas or findings. It is appropriate for you to inform the author of your work. If your similar efforts are sufficiently well developed, you may wish to ask the author to acknowledge them. For all practical purposes, this approach requires that you reveal your identity. If you try an oblique approach (writing that "similar work exists that should be cited"), the author simply will be mystified.
Advice for authors, too
Reviewers should judge manuscripts with an open, constructive attitude. But a reviewer occasionally may be responding to inadvertent- Jrdeliberate—provocation. If you are an author with no wish to provoke reviewers, contemplate the flip sides of the suggestions in this article. Use the simplest, least contentious wording to convey your ideas; be scholarly in citation, understandittg and correctly representing-studies you cite, and avoid glossing over limitations in your own study. If your results disagree with those of others, do not imply that yours are correct and others wrong; rather, propose reasons for the different results and suggest further studies that might resolve the issue. Do not set up the conceptual framework for your study in terms of perceived failings of other studies.
Here is a final plea to the activists among you. If you agree with our suggestions and the philosophy behind them, make your opinion felt beyond the reviews you write. Discuss the review process with colleagues at all levels of their scientific careers. Recommend changes to the editor if you think that a given journal provides incomplete or inappropriate instructions to reviewers. Encourage journals to adopt a policy under which the editor transmits to the author only the substantive points from a confrontational review, or asks the reviewer for a less confrontational revision, and in either case informs the reviewer that elements of the original review were unacceptable. Suggest journal policies that provide re-viewers with immediate feedback on their efforts, for example, by sending them copies of other reviews of a manuscript and of correspondence between editor and author. Finally, work to make rigorous peer review an integral part of all scientific endeavors, whether they involve the evaluation of project proposals, communication of the results of pure or applied research, or the development of science-based public policy.
For discussions or comments on the manuscript we thank Jim Bull, Reuven Dukas, Pete Feinsinger, Diana Freckman, Brad Hyman, Svata Louda, Julie Miller, Ruth Shaw, Marlene Zuk, and Lee Miller and the Ecology editorial board. Many other colleagues have contributed indirectly over the years by example and by sharing their experiences.
As you know, your Society depends on volunteers for its operation. This last year there were 13 committees with over 50 people working to make the BSA run smoothly and to promote research, teaching and national and international cooperation in plant science. The BSA is only as good as, and can only be, what you, the member (remember that students are members, too, and are welcome on committees!) make it. A sample of the committees working for the Society are: Archives and History, Conservation, Education, Ethics, Financial Management, and Membership. If you would be willing to serve the Society on these or other committees, or in some other way, please send your name, address, telephone number [fax and E-mail, too, please!] to: Harry T. Homer (President-Elect and chair of the Committee on Committees), Dept. of Botany, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011-1020, USA.
Challenges Facing Plant Biology Teaching Programs
Eugene C. Bozniak
What follows is my contribution to identifying some challenges inherent in the teaching of plant biology and generalizations about what might be done to meet those challenges. While many exceptions to the broad generalities relative to these challenges of recruitment, retention, and training of students of botany that I present below exist, still I hope that these suggestions are valuable. The challenges and suggestions for action are predicated on the following assumptions: (a) the public is little aware of or ill informed about the importance of plants, (b) universal concepts in biology are insufficiently applied to plants (just look around at who teaches and what is being taught in marine biology courses), (c) differences between research and teaching institutions are more perceived than real, (d) research programs tend to be better supported than teaching programs, (c) teacher-education reforms need to involve more botanical content, and (I) if botanists do not address these challenges, society will be considerably worse off as a result.
The recruitment of students from high school presents an extreme challenge given the fact that high school biology is anything but egalitarian in its coverage of the diversity of organisms. Both high school and introductory college biology textbooks show a paucity of botanical content, rarely exceeding 15-20% (Evert 1993), even though traditional botanical subjects occur in four of the five organismal kingdoms. Teachers of high school biology usually do not come from botanical backgrounds. Students coming to college simply do not know that botany is a possible and legitimate career choice for them. This results in the daunting task for college faculty of recruiting majors from the pool of those who happen to wander into a beginning course where they might experience a botanical epiphany. It is fair to say that botany is unfamiliar to the average citizen, and that the world today is made up of many who are quick to condemn the unfamiliar. What can and should be done about this? We must step up efforts at making high school teachers aware of "zoochauvinism" and that the study of plants is a viable career choice that requires a more balanced treatment in biology courses. I am not arguing for partisan interest protection but rather simply appropriate balance in our understanding of how the world works. We should get involved in high school career days and make counselors aware of the career possibilities in plant-related fields. This means getting the information to them in a way that they understand. We ought to prepare a "world-class" video presentation on Plant Biology (perhaps the Botanical Society of America should develop one to go along with the CAREERS IN BOTANY brochure). We ought to make sure that career services units on campuses are aware of the many careers in plant-related fields and that they understand these well enough to communicate effectively to students.
How do we change the public perception (Honey 1987) that botany is a static—hence boring—discipline? We obviously need better public relations. We all need to tell it like it is and take every opportunity to get the many practical aspects of botany into the public eye, e.g. drug research, genetic engineering in crop production, crime solving, environmental monitoring, economic benefits of gene pool preservation, and ethnobotany. In our curriculum we ought to emphasize more of the exciting historical development of significant discoveries. We must show students that botany is fun and relevant in the context of our past, present, and future. How might we best demonstrate the integral part that botany plays in allied disciplines such as medicine, anthropology, and agriculture? Every undergraduate program of general education should either have a separate course (or have a significant component in an existing one) covering economic and ethnobotany.
It also behooves us botanists to participate aggressively in multidisciplinary and/or honors programs. Al-though a good deal of what we know about biological systems has come from the study of plants, (e.g. molecular biology, genetics, photosynthesis ["that most beautiful set of chemical reactions on the face of the earth"]) most students do not know or appreciate this. We must simply do a better job at telling-it-like-it-is, in and out of our classes. We ought to conduct more seminars and workshops of a multidisciplinary nature, with invited guest speakers from a variety of allied disciplines showing first hand relationships of plants to their fields. In this connection, we should organize more field experiences for students because once this takes place, students are more likely to both choose and stay in botany. Perhaps it would be helpful to organize courses with an interdisciplinary format, bringing anthropologists, historians, writers, biologists, and geologists together to enable major field experiences without interfering with other on-campus classes.
Additionally, how do we maintain small class sizes and hands-on, laboratory experiences in general education courses, both seen as keys to attracting and keeping students in the sciences, when economics and increasing enrollments demand large lecture courses without laboratories? We must address this problem, at least for education majors interested in teaching elementary science or secondary biology. Botanists need to become major players in developing and restructuring teacher education training programs. We must emphatically insist on more and better botanical content to be included in teacher education reforms that will likely rely more heavily on the sciences.
How do we best retain majors, once recruited? Besides the obvious one of maintaining an appropriate curriculum and employing some of the techniques listed above, we should constantly demonstrate a caring attitude and solicit assistance from alumni and professionals in the field. We need to develop a good track record in helping graduates get jobs and graduate school positions. Publicize the statistics and do everything possible to prepare students to be as marketable as possible in a very tough economy. We ought to have research projects in every upper division class prepared for formal presentation, and select the best for display so that other students can be encouraged to work in the discipline. It is likely that raising our expectations of students will improve their performance and help in retention. We ought to give majors a stake in maintaining the quality of the program, e.g. assisting in recruitment, working for the department as tutors and lab aides. We must be vigilant in monitoring grade inflation, especially in non-science disciplines, to help change the perception that science is "too difficult." We should recognize those students that do well in some way, even if only through a letter of acknowledgment. Then, how do we integrate and fund "enrichment" activities into general education and majors' courses to generate and maintain enthusiasm for plant biology? We must rethink the methods we currently use. Perhaps more appropriate hands-on exercises, such as the use of the Wisconsin Fast Plants, take home plant projects, as described by Uno (1994), or short field trips to the supermarket or other local sites of relevance to plant biology should be aggressively pursued. There is no question that whatever is developed here, resources will need to be reallocated to make this happen. However, this effort will be worth it!
General Recruitment Suggestions
• Faculty should make personal contacts with teachers, students, and parents for recruitment purposes. We need to solicit input from national organizations to help sell botany.
Once we have recruited them, how do we prepare students for the seemingly unattainable rigors of graduate school and the job market, especially since they seem, these days, less well-prepared generally? Once having the best possible curriculum in place, we must develop a comprehensive program of assessment of both the program and student progress. This is perhaps the greatest challenge we can hope to address. At my institution (Weber State University) we approach this challenge through the requirement of a "Student Portfolio," which includes a senior thesis or similar capstone experience.
A portfolio is a multidimensional collection of both student- and faculty-selected, well-organized, and readily revisable educational works containing both develop-mental as well as representational materials. This collection represents knowledge literacy, skills mastery, and affective development which empowers students while giving new dimensions to the purpose of their education. Portfolios are used for assessment purposes in addition to serving as an incentive to the student for developing good habits in assembling and organizing materials of relevance to themselves and others, such as personnel managers or graduate school selection committees. Our program currently suggests seven folders for inclusion in such a portfolio. These are:
• BOTANY CONTENT MAS'TE'RY - Pre- and post-test results, as well as periodic evaluations of student goals and progress made by faculty are included here. Copies of current transcripts as well as scores of any relevant assessment instrument(s), in or outside of botany, are included. Students are encouraged to maintain a collection of course syllabi from all botany and support courses. GRE scores, though usually available late in a student's program of study, are added. Students are encouraged to take these tests earlier than usual. Finally, this part of the portfolio presents and opportunity to gather vital information from the student during an exit interview that is coupled with a "Graduation Assessment" course mandatory for all majors.
Appropriate and Life-Long Values Challenges
How do we develop, in both students and ourselves, mindsets and habits that enable us to live sustainably on a planet with a biosphere? The challenge here involves addressing not only student intellectual growth but ethical, emotional, and aesthetic growth. We ought to en-courage efforts like those at Tufts University for environmental awareness across the curriculum (Creighton and Cortese 1992) to enhance environmental literacy and then piggy-back on this effort to get plant biology involved. We could add a significant environmental awareness component to present general education courses or develop entirely new courses that would get students to appreciate that each day our planet: loses 145 mi2 of rain forest involving some 50-250 species, loses 72 mi2 of vegetation due to deforestation resulting from human mismanagement and overpopulation, gains 250,000 additional human beings, and adds 2700 tons of chlorofluorocarbons and 15 x 106 tons of carbon to the atmosphere. Botany teaching faculty should get involved in honors programs on their campuses to reach a group of students that are more likely to become advocates for plant biology than average undergraduate students. How do we meet the challenge of providing a significant botanical component to education for life-long learning and application? Perhaps we can cooperate with agriculture programs to develop courses with practical orientation. We need to re-evaluate the content of our general education course offerings and perhaps include more topics conducive to life-long study and/or application.
