PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN

A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

VOLUME 36, NUMBER 3, FALL 1990
The Botanical Society of America: The Society for ALL Plant Biologists

THOMAS N. TAYLOR, Editor Department of Botany, Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (614) 422-3564

Editorial Board
JUDITH A. JERNSTEDT Dept. of Agronomy & Range Science, University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616
RUDY SCHMID Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley, California, 94720
HARDY W. ESHBAUGH Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056

PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN (ISSN 0032-0919) is published four times per year by the Botanical Society of America, Inc., 1735 Neil Ave.. Columbus. OH 43210. Second class postage pending at Columbus. Ohio and additional mailing office. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Robert H. Essman, Botanical Society of America, 1735 Neil Ave.. Columbus. OH 43210.

September, 1990 Volume 36 No. 3

Letter to the Editor

Even though P.B. Tomlinson's letter in PSB Vol. 36, No. 2 is a light-hearted response (in part) to Bill Stern's letter (PSB Vol. 36, No. 1), in which the latter dares to be critical of Botany at Harvard, I feel I should make a comment or two (also light-hearted, in part). I do this with some hesitation, since Dr. Tomlinson is a respected neighbor of ours at the Harvard Forest and, moreover, he is Edward D. Jeffrey Professor of Biology--a name I honor, for V.I. Cheadle and I were Jeffrey's last two graduate students; at least we had one year with him before he retired in 1933. (Parenthetically, how Dr. Jeffrey would have fumed to have a chair in biology named for him!)

Professor Tomlinson takes umbrage at one particular sentence in Stern's piece. I, however, think it a splendid statement--pregnant with meaning; obviously it was effective for it drew blood. The sentence is so notable, it bears repeating: "The Missouri Botanical Garden did not need to be renamed to transform it into the flourishing institution it now is, nor, conversely, did the establishment of a Biology Department stem the demise of botany at Harvard."

Tomlinson objects to the word demise--perhaps he would prefer decline? As he struggles and writhes in the attempt to put the best face on the meaning of demise, he makes one wonder whether deconstructionism has infected Harvard, or at least Petersham, Botany. In any case, his one argument in refutation is that two Harvard botanists have in recent years been granted awards of merit by the Botanical Society of America--even though one of these men has been dead for several years! (The good Jeffrey Professor does seem to have trouble with the meaning of demise.)

Tomlinson may not be aware of any change in Botany at Harvard, but he must be one of the last botanists in the country to hold this view. Indeed, the demise, or decline, if you please, has been a constant topic of conversation and discussion at meetings of botanists for the last few years. Botanical colleagues ask why the Asa Gray Professorship--arguably the most prestigious botanical chair in the country--has been allowed to remain vacant for all these years? What has happened to the Economic Botany program, an internationally renowned center for the study of ethnobotany? Why has the Economic Botany post--held with such distinction by Oakes Ames, Paul Mangelsdorf and Richard Schultes--not been filled? Why is it that earlier evaluations of graduate programs in Botany (1966, Carter, A.M., An assessment of quality in graduate education, Amer. Council on Education, Washington, DC; 1970, Roose, K.D., and C.J. Andersen, A rating of graduate programs, Amer. Council on Education, Washington, DC) rated Harvard as distinguished, but the most recent study (1982, Jones, L.V., and P.E. Coggeshall, An assessment of research-doctorate programs in the United States: Biological sciences. National Academy Press, Washington, DC) does not even list Harvard Botany? Indeed, this study of some 62 institutions, several with Botany in biology departments, carries this statement: "Botany programs at these two institutions [Harvard and Brandeis] have not been included in the evaluations in this discipline, since in each case the study coordinator [at the university] indicated that the institution did not at that time have a research-doctorate program in botany." Material in brackets added.

All would agree with Tomlinson's tribute to the illustrious history of Botany at Harvard. As one who had the good fortune to conduct his graduate studies during those halcyon days and who has been an admiring, though often saddened, observer of Harvard Botany over the last six decades, with the opportunity during this period of serving on one botanical Overseer's visiting committee and at least seven ad hoc appointment advisory committees, I very much hope that the remaining botanists at Harvard may pull together, utilize the considerable botanical resources of the Gray Herbarium, Arnold Arboretum, Botanical Museum, Harvard Forest, and Farlowe Herbarium, and once again achieve the standing of Botany of the era of Jeffrey, Fernald, Merrill, Ames, Mangelsdorf, Weston, Thimann, Bailey, Wetmore, East, and Sax.

[Footnote: Weeks after this letter was mailed to PSB, there appeared in the September-October issue of Harvard Magazine a 12-page article describing in some detail the plight and possible rejuvenation of Harvard Botany.]

Oswald Tippo
Department of Botany
University of Massachusetts, Amherst

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News from The Natural History Museum

[Editor's Note: In light of the recent events in Botany at The Natural History Museum (formerly the British Museum of Natural History), I requested information concerning the Corporate Plan from Dr. Neil Chalmers, Director. Since he was away from the Museum at the time, Dr. S. Blackmore, Keeper of Botany, provided the following statement about reorganization in the Botany Department.] To Editors of Botanical Newsletters:

Botanical Reorganisation at the Natural History Museum

On learning of the organisational changes announced in the Natural History Museum's Corporate Plan for 1990/1995, people from around the world have written to express their concern for the future of the Museum. Many have cited the growing importance of taxonomic collections and research as a measure of the requirement for adequate levels of funding. What scientists will want to know is, what exactly are the proposed changes, and how will they affect the performance and vitality of the Museum?

To live within available resources, the Botany Department must reduce its staff from 49 posts to 41. This will involve voluntary retirement, transfer to different jobs or, as a last resort, redundancies. The breadth of our work will inevitably narrow, but by concentrating on areas where we have the greatest expertise and where our work will have the maximum impact, we expect to remain a vigorous and dynamic focus for botany. Recruitment into a small number of research fellowships will further strengthen the five programmes that form the new framework of the Department:

To maintain and develop our collection of over six million botanical specimens, a new Curatorial Programme is being established. Previously, each Section organised the curation of a particular part of the collection, but gradually declining staff numbers since the late 1970's have randomly eroded the efficiency of this system. In the future a fourteen-strong team of experienced botanists led by Clive Jermy will take responsibility for the entire collection. Effort will be directed where it is most needed, for example, to lay in specimens that are not readily accessible, to bring the collections in line with the latest revisions, and to increase the efficiency with which we dispatch on loan 24,000 specimens to over 50 countries every year. While curatorial staff will work with many parts of the collections, which range from lichens and algae to every group of land plants, they will continue to develop expertise in specific groups and to be involved in departmental research projects.

In recent years the Department has gained valuable experience of commissioned research and contract work, especially in environmental applications of taxonomic skills. Ian Tittley, whose research interests are in marine algae, will lead the Contracts Programme, which draws on the talents of the entire Department.

The Environmental Quality Programme will undertake taxonomic research focused on groups that are, or have the potential to be, important as bioindicators. David John will head a section researching algae and developing the study of micro-algae in culture. David Galloway will head a section studying lichens.

The Cell and Molecular Programme, led by Mary Gibby, will undertake projects closely integrated with the interests of the Department but encompassing cytology, palynology and developmental cell biology. New projects will be developed using molecular techniques, which are already being applied to problems as diverse as pollen wall synthesis and genomic variations between algal populations and species.

The Biodiversity Programme includes three teams with overall leadership provided by David Sutton, the Deputy Keeper. Chris Humphries heads a group investigating biogeography and phylogeny. Important projects underway include biogeographic studies of Eucalyptus, Araucariaceae using cladistic methods, and the integration of morphological and molecular data in protist phylogeny. A tropical research team, headed by Alan Eddy, is involved in a range of projects including Flora Mesoamericana and the Handbook of Malesian Mosses. In European botany, a group led by Charlie Jarvis will develop computer databases from which a variety of taxonomic, distributional and nomenclatural products will be generated.

Steve Blackmore, the Keeper of Botany, is confident that a strong Department, closely attuned to present day priorities, will emerge from these changes. With growing awareness of deforestation, desertification and other forms of environmental degradation, the world community has greater need of taxonomic botany than at any time in history. Not to recognise and respond to these needs and to change in response to them would be inexcusable.

Letter to the Editor

I appreciate the opportunity to comment on the proposed name change for the Botanical Society, a controversial topic in recent PSB issues.

In general, I am opposed to name changes unless the mission of the organization has so changed as to make a new name necessary. For example, if the "Midwest Industrial Leather Belt Company" has recently moved to Maine and started making Indian moccasins, a name change is clearly in order.

I submit that the BSA has not experienced such a change. The Society's mission is still, as it always has been, the promotion of botanical research and education. "Plant science" is no more descriptive of the discipline than is "Botanical," a clearly-understood and widely accepted term. I can only see confusion resulting from substituting one term for the other.

If the change is made, I can hear many people asking 'Whatever became of the Botanical Society of America?" I vote to keep the BSA in existence.

Wesley N. Tiffney, Jr.
Director, Nantucket Field Station
University of Massachusetts

BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA NEWS

Committee Service

The Botanical Society has thirteen committees that attend to its concerns and interests (see pages 90-91 of the Membership Directory and Handbook). If you would like to be considered for committee service, please contact the Chair of the Committee on Committees: William Louis Culberson, Department of Botany, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706.

Young Botanist Awards - 1990

These awards of the Botanical Society of America are designed to offer recognition to outstanding seniors in the plant sciences, to encourage their further study of botany and participation in the BSA. Those selected this year, their academic institution, and their principal nominators are as follows:

Rita Banerji, Mt. Holyoke College, SouthHadley, MA (Diana B. Stein)
Lisa C. Buckshaw, State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (Robert L Burgess)
Pamela Clum, Univ. of Washington, Seattle (Melinda F. Denton)

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Gregory Copenhaver, Univ. of California, Riverside (Darleen A. DeMason)
Janet Crooks, Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point (John D. Curtis and Kent Hall)
Carolyn Ferguson, Carleton College, Northfield, MN (Susan Singer)
Adrien Finzi, Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham (Garrett E. Crow)
Amy Frary, Mt. Holyoke College (Diana B. Stein)
John Goodlaxson, Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point (John D. Curtis and Kent Hall)
Jessica Goodwin, Mt. Holyoke College (Diana B. Stein)
Cheryl Gross, Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point (John D. Curtis and Kent Hall)
Mary Hagen, Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point (John D. Curtis and Kent Hall)
Beth Hance, Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA (John Bevington)
Jacqulyn J. Jardine, Ohio Univ., Athens (Robert M. Lloyd)
Timothy Jegla, Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green (Susan Singer)
Cory Thomas Kadlec, Lawrence Univ., Appleton, WI (Nicholas C. Maravolo)
Carolyn H. Keiffer, Ohio Univ. (Irwin A. Ungar)
Lawrence M. Kelly, California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (David J. Keil)
Sung Han Kim, Ohio University (John P. Mitchell)
Myra Langenkamp, Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (Randy Moore)
Victoria Rae Lehar, Wright State Univ. (James R. Runkle)
Harry Marvin Leuzinger, Texas A & M Univ., College Station (Harold T. Underwood)
Teresa R. Liebfreid, Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green (Joe E. Winstead)
Frank G. Martin, Ohio Univ. (Irwin A. Ungar)
Peter Morrell, Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (James R. Estes)
Janice Ann Northup, Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (Edward E. Dale, Jr.)
Sharon Rapach, Univ. of Washington, Seattle (Melinda F. Denton)
Patricia Sue Raymo, George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (Terry L. Hufford and Elizabeth Fortson Wells)
Sharon Rettig, Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (Ken Wilson)
Eric Paul Sager, Lawrence Univ (Nicholas C. Maravolo)
Benjamin Sanders, Indiana Univ., Bloomington (David L Dilcher)
Brad Schulke, New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (Richard Spellenberg)
Robert K. Suto, Washington St. Univ., Pullman (Frank A. Loewus)
Jimmy Triplett, Univ. of N. Carolina, Greensboro (Bruce K. Kirchoff)
Neil Wrubel, Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (S.M. Siegel)

You are encouraged to begin to think now about suitable candidates for 1991. This is an excellent way to both recognize achievement and to sustain and increase interest in the botanical sciences. A call for nominations will appear in late 1990 and early 1991.

MEETINGS

International Symposium on Angiosperm Pollen and Ovules

This symposium will be held 23-27 June, 1991 in Vila Olmo, Como (Italy). Topics include: genetics of male and female gametophytes; molecular biology of the gametophyte; biotechnical methods; developmental selection in natural populations; gametophytic selection as a breeding tool. For information and application forms contact: D.L Mulcahy, Department of Botany, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, Phone: 413-545-2238; FAX: 413-545-3243 or E. Ottaviano, Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milano, ITALY, Phone: 2/2663498; FAX: 2/2684551.

6th Crucifer Genetics Workshop

The workshop will be held at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York on October 6-8, 1990 and is hosted cooperatively by Cornell and the U.S.D.A.-Agricultural Research Service. Plans are for a focused but informal gathering where information is exchanged primarily in poster sessions and discussion groups. Topics include: cell biology, crucifers as educational tools, ecology/production, genetic resources and systematics, genome organization, molecular biology, and oilseed crucifer improvement and utilization. Attendees will have the opportunity to schedule visits with individual Cornell scientists at both Ithaca and the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva. A field tour to Geneva at the conclusion of activities in Ithaca has been scheduled. Information can be obtained by contacting: Ms. Sue Dwyer, Plant Genetic Resources Unit, NYS Agr. Expt. Sta., Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY 14456-04562 (Phone: 315-787-2244, FAX: 315-787-2397).

7th Wildland Shrub Symposium

The Shrub Research Consortium is sponsoring this symposium from 29-31 May, 1991 at the Sun Valley Lodge/Inn, Sun Valley, Idaho. The symposium will address the biology and management of shrubs in riparian zones and other aspects of shrublands. A field trip is planned to view a variety of mountain meadow riparian areas. Contributed papers of 20 minutes duration are invited. The proceedings will be published by the USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. If you would like to present a paper, send a title and abstract by December 15, 1990 to: Shrub Research Consortium, W.P. Clary, Forest Sciences Laboratory, 316 E. Myrtle St., Boise, ID 83702. To receive preregistration materials and information, please contact: Nancy Ness, Division of Continuing Education, Boise State University, 1910 University Dr., Boise, ID 83725.

4th International Organization of Paleobotany Conference

This congress will take place in Paris, France 30 August-3 September 1992. The meeting will be preceded and followed by field excursions. In order to receive the first circular, please contact: Secretariat 4th I.O.P. Conference, Paléobotanique et Palynologie évolutives, Université de Paris VI, 12 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France (FAX: [33] 143 54 40 97; Telex: UPMCSix200145F.

POSITION ANNOUNCEMENTS

Graduate Research Assistantship

A graduate research assistantship is available to support graduate study leading to the Ph.D. degree at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana. Research will focus on relationships between soybean root nodule structure and physiology and will be directed toward understanding the cellular and intracellular compartmentation of nitrogen metabolism within nodules. The student will gain experience in a diversity of approaches, including protein purification, light and electron microscopy, and immunological techniques, including immunocytochemical localization, and will also have opportunities to develop molecular approaches. Annual stipend is $10,800. Funding is available for one year with renewal upon satisfactory research progress. To apply or to request additional information, please contact Dr. Mary Alice Webb, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906.

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Hesler Visiting Professorships

A limited number of visiting professorships in Floristic Botany at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville are available through the L.R. and Esther Hesler Endowment Fund. Proposals are acceptable in all areas of systematic botany with priority given to those which are floristic, revisionary, or monographic in emphasis and deal with the flora of the southern Appalachian Mountains and vicinity in the field or the UTK Herbarium. Applicants should hold faculty (or equivalent) status at a recognized botanical or educational institution. Funding can be used for travel and living expenses and concurrent support from the applicant's institution is strongly recommended. Preliminary correspondence with specific UTK faculty or general inquiries to the Hesler Endowment Fund Committee (Department of Botany, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1100) is encouraged.

Graduate Students in Plant Structure and Development

The Department of Botany at the University of Vermont invites applications for graduate students at the Masters or Ph.D. levels, particularly in the areas of plant morphogenesis and structural development. Candidates should have strong backgrounds in plant biology, physics and chemistry. Likely areas of study will include problems of organogenesis at the shoot and root apices, mechanical control of cell wall orientation in vitro, and associated questions of microfibrillar orientation in the growing cell wall. Inquiries should be directed to: Dr. P. Lintilhac, Department of Botany, University of Vermont, Burlington, VI 05405.

Herbarium Collection Manager

The LSU Herbarium, Department of Botany, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, anticipates a full-time position for Collection Manager. Major duties of the position include specimen preparation and cataloging, plant identification, loan and exchange processing, record keeping, and supervising student workers. B.Sc. degree required. Preference will be given to those candidates with at least a Master's degree in botany (vascular plant taxonomy), who have herbarium work experience and who have some familiarity with the regional flora. The deadline for applications is October 15, 1990, or until a suitable candidate is found. Interested persons should send a letter of application, résumé, and three letters of reference to: Lowell E. Urbatsch, Department of Botany, Louisiana State University, Baton, Rouge, LA 70803-1705. LSU is an equal opportunity employer.

Evolutionary Ecology

A postdoctoral position in Evolutionary Ecology is available to study the interactions of host plants with herbivorous, gall-making insects. Areas of interest include: (1) population genetics of host and host-associated herbivore populations, (2) gall maker taxonomy and host-association ecology, (3) the basis of host-plant resistance via plant necrosis and early larval death, (4) development of bioassays to test the effects of host-plant secondary chemicals on insect oviposition behavior and larval performance, and (5) herbivory and competition in goldenrod population dynamics. Position begins January or February, 1991. Send curriculum vitae and names of three recommenders to: Dr. Warren Abrahamson, Department of Biology, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (717/524-1155). Applications from women and members of minority groups are encouraged.

Pre-Doctoral Fellowship

Applications are invited for a competitive fellowship program in ecology and environmental sciences at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL), University of Georgia. The program will support Ph.D. students at their home institutions during completion of course work and prior to full-time residence at SREL to conduct their dissertation research. It is expected that an SREL faculty member will serve on the student's doctoral committee, preferably as major or co-major professor. Particular areas of SREL expertise include, but are not limited to, population biology and genetics, physiological ecology, environmental chemistry, toxicology, life history evolution, aquatic ecology, radioecology, plant ecology and soil science. Support includes stipend and tuition and is contingent on acceptance into a Ph.D. program. All applicants must be U.S. citizens. For further information and application forms contact: Ms. Teresa Carroll, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (803-725-2472). Deadline for applications is February 1, 1991. Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.

ANNOUNCEMENTS

Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship Awards

The Barry Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence in Education Foundation was established in 1986 by Congress as a tribute to the Senator's 56 years of service to his country. The scholarships support undergraduate studies in science and mathematics and provide up to two years' support for tuition, fees, books and room and board up to a maximum of $7,000 annually. For additional information or application forms, please contact: Gerald J. Smith, Executive Secretary, Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence in Education Foundation, 499 S. Capitol St., SW, Suite 405, Washington, DC 20003.

UNESCO Program in Biotechnology

Advances in cellular and molecular biology have provided powerful new methods for the genetic manipulation and improvement of microbes, plants and animals. These biotechnologies have been developed, and are practiced, largely in advanced industrial countries in North America, Western Europe, and Japan, which already enjoy high standards of living and robust economies. There is general agreement that biotechnology can have maximum impact on human welfare in those countries which have large populations, lower standards of living, poor economies and a multitude of problems related to health and the environment. In consideration of this fact, and in order to develop long-term regional capabilities and self-reliance in these countries, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has recently established a new program in biotechnology, under the direction of the Biotechnology Advisory Committee (BAC). In order to avoid duplication of other international efforts in biotechnology, the UNESCO program will focus on the development and strengthening of national and regional capabilities in plant and aquatic biotechnology by providing opportunities for education, training and the efficient and rapid exchange of scientific information. These objectives will be achieved by sponsoring training courses and workshops, establishment of long- and short-term fellow-ships, opportunities to attend international meetings, providing ready access to scientific journals and data bases, etc. BAC will also help to coordinate international efforts in biotechnology by consulting and working closely with other international organizations. Announcements of these activities, including the fellowship program, will be

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made in major international publications, and through UNESCO missions in most countries around the world.

Indra K. Vasil, Chairman, UNESCO BAC
Department of Vegetable Crops
University of Florida, Gainesville

A System for Chlorophyll Analysis

This is a computer program written in Turbo Pascal 5.5 by Mark Hemmerlein and Timothy Perkins of the Forest Decline Project at the University of Vermont in order to automate chlorophyll analysis. The system utilizes an IBM/PS XT compatible computer equipped with an IBM Data Acquisition Control Adapter (ca. $350) interfaced with a spectrophotometer. Chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations are calculated from absorbance readings of pigments extracted in 80% acetone (v/v) (Lichtenthaler, H.K, and A.R. Wellburn. 1983. Determination of total carotenoid and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Trans Biochem. Soc. 603: 591-592). The results are in µg pigment per gram of tissue. They can be written to an ASCII file to facilitate transfer of data to other programs. This setup allows repetitive measurements to be made rapidly and accurately. Turbo Pascal source code is available so modifications can be made to suit your needs. This program can serve as a model for similar programs that interface existing laboratory equipment with computers. If you would like a copy of this program with instructions, please send a blank, unformatted 5¼ or 3'/2 diskette and a stamped self-addressed mailer to: Mark Hemmerlein, Forest Decline Project, Marsh Life Science Bldg., University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405-0068.

Applications for Individual Exchange and Project Development Visits

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) invites applications from American scientists who wish to make visits to the USSR, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. The program of individual exchanges will support 1-12 month research visits during calendar year 1992. The program of two-week project development visits will support two cycles of visits: April-August 1991 and August-December 1991. Applicants for the project development visits need to demonstrate that a joint proposal for collaborative research will be prepared during their visit for submission to the National Science Foundation for funding. There is special emphasis on young investigators in each program.

Applicants must be U.S. citizens and have doctoral degrees or their equivalent six months prior to the requested beginning date of their visit in physics; chemistry; mathematics and computer sciences; earth, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences; agricultural, forestry, fishery, and plant sciences; biological sciences; environmental sciences; engineering; archaeology and anthropology; geography; psychology; science and technology policy; or the history and philosophy of science. Projects in the economic and social sciences that involve development of new analytical methodologies will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Necessary expenses will be met by the NAS and the foreign academy, including reimbursement for long-term visitors for salary lost up to a predetermined maximum and expenses for family members accompanying the scientist for more than six months.

Requests for applications for the first round of the project development visits should reach the NAS no later than November 15, 1990. Applications for this program must be postmarked no later than November 30, 1990. Requests for applications for the individual exchange program should reach the NAS no later than February 15, 1991. Applications for this program must be postmarked by February 28, 1991. Requests for applications for the second round of the project development visits should reach the NAS no later than February 15, 1991. Applications for this program must be postmarked by February 28, 1991. Address application requests to: Soviet and East European Affairs, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW (HA-166), Washington, DC 20418. Telephone: 202/334-3884.

Council of Scientific Society Presidents

The following resolutions were passed at the May 9, 1990 meeting of the CSSP. They will be sent to members of Congress and other agencies on behalf of the Botanical Society of America and other member organizations of the CSSP.

- RESOLUTION -

On Biological Diversity

WHEREAS the increasing deterioration of biological diversity constitutes a significant problem for humanity; and

WHEREAS the functioning of ecosystems and the quality of the environment have become major concerns for all nations in achieving their economic and technological goals;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Council of Scientific Society Presidents 1) lends it support to legislation to make biological diversity a national priority; and 2) supports the efforts of the Administration and the National Science Board to develop a biological diversity research program, including research on the social and economic aspects of the loss of biological diversity.

- RESOLUTION -

On the FY 1991 National Science Foundation Budget

WHEREAS the National Science Foundation authorization passed by the House and Senate committed the Congress to doubling its FY 1988 budget by FY 1993; and

WHEREAS an appropriations level no less than that requested by the President is necessary to keep these commitments;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Council of Scientific Society Presidents supports the President's FY 1991 budget request for the National Science Foundation.

- RESOLUTION -

Endorsing Creative, Active Mathematics Learning and Teaching

WHEREAS mathematics and science education is a matter of national concern in our attempts to better ourselves and our environment; and

WHEREAS mathematics and science are creative and logical endeavors; and

WHEREAS mathematics and science involve exploring, experimenting, risking, testing, reasoning, predicting, and ultimately, applying knowledge; and

WHEREAS students who study science and mathematics in an innovative setting, using equipment and technology, and who apply knowledge achieve more than students who do not;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Council of Scientific Society Presidents endorses mathematics and science teaching which, using equipment and technology, emphasizes active experimentation, thinking, and encouragement of creativity and the application of scientific and mathematical knowledge, especially to real problems of society.

- RESOLUTION -

On the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

WHEREAS the Council of Scientific Society Presidents

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earlier resolved to urge the United States to rejoin UNESCO; and

WHEREAS the U.S. Department of State has concluded that the time is not yet ripe to consider renewing U.S. membership in UNESCO;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Council of Scientific Society Presidents 1) urges international interaction in scientific issues wherever appropriate; 2) applauds the State Department's efforts to encourage the restructuring of UNESCO in such a way that full U.S. participation in UNESCO will be practical and 3) encourages continuation of specific contributions to UNESCO-related activities in selected scientific areas.

- RESOLUTION -

On Compensation for Federal Scientific and Technical Personnel

WHEREAS the federal government experiences widespread difficulty in attracting highly qualified personnel for positions requiring advanced scientific knowledge and skills; and

WHEREAS the problem extends to all levels of federal employment of scientific and technical personnel, not simply to the scientific and technical positions included in the Administration's proposal for 400 top positions in all fields; and

WHEREAS substantial salary differentials have long been recognized between government and industry and are now significant also between government and academia; and

WHEREAS these differentials seriously weaken the effectiveness of federal programs which are critical to national security and well-being;

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Council of Scientific Society Presidents urges the Administration and the Congress to provide competitive salary levels for federal scientific and technical personnel.

Nominations for Oberly Award

Nominations are sought for the 1991 Oberly Award for Bibliography in the Agricultural Sciences. The award, established in 1923, gives national recognition to bibliographic scholarship in the fields of agricultural or related sciences. The nominated bibliographies will be judged on usefulness, scope, accuracy, format, arrangement, indexes, and text. The award, which is administered by the Oberly Award Committee, Science and Technology Section, Association of College and Research Libraries, American Library Association (ALA), will be presented at the 1991 annual ALA meeting in Atlanta. Nomination letters are due by January 1, 1991 to: Alena Chadwick, Chair, Oberly Committee, Biological Sciences Library, 214 Morrill Science Center-South, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (Phone: 413-545-2674). If possible, please include a copy of the nominated bibliography.

Chinese Paphiopedilums Available for Research, Education and Horticulture

In November, 1989, the Marie Selby Botanical Gardens (MSBG) were asked by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to care for impounded shipments of illegally collected orchids from China. These plants have been transferred to MSBG for the purposes of research, display, and education.

This presents a unique conservation opportunity which is an important part of the Gardens' mission. In an effort to maximize the use of these plants, we will distribute some of them to other institutions that can demonstrate use of them for purposes of research, education, and display. MSBG will retain a sufficient number of plants to insure a sound scientific design for horticultural research and our own education and horticulture programs.

Dr. John T. Atwood, Director of the Orchid Identification Center and an expert in this genus, has submitted a list of the plants that are available for release to other gardens and horticultural groups. Approximately 1000 plants will be available, including Paphiopedilum barbigerum, P. hirsutissimum, P. purpuratum, P. armeniacum, and P. micranthum. Requests for transfer of plants should be made to the Director of Research, Dr. Nalini M. Nadkrni, The Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, 811 S. Palm Ave., Sarasota FL 34236 (813-366-5730). They will be prioritized based on how their anticipated use fills the goals put forth by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

HONORS

MacArthur Fellowships

One botanist is among the 36 new MacArthur Fellows announced in July by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation -- Gary Paul Nabhan, assistant director for research and collections at the Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix, Arizona. MacArthur Fellowships include a five-year stipend with no strings attached. Recipients are free to use the awards as they wish. Dr. Nabhan is the author of Gathering the Desert (1985) and Enduring Seeds (1989) and a specialist on the ethnobotany of the Southwest, especially indigenous agricultural systems.

Sol Feinstone Environmental Award

The recipient of the 1990 Sol Feinstone Award is Hugh H. Iltis from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. This award is administered by the College of Environmental Science and Forestry of the State University of New York (Syracuse). In part, the citation read, "Hugh H. lltis, concerned environmentalist, consummate educator and scientist, and articulate communicator, you have used your interest and energies to preserve and protect the natural environment."

Maydica Commemorative Issue

Volume 35, number 2, 1990, of the journal Maydica was dedicated to Professor Hugh H. Iltis, University of Wisconsin, Madison as an avid investigator and searcher for the origins of corn."

Environmental Prize, Institut de la Vie

Peter H. Raven, director of the Missouri Botanical Garden, has been awarded the prestigious environmental prize of the Institut de la Vie in Paris. He shares the honor with Professor Edward O. Wilson of Harvard University. The prize brings with it a monetary award of 300,000 FF (roughly $53,000), to be split between the two recipients. The purpose of the prize is to compensate a person who has effected eminent work on the physical, chemical, or biological environment of humans and the effects of the environment on everyday life. Raven and Wilson were commended for their work on the evolution and ecology of plants and insects, respectively. They were also recognized for their scientific activities defending biological diversity and their role in informing the public and political authorities worldwide about the perils presented by deforestation and species loss.

Chicago Horticultural Society Medal

The Chicago Horticultural Society Hutchinson Medal was awarded to Marion T. Hall, Director of the Morton Arboretum at Lisle, Illinois. Dr. Hall has been director of the Arboretum for 24 years, where he has been instrumental in the continuing development of one of America's finest collections of woody plants. He is recognized for his

6

outstanding achievements in horticulture and public administration and the development of programs to promote a better understanding of plant growth and development and the introduction of new and interesting plants for the urban landscape.

"Fascinating Business People"

Fortune magazine has named Calvin R. Sperling, a USDA scientist, as one of 1990's "25 most fascinating business people." Sperling, a plant explorer and botanist for the Agricultural Research Service's Germplasm Services Laboratory in Greenbelt, MD, identifies and collects plants in danger of extinction that have potential agricultural value. He has explored central Asian forests for relatives of apples, Turkey for wild lentils and chickpeas, Israel for wild relatives of cereal grains, and the Amazon for feral potatoes. The plant germplasms are stored in the USDA National Seed Storage Laboratory in Fort Collins, CO, as well as in approximately 40 other locations in the United States.

from BioScience, April 1990

IN MEMORIAM

Mason E. Hale, Jr.

It is my sad duty to announce the death of Dr. Mason Ellsworth Hale, Jr. (1928-1990). A Senior Scientist and former Chairman of the Department of Botany, he died at his home of renal cell cancer 23 April 1990 after a long illness.

Mason was internationally known for his research on lichens. He built the third largest lichen collection in the world since he joined the U.S. National Herbarium in 1957. His 1967 (revised 1974, 1983) Biology of Lichens was the first comprehensive introductory treatment of lichens in English. His 1969 (2nd edition 1979) How to Know the Lichens became the standard guide for North American lichens. His baseline research on growth rate and lead content of lichens, begun almost 40 years ago, provided some of the first documentation of the impact of pollution on our environment. His research focused on the large and widespread families, Parmeliaceae (foliose) and Thelotremataceae (crustose), and used both chemical and scanning electron microscope techniques. His most recent work, a revision of Xanthoparmelia, with >400 species (in press), utilizes pioneering techniques of data processing, including use of data bases to generate multi-entry identification keys and automate descriptions.

Mason was a respected colleague and friend to us and to many all over the world. We will miss him.

L.E. Skog, Chairman
Department of Botany
National Museum of Natural History

Frits Warmolt Went

Dr. Frits Warmolt Went, internationally renowned plant physiologist and research pioneer, who established the Desert Research Institute's Biological Sciences Center in 1965, died of natural causes in Reno, Nevada on May 1, 1990 at the age of 86.

Went retired from the Desert Research Institute (DRI) in 1985 to live in Beaverton, Oregon and was visiting Reno to meet with DRI faculty. Went was among the first researchers to isolate and identify chemicals regulating the growth of plants, opening a new field in plant development 60 years ago.

Several years later, Went constructed the first "phytotron," a fully-controlled environment for plant research, at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Variations of Went's concept are now in use throughout the world for studies of the effect of environmental conditions on plant growth and he is generally acknowledged as the 'lather of the phytotron" among plant scientists.

Went was among the first to discover the beneficial association of fungi with roots of plants in nutrient-poor desert soils, and during his later work at DRI, identified the natural processes through which plants release volatile chemicals that contribute to desert hazes. Went held the position of DRI research professor emeritus following his retirement. Before joining DRI as director of what was then the Laboratory for Desert Biology, Went's career had seen him leave his initial studies in Holland for work in the Indonesian tropics, then to the California Institute of Technology, and to the Missouri Botanical Garden and Washington University in St. Louis. His honors included membership in the National Academy of Sciences and foreign memberships in the French, Belgian and Dutch Academies. He served as president of the American Society of Plant Physiologists, the Botanical Society of America, and the American Institute of Biological Sciences. An interpretive trail in the Native Plant Garden of the Wilbur D. May Museum in Rancho San Rafael Park in Reno was named in Went's honor upon his retirement from DRI in 1985.

He is survived by his widow, Catherina, in Beaverton, a daughter, Anneka Simmons, in Portland, a son, Dr. Hans Went, in Pullman, Washington, and two sisters and a brother in Holland. In lieu of flowers, the family requests that donations be made to the May Arboretum Society, P.O. Box 41142, Reno, NV 89505 for the upkeep of the Went Interpretive Trail.

from the Desert Research Institute University of Nevada System, Reno

Richard H. Eyde

It is my sad duty to announce the death of Dr. Richard H. Eyde (1928-1990). Dick was a Curator in the Department of Botany. He died 27 May 1990 at his home of colon cancer after a short illness.

Dick was an internationally recognized plant anatomist specializing in the relationships of dogwoods and their relatives (Cornales), but he delved deeply into other areas, including the fossil record. He joined the staff in 1962. Historians have noted Dick's chapter, "Expedition Botany, the Making of a New Profession," in Viola's Magnificent Voyagers (1985), as outstanding for its "wealth of research, historical insight and graceful narrative." This comment applies equally to his lucid lectures and publications.

Dick's "Foliar theory of the flower" (1975) attacked the textbook interpretation of the flower and is still cited. His "Comprehending Cornus: Puzzles and progress in the systematics of the dogwoods" (1988) will be the standard source on dogwoods for a long time to come. It is unfortunate that Dick could not finish his synthesis on Nyssa, but he arranged for colleagues to pick up where he left off.

Dick was a respected colleague and friend to us and to many all over the world. We will miss him and his ever-
present humor. [The family asks that donations in Dick's name be sent to the Salvation Army's Adult Rehabilitation
Center, 6528 Little River Turnpike, Annandale, VA 22310].
L.E. Skog, Chairman
Department of Botany
National Museum of Natural History

7

BOOKS RECEIVED

Bailey, D.A. Hydrangea Production. Timber Press, Inc., 9999 S.W. Wilshire, Portland, OR 97225, 1989. 91 p. ISBN 0-88192-143-2. Price: none given.

Baker, D.A., and J.A. Milburn. Transport of Photoassimilates. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 3rd Ave, New York, NY 10158, 1989. xvii + 384 p. ISBN 0-582-46234-7. Price: $108.00.

Batten, D.J., and M.C. Keen, eds. Northwest European Micropalaeontology and Palynology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1 Wiley Dr., Somerset, NJ 08875-1272, 1989. x + 298 p. ISBN 0-470-21487-2. Price: $153.00.

Behnke, H.-D., K. Esser, K. Kubitzki, M. Runge and H. Ziegler. Progress in Botany, Vol. 50. Springer-Verlag, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07096, 1989. 386 p. ISBN 3-540-50289-0; 0-387-50289-0. Price: $153.60.

Behnke, H.-D., and R.D. Sjolund, eds. Sieve Elements: Comparative Structure, Induction and Development. Springer-Verlag, New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07096-2491, 1990. xi + 305 p. ISBN 3-540-50783-3-; 0-387-50783-3. Price: $98.00

Blackwell, W.H. Poisonous and Medicinal Plants. Prentice Hall, Prentice Hall Bldg., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632 xix + 329 p. ISBN 0-13-684127-9. Price: none given.

Bowler, P.J. Evolution: The History of an Idea. Univ. of California Press, 2120 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA 94720, 1989. xvi + 432 p. ISBN 0-520-06386-4. Price: none given.

Buczacki, S. New Generation Guide to the Fungi of Britain and Europe. Univ. of Texas Press, P.O. Box 7819, Austin, TX 78713, 1989. 320 p. ISBN 0-292-75536-8. Price: $22.95.

Campbell, N.A. Biology, 2nd ed. Benjamin/Cummings Publ. Co. Inc., 390 Bridge Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065, 1990. xxx + 1165 p. ISBN 0-8053-1800-3. Price: $49.95.

Campbell, R. Biological Control of Microbial Plant Pathogens. Cambridge Univ. Press, 40 W. 20th St., New York, NY 10011, 1989. x + 218 p. ISBN 0-521-34088-8. Price: $55.00.

Cherry, J.H. Environmental Stress in Plants: Biochemical and Physiological Mechanisms. (NATO ASI Series, Ser. G: Ecological Sciences, Vol. 19), Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07096, 1989. 369 p. ISBN 3-540-18559-3; 0-387-18559-3. Price: $111.90.

Crane, P.R., and S. Blackmore, eds. Evolution. Systematics, and Fossil History of the Hamamelidae. Vol. 1: Introduction and 'Lower' Hamamelidae: Vol. 2: 'Higher' Hamamelidae. Oxford Univ. Press, 200 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016, 1989. Vol. 1: xii + 305 p., ISBN 0-19-857711-7, Price: $90.00. Vol. 2: xii + 356 p., ISBN 0-19-857726-5, Price: $98.00.

Day, J.W., Jr., C.A.S. Hall, W.M. Kemp, and A. Yanez-Arancibia. Estuarine Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1 Wiley Dr., Secaucus, NJ 08875-1272, 1989. xiv + 558 p. ISBN 0-471-06263-4. Price: $54.95.

Dodge, A.D., ed. Herbicides and Plant Metabolism. Cambridge Univ. Press, 40 W. 20th St., New York, NY 10011, 1989. viii + 277 p., ISBN 0-521-34422-0. Price: $65.00.

Ehrendorfer, F., ed. Woody Plants - Evolution and Distribution Since the Tertiary. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07096-2491, 1989. 329 p. ISBN 3-211-82124-4; 0-387-82124-4. Price: $184.50.

Eldredge, N. Macroevolutionary Dynamics. McGraw-Hill, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020, 1989. xii + 226 p. ISBN 0-07-019476-9. Price: none given.

Graneli, E., B. Sundstrom, L. Edler and D.M. Anderson, eds. Toxic Marine Phytoplankton. Elsevier Science Publ. Co., Inc., 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010, 1990. xxi + 554 p. ISBN 0-444-01523-X. Price: $135.00.

Larkum, A.W.D., A.J. McComb and S.A. Shepherd, eds. Biology of Seagrasses: A Treatise on the Biology of Seagrasses with Special Reference to the Australian Region. Elsevier Science Publ., P.O. Box 882, Madison Square Station, New York, NY 10159, 1989. xxiv + 841 p. ISBN 0-444-87403-8. Price: $152.75.

Lewin, R.A., and L. Cheng, eds. Prochloron: A Microbial Enigma. Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 29 W. 35th St., New York, NY 10001, 1989. xiii + 129 p. ISBN 0-412-01901-9. Price: $53.00.

Lindsey, K., and M.G.K. Jones. Plant Biotechnology in Agriculture. Prentice Hall, Prentice Hall Bldg., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, 1990. x + 241 p. ISBN 0-13-679127-1. Price: none given.

MacKenzie, J.J., and M.T. El-Ashry, eds. Air Pollution's Toll on Forests and Crops. Yale Univ. Press, 92A Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520, 1990. ix + 376 p. ISBN 0-300-04569-7. Price: $38.50.

Miller, R.W., and R.L. Donahue. Soils: An Introduction to Soils and Plant Growth. Prentice Hall, Prentice Hall Bldg., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, 1990. xiv + 768 p. ISBN 0-13-820226-5. Price: none given.

Nakas, J.P., and C. Hagedorn, eds. Biotechnology of Plant-Microbe Interactions. McGraw-Hill Pub]. Co., 11 W. 19th St., New York, NY 10011, 1990. xi + 348 p. ISBN 0-07-045867-7. Price: $59.95.

Ng, F.S.P., ed. Tree Flora of Malaya, Vol. 4. Longman Malaysia Snd. Berhad, 3, Jalan Kilang A, 46050 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan., Malaysia, 1989. 549 p. ISBN 967-976-202-5. Price: none given.

Pritchard, H.W., ed. Modern Methods in Orchid Conservation: The Role of Physiology, Ecology and Management. Cambridge Univ. Press, 40 W. 20th St., New York, NY 10011, 1990. x + 173 p. ISBN 0-521-37294-1. Price: $42.50.

Rambler, M.B., L. Margulis and R. Fester, eds. Global Ecology: Towards a Science of the Biosphere. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA 92101, 1989. xii + 204 p. ISBN 0-12-576890-7. Price: $24.95.

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