PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN

A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

THOMAS N. TAYLOR, Editor, Department of Botany, Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus. Ohio 43210 (614) 422-3564

Editorial Board
SHIRLEY GRAHAM, Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242
ROY H. SAIGO, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614
JOHN H. THOMAS, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305

The Plant Science Bulletin is published six times a year, February, April, June, August, October and December. Change of address should be sent to the Business Manager, Botanical Society of America, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210.

(ISSN 0032-0919)

August, 1986 Volume 32 No 4

[The following is the first in a series of contributed articles that consider current topics related to the plant sciences. The Plant Science Bulletin provides an excellent forum for discussion like that which follows and it is hoped that the membership of the Botanical Society of America will offer similar contributions in the future on a broad variety of subjects. Editor]

POTENTIAL OF BIGHNOLOGY REGULATION ON RESEARCH

Introduction

The development of our society has been increasingly accompanied by the heightened influence of legal considerations in routine decisions. In the sphere of research activity, impacts of the law are felt in setting up laboratories with proper safety devices, in obtaining patents and other protection for new discoveries, and in apportioning royalties which may emanate from agreements with funding institutions. University professors must also conform to more or less strict rules concerning outside consulting and other arrangements with private industry. Although the functions of university professors are generally confined to laboratories and classrooms rarely subjected to higher legal authority than a department chairman, or perhaps a dean, legal constraints do influence their actions.

One particular area that has caused legal debate during the last decade is the regulation of biotechnology. While in a broad sense, biotechnology refers to any use of living organisms to aid human industrial or technical processes, the major legal and ethical concerns involve recombinant DNA techniques, or gene splicing. The advent of recombinant DNA technology has exacerbated many legal issues which have already affected university procedures, especially at public universities. A good deal of concern has accompanied the flurry of corporate formations involving university scientists in the biotechnology arena. Potential for conflict of interest and impediments to the free flow of information are often cited as serious dangers of these corporate intrusions on basic research. Perhaps most important, however, is the impact of legal oversight and regulation on the university research laboratory.

Traditionally, governmental regulation has been initiated where products are intended for distribution into commerce. Where toxic, pathogenic, or other substances considered highly dangerous are involved, however, regulation does affect activities where commercial products are not involved and may affect even very basic research. Instances of such regulation include investigations using human subjects, use of laboratory animals in experimentation, and importation or transportation of plant and animal pathogens. Since recombinant DNA techniques are accompanied by unknown effects, they have been treated differently from traditional research activities in the 20th century. From the earliest development of recombinant DNA techniques, scientists have been subject to governmental oversight.

The Development of Voluntary Guidelines

After the ability to combine DNA from different species was developed in the early 1970s, the scientific community was troubled by the potential of this new capability, Unanswered questions regarding the novel organisms that could be produced, the possibility that toxic traits might be introduced into common organisms which could then escape from laboratories, and the ability to contain these newly created organisms led to a worldwide, voluntary moratorium on recombinant DNA experimentation. Scientists and others addressed these questions at the International Conference on Recombinant DNA Molecules at the Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, California, in February 1975. Scientists involved in the new genetic research were eager to avoid governmental regulation, but their initiative in sponsoring the Asilomar Conference demonstrated their willingness to accept social responsibility even at the risk of limiting academic freedom.

The conferees at Asilomar produced a working paper with the intent of lifting the voluntary moratorium and providing guidance for further experimentation. The document divided experiments into low, medium, and high categories of risk, establishing a regulatory posture which allowed many types of genetic research to continue and prohibited others which were considered potentially dangerous. Still, the Asilomar paper comprised only a set of suggestions with no force of law; ccmpliance was purely voluntary.

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The National Institute of Heatlh Guidelines

At the time of the Asilomar Conference, administrators at the National Institute of Health (NIH) had been pondering the role of NIH in the development of recombinant DNA technology. To this end, NIH established the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC), and in July 1976, it published the "Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules" (the Guidelines). The Guidelines originally applied only to research carried on or funded by NIH. Subsequently, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Department of Agriculture (USDA) adopted the Guidelines for experimentation which they either performed or funded. Penalties for failure to comply with the Guidelines involved the loss of funds from the granting agency.