How do we adequately cover content from molecules to global change with resources that have not grown at the same rate as our knowledge base? Perhaps it is time to rethink our delivery system to determine alternatives that might add efficiency, such as interactive video presentations. How do we balance time and resources between our large group of general education students
and the relatively small group of departmental majors? Given that student/faculty ratios are too high for individualized project supervision, students can undertake more elaborate group projects where each student's role and responsibilities are clearly delineated. Each student then could he responsible for collecting data on only one aspect of the project, analyze the data, and present it as their project. How do we provide for facilities maintenance and upgrading? We should actively pursue equipment donations from companies in return for publicity on publications, tax write-offs, co-op research, etc. We need to demand and apply for equipment grants, especially where interdisciplinary studies are involved.
Organizational Structure Challenges
How do we deal with the apparent dichotomy between "teaching" institutions and "research" institutions in a search for common ground as it relates to undergraduate teaching? Undergraduate teaching is a vitally important enterprise for "teaching" and "research" institutions alike. Perhaps it is time for research institutions to elevate the status of undergraduate, general education teaching to that of graduate course teaching. Additionally, both types of institutions must cooperate to a degree never before seen in academe. How do we maintain/ develop a visibility for botany, oftentimes given the diluting effect of reorganization into biology departments, life science divisions, or into molecular-organismal- and community-biology? Arthur W. Galston's excellent commentary notwithstanding (Galston 1994), decades of experience does suggest that when botany departments are amalgamated into other units, such as biology, dilution of the botanical sciences tends to take place over time. Botany tends to be treated with strategic indifference in amalgamated units. Weneed to do every-thing possible to ensure that botany faculty are aware of this issue and have them become more active participants in public issues. On campus, we should involve faculty in as many interdisciplinary teaching and re-search programs as possible. We need to solicit funding from businesses or other non-traditional sources to off-set the bias against botany in governmental research funding sources. How do we balance the basic vs. the applied nature of research, given that there are increasing interest and finances to support applied work? Future trends will help define a greater opportunity to classify basic as applied! We ought to support efforts to develop a National Instiune for Plant Biology (National Re-search Council 1992). It is critical for students to learn how to do basic research, but botany has the greatest potential for practical application (applied). The traditional areas of plant biology, such as plant systematics, are extremely important today in environmental impact assessments, so students need to understand the need for both areas of research. This will be accomplished when we define the roles of each for students and the public. We should support the arguments in the "Plant Biology Research and Training for the 21st Century" publication
(National Research Council 1992) that addresses the NIH model successes in the applied area as spin-offs from basic research. At teaching institutions, how do we facilitate the learning and teaching process without a steady supply of graduate assistants? We can and should employ senior students in such a capacity, which will increase the likelihood of retention. Research demonstrates that to be a good student one should also become a teacher, or that to be an effective learner one ought to teach. To this end we at Weber State are requiring our students to have laboratory teaching experiences as part of their graduation requirements. This kind of commitment will have resource allocation implications.
I identify six challenges which we in plant biology are all likely to face at one time or another. Recruitment, retention, and training of botanists are the most important of these and are inextricably linked. The remaining three challenges are less pressing but do have an impact upon the others. It would serve the plant science teaching community well if we would discuss these challenges at every opportunity and share ideas for meeting them. It will require the collective wisdom of all botanists to achieve progress in solving common problems. A solution for one institution may have limited applicability at another, but if the articulation continues we should be able to create or adapt novel solutions to meet specific needs. I welcome any and all responses to the ones I have suggested.
Advanced Placement Biology. 1993. Curriculum survey of colleges and universities. Princeton, NJ: AP Biology.
Joseph E. Laferriere
In aremote mountainous area of Colorado there is aplant known by the local people as the "Denver mint." It is endemic to tailings of abandoned gold mines in the Rocky Mountains. The plant is extremely unusual in that its rectangular leaves bear portraits of famous personages in American history. These leaves are highly valued by the residents of the area to which the plant is native, reportedly because they make a passable salad. The hard, round, flat seeds bear similar portraits. This plant has been known to the local people for many years, but has never been formally classified. It is hereby described as a new member of the Lamiaceae.
Epluribus unum Laferr., gen. et sp. nov. Type: United States, Colorado, Lost Dutchman Co., Canon del Oro 15 April 1994, I.M.A. Richman 1040 (HOLOTYPH: IRS).
Erbhay 50 ¢m alltay. Emstay aresquay. Eaveslay ectangularray, 15.5 x 6.5 ¢m, earingbay ortraitspay ofaway amousfay ersonspay inaway Americanaway isotryhay. Uitfray ehiscentday exceptaway onaway antplay earingbay ortraitspray ofaway Enjaminbay Anklinfray. Eedssay attendflay, ylindricalcay, earingbay upraisedaway iguresfay ofaway amousfay Americansaway andaway ethay inscriptionaway "In-away Odgay eway usttray."
Herb 50 ¢m tall. Stem square. Leaves rectangular, 15.5 x 6.5 2m, bearing portraits of famous persons in American history. Fruits dehiscent except on plants bearing leaf portraits of Benjamin Franklin. Seeds flattened, cylindrical, bearing upraised figures of famous Americans and the inscription "In God we trust."
The most common leaf portraits are those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Alexander Hamilton, and Andrew Jackson, but plants in extremely rich loam may occasionally produce portraits of Benjamin Franklin or Ulysses S. Grant. The plant will not grow in very poor soil unless fertilized with gold dust. Plants with portraits of Ulysses S. Grant also seem to prefer soil fertilized with certain distilled beverages. Leaves bearing portraits of Benjamin Franklin often abscise during thunder storms and can be carried several miles by the wind. They have been found to be particularly high in electrolytes. Hummingbirds pollinating the Denver mint have been observed to hum the song "Rocky Mountain High" during pollination. The seeds appear to be distributed by ¢ipedes.
I have been conducting genetic experiments on plants in cultivation. When plants possessing George Washington leaf protraits are crossed with those bearing portraits of Alexander Hamilton, all the F, progeny bear portraits of Abraham Lincoln. Plants with portraits of Andrew Jackson were, however, found to be incompatible with those bearing portraits of Alexander Hamilton.
The plant shows promise for potential cultivation as an ornamental. I have begun a seed bank in a suid-shaped ceramic container in the hopes that the Denver Mint will someday become a major cash crop.
Looking for a few good biology instructors!
Gordon Uno is directing a project to develop a hand-book for PhDs who are going to teach undergraduate biology. The handbook will be designed for individuals who were trained as a research scientist but whose academic position emphasizes teaching, a position for which they might have been poorly trained. To gather information for the handbook, he will be holding a workshop on "Preparing the next generation of biology instructors," just before the ALBS meeting in Knoxville this summer. A free trip to the AIBS meeting is offered to three Ph.D.s who are currently employed at a post-secondary institution in a position where teaching biology to undergraduates is the main emphasis and who have been teaching for 3-7 years (relatively new faculty members). These three individuals will lead a panel discussion on their first years of teaching, on Saturday, August 6, as part of the workshop for new PhDs. The panel discussion will focus on the necessary transition from research to teaching—what works and what doesn't work in the classroom, what pitfalls to avoid as an instructor, and what a person needs to know to prepare for a teaching position. If you are an excellent instructor and are interested in participating as a panel member, please contact Gordon E. Uno at: Botany-Microbiology Department, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019, 405/325-6281, FAX 405/ 325-7619, e-mail: UNOBOTANY@UOKNOR.EDU.
Calls for Nominations:
Call for Nominations - Rupert Barneby Award
New York Botanical Garden invites applications for the 1994 Rupert Barneby Award. The award of $1,000.00 is to assist researchers planning to come to The New York Botanical Garden to study the rich collection of Leguminosae. Anyone interested in applying for the award should submit their curriculum vitae, a letter describing the project for which the award is sought, and how the collection at NYBG will benefit their research. Travel to NYBG should be planned between January 1, 1995 and January 31, 1996. The letter should be addressed to Dr. Enrique Forero, Director, Institute of Systematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garde, Bronx, NY 10458-5126 USA, and received no later than December 2, 1994. Announcement of the recipient will be made by December 16th. Anyone interested in making a contribution to The Rupert Barneby Fund in Legume Systematics, which sup-ports this award may send their check, payable to The New York Botanical Garden, to Dr. Forero.
Call for Nominations - AAAS Award for Public Understanding of Science and Technology
The American Association for the Advancement of Science invites nominations for the AAAS Award for Public Understanding of Science and Technology. This annual Award recognizes scientists and engineers who make outstanding contributions to the popularization of science, but are not members of the working media. The Award will be presented during the AAAS Annual Meeting in Atlanta GA, February 16-21, 1995. The Award is intended to encourage talented scientists and engineers to popularize their work; to recognize and support scientists and engineers who do popularize in a responsible manner, and to emphasize that the scientific community regards communicating to the public as a valuable, prestigious activity for scientists and engineers. Eligible individuals include scientists and engineers from all disciplines (including social sciences and medicine) engaged in research, teaching, practice, and related activities. Collaborative as well as individual efforts will he eligible. Only materials produced for general audiences, as opposed to professional or trade audiences, will be considered. All nominations must be printed or typed and submitted fully completed on the official nomination form, or a copy thereof, and postmarked on or before midnight, 1 August 1994. If you have any questions regarding the nomination procedure, please contact: Judy Kass, Di-rector of Outreach Programs, American Association for the Advancement of Science, telephone number 202/326-6667.
National Academy of Sciences - Thomas N. Taylor
Thomas N. Taylor has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). His dedication to re-search of fossil plants and fungi that are hundreds of millions of years old has won him one of the highest honors accorded to a U.S. scientist or engineer. Taylor is a professor of plant biology and of geological sciences and a research scientist with the Byrd Polar Re-search Center. He said of his election, announced April 26 in Washington, "I am humbled by it. You don't do science for public accolade; you do it because you're in love with it. But, this is one of those nice things that happens to you once in a career." Taylor joins the ranks of 1,710 members of the NAS, an academy established in 1863 to act as an official advisor to the federal government in matters of science and technology. Only members can sponsor manuscripts for publication in the academy's journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "His election is a wonderful tribute to Taylor's many years of hard work and dedication to his research," said Gary Floyd, dean of the College of Biological Sciences of Ohio State University. Taylor, 56, travels around the world, from Antarctica to Scotland, to uncover secrets about the origin and evolution of plants. Some fossilized plants date back 200 million years, while the ancient fungi he studies go back 400 million years. A native of the Cleveland sub-urban community of Fairview Park, Taylor received his bachelor's degree in botany from Miami University in 1960. After earning a doctorate in botany from the University of Illinois in 1964, he conducted post-doctoral research at Yale University. He held positions at the University of Illinois-Chicago Circle, the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, and at Ohio University, before coming to Ohio State in 1974 as a professor and chairperson of the Department of Plant Biology (then called botany). He has been part of the Department of Geological Sciences since 1990. Taylor's research has been continuously funded by the National Science Foundation since 1964. Some of his recent awards include the 1989 Ohio State University Distinguished Scholar Award and the 1994 Von Humbolt Senior Research Fellowship, which will allow him to continue collaborating with colleagues in Miinster, Germany. Taylor has written over 275 research papers and is author of eight books with another now in progress.
DeVane Medal - Arthur W. Galston
Arthur W. Galston, a botanist who taught a popular Yale course on bioethics for many years recently was honored for distinction in lifetime scholarship and undergraduate teaching. He received the 1994 DeVane Medal at the Phi Beta Kappa annual dinner on February 28. The medal has been awarded annually since 1966 by the Yale chapter of Phi Beta Kappa and is the oldest award for teaching in Yale College. It is considered one of the University's highest accolades. The medal is named for William Clyde DeVane, dean of Yale College 1938-63 and a longtime president of the Yale chapter of the National Honor Society. Biology professor Bruce B. Stowe presented the award to Mr. Galston, the Eaton Professor Emeritus of Botany.
Professor Galston originated and taught a course called "Problems in Bioethics" that explored the ethical and social implications of various scientific discoveries — a subject that has long interested him because of his opposition to the use of Agent Orange, a defoliant widely used in Vietnam. The substance is related to a chemical compound developed by Professor Galston for his dissertation thesis in 1943, which substantially improved the productivity of soybeans. However, in larger concentrations, the chemical caused plants to lose their leaves.
The botanist urged President Johnson as early as 1966 not to use Agent Orange in Vietnam because of its potentially harmful impact on humans, animals, and food crops. After spraying was stopped in 1970, Professor Galston made five trips to Vietnam to study the chemical's effects.
In addition to teaching biocthics for 15 years, Professor Galston continues to study the underlying molecular mechanisms whereby plants reproduce, grow and ward off disease. In 1981, he led a team of Yale biologists in developing a technique in cereals, especially oats, for cloning entire plants from a single plant cell. He also is a leader in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System program to find methods of growing food in space. The botanist, who joined the Yale faculty in 1955 and retired from teaching in 1990, is the author of several hooks, including "Principles of Plant Physiology," which was a standard textbook for a generation, and "Life Processes in Plants," which was published this year as part of the Scientific American Library series.
Rupert Barneby Award - Andre Mauricio de Carvalho and Richardo Vanni
The New York Botanical Garden is pleased to announce that Dr. Andre Mauricio de Carvalho, of the Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau, Itabuna, Brasil, and Prof. Richardo Vanni, of the Instituto de Botnica del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina, are the recipients of the 1993 Rupert Barneby Award. Dr. Carvalho will use his award to continue his work on a taxonomic treatment of New World Dalbergia. Prof. Vanni will be able to further his studies of Zornia sect. Anisophylla in South America, and Stylosanthes for the floras of Argentina and Paraguay.
Melba June Latting died January 14, 1994 of cancer at Riverside Community Hospital at age 72. Dr. Latting was a graduate of the University of Tulsa and the University of California, Los Angeles. She served as president of the South-ern California Botanists and was honored as a fellow of the local California Native Plant Society chapter.
John Thomas Howell will be remembered in an article to appear in the ASPT NEWSLETTER.
Melinda Fae Denton will be memorialized in an article to appear in TAXON.
Plant Molecular Evolution Postdoctoral Vanderbilt University
A postdoctoral or technical position (two- or three years) is available to work with Dr. Claude dePamphilis on molecular phylogeny and chloroplast DNA evolution in parasitic angiosperms.We are working to develop a molecular phylogenetic framework for the parasitic Scrophulariaceac that can be used to study the evolution of chloroplast genes and genomes in parasitic plants (see Nature 348: 337-339). Funding is available for two- or up to three years. Starting date negotiable, ,but not later than 1 September 1994. Excellent laboratory and scientific environment and a small but stimulating group of colleagues with interests in molecular and organismal evolutionary biology. Position will be made available at either the level of postdoctoral research associate or a research technician (I or H). Postdoctoral: Applicants are desired with interest and demonstrated skills in at least one of the following areas: phylogenetic methodology, molecular evolution, or plant molecular systematics. Flexibility is available within the general scope of the project. Re-search Technician: Applicants should have prior experience with molecular methods such as cloning, DNA sequencing, and protein or RNA handling. Interests in molecular biology, plant systematics, or evolution. For either position, please send: 1) a summary of research experience and interests, 2) curriculum vitae, 3) names and addresses of three references to: Claude dePamphilis, Department of Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville TN 37235. For more information: phone 615-322-2963 or -2961, fax 615-343-0336, or e-mail DEPAMPCW@CTRVAX.VANDERBILT.EDU
Plant Molecular Population Genetics, University of Cincinnati
Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education Research Fellowship tenable at the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, and sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Cincinnati. The position is available immediately and is funded for two years, although application for extension will be expected. The research involves all or part of the following: 1)Investigations, utilizing DNA variation, of effects of anthropogenic disturbance on population genetics of selected plant species. 2)Learning, and developing further, methods to investigate genetic diversity of selected plant species. This may involve the use of microsatcllite, minisatellite, RFLPS, or RAPD analyses. 3)Working with statistical analyses to optimize methods for data analysis. 4)Collccting and anal lyzing DNA variation of field samples from impacted and control field sites. QUALIFICATIONS: Applicants must have a Ph.D. degree by the time of appointment. Individuals with extensive experience in molecular population genetics including field botany skills, plant DNA extraction, RFLP Southern hybridization techniques, PCR methodology, and data analysis will be preferred. APPLICATION: Send curriculum vitae, brief statement of research experience and goals, and list of three references (with phone numbers) to S. Rogstad, Biological Sciences ML6, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229-0006.
Academic Coordinator/Curator, University of California - Davis
The University of California at Davis invites applications for an Academic Coordinator I and curator for the U.C. Davis Herbaria. This is a full-time academic position in the Division of Biological Sciences. A Ph.D. is required. Candidate must have a strong background in plant systematics and experience with herbarium curation, including management of facilities and ex-change with other herbaria. An ability to identify plants in the seedling or vegetative stage and from fragmentary material will be required. Successful candidate will be expected to teach one course per year in plant identification and systematics of the California flora. Candidates should submit a curriculum vitae, a statement of interest, a statement of teaching and curatorial experience, and names and addresses of three referees by June 15, 1994 to: Dr. Marcel Rcjmānek, Chair, Search Committee, Section of Plant Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis CA 95616. The University of California, Davis, interested in candidates who are committed to the highest standards of scholarship and professional activities, and to the development of a campus climate that supports equality and respect for differences based on gender, cultural ethnicity, level of disability, and sexual orientation. The University of California is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer.
Symposia, Conferences, Meetings
Plant Nutrition 14–24 Jul 1994
The fifth international symposium on Genetics and Molecular Biology of Plant Nutrition will be held at UC-Davis, July 17-24, 1994. Inquiries to: D.W. Rains, Dept. Agronomy & Range Science, UC, Davis CA 95616. (916/752-1711; fax -4361).
North American Prairie Conference 12-16 July 1994
at Kansas State University. Theme: "Prairie Biodiversity: From molecules to landscapes, from the past to the future." Topics of paper and poster sessions will be relevant to grasslands. Inquires: 14th North American Prairie Conference, Conference Office, Division of Continuing Education, College Court Building, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-6006.
Compositae 24July - 5 Aug 1994
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, London, UK. Week 1: Systematics and Evolution Week 2: Biology and Utilization. DETAILS FROM: C. Jeffrey, Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE, UK (E-MAIL email@example.com)
Evolutionary Protistology 4-10 August 1994
10th Biennial Meeting of the International Society for Parasitology will be held at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Information: ISEP-10 Secretariat, NRC Institute for Marine Biosciences, 1411 Oxford St., Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 37.1; tel. 902/426-1647; fax 902/426-9413; e-mail MARK@IMB.LAN.NRC.CA
American Institute of Biological Sciences 7–11 Aug 1994
The 45th Annual Meeting of Scientific Societies will be in Knoxville, TN, at the Holiday Inn World's Fair and Knoxville Convention/Exhibition Center. Theme is "Science and Public Policy." Four days of symposia, paper and poster sessions, workshops, special lectures, field trips, and banquets are planned. Information: Meetings Department, AIRS, 7320 - 11th St. NW, Washington DC 20001-4521 (202/628-1500, ext. 506).
Molecular Biology Databases 9–12 August 1994
A meeting at Standford University on the Interconnection of Molecular Biology Database will be by invitation, based on abstracts submitted by prospective participants. For information on ISMB-94, e-n,,aL firstname.lastname@example.org.
Plant Biomechanics 5-9 September 1994
Program will include: 1) Adaptive mechanical design of plants, 2) Biomechanics of growth, and 3) Short term biomechanical responses. Information: Bernard Thibaut, LMGC "Bois", CP 81, U. Montpellier H, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier codex, France. Tel: (33) 18.104.22.168, FAX (33) 22.214.171.124.
Early Devonian Plants 15-17 September 1994
Workshop for all persons interested in the biology and evolutionary implications of Early Devonian plants and other organisms at the Forschungsstelle ft jr Palaobotanik Westfalische Wilhelms-Universitat Munster in Munster, Germany. Information: either Professor Winfried Remy (Forschungsstelle fiir Palaobotanik, Westfiilische Wilhelms-Univcrsitat-Munster, 57/59 Hindenhurgplatz, D-48143 Munster, Germany), or Professor Thomas N. Taylor (Department of Plant Biology, The Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA).
Savannas Conference 15-16 October 1994
Theme: "Living in the Edge." Will he held at Illinois State University, Normal. Information: Dr. Roger Anderson, Department of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal IL 61790-4120 (309/438-2653).
Congreso Latinoamericano de Botānica 2–8 October 1994
En la ciudad de Mar del Plata entre ]os dias 2 y 8 octubre de 1994. Correspondencia: Dr. Arturo J. Martinez, Presidente, Ing. Agr. Renee H Fortunato, Secretaria Ejecutiva, VI Congreso Latinoamericano de Botānica, Institute de Recursos Bioldgicos, INTA Castelar 1712, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
American Society of Pharmacognosy 20–22 Oct 1994
The American Society of Pharmacognosy announces its 1994 Interim Annual Meeting, to be held in San Jose, Costa Rica. The meeting will include both contributed scientific presentations and an international symposium entitled "Intellectual Property Rights, Naturally-derived Bioactive Compounds and Resource Conservation". The goal of the symposium is to pro-vide an open forum for developed and developing nations to discuss their interests, concerns and policies on critical issues surrounding the question of how bioactive compounds from living organisms in tropical habitats can be developed in a practical, equitable and sustainable manner. Representatives from governmental, academic and industrial sectors will be invited to present updates on the regulations concerning intellectual property rights and collection of biological materials in their respective countries. The official language of the conference will be English, however, simultaneous Spanish translation will be available. Registration prior to July 1, 1994, in $100 U.S.; late registration is $150. Abstracts of contributed papers must be submitted by September 1, 1994, to Dr. Gerardo Mora, Chair of the Scientific Committee. To register or for further information, contact Dr. Mora at CIPRONA, School of Chemistry, University of Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica, FAX: 506/25-98-66; Phone: 506/24-82-45.
Sucrose Metabolism 8-13 May 1995
Contact: Dr. Horatio Pontis or Dr. Gracicla Salerno, Fundacidn para Investigacicines Bioldgicas Aplicadas, Casilla do Correos 1348, 76(X) Mar del Plata, Argentina (54-23-74-8257, fax -3357), or Dr. Ed EcheverrIa, Citrus Research and Education Center, 700 Experiment Station Road, Lake Alfred FL 33850 USA (813/956-1151, fax -4631).
Paleobotany / Coal Science Symposium 28 May -1 June 1995
The first Walter A. Bell Symposium on Paleobotany and Coal Science will he held at the University College of Cape Breton, Sydney, Nova Scotia, May 28 to June 1, 1995. The Symposium is sponsored by the University College of Cape Breton, Geological Survey of Canada, Cape Breton Miner's Foundation, Glace Bay Miner's Museum, and the USGS. The Symposium will focus on the paleobotany of Carboniferous coal-bearing strata in Eurarnerica. A half-day field trip to the Carboniferous coal-bearing strata of the Maritimes will be included, as will a half-day workshop on Carboniferous palynology, Carboniferous compressional plant fossils of the Maritimes, and newly discovered coal balls from Nova Scotia. There will be a limit of about 100 people (including spouses) so please register early. For a copy of the first circular or for further information contact: Dr. Erwin L. Zodrow, University College of Cape Breton, P.O. Box 5300, Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada B1P 6L2 (Fax: 902/562-0119) or Dr. Paul C. Lyons, U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston Virginia 22092, USA (Fax: 703/648-4227.
IOPB Sixth International Symposium 29 July - 2 August 1995
"Variation and Evolution in Arctic and Alpine Plants." Correspondence: VI IOPB-Symposium, the Bergius Foundation, 1'.O. Box 50017, S-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden; fax +46 8 612 9005.
12th Chromosome Conference 4-8 September 1995
Information: Dr. M.J. Puertas, Departmento de Genetica, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
Harnessing Apomixis 25—27 September 1995
College Station Hilton Hotel and Conference Center, College Station, Texas. Information: Dr. David M. Stelly, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2474. (409-845-2745, fax: -4733, 4-MAIL: monosom @rigel.tamu.cclu.
In this Issue:
Techniques for Pollination Biologists Kearns, C. A., and D. W. Inouye. 1993. ISBN 0-87081-279-3 (cloth US$37.50), ISBN 0-87081-281-5 (kivar US$22.50), University Press of Colorado, P.O. Box 849, Niwot CO 80544.—lt is perhaps indicative of the current consolidation phase into which pollination biology has entered that the past two years have seen the publication of the first two handbooks of techniques for pollination studies, one by Amots Dafni (Pollination Ecology - A Practical Approach - IRL Press, Oxford, 1992), the other the volume by Carol Kearns an David Inouye reviewed here. While Dafni 's book is a useful but somewhat pedestrian effort, Keams and Inouye's Techniques is almost too good to be true. It starts out with a short history of early experimental anthecology, which goes back at least to the French biologist F. Plateau who between 1877 and 1910 published a series of papers on foraging behavior of insects on artificial flowers. It was not until the 1950s and 1960s, however, that pollination ecology in general became experimental and manipulative. Concomitantly, a tremendous advance in instrumentation has fostered and delimited this kind of research.
The book contains nine chapters, covering floral morphological and physiological features, plant mating systems, pollinators, and relevant environmental parameters. There are a bibliography of 1200 references, several appendices (listing pollen literature by families and major regional groups, sources of supplies, chemicals and stains [with catalogue numbers and prices], and computer programs), a glossary, a subject index, separate indices to plant and animal names, and an index to the chemicals cited. Various subtopics, such as self-incompatibility systems or phenology and sequential flowering, are dealt with succinctly and these introductory sections arc supplemented by listings of selected references. Inouye's accumulated experience as editor of the Technological Tools section of the Bulletin of the International Bee Research Association clearly was put to good use in the making of the present book. In keeping with the book's high-tech approach, e-mail addresses are given not only for both authors but also for various other individuals and organizations, for example, the International Bee Research Association. Among the seven computer programs included are a BASIC program for using a laptop computer as an event recorder, another program in pseudocode (provided courtesy of Peter Turchin) that calculates coordinates of successive positions from measuring tape triangulation fixes, one for calculation of move lengths and turning angles from spatial coordinates and a FORTRAN program for mapping plants from measurements taken from two stakes.
As one would expect, classic methods such as the hydrogen peroxide test for determining stigma receptivity, cotton-blue-in-lactophenol staining to assess pollen viability, or the use of a refractometer to determine nectar sugar concentration are described in detail. But, there are also lots of little tricks, many courtesy of
"personal communication," such as Sarah Corbet's method of marking pedicels with cuffs made from plastic drinking straws slit lengthwise, or Lisa Rigney's idea to cut an observation window into developing fruits to monitor ovule development and abortion. Kearns and Inouye have made an effort to include techniques developed by plant breeders working with crop plants, or at least references to such techniques. For example, when describing the tetrazolium test for seed viability they refer the reader to the special publication on the subject put out by the Association of Official Seed Analysts. Throughout, Kearns and Inouye have taken a catholic view of what is implied by experimental pollination biology, so there are accounts of the use of gas, high-performance liquid, and thin-layer chromatography for the analysis of floral scents, of bomb calorimetry for measuring the energy content of pollen samples or nectar, and of electrophoresis to study gene flow in populations. While the book clearly cannot cover the theoretical and statistical models important to the measurement of allelic frequencies in plant populations it does provide an entry into the literature on the subject, and it includes an offer by Kermit Ritland (e-mail RITLAND@ UTcs.UTORONTO.CA) to provide a series of computer pro-grams for estimating mating systems via the analysis of progeny arrays.
The authors' own research experience is in northern hemisphere temperate regions and this shows. For example, the analysis of alternative floral rewards, such as oil or resin, receives two pages compared to 62 pages for nectar, but then this book is not geared to those working under tropical conditions. Non-American readers like the reviewer will welcome the list of the 23 most commonly cited journals pertinent to pollination biology as well as the following piece of advice: "We have listed toll-free numbers [for suppliers of equipment and chemicals]. If you are trying to get information from outside the country, have access to electronic mail, and know someone in the United States, you might send them an e-mail message and ask them to make a toll-free call for you." Clearly this.is a book by and for botanists, the most amiable of scientists.
Techniques for Pollination Biologists is well written and beautifully produced. The clear writing is complemented by a few tables and an appropriate number of figures, usually reprinted or redrawn and mostly showing apparatuses or experimental set-ups. There is a little fine art too, including Candace Galen's nectar poem and the dust jacket, which carries a line drawing of a long-tongued South African fly visiting a flower, redrawn from Stefan Vogel's 1954 book on floral syndromes in the Cape (as is inexplicably acknowledged only on p. 306) and undoubtedly reflecting Kearns' special interest inflypollination.—Susanne S. Renner, Inst.f. Spez. Botanik, Mainz, Germany
The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding N. W. Thornhill, ed. 1993. ISBN 0-226-79855-0 (paper us$32.50). University of Chicago Press, 5801 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637.—Symposium volumes usually have something for every-one, and this volume is no exception. For readers with greatest interest in botanical topics, however, the pickings are a little slim in this particular collection. The seventeen-odd chapters are the product of a symposium held at the 1989 meeting of the Animal Behavior Society, and the contributions lean understandably in the animal direction. Still, there are chapters and topics certain to be relevant to plant biologists with interests in inbreeding and the evolution of breeding systems.
Despite a stated intention to promote integration among the chapters, the main thread that unites the individual contributions is simply the focus on inbreeding and outbreeding. Chapters are distributed equally into two classes—those with theoretical perspectives and those with empirical perspectives. The former group includes several chapters covering issues pertaining to research in plant breeding systems and inbreeding. Jeffry Milton's article explores the relationship between heterozygosity and fitness, and he examines the questions raised in contrasting selection against inbred individuals versus selection favoring heterozygosity. The excellent chapter by Marcy Uyenoyama should be of particular interest to plant biologists, because it looks at plant self-incompatibility mechanisms in the context of a general explanation of genetic incompatibility as a "eugenic mechanism" that acts to improve offspring quality. However, her theoretical coverage only teases with references to the emerging empirical work on the structure and function of S-alleles. The inevitable time lag between a symposium and publication of its papers really becomes an issue here because of recent progress in the identification and characterization of S-alleles.
Plant breeding systems are central to DonaldWaller's chapter. He examines mating system evolution by focusing on the mixed mating systems where a mixture of self-
pollination and cross-pollination exists. Such mixed mating systems are are very common in flowering plants. Waller's contribution is very readable and understand-able. Botanists have long had difficulty in applying to plants some of the evolutionary generalizations formulated from an animal-centered point of view. One such generalization is that inbreeding is universally detrimental and typically to be avoided. William Shields at-tributes the extreme position to vertebrate biologists, and he develops an alternative view that inbreeding is a fact of life for many plants, a view that many botanists are willing to accept. His idea is that for plants, inbreeding is to be explained, not loathed, and he raises the intriguing idea that some inbreeding might even be beneficial.
The chapters focusing on empirical perspectives have less to attract the botanically oriented reader. A genuine menagerie is covered, ranging from marine invertebrates, fishes, and spiders, to birds, small mammals, lions, and primates. Nickolas Wascr's chapter on optimal outbreeding and assortativc mating in flowering plants is the sole plant-focused contribution. I was intrigued that he began his discussion with a human pedigree, one which nicely accounts for his grandfather's inbreeding coefficient. Waser uses this to quickly lead into a consideration of mating patterns in angiosperms, drawing on a number of studies from a broad range of species.
How does one reach a summary on such a volume as this? An epilogue by W. D. Hamilton is tremendously readable, but a little strange. Incestuous button beetles and ants are truly fascinating, and I am sure [ learned new secrets of the Pharaohs of Egypt. But his essay really adds little unity to the collection other than providing an interesting conclusion. My summary is fairly straight-forward. Some of the chapters will be interesting and relevant to any student of inbreeding, outbreeding, or the evolution of breeding systems. But, specific treatment of
plant breeding systems is slight. Some of the articles are a little dated, and with a few exceptions, the literature reviews stop fairly near the 1989 symposium date. If you are looking for a recent review, you may be disappoint-ed. Nevertheless, this book does bring together much disparate information from a number of different groups of organisms, and it can be an important resource on inbreeding and outbreeding.—Joe Leverich, Saint Louis University
Conservation Biology: The Theory and Practice of Nature Conservation, Preservation, and Management. P.L. Fiedler & S.K. Jain, eds. 1992. ISBN 0-412-01961-2 (paper us$35.00; cAN$43.95; cloth us$79.00, cAN$98.95). Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 29 W. 35th St., New York, NY 10001.—This collection of 18 chapters is a very broad treatment of conservation biology. As the title promises, the book includes everything from population genetics and ecological theory to management and policy issues; organisms from plants to insects to primates; and scales from population level to ecosystems. Of the 18, there are five chapters concerned directly with plants at the community diversity or species population level; four focused on animal conservation including invertebrates, reptiles, fish, and primates; four discussing natural area management and public policy issues; three concerning conservation of biological diversity at the community or ecosystem level; one that applies population genetic theory to single species genetic conservation; and one that explores the genetic resources of Latin American crop plants. Any of these general subject areas could clearly have been the topic for an entire hook. This "anthology" is not focused on any particular aspect of conservation biology, but rather presents an introduction to the wide variety of disciplines that can contribute to the application of conservation biology. This hook will therefore be most useful to the reader looking for a broad sampling of the field, and of substantially less use to those more focused in their interest.
The book's editors wrote a Prologue that provides an excellent concise history of the "legislative and intellectual landmarks" of the development of conservation biology in the United States, and an Epilogue that is a thoughtful exploration of biological research critically necessary in the field of conservation biology. Nowhere, however, is there any real attempt to weave together the chapters of this anthology to demonstrate how the field is, or should be, multidisciplinary. The Foreword, writ-ten by John Harper, is very interesting but is primarily concerned with the emerging science of restoration ecology and the re-creation, as opposed to conservation, of communities. The best examples of the application of normally separate disciplines in a multidisciplinary way to a conservation biology problem are found within some of the individual chapters. For example, a chapter by Donald Falk on strategies for protecting plant diversity demonstrates linkages of population ecology, population genetics, and demography to strategies for land protection and management, and to public policy. A chapter on forest fragmentation by Harris and Silva-Lopez is similarly broad in its treatment of population biology, management, and policy. A few such chapters forcefully make the point of the diversity of approaches required to solve the problems of conservation biology; a point to which the unfocused, collection-character of the book adds little.
The quality of writing and content of the chapters is quite uneven. The book contains five essays that are in general very well written and thought provoking. An essay by Pickett, Parker and Fiedler exploring the implications for conservation biology of the "equilibrium" and "nonequilibrium" paradigms in ecology should be required reading for anyone designing management and conservation plans for biotic preserves. This same essay discusses the interaction of scale with these contrasting perceptions of community dynamics. An essay by Noss on "Issues of scale in conservation biology" is very superficial by comparison. Guerrant's essay on genetic and demographic considerations for s:unpling of rare plants is a wonderful synthesis and discussion of collection strategics. An analysis of patterns of species richness in plant communities by Ashton is, on the other hand, so poorly written and edited that it is difficult to follow and seems to draw no meaningful conclusion.
In summary, most professionals may find that the lack of focus in this book means that it contains very few chapters of much interest to them. The uneven writing quality and editing detract somewhat from the book's usefulness as an anthology. The book could have been improved as an anthology by being somewhat shorter and more selective in the number and quality of chapters included. An essay interpreting the diversity of fields represented in the book and their contribution to the practice of conservation biology would also have made the collection more valuable.—James A. Reinartz, Field Station, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
The Greek Plant World in Myth, Art, and Literature H. Baumann (translated and augmented by W. T. and E. R. Stearn). 1993. ISBN 0-88192-231-5 (cloth). Timber Press, Inc. 9999 S.W. Wilshire, Suite 124, Portland, Oregon, 97225.—The Greek Plant World is an informal text on the native plants of Greece. The book is suitable for travelers with the time and inclination to consider the botanical underpinnings of ancient Greek civilization. Its place in a scholarly library is marginal. The book is an undertaking by an amateur botanist/cultural historian, Hcllmut Baumann, whose love for his adopted homeland is manifest on every page. The translation from German is disappointing and does not flow. Here is an example:
"It is the giant fennel (Ferula communis), which grows in summer on dry hillsides, the rapidly growing stem of which is full of a readily inflammable pith that smolders very slowly without burning the outside of the stalk."
The book uses citations inconsistently and in some sections they are lacking altogether. The tone, if not the intent, of the book treats literature, scientific works, and mythology as equally reliable sources. The reader's impression is that the author has reached his conclusions simply by observing nature and reading the literature of antiquity. This contributes to a dreamy lack of organization throughout the book. How has the author arranged his thoughts? For example, in the section "Man's use of nature" we are led from a detailed account that cites Thcophrastus and Herodotus and uses Greek and scientific plant names to this statement: "Prometheus revealed to men the existence of gold, silver and iron in the earth."
The author's sense of humor is a relief to the prolix text. When discussing the "cure-all" Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber) he mentions its medicinal property as an emetic, "perhaps related to its original style of fruit explosion!" In all fairness, the author discusses the Doctrine of Signatures and other significant developments in the culture of botany, which are of more than passing interest. He mentions what may have been the first recorded dispute over synonomy in Athenaeus' discussion of the cherry. He also touches upon fungi but he neglects the connection between mycology and Mycenean civilization, standard fare in introductory mycology courses. This is surprising in a text such as this one, in which etymology is closely but selectively followed.
Most disturbing in this book are conclusions that are presented as fact but which are baseless statements. For example, in connection with the thyrsus (a fennel stalk
topped by apine cone) used in Dionysian rites, the author states, "The association of the cone with Dionysus led puritanical Jews to substitute the citron fruit for the cedar cone in their own ritual." The author offers as proof the "fact" that citrus and kedros are cognates in Greek, but he ignores the reality that the Hebrew words for cedar (erez) and citron (ethrog) are unrelated. Whichever ritual the author has in mind, the use of a citron during the Sukkoth celebration is in no way connected to the Dionysian thyrsus.
Visual demonstrations abound in this book, and they are the book's strongest component. Coins and terracotta reliefs, swords and murals, pottery and mosaics depicting plants and natural scenes are highlighted to provide examples. Many plant species are pictured, both in their natural habitats and in striking close-ups. The over 400 color photographs (some out of sequence) in this small volume are lush, provocative, and instructive, albeit sometimes contrived. A truncated stem of Angelica provides the source of inspiration for Doric columns. Orchis italica is conjectured to be "perhaps the satyricon of the ancients." Many of the photographs are entertaining; all of them are worth a second look. They outshine the text, which is unfortunate. The poorly organized, irregularly researched text of this volume preclude its entry into a scholarly library. Were I planning a longish nature trip to the Greek countryside with an eye on the ancient world I would carry this book with mc.—Samuel Hammer, College of General Studies, Boston University
Plants and People of the Golden Triangle: Ethnobotany of the Hill Tribes of Northern Thailand E. F. Anderson. 1993. ISBN 0-931146-25-9 (US $69.95) Dioscorides Press, 9999 S.W. Wilshire, Suite 124, Portland, OR. —This is an important book in the literature of the indigenous peoples of the world, of value to the general reader interested in their problems, and to specialists in the various topics covered. Dr. Anderson writes of the more than half a million hill people near the Golden Triangle in Northern Thailand who depend upon the forests for their survival. It is beautifully illustrated with the author's 200 color photo-graphs of tribal people, plants, plant products, equipment and activities of the tribes.
The author began work in the Golden Triangle in 1976 and has continued in the field to date. His initial interest was in collecting and identifying the plants used by the hill tribes, and to determine how these plants were used. He talked to the chiefs and went into the field collecting with the medicine men. Wherever possible, he observed the use of the plants. The results of this scientific survey are presented in Appendices I and II. How-ever, this book is a much more comprehensive discussion of the whole ethnobotany, anthropology, and history of these people.
The book is about the six main tribes with their diverse cultures and languages in terms of different adaptations to their habitat. Contrasting and comparing these tribes reveals much more than would the discussion of a single group. The Akha, Hmong, Lahu, Lisu and Mien are also found in China today, whereas the Karen have an uncertain origin. The Karen are found today mostly in Myanmar, and probably came from Tibet or China. All of the tribes were driven south by the pressures of the dominant peoples in those areas.
A description of each tribe includes their origin, location, settlement pattern, organization, religion, economy and clothing, followed by chapters on their land and farming. They are bound by the monsoon with four distinct seasons. If we begin in November, the first has the northeast monsoon until February, and is the most pleasant with lower temperatures, dry air and little or no rain. The second, a transition period from March to April, is the worst as it is hot and dry. The third is that of the southeast monsoon, with rains from May to early October. The last season (in October) is called the retreating or post-monsoon season. A very important discussion in this section is on deforestation and water conservation. In the farming section, the author presents a thorough, clear description of their shifting cultivation or slash-and-burn agriculture, together with the variation in the practices of the different tribes, and the gradual shift to permanent fields. One fascinating section is on the agricultural calendar followed by crop diversity, cash crops, and the main crop plants.
Rice, bamboo, and opium are detailed in their own chapters because of their special importance. The opium section contains an excellent discussion of the opium substitution programs, that are so important now that the Thai government has forbidden the growing of opium poppies. There follows a series of chapters on uses of plants for houses, cures, cloth, dyes, and in the spirit world, as well as for beauty and pleasure. The final chapter is a discussion of the future, a well reasoned and generally optimistic picture, depending upon the actions of the Thais, international organizations and the tribal people themselves.
The hook is on several levels. Many chapters begin with a vignette in which the author relates a personal experience in a village that sets the stage for the material of the chapter. A general discussion is followed by more detailed material that seems intended for the specialist. For instance, in the chapter on bamboo, the author tells of coming up to a village and describes all the things made of bamboo in the village. In the medicine man's house, he points out everything there made of bamboo. After a general discussion of the uses of bamboo, he presents a botanical classification of bamboo for the forester or botanist, and adds apart on specific bamboos and their uses that can be scanned for one's interests.
Some might turn directly to Appendix I, which lists all the plants used by the tribes, the families to which the species belong, the uses of each plant, which tribe(s) use it and the author's voucher numbers. Others might turn
to Appendix IT, which lists all the medicinal plants, the ailment treated, the plant part(s) used, and how the medicine is administered.
The book contains a wealth of scientific information, and its clear, entertaining narrative makes for good reading for the lay person as well as for the specialist.—Edwin A. Phillips, Pomona College, Claremont, CA
Fundamentals of Weed Science. Robert L. Zimdahl. 1993. ISBN 0-12-781060-9 (cloth). Academic Press, Inc., 1250 - 6th Ave., San Diego CA 92101-4311.—Ironically, the first question I had upon reviewing this textbook was also the first question addressed in the Preface. What is the need for another book on weed science? I believe this question was adequately answered by explaining that the focus of this textbook was the biology and ecology of weeds and not solely the chemical control, which has been a dominant theme in most weed science textbooks.
The author states that the book is designed to be used in undergraduate courses and therefore does not attempt to explore in depth all areas of weed science. In introductory courses, depth sometimes must he sacrificed in order to present the entire picture, especially if this is the only course a student may take in this area. Obviously the author's wish is to spark interest in exploring some of these areas in greater depth just as it is the intent of an instructor in any introductory course. This need to explore may be answered by offering an advanced course or allowing the student to do a research paper.
The first chapter introduces the idea of weed science and its importance to agriculture and society. This relationship is often overlooked since it is assumed that students who take weed science already understand its importance. However, because many students no longer come from an agricultural background or are taking the course as a requirement, I think it is imperative to explain why an entire course is devoted to this topic.
Chapters 2-8 deal with the definition of a weed, classification, uses of weeds, biology, ecology, allelopathy, and plant competition, respectively. Chapters 9-19 deal with methods of control with a majority of these chapters dealing with some aspect of herbicides (classification, use, effects of plants and soil, application, formulation, effect on the ecosystem, legislation and registration). Particularly noteworthy is Chapter 19's emphasis on weed management systems. It takes the reader through the six steps involved in developing a weed management system (integrating numerous control strategies) and gives examples of six generic systems (small grain crops, corn and row crops, turf, pasture and rangeland, perennial crops and aquatic weed sites). This idea could be easily used as a term project, whereby students either develop a weed management system for their own or a hypothetical cropping system. The last chapter deals with the future of weed science—not only research needs but political considerations.
Each chapter except the first begins with a list of fundamental concepts and learning objectives. I found this approach particularly useful in providing the reader with an idea of what the chapter will cover as well as what the reader should have learned after reading the chapter. These learning objectives could be used for study questions or even essay questions on a test. The chapter then concludes with "thought" questions that could serve as a basis for classroom discussion because they provide an opportunity for students to integrate information presented in the chapter as well as their own experiences. A literature cited is provided for each chapter and serves as a valuable resource in order to expand upon a given topic.
Appendices A and B are a list of crops or weeds by common name and scientific name. This is a necessity since common names are used throughout the text and confusion could occur. The glossary, though not extensive, does provide definitions of some of the most commonly used terms in weed science.
I recommend this book to anyone looking for a text for an introductory weed science class. It is written at a level appropriate to introduce the subject matter but at the same time not overwhelm the novice. There is sufficient literature cited to support the general concepts and yet stimulate interest in learning more about the subject area.—lean A. Gleichsner, Fort Hays State University, Hays KS
Practical Protein Electrophoresis for Genetic Research G. Acquaah. 1992. ISBN 0-931146-22-4 (paper US$26.95) Diascordes Press, Timber Press, Inc. 9999 SW Wilshire, Suite 124, Portland OR 97225.—Protein electrophoresis is a widely used and extremely valuable tool in several areas in biology, especially population genetics, plant breeding and forestry. Despite its utility and popularity, however, expertise in the fine art of 'running gels' is often passed on through word-of-mouth or a loose collection of articles, usually of about 20th photocopy generation. In fields like evolutionary ecology, where wanna-be gel jockeys usually have little or no expertise in biochemistry, this mode of cultural transmission has led to much folklore and downright voodoo surrounding the best way to conjure up isozymes. Fortunately, there has been a proliferation of technical literature on gel electrophoresis over the last five years. There are some excellent short introductions to protein electrophoresis in recent edited volumes such as Soltis & Soltis (1989, isozymes in Plant Biology, Dioscorides Press), Hillis & Moritz (1990, Molecular Systematics, Sinauer Associates), and Hoclzel (1992, Molecular Genetic Analysis of Populations, IRL Press). Until the publication of this hook by George Acquaah, however, we lacked a comprehensive,
affordable, cookbook-style manual focusing specifically on protein electrophoresis. I test-drove Acquaah's book while setting up an electrophoresis lab and training students at Queen's University. This review is based on our experience with the book. The bottom line is that Practical Protein Electrophoresis goes a considerable way towards achieving its goal in terms of enabling the uninitiated to "assemble the basic apparatus for electrophoresis and to conduct, analyze, and interpret electrophoretic data" but is disappointing in several respects.
The first two chapters cover the general concept of isozymes and the fundamental principles of electrophoresis. In training students to do electrophoresis, one usually has to deal repeatedly with questions like: What exactly are allozymes and isozymes, and how do they differ? How are the `bands' produced on a gel? What causes differences in electrophoretic mobility? How good is protein electrophoresis as an assay of genetic variation? Accordingly, the new students in my lab found this section of the book quite useful. As a general introduction, however, it lacks an overview of why we study isozymes in the first place. This question is only partially addressed in alater chapter ("Practical applications of isozymes in genetic analysis") that deals primarily with the use of isozymes in crop genetics.
The core of the book is two chapters covering the technical aspects of starch (SCE) and polyacrylamide (PAGE) gel electrophoresis. Both techniques are de-scribed in detailed step-by-step fashion. Useful examples, illustrations and photographs are provided. And, "reminders" are posted throughout the text to emphasize particularly important points. Each chapter also includes a collection of recipes for extraction, electrode and gel buffers, as well as plans for gel molds and buffer tanks. The PAGE chapter also introduces isoclectric focusing and two-dimensional electrophoresis. While these chapters, especially the one on starch, do supply all the information required for the beginner to initiate electrophoresis, they don't really provide anything new or de-mystify the techniques in an especially insightful way. There is a noticeable lack of sage advice on matters that are likely to be most confusing to the beginner. For instance, the starch chapter contains a voluminous, though not comprehensive, collection of recipes for electrode/ gel buffer systems and extraction buffers but provides little indication as to which are best for general purposes. The novice requires clear suggestions on where to begin. What are the most popular and flexible buffer systems? How does one efficiently develop an appropriate extraction buffer? Which enzymes are commonly resolved with each buffer system? In addition, there arc few references to the more detailed reviews of electrophoretic techniques (e.g., Kephart, 1990. AMER. J. Bar. 77: 693-712) for those who would like to examine these issues in greater depth.
The `how-to' section of the book is followed by potentially useful chapters containing information on data collection and analysis, some example calculations of genetic stats, and a step-by-step trouble-shooting guide. The first of these deals with how to interpret banding patterns and the kinds of genetic parameters that can be estimated from electrophoretic patterns. The discussion of band interpretation is quite useful. The reader is walked through the development of genetic models for various banding patterns spanning the range of complexity, from single-locus monomers to two-locus tetramers. There is also a section on isozymes in tetraploids. The trouble-shooting guide is very handy in connecting observed problems with possible causes, consequences and suggested remedies. In contrast, the discussion of data analysis is weak and far from the cutting edge. There are also very few references to the broader literature on the estimation and statistical properties of genetic parameters (e.g., Weir, 1990, Genetic Data Analysis, Sinauer Associates). Computer programs to aid in the calculation of genetic parameters are mentioned only vaguely, with no reference to widely used programs such as BIOSYS (Swofford and Selander, 1981. J. HERD. 72: 281-283) or GENSTAT (Whitkus, 1988. Pt.. GEN. News. 4: 10). Similarly, the worked examples are somewhat superficial and will only be of help to those completely unfamiliar with basic population genetics.
The book ends with a compendium of staining protocols as well as a chapter that lists various equipment and chemicals required for electrophoresis, selected suppliers and notes on chemical storage. Unfortunately, the chemical list is not comprehensive. When we tried to use the list to order materials for only a dozen of the more than 50 staining protocols provided, we discovered a half-dozen omissions. The list also does not connect specific chemicals with particular enzyme protocols. The compendium of staining procedures is probably the most thoroughly thumbed part of our copy of the book. It begins with a nice overview of the metabolic role played by each of the commonly screened enzymes (something I seem to readily forget). Protocols are provided for 54 enzymes; and often two or three alternative protocols are given for each. While there is little indication of which protocol is best under most conditions, it is nice to have the alternatives at hand.
In summary, Practical Protein Electrophoresis is a fairly useful technical manual but it could be a lot better. It will not replace my worn collection of scattered journal articles and book chapters. However, in spite of the problems I have with the book, our copy does see quite a bit of action in the lab. Also, when you consider the high price of doing electrophoresis, this book, at an affordable S27 US (0.25 g of NADP), is a worthwhile investment for those setting up a gel lab from scratch or heavily involved in training incoming students.—Christopher G. Eckert, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario
Life Processes of Plants A. W. Galston. 1994. ISBN 0-7167-5044-9 (cloth us$32.95). W.H. Freeman, 41 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10010. — This book, which is written by a distinguished plant physiologist, is intended to be an introduction to plant physiology/development for a general audience. Life Processes of Plants is part of the Scientific American Library Series and thus brings with it high quality photography and an excellent editorial staff. The text is organized into eight chapters: photosynthesis, light & the life cycle, growth & chemical signals, the movements of plants, coping with stress, regeneration, cooperation with microbes, and improving the green ma-chine.
The author sets out to accomplish a difficult task and is, for the most part, successful. There is a delicate balance in this type of book between being accessible to the general reader and giving enough detail to do justice to a topic. Galston takes complex topics and is able to distill the essence for his readers. However, there are a few instances where he gives information that is not appropriate for his intended audience. For example, in discussing the light reactions of photosynthesis, he considers the results of electron-spin-resonance spectroscopy experiments, and he includes too many chemical formulas in the section on plant growth regulators.
As is to be expected from a Scientific American book, Life Processes of Plants is well-illustrated in terms of the photographs as well as the illustrations of physiological processes (e.g. diagrams of gravitropism and the movement of growth regulators). The full page photographs at the beginning of each chapter arc particularly striking, and there is a balance between photo-graphs and diagrams.
Perhaps partly because of personal bias, I particularly enjoyed the section on the movements of plants and the last chapter on plant biotechnology. In these chapters and others, Galston does an excellent job of giving a historical perspective on the topic of discussion. He does this in a manner that invites the reader to learn more about the subject at hand. In the last chapter, ethical considerations relative to biotechnology and the implications of biotechnology for lesser developed countries are discussed in an engaging manner.
I could not help comparing this book to Plantwatching by Malcolm Wilkins (1988). Both hooks are similar in scope, but the Wilkins book is perhaps more accessible to a general audience than the work by Galston. The latter book has even more striking photography, but both are worthy of purchase for your individual library, especially since they are relatively inexpensive. Life Processes of Plants will be very useful if you teach a non-majors botany course because it will provide a model to explain sometimes complex topics at a general level. After reading these hooks, I was pleased to reflect that two leaders in the field of plant physiology took a great deal of time and effort to produce such high quality books suitable for the general public.—John Z. Kiss, Miami University, Oxford, OH
Water Deficits: Plant Response from Cell to Community. J.A.C. Smith and H. Griffiths, eds. 1993. 345 pp. ISBN 1-872748-06-6 (cloth us$86.00; uK£43.00) BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd, St. Thomas House, Becket St., Oxford OX1 1SJ, UK.—That plants grow best when well supplied with water is a safe but at best prosaic generalization. Wilted plants typically do not grow and ecosystem productivity can generally be related to soil water availability. This also seems straightforward— so what is there of general interest in a book directed at the processes underlying plant growth in water limited environments? Luckily for the reader who chances upon this collection of essays drawn from a three-day discussion meeting organized by the Environmental Physiology Group of the Society for Experimental Biology in 1992, quite a lot. Water relations is (happily) an area of inquiry very much in flux. Some of this is due to the development of new techniques (e.g. cell, root, and xylem pressure probes) or new combinations of techniques while a fair amount of credit must be handed to a level-headed willingness to take on established theory. Passioura et al. express this well in their chapter on crop productivity: "'Drought resistance' is a term that loses clarity the more closely we examine it, much as a newspaper photograph does when examined with a magnifying glass." Thus in this volume we find some of the basic tenants of water relations being called on the carpet for close examination. Ideas like the Lockhart equation, the cohesion theory of sap ascent, the importance of water-use-efficiency among natural populations are among the conceptual building blocks subject to scrutiny. Yet these are not presented as candidates for the chopping block, but rather as material to be re-cast in a more sophisticated and realistic form.
For the serious student of plant water relations this hook represents a collection of up-to-date reviews of areas ranging from cellular water relations to the incorporation of vegetation in large-scale models of the atmosphere; for the novice it provides a nice sampling of the questions and technical problems which motivate this field. I particularly enjoyed the emphasis given to root water relations—including root growth, water uptake, potential role in communication with the shoot, and prevention of water loss to dry soils. At a time when political/economic pressures on environmental quality and specter of large-scale climatic changes underscore the need to understand plant and ecosystem responses to water deficits, this book is well placed to provide its readers with a summary of what we do and, more importantly, do not know.—N. Michele Holbrook, Stanford University.
Asteraceae: Cladistics and Classification. Kāre Bremer. 1994. ISBN 0-88192-275-7 (cloth US$79.95), 725 pp. illus. Timber Press, Inc., 133 SW 2nd Ave., Suite 450, Portland OR 97204-3527.—This book is what the title suggests, a cladistic study and classification of the Astcraceac, not much more and certainly nothing less. First, it must be said up front that Kare Bremer is to be commended for producing this publication of nearly 700 pages, It represents the first treatment of the entire family since the classic two-volume treatise in 1977 edited by V.H. Heywood, et al. based on the meetings held in Kew in 1975.
The real guts (or heart) of this book consists of cladograms constructed from morphological data, and descriptions of genera including distributions and numbers of species for each. Discussions are also presented on prior treatments of taxa and how the results from cladistic analyses compare with earlier views. The first four chapters deal with cladistics in general, and the classification, morphology and evolution of the family. Interestingly, the initial chapter deals with cladistics rather than composites. I found these four chapters a bit unsatisfying because they lack some depth; they could have been combined into one or two chapters. Chapter four on evolution of the family seems almost to equate evolution with phylogenetic patterns inferred from cladistic analyses. Although one cannot question the value of cladistics in such endeavors, evolution in the broadest sense still includes process as well as pattern. Here, the emphasis is clearly on pattern.
It is impossible for one person (at least this person!) to provide a broad, yet comprehensive, evaluation of the contributions of Bremer's book to a better understanding of phylogenetic relationships within and among the tribes of the family. I thus chose to examine a group I know a bit better than others, the subtribe Corcopsidinae of the Heliantheae. Chapter 22 on the Heliantheac is authored by Karis and Ryding and treatment of the Coreopsidinae is based in part on a recent cladistic analysis of the group by Ryding and Bremer (Syst. Rot. 17:649-659). Significant results of the study include the Corcopsidinae supported as a nomophyletic group and the elucidation of "informal generic groups" in the subtribe, i.e., the Coreopsis group, the Clirysanthellum group, and the Petrobiurn group. The largest and most complex genus in the entire subtribe, Bidens, is not classified because consensus trees of equally parsimonious trees did not resolve the position of the genus. Equally parsimonious trees placed Bidens in different clades. It is not clear to me which taxa of Bidens were examined, and this could be particularly critical with regard to the African species. In Africa, some species have traditionally been placed in Bidens, and some species have been put in Coreopsis, but now several authors have placed all African material in Bidens. It would be of interest to know how the genera were delimited for the cladistic analysis. Indications in the Ryding and Bremer paper are that the African species are
retained as members of both genera. Yet in the book the view is expressed that ". . . Bidens and Coreopsis are indistinguishable when considered in a global perspective". There also seems to be a misunderstanding on the conclusions drawn by Mesfin with regard to the distinctions between Bidens and Coreopsis. One page 576, it is stated that Mesfin suggested the two genera be united, but Mesfin only supported uniting African taxa into Bidens. Anyone who has looked at Bidens and Coreopsis in even a superficial way appreciates the complexity of the former genus, not to mention attempting to sort out the situation in the whole complex involving both genera.
I use the Bidens-Coreopsis example not to he critical, but rather to illustrate the dilemma that someone finds him-herself in when attempting a study of this magnitude. On the one hand it could be argued that a more detailed and thorough study of Bidens and Coreopsis would resolve the situation to a much more satisfying degree than exists with the present treatment. Clearly, when the two largest genera in a group are problematic, then the odds of resolving relationships are diminished. On the other hand, if Bremer and coworkers had be-comes "bogged down" in all the Bidens-Coreopsis-like situations that exist in the family, then the work never would have been finished. It is easy to be critical but it is also probably unfair given the size of the task. I feel that Bremer has made the correct choice in producing this book regardless of its inevitable shortcomings. It is a significant contribution because it provides hypotheses to be tested by a multitude of workers using a wide variety of methods, and one cannot overemphasize the importance of this. Furthermore, Bremer is careful to point out the weaknesses in cladograms (meager support for certain clades) and indicates where further work is necessary.
The publication of Bremer's book is especially timely with the upcoming Kew conference on the Asteraceae in July and August. It will no doubt be the focal point of many discussions on phylogenetic relationships in the family, and this can only be good. Certainly is will not in any way "scoop" the published proceedings of the Kew conference, rather it will form the framework within which the phylogenetic contributions can be presented. Also, there is much more to be discussed at Kew about this marvelous family than are presented in the Bremer book.
All of us interested in composites should thank Kttre Bremer for putting together a tremendous amount of information on the phylogeny of the family. He has produced a book of which he should be justifiably proud. We can all pick at various parts of it, but it must be viewed in its entirety, and when this is done it is very clear that he did exactly what he set out to do. So, buy a copy, complain about certain shortcomings (as I did in this review), but if you are doing research in Asteraceae, no doubt in the next few years (or months) the pages of this tome will become well worn because you cannot ignore the tremendous amount of information between the covers.—Dan Crawford, Ohio State University, Columbus
Quantitative Approaches to Phytogeography P.L. Nimis and T. J. Crovello, eds. 1991. ISBN 0-7923095-X. (Cloth: us$169.00, ofl. 275.00, uK£95.00). Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, P. O. Box 989, 3300 AZ Dordrecht, The Netherlands.—Some time ago I was asked to review this book. After procrastinating for far too long I finally buckled down and read it. I was prompted to do so because I finally realized the editor of this newsletter was never going to let me off the hook and because I was working on a chapter for a book on Hawaiian Biogeography with Warren L. Wagner. Reading the book seemed an appropriate endeavor as we were trying to analyze the data from thevarious papers contained in the Hawaii volume. What Wagner and I needed was some quantitative method for dealing with 26 cladistic data sets of varous endemic lineages.
When I began my task I checked the Table of Con-tents and the Preface. I found that the book was the result of a symposium held during the 1987 Botanical Congress even though it was not published until 1991.1 was not encouraged. Further, I found that the book contained nine papers, all but one of which are 10—30 pages long. One paper is 90 pages long, a third of the entire volume. Because the long paper was co-authored by one of the editors I immediately imagined that the volume was an excuse to publish this paper. I almost put the book down, but 1persevered; I could sense the eyes of the PSB editor. It was now or never.
"Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems in Phytogeography" by T. J. Crovello. A discussion on AI and specifically on expert systems and their potential uses in phytogeography. The use of these systems seems to be linked to our ability to organize our knowledge in a sufficiency explicit manner so that it can he processed by a computer. After reading what is involved I realized that it would be long time before data stored at the Smithsonian would ever he able to he used by an AI system.
"Some Quantitative Approaches to Problems of Comparative Floristics" by L. I. Malyshev. This is a discussion on the quantitative assessment of floristic richness and originality. Using equations the floristic richness incorporates two basic parameters: taxonomic abundance per unit area and floristic spatial diversity. The originality sums up the issue of autochthonous (speciation) and allochthonous (migration) trends.
Malyshev claims that quantitative phytogeography eliminates excessive subjectivity inherent in qualitative studies. However, several issues such as total range of the species involved and phylogenetic relationships are not included in the quantitative assessment so I was not convinced that the method would be helpful with conservation decisions as the author claimed.
"Ecological Phytogeography of the Southern Yukon Territory (Canada)" by D. Lausi and P. L.
Nimis. This paper is actually a monograph on communities along the Alaska Highway in southern Yukon. It seeks correlation between the distribution and ecology of plants species. The paper includes a classification of the vegetation into community types, their ecological characterization and a phytogeographic analysis. Multivariate methods of classification and ordination were used in the analysis. The study resulted in the classification of the species into seven main groups each with a geologic explanation.
"The Vascular Flora of Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland: A Habitat Classification Approach Based on Floristic, Biogeographical and Life-form Data" by A. Bouchard, S. Hay, Y. Bergeron, and A. Leduc. Data from herbarium specimens, many collected for this study, were used to analyze the 35 habitats (previously identified) using a cluster analysis (twLNSPAN). Three dendrograms were produced. The first, from the floristic analysis, gives the species that characterized each split. The second, from the phytogcographical analysis, presents the structure of the 35 habitats. The final one presents the life-form structure of the 35 habitats.
"Floristic Databanks and the Phytogeographic Analysis of a Territory. An Example Concerning Northeast-ern Italy" by L. Poldini, F. Martini, P. Canis, and M. Vidali. A discussion on the structure of a floristic data-bank and an example of one used to analyze floristic diversity, produce interpretation of isoporic maps, phytogeographic subdivisions of the region, evaluate the contribution of various areas to the flora, evaluate the ecological behavior of species, assess man's impact and the roll of migration into the area.
"The Use of Satellite Imagery in Quantitative Phytogeography: A Case Study of Patagonia (Argentina)" by J. M. Paruclo, M. R. Aguiar, R. J. C. Leon, R. A. Golluscio, and W. B. Batista. This paper starts off by giving an interesting discussion of the vegetation areas of Patagonia followed by a study using spectral data. The six images used were spread out through the growing season and they were analyzed using a grid system to evaluate the near infrared spectral channels to determine the variation among the images. The data were analyzed using multivariate methods. Significant differences were found to exist between phytogeographic units.
"Distribution Patterns, Adaptive Strategies, and Morphological Changes of Mosses along Elevational and Latitudinal Gradients on South Pacific Islands" D. H. Vitt. The moss flora of four islands in the western South Pacific ranging in habitat from subtropical to subantarctic was analyzed using multivariate analysis. Total species richness is similar on all islands. The number of species increases with elevation in the sub-tropical and temperate islands, but the reverse is true in the subantarctic islands. Most of the species were rare on any given island. Taxonomic patterns are examined and each of the four higher groups show individual patterns. The analysis was accompanied by discussions on adaptation and morphological change.
"Phytogeography of Southern Hemisphere Lichens" D. J. Galloway. A non-numeric discussion of lichen distributions south of the Tropic of Capricorn. The species lists show many species in common between New Zealand and Australia, notable generic similarity between New Zealand-Australia-South America, and a small number of species shared by Australasia and South Africa. Also found are the expected bipolar taxa, affinities with tropical areas and cosmopolitan and endemic taxa. The paper includes a nice discussion of the land masses involved.
"Vicariance and Clinal Variation in Synanthropic Vegetation" by L. Mucina. This paper treats the distribution patterns and variability within synanthropic vegetation (vegetation that covers extensive areas of disturbed habitats) of Europe. The geographical analysis was pre-formed using cluster analysis to determine if the vegetation types were vicariants, if they have common life-history traits.
The volume was not edited so as to bring the papers into line with one another. They ranged from a short 10 page discussion with no data to a 90 page monograph. One was a traditional descriptive biogeography paper and others were heavily numerical. Also, each paper was organized differently, some had a methods section though others did not, some had a conclusion, others did not. I enjoyed reading some of the papers, they were well written and informative, others were poorly orginized and difficult to follow. A number of the papers had excellent reference lists and interesting discussions of the geology and the vegetation types. However, all in all it was a mixed bag. And as for assisting with the afore-mentioned Hawaiian biogeography paper we were working on, none provided assistance. This should not beheld against the authors, as I was looking for ways to analyze cladistic information biogeographicaly and obviously quantitative phytogcography is very different field of science. These studies simply were not asking the types of questions that are useful for biogeographic studies. They are aimed at understanding the complexities of community and ecosystem dynamics. They produce de-tailed ecological interpretations of distribution patterns. In many ways it is really a phenetic and descriptive means of evaluating plant communities, not a reference book for quantitative phytogeography.
There, dear editor, it's done.—Vicki A. Funk, Smithsonian Institution
Pollen Biology: A Laboratory Manual K. R. Shivanna and N. S. Rangaswamy. 1992. ISBN 0-387-55170-0 (paper us$39.00). Springer-Verlag, P.O. Box 19386, Newark, NJ 07195-9386.—The authors have collected commonly used methods for pollen studies and organized them into 30 exercises with additional experimental variations. The level is directed to students and to new researchers in the field of pollen biology. Their goal is to provide laboratory exercises on pollen and they have succeeded admirably.
Nine exercises on in vitro pollen germination include basic methods and experimental variations. One is led through the entire scheme from collecting pollen, through testing germination media and fixing fixing pollen tubes, to methods of counting and measuring with statistical methods in the appendix. The "merits" and "demerits" of procedures are described. Ten exercises are on pollen-pistil interactions and the remainder divided among pollen storage, viability testing, and isolation of protoplasts from microspores and pollen, isolation of sperm, and isolation of embryo sacs. None of the methods involves molecular biology, antibodies or computers.
The book is a useful reference, especially handy for getting started with pollen experiments. It will be valuable to students because it includes recipes, evaluation methods andreferences.—DarleneSouthworth, South-ern Oregon State College, Ashland
Bark -The Formation, Characteristics and Uses of Bark Around the World. K. B. Sandved, G.T. Prance & A.E. Prance. 1993. ISBN 0-88192-262-5 (cloth, US$49.95), 171 pp. Timber Press, Inc. 9999 SW Wilshire, Suite 124, Portland OR 97225.-A recent survey on science interest and attitudes by the American Museum of Natural History and Louis Harris (3 point margin for error) included a question about botany. When asked if they were interested in botany, 39% of the respondents said yes; however, 77% responded that they were interested in plants and trees. Bark is not only for the 39%, but also for the 77%! As with Dr. Prance's earlier book, Leaves, this book is noteworthy for its sheer beauty. Between the magnificent Queensland bottle tree on the frontispiece and the bark dwellers on the final page, an array of photographs must delight and amaze even the botanists who "have seen it all before." From the extremely helpful photography mini-lesson that precedes the Introduction, through the final page, readers encounter seventeen chapters that at least touch on every aspect of bark. Each chapter topic is illustrated with photographs that do much more than simply enhance the text—they make the subject en-chanting! Chapter topics are: structure and formation; field identification; photosynthetic properties, ecology; latexes; resins, medicines and poisons; hallucinogens; flavors, tannins; cork; cloth; canoes; fiber, fuel, mulch, and other uses; camouflage and food; flora; and bark dwellers.
Most examples by far are from the New World, probably reflecting the experience of the authors. Scientific names are liberally sprinkled throughout and a few references are included in most chapters. The photo-graphs accompanying the chapter on tannins are those of less important plants and one photograph is used twice (Find them!). A few photographs do not illustrate bark at all (e.g., p. 115). Pictures of cauliflorous species belong together; those in the chapter on bark flora, which is about epiphytes, might be confusing to some of the 77%. The algae, the fungi, and the lichens that they produce together are definitely plants in this book. Although I don't think a shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) looks like a "hairy monster" (p. 23), the descriptions of the barks evoke the sights, smells, feels, even sounds, etc. of this wonderful botanical material.
Most botanists and travelers will want some particularly favorite hark use to have been more emphasized. I wanted more than an offhand mention of Australian aboriginal bark paintings; however, they were mentioned. I will not offer even one example of the interesting facts about bark to be learned or reminded of while enjoying this hook because from the hundreds, readers will pick their own favorites. My only advice is to see this book, and make sure that students see it—the sooner, the better!
To whom would this hook lack appeal? To those who care for neither hark nor beauty—unfortunate persons, indeed. Janice Coffey Swab, Meredith College, Raleigh NC
Xerophytes A. Fahn and D.F. Cutler. 1992. ISBN 3-443-14019-X (cloth, DM124), 176 pp. Gebr. Borntraeger, Verlagsbuchhandlung, Johannesstr. 3 A, D-7000 Stuttgart 1, Federal Republic of Germany.—This relatively small book presents a remarkably diverse array of examples from numerous studies that approach the subject of xerophytic plant adaptation from a structural (and to a limited degree, physiological) perspective. Readers having experience working with xerophytic plants are already aware of their remarkable uniqueness in the plant kingdom, and the often unusual structural modifications in their anatomy that provide them the evolutionary advantage to continue living in often inhospitable environmental conditions. The authors review various structural and morphological specializations of different plants, and synthesize these (often disparate) studies into a coherent, well organized summary of the pertinent literature.
In their introduction, the authors include a short essay on adaptations, a review of arid lands (including maps of semi-arid, arid, and extremely arid zones on al 1 continents), and briefly review the families of angiosperms known to be significant xerophytic components of the floras of these regions.
Approximately 40 pages of text are devoted to the presentation of various definitions of xerophytic plants, their evolutionary and ecological strategies, and structural specializations for drought resistance. The various types of xerophytes are discussed, divided broadly into two categories: drought escaping plants and drought resisting plants. Various morphological aspects within each group, with related anatomical modifications are reviewed along with some commentary about growth cycle strategies and ecological conditions.
The balance of the text (ca. 100 pages) focuses on specific anatomical characters, explanations of various cellular and morphological specializations, and effects of environmental factors on anatomical modifications. About 40 pages are devoted to introducing and comparing xcromorphic adaptations of photosynthetic organs, such as epidermal/stomata] specializations, crystal inclusions, and trichomes. Also included in this portion of the book are sections on succulent plants, C4 and CAM plants, desiccation tolerance, adaptations to salinity, and brief discussions about nutrition and mycorrhizal associates of xerophytes. Each discussion summarizes the published results of previous studies, and provides "plant" examples for each topic. For its size, the book is well illustrated (90 figures; about two-thirds of these are line drawings, the remainder micrographs or other half-tones), and provides the reader with good examples from the literature of typical forms of anatomical or morphological xeromorphic specializations. Twenty tables also help summarize significantly large amounts of information succinctly and clearly.
Clearly one of this volume's strengths is that it is particularly "reference-rich"; there are 19 pages of literature citations containing 443 references; most are fairly current. Additionally, indices by author, subject, and plant name (families and genera) are included, and serve to make this book quite "user-friendly."
For the botanist specializing in the structure of xerophytic plants (or plants in general), or one who encounters these highly specialized forms in related research, (such as in systematic or ecological studies) this book will serve as a fairly comprehensive starting point for further study and sources of pertinent literature. (For example, I can envision this hook being particularly useful as a foundation for graduate or upper level under-graduate term papers.) Certainly, research libraries should consider purchasing this text, along with the related hooks of the series. The book's price (DM124; about us$ 65-70) may seem a bit high, particularly to the non-specialist, and 1 have some reservations about recommending it for a personal library. However, I am unaware of any comparable work that is a general reference specifically on xerophytic morphological adaptations.
In summary, Fahn and Cutler have done an admirable job at succinctly presenting this subject in a clear and well-referenced form. The hook will certainly provide both the novice and advanced reader with an extremely good introduction to xerophytic plant adaptations.—Robert S. Wallace, Iowa State University, Ames
if you would like to review a book or books for PSB, contact the Editor, stating the book of interest and the date by which it would be reviewed (15 February, 15 May, 15 August or 15 November of the appropriate year). Send E-MAIL, call or write as soon as you notice the book of interest in this list, because they go quickly!—Ed.
* = book in review or declined for review
Biology of Adventitious Root Formation David, T.D. and B.E. Haissig, eds. 1994. ISBN 0-306-44627-8 (cloth US$89.50) Plenum Publishing Corp., 233 Spring St., New York NY 10013
*Fractals, A User's Guide for the Natural Sciences Hastings, Harold M. and G. Sugihara 1994. ISBN 0-19-854597-5 (paper US$19.95) Oxford University Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York NY 10016
*Dictionary of Herbs, Spices, Seasonings, and Natural Flavorings Skelly, C. J. 1994. ISBN 0-8153-1465-5 (cloth USS75.00) Garland Publishing, Inc., 717 - 5th Ave., Suite 2500, New York, NY 10022
Tobacco and Shamanism in South America Wilbert, J. 1994. ISBN 0-300-05790-3 (paper US$16.00) Yale University Press, 92A Yale Station, New Haven CT 06520
*Crossover: Concepts and Applications in Genetics, Evolution, & Breeding Staub, J. E. 1994. ISBN 0-299-13564-0 (paper with 3.5 disk] US$30.00) Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1145 N Murray St., Madison WI 53715
Ultrastructure of Fossil Spores and Pollen Kurmann, M.H. & J.A. Doyle, eds. 1994. ISBN 0-947643-60-5 (paper UK£18.00) Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Herbarium & Library, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE, England.
Sulfur Nutrition and Assimilation in Higher Plants de Kok, L.J., I. Stolen, H. Renncnbcrg, C. Brunol 1993. ISBN 90-5103-084-3 (cloth US$80.00) SPB Academic Publishing, P.O. Box 97747, 2509 GC The Hague, The Netherlands.
The Polymerise Chain Reaction Mullis, K.B., F. Ferre & R.A. Gibbs 1994. ISBN 0-8176-3607-2 (cloth US$79.00) Birkhduser Boston, PO Box 19386, Newark NJ 07195-9386
*Catiilogo de la Familia Poaceae en la Republica Argentina Zuloaga, F.O., E.G. Nicora, Z.E. Rtigolo de Agrasa 1994. ISBN 0-915279-21-5 (cloth US$18.00) Missouri Botanical Garden, PO Box 299, St. Louis MO 63166-0299
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