The principal aim of the Guidelines was the confinement of new or changed organisms within the laboratory. The Guidelines established both containment procedures for various types of experiments and a structure within which to oversee recombinant DNA projects. The procedures were modeled around the risk categories first espoused at the Asilomar Conference. The oversight structure (which still persists today) consisted of a group of Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBCs), established within the research institutions, and the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, housed at the National Institutes of Health. The Guidelines have been periodically reviewed, and easing of requirements only occurs when supported by accumulated knowledge and experience.

Precautions and standards of the Guidelines emphasize sound research practices, safe equipment, and appropriate laboratory and experimental design. Safeguards are more stringent when researchers (1) deal with infectious, pathogenic, or toxic substances or organisms; (2) utilize large amounts of experimental materials; (3) use whole plants or animals; (4) propose to release "recombinant organisms" into the open environment; or (5) intend to use human subjects. As a result of knowledge gained over the past decade, many requirements have been relaxed. Today, most research involving recombinant DNA within the laboratory is exempt from review under the Guidelines.

The Guidelines provide a basic framework, but each institution is responsible for implementing the Guidelines. Institutions should establish policies and procedures to assure that recombinant DNA research is performed safely and responsibly. The Guidelines direct institutions to form IBCs to insure compliance with both the specific terms and overall intent of the Guidelines. IBCs should be composed of individuals with appropriate scientific expertise as well as have representation from the surrounding community. The Guidelines do provide a framework, but since every laboratory situation cannot be anticipated, the institutions are obliged to maintain safety by (1) promulgating policy and procedures, (2) establishing IBCs, and (3) insuring proper training of principal investigators and staff.

Based on the perceived risk of recombinant DNA techniques, experiments are reviewed within four categories. The first category consists of those experiments which are considered most dangerous and must be reviewed by RAC and receive IBC and NIH approval. (The purpose of review by RAC is to advise NIH, which then must make the final decision.) This category includes (1) work with certain toxins, (2) deliberate release of recombinant organisms into the environment, (3) certain transfers of drug resistance traits, and (4) deliberate transfers into human subjects. The second category of experiments requires approval by IBCs before initiation. These experiments include investigations involving (1) certain classes of human and animal pathogens, (2) specified infectious animal and plant DNA or RNA viruses, (3) whole animals and plants, and (4) more than 10 liters of culture. Experiments not specifically exempt, or included for NIH and IBC approvals, comprise the third category. These are subject only to notification of IBCs at the time of initiation. The fourth category exempts certain recombinant DNA molecules from notification and approval requirements of the Guidelines. Exempt molecules include (1) those not in organisms or viruses, (2) those consisting entirely of DNA segments from a single nonchromosomal or viral DNA, (3) those consisting entirely of DNA from a prokaryotic host when propagated only in that host, and (4) certain recombinant DNA molecules (listed in Appendix A of the Guidelines) that consist entirely of DNA segments from different species that exchange DNA by known physiological processes.

New Questions of Risk Involving Testing in the Environment

Significant challenge to the Guidelines has been focused on the applicability of the Guidelines to testing new organisms in the open environment. When originally formulated, the Guidelines prohibited the release of any recombinant organisms into the environment. In fact, the very purpose of the Guidelines was to keep recombinant DNA experiments within containment facilities. Amendment of the Guidelines in 1978 provided the NIH director with authority to waive that prohibition after public notice and review by RAC. As noted above, deliberate release experiments now fall in the category that must receive RAC review and NIH and IBC approval.

The major litigation and controversy over recombinant DNA and related practices has been incited by the prospect of applying these technologies in the open environment. The catastrophic. experiences demonstrated by introductions of exotic organisms into the United States, such as kudzu (Pueraria lobata), melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia), dutch elm disease (caused by Ceratocystis ulmi carried by a bark beetle vector), and chestnut blight (caused by Endothia parasitica), have aroused fears that releasing genetically engineered organisms would produced similar disasters. Even though it has been pointed out repeatedly that most exotic introductions have no discernible effect on man or the environment, and only a small minority of exotics has any adverse effect whatsoever, the prospect of man creating new plants and animals conjures up notions in the public mind, such as cabbages devouring cities and towns. Andromeda Strains, Frankenstein's monsters, and other horrors are readily pictured when uninformed people are presented with media stories depicting the ability of scientists to manipulate genetic traits. It is incumbent on the scientific community to allay these fears through education, so the great benefits to humanity promised by biotechnology can be realized without unreasonable delays.

Farmers and food processors have utilized new cultivars of plants, novel breeds of livestock, and selected strains of microorganisms for many years to improve the quality of our food supply. These uses demonstrate the experience of the agricultural community in releasing organisms into the environment. Releases of organisms produced by modern techniques should not be singled out just because new methods are being employed in the laboratory. All research should be performed carefully and safely, and where risks or unknown effects accompany research, proper measures must be observed to eliminate or reduce risks to safe limits. Every release of a new plant, animal, or microbe must be undertaken with appropriate procedures to insure safety and minimize adverse environmental effects.

Challenge in the Courtroom

In May 1984, Judge John Sirica of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia issued an injuction which halted what would have been the first experiment involving release into the open environment of organisms altered by recombinant DNA techniques. Judge Sirica ruled that NIH did not review the environmental effects closely enough, as mandated by the National Environmental Policy Act. The proposed experiment (which has not yet been performed) involves

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the application of Pseudomonas syringae bacteria on potato plants in an effort to assess their utility for controlling frost damage in this crop. These organisms serve as nuclei around which water molecules crystallize in the formation of ice on the surface of potato plants. Laboratory and greenhouse tests have revealed that the deletion of a gene from the bacteria-which are natural inhabitants of the surfaces of potato plants--results in ice crystallization at a temperature several degrees lower than normal. These ice nucleation experiments have been pursued by Drs. Steven E. Lind and Nickolas A. Panopoulos at the University of California, Berkeley.

In September 1982, Lindow and Panopoulos's field test proposal was sent to RAC for review. After revision of the proposal to address the environmental concerns pointed out by members of RAC, NIH approved the experiment in April 1983. But, in September 1983 suit was filed by several parties to halt the field experiment. These parties were led by Jeremy Rifkin, President of the Foundation on Economic Trends, a self-proclaimed public service organization and clearinghouse for printed materials opposed to biotechnology. NIH appealed Judge Sirica's ruling to the Circuit Court. After the appellate decision was handed down in February 1985 affirming the injunction against the experiment, NIH prepared an environmental assessment, as directed by the National Environmental Policy Act, to evidence their consideration of potential environmental issues.

In October 1984, EPA had asserted jurisdiction over small-scale field testing involving nonindigenous or genetically altered microorganisms. According to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA may require an experimental use permit for tests of certain pesticides. The ice nucleating bacteria in Lindow and Panopoulos's experiment fit into the definition of "pesticide" in the Act. In May of 1986, after more than a year of review, EPA issued a permit for the test which is to take place on a small plot in Tulelake, California.

Developments in the Federal Government

Even after all these reviews, this field test has not yet been performed. Residents of the community surrounding the location of the test have signed petitions aimed at stopping the experiment. It is this last impediment to this experiment which illustrates the most troubling aspect of opposition to biotechnological research. The public perception that recombinant DNA and related technologies present dangers of unknown and vast proportions pervades all levels of review. It is evident in the activities of government agencies, courts, and Congress. If this situation results in burdensome regulations which reach into research programs throughout the country, intellectual pursuit, the search for knowledge on which our university system and nation as a whole have been built, could be stifled.

Research in the laboratory has proceeded safely under a single system. The NIH Guidelines have been utilized by both public and private institutions without major problems. Renewed anxiety is incited by the prospect of testing recombinant organisms in the open environment, especially when dealing with microorganisms. Precautions must be instituted to avoid undesirable effects. Knowledge regarding the ability of novel organisms to move from test sites and become established in non-target areas is limited. The means to predict the impact in planned field tests themselves are restricted. Even though scientists may feel that their methods insure safety and reliability, the newness of this technology instigates legitimate public fears which should not be ignored. The public must be assured that potential risks are being studied, and procedures are being followed to keep risks to a minimum.

Proposals for field tests have been scrutinized by NIH, USDA, and EPA. Sane have been considered by more than one agency. Following the lead of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), a branch of the Executive Office of the President, the federal agencies are attempting to coordinate review and oversight in the field of biotechnology. This process was initiated on December 31, 1984 with publication of a "Proposal for a Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology" in the Federal Register. In that notice, OSTP proposed a federal structure by which to review biotechnology projects, and FDA, EPA, and USDA outlined their regulatory postures for biotechnology. After public comments were received, OSTP established the Biotechnology Science Coordinating Committee (BSCC) to serve as a forum for policy formulation among the various federal agencies. A Federal Register notice in November 1985 formally established the BSCC and premised that specific agency responses would be published in January 1986.

On June 26, 1986, the Office of Science and Technology Policy published the new federal policy for oversight of biotechnology in the Federal Register. The "Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology" is composed of a general statement by OSTP and pronouncements by FDA, USDA, EPA, NIH and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). An attempt was made by FDA, EPA, and USDA to make their review procedures as similar as possible. This is especially important where jurisdiction overlaps and requires review by more than one agency. The agencies are establishing vehicles by which to coordinate reviews and utilize expertise among themselves. In the interest of consistent regulation throughout the federal system, OSTP formulated definitions of "intergeneric organism" and "pathogen" to guide federal review. These two terms represent the areas of greatest concern for safety in biotechnology. It is felt that risks are increased where new--or intergeneric--organisms are produced and where the introduction of pathogenic traits is involved. OSTP has produced the "Coordinated Framework," illustrated by charts, to delineate division and overlap of agency jurisdiction. Progress in the regulatory process initiated by this notice will be evaluated by BSCC.

In the June 26 notice, FDA described its traditional jurisdiction and its application to the products of biotechnology. FDA regulates products regardless of their process of manufacture under authority of the Public Health Service Act. The use of recombinant DNA technology in producing new drugs, biological products, food additives, and medical devices may result in differences from similar products manufactured by conventional means. FDA will review these products as if they were new, possibly in an abbreviated manner. Documents, called "Points to Consider," explaining new or unique procedures, are being published by FDA and are available upon request.

As explained in the notice, jurisdiction for EPA is founded upon the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). EPA's major worries are associated with the effects of microbial products. Under FIFRA, particular emphasis is placed on small-scale field tests of genetically engineered, nonindigenous, and pathogenic microbial pesticides. Certain microorganisms are also subject to jurisdiction under TSCA, because they are considered new chemical substances. EPA announced notification requirements for field testing of microorganisms used for purposes subject to TSCA, e.g., metal leaching, pollution degradation, and enhanced nitrogen fixation. Further rulemaking will be forthcoming from EPA.

The Department of Agriculture's policy statement in the June 26, 1986 notice is based on the perspective that agricultural products developed through biotechnology will not differ fundamentally from conventionally manufactured products. USDA has established a new structure and procedures to handle research and regulation in biotechnology. In November 1985, USDA established the Commmittee on Biotechnology in Agriculture to coordinate functions within the Department and to assist in liaison activities with other agencies. The Commmittee will be co-chaired by the

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Assistant Secretary for Science and Education and the Assistant Secretary for Marketing and Inspection Services.

Research activity under the auspices of USDA will be reviewed much like laboratory research has been overseen by NIH during the past decade. An Office of Agricultural Biotechnology has been organized to handle the administrative aspects of review under the newly proposed "USDA Guidelines for Biotechnology Research." An Agriculture Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (ABRAC) will be established to provide review like NIH RAC. In addition, the National Biological Impact Assessment Program (NBIAP) is being implemented to provide expert project review and monitoring. NBIAP will be employed to utilized the research and knowledge base of the Land-Grant Colleges and other universities and research institutions across the country.

By statute, USDA has regulatory jurisdiction over veterinary biological products, plants, plant products, and plant pests, as well as meat and poultry products. The main addition to USDA's regulatory scheme is a proposed set of regulations covering the "introduction of organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering which are plant pests or which there is reason to believe are plant pests." These regulations would apply to the importation into and movement within the United States of these organisms and products altered by or produced through genetic engineering. Any release of organisms into the environment is considered movement within the United States. These regulations are subject to a 90-day comment period as well as two public hearings before issuance of final regulations.

OSHA and NIH also included statements of policy in this notice. OSHA does not feel there is a need for any additional policies or regulations to insure safe and healthful places for workers in biotechnology. NIH will continue to support basic biomedical research and operate under its existing guidelines. Where review under the NIH Guidelines overlaps with another agency, NIH will defer to that agency when the Office of Recombinant DNA Activities, NIH, determines such review serves the same purpose as NIH review.

The entire Federal Register notice of June 26, 1986 is subject to public cement. Comments must be received at the various agencies on or before September 23, 1986. The regulation of biotechnology is as new as the scientific development itself. As a result, this notice represents an incipient stage in the development of federal policy. As knowledge is accumulated, many restrictions or requirements imposed by the agencies may be omitted or changed. Public participation, especially from the scientific community, in the development of guidelines is imperative for a reasonable system to be achieved.

Activity in Congress

Two bills have been introduced in Congress to regulate releases of genetically engineered organisms. Both bills propose to establish a permit system which would apply to experiments in which recombinant DNA in involved whenever the release into the environment of plants, animals, or microbes is planned. One bill would utilize the regulatory powers of both EPA and USDA, giving EPA authority over microorganisms and USDA plants and animals. The other bill authorizes only EPA to issue permits for recombinant DNA applications which leave the confines of laboratories or greenhouses. For example, each release into the environment of a genetically engineered organism, i.e., "a bacterium, virus, fungus, plant cell, plant tissue, animal cell, animal tissue," ... "Whole plant, animal, forest resource, veterinary biological, or drug which has been deliberately altered to contain genetic material derived from more than one taxonomic genus," must first receive approval from either EPA or USDA. The permit application is required to supply descriptions of the organisms and processes involved in the release and in monitoring its effects. In addition, applicants are to provide information describing the nature and extent of the proposed release to (1) a local newspaper in the neighborhood of the release, (2) "all interested local government bodies and planning agencies." and (3) the agency administrator for publication in the Federal Register. The type of system suggested in these bills would certainly be intrusive on research projects, especially where no commercial product or application is envisioned. (Congress has not acted on these bills other than holding several hearings.) Are the risks of recombinant DNA and related technologies great enough to justify that amount of government intervention?

Conclusion

Researchers and regulators must work together to protect our society from unreasonable risks of technological developments and from the evils promoted by unreasonable restraints which suppress intellectual activity and discovery. Laws and regulations are in place to protect the public from products which pose unreasonable risks. These rules are necessary today especially because of the ease by which products can be distributed into the stream of commerce. However, strict regulatory laws are not appropriate for research activity, particularly where no commercial product is contemplated. We most take care to insure the free flow of knowledge in order to preserve our resources for future generations.

Finally, we most remember that biological science is not exact, and unconditional guarantees of safety or efficacy cannot be made. Oversight and risk assessments of new capabilities should be ongoing, avoiding absolute conclusions regarding risk. Reasonable constraints to promote safe conduct are necessary when risk is evident, but even the strictest regulations cannot certify the absence of danger. The fact that serious accidents do occur does not dictate burdensome controls, only reasonable precautions.

Paul Elihu Stern, Esquire

Assistant in Law, Research Administration Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences University of Florida, Gainesville

POSITIONS

Eukaryotic Molecular Biology/Molecular Geneticist

The Division of Nematology, University of California, Davis, seeks to fill an 11-month tenure-track position at the Assistant Professor and Assistant Nematologist level; available January 1, 1987.

Appointee will conduct research on: the molecular and cell biology of nematodes in relationship to the fundamental basis of nematode/plant interactions; molecular approaches to organism diagnosis; novel and effective methods of pest control; utility of resistant and tolerant host-plant germplasm. The ability to interact with scientists in other disciplines, especially at the molecular, genetic, and cellular level, will be essential as the appointee integrates current thinking and technology in molecular biology into nematology. The appointee will be expected to provide teaching expertise at the undergraduate and graduate level, act as a student adviser, and function as an information resource in areas of molecular biology and molecular genetics within the Division of Nematology.

Applicants must hold the Ph.D. degree with experience in the general area of molecular biology, molecular genetics, cell biology, to be applied to nematodes. A working knowledge of current research literature and directional trends in plant pathology, nematology, and related fields is desirable. Applicant should have demonstrated experience in the independent design and conduct of research, including publication record, in this area of expertise. A demonstrated ability and interest in teaching the principles and practice of molecular biology as they relate to nematology, at the undergraduate and graduate level, are expected.

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Applications must be received by December 31, 1986. Applications received after that date will not be considered. A curriculum vitae, statement of research and teaching interests, official undergraduate and graduate transcripts, reprints of pertinent publications and submitted manuscripts, and the names and addresses of at least three references should be sent to: Dr. H.K. Kaya, Search Committee Chair, Division of Nematology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (916) 752-1051. The University of California is an Affirmative Action/ Equal Opportunity Employer.

Assistant Professor of Horticulture

Specializing in controlled environment crops; a 9-month appointment with opportunity for a summer appointment. Employment as an Associate Professor is possible and depends on the qualifications of the successful candidate. Salary commensurate with experience. Starting date negotiable.

Qualifications: A Ph.D. in horticulture or closely related field with significant knowledge of controlled environment horticultural crop production. Possess a desire and interest in teaching, advising undergraduate and graduate students. Ability to conduct independent research, guide graduate student research, obtain research funding, publish, and effectively communicate orally. The successful candidate will be chosen on the basis of training, experience, accomplishments and scholarly promise.

Duties are split 60% research and 40% teaching. The successful candidate will be expected to teach undergraduate courses in horticulture, including a course in greenhouse management, and to advise in the undergraduate and graduate programs. A research program should be developed that is relevant to controlled environment horticultural industries in Illinois. Appropriate research would include the optimization of crop production under controlled environments with Emphasis on greenhouse studies using innovative environmental controls.

Applications should be submitted by August 20, 1986 to ensure full consideration. Applications, including curriculum vitae, list of publications, transcripts of graduate and undergraduate courses, and at least three letters of reference should be sent to: Dr. David J. Williams, Chair, Search Committee, Department of Horticulture, University of Illinois, 125 Mumford Hall, 1301 W. Gregory Dr., Urbana, IL 61801 (217) 333-2126 or 333-0350. The University of Illinois is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.

Experimental Plant Ecologist

Seeking applicants for a tenure-track position at the assistant professor level to begin Fall, 1987. Candidates must have demonstrated independent research productivity and must be capable of attracting research support. Post-doctoral research experience is preferred. Research interest in interspecific interactions, such as plant-plant, mutualisms, or herbivory, is preferred. Qualifications require a Ph.D., the ability and willingness to teach graduate Cormunity Ecology, speciality area and in basic undergraduate teaching program. Send Vita and names of 3 references to: Dr. Steven N. Handel, Chair, Plant Ecology Search, Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, P.O. Box 1059, Piscataway, NJ 08854 before October 15, 1986. Rutgers University is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.

Plant Cell and Molecular Biologist

Applications are invited for a tenure-track faculty position: Assistant, Associate, or Full Professor, and Assistant, Associate or Full Botanist in the Experiment Station (commensurate with experience). The position is an 11-month appointment, 82% in the College of Letters and Science, and 18% in the College of Agriculture and Environmental Science. The starting date is July 1, 1987.

The person appointed will be expected to conduct original research on basic problems in plant or fungal cell biology using modern approaches of biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology. In addition, the person will be expected to contribute to teaching introductory botany, plant cell biology, and to participate in a graduate course in their area of speciality. Supervision of graduate students, student advising, and University service are also expected.

Applicants should have a Ph.D. in an appropriate area of biology, and research experience using modern approaches to biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology to address problems in plant cell biology. Please send (1) a curriculum vitae (including a complete history of research and teaching experience), (2) official graduate transcripts (if applicant is within 10 years of receipt of the Ph.D.), (3) lists and reprints of published works and submitted manuscripts, (4), statement of teaching and research interests, and (5) names, addresses and telephone numbers of at least three referees, to: Dr. Thomas L. Rost, Chairman of the Search Committee, Department of Botany, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Application Deadline: November 30, 1986. The University of California is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer.

Plant Systematics/Evolution

The Department of Biology of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill invites applications for a tenure-track faculty position at the Assistant or Associate Professor level, available July 1987. Individuals studying the systematics or evolutionary processes of higher plants using modern methods are encouraged to apply. The successful candidate will be expected to maintain a vigorous, independent research program, and to contribute to graduate and undergraduate teaching activities of the Department. Send curriculum vitae, three letters of reference, and a brief description of research interests and objectives to: Plant Systematics Search Committee, Department of Biology 010A, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Only applications received by November 10, 1986 can be assured of full consideration. The University of North Carolina is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.

IN MEMORIAM

LOUIS F. CONDE, Kalamazoo, Michigan, died June 24, 1986 as a result of an accident.

MARIE-HELENE Sachet, Associate Curator at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., died July 19, 1986 in Washington. Born April 19, 1922 in Moulins, France, she received her undergraduate degree in Botany from the University of Montpellier, a Master's degree in geology at the University of Paris and completed her Ph.D. on the natural history of Clipperton Island at the University of Montpellier. During her career, she assisted Prof. Mangenot in Paris in his work on fiber cytology and received a fellowship to work with Prof. Blakeslee on Datura, contributing the chapter on taxonomy. Later she settled in Washington, D.C. to work on the flora of Micronesia with Dr. F.R. Fosberg at the Catholic University, the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Academy's Pacific Science Board and, from 1966, at the Smithsonian Institution. She was co-editor of the symposium, Man's Place in the Island Ecosystem, published in 1965. She published a number of works on the flora of Micronesia and Polynesia and more is in an advanced state, including floras of the Marquesas and Society Islands. Her untimely death brought to a close a distinguished career as an authority on the ecology of coral atolls and the flora and vegetation of the oceanic islands of the Pacific (received from F.R. Fosberg and D. H. Nicolson).

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MEETINGS

Global Climate Change Impacts on the Southern United States — Call for Papers

The Science and Public Policy Program at the University of Oklahoma, in conjunction with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is planning a national symposium on Global Climate Change Impacts on the Southern U.S. to be held May 28 and 29, 1987 in New Orleans. Papers are being sought for the symposium that examine global climate change and address specific economic effects or environmental risks of climate change impacts that may be realized within all or part of this geographic region. Impact categories of interest include agriculture and forestry, water, coastal resources, energy supply and demand, public health, and urban demography. Researchers may also suggest other important topics or impact areas. Interested parties should submit an abstract of their paper by October 1, 1986. Notification of paper acceptance will be made by November 1, with final papers due by April 30, 1987. For additional details, address inquiries to: Mark Meo or Steven Ballard, Science and Public Policy Program, University of Oklahoma, 601 Elm Street, Room 431, Norman, OK 73019, or call (405) 325-2554.

Second International Biomedical and Agricultural High Technology Conference

This conference will be hosted by The Ohio State University, November 12-14, 1986 in Columbus, Ohio. Presentations will relate to these major themes: Plant Improvement; Animal Improvement; Virus as Agents for Genetic Engineering; Improvement of Microorganisms; and Receptor Physiology. Session chairpersons include J.M. Widholm, Thomas E. Wagner, and Milton Zaitlin. Posters are invited and exhibitors are welcome. For information about registering for the conference, submitting poster abstracts, or exhibiting, contact Louise Larew, OSU Conferences and Institutes, 225 Mount Hall, 1050 Carmack Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (614) 422-8571).

Second Symposium on the Botany of the Bahamas

This symposium will be held June 12-15, 1987 at the College Center of the Finger Lakes Bahamian Field Station on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. This announcement is also a call for papers on both the terrestrial and marine flora of the Bahamas. Further details may be obtained from Dr. Donald T. Gerace, Director, CCFL Bahamian Field Station, 270 SW 34th Street, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33315.

Plant-Soil Interactions at Low pH

This symposium will be held July 20-24, 1987 in Grande Prairie, Alberta, Canada and is sponsored by Agriculture Canada and the University of Alberta. For further information, contact: Dr. K.G. Briggs, Department of Plant Science, Agriculture/Forestry Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (405) 432-3239.

ANNOUNCEMENTS

AIBS-ASPP Congressional Fellow

Lee J. Hannah, D. Env., has been named the 1986-1987 AIBS-ASPP Congressional Fellow in the Biological Sciences, AIBS President W. Donald Duckworth, announced today. Hannah's research efforts have focused on tropical forest preservation and endangered species protection with a personal interest in biological diversity and tropical ecosystems. He most recently acted as leader for a project in Hawaii where he designed and coordinated the assessment of the biological importance of all geothermal resource areas in the state. In addition, he has performed extensive research on the environmental impacts of alternate energy technologies including wind and geothermal energy development and has published several articles in these areas.

Duckworth noted that AIBS was indeed fortunate to have a person of Hannah's demonstrated commitment to pressing national environmental issues and capabilities and to applying the best science to their solution. He also expressed his appreciation to the American Society of Plant Physiologists for their timely and generous support in co-sponsoring both this year's and last year's fellows. Dr. Hannah, who will assume his fellowship tenure on September 1, 1986, holds a D.Env. from UCLA and a M.S. in physiology from the University of Hawaii. He earned his Bachelor's of Arts degree with High Honors, in Philosophy of Science at the University of California, Berkeley.

In commenting on his role as a Congressional Fellow, Dr. Hannah said, "Protection of biological diversity and tropical ecosystem conservation are areas receiving considerable attention. International biological organizations have been concerned with these issues for a number of years, and these concerns are being increasingly echoed in this country. My primary research background has been in environmental impact of alternate energy technologies, a field which is also very relevant to current national policy. I feel that my education and work experience in this field can make an important difference in U.S. response to these global issues."

The AIBS Congressional Fellowship program is designed to bring well-qualified working biologists into direct contact with our nation's decision-making processes. The program fosters understanding among biologists of how public policy is formulated and how it can be made responsive to the essential insights of the biological disciplines. The Institute believes that this fellowship program is necessary because the biological sciences have become focal points for many government, industry and academic issues, both nationally and internationally. Involvement by professional biologists is critical, not only for the continuation of biological research, but also for the well being of the world we inhabit.

The AIBS Congressional Science Fellow devotes one year working as a special legislative assistant on the staff of a congressional committee or directly with an appropriate member of Congress. The Fellow also participates in a year long seminar series, organized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. with other fellows, mutually addressing science and public policy issues.

NOTICES

Corresponding Members, Botanical Society of America

Each year the Botanical Society of America considers foreign botanists for election to The Society as Corresponding Members. These must be distinguished senior scientists who have made outstanding contributions to plant science and who live and work outside of the United States of America. The number of such members is limited to fifty living persons. Members or sections submit nominations supported by credentials (c.v., letters, etc.) of proposed Corresponding Members to the Committee on Corresponding Members which reviews these credentials and forwards its recommendations to the Council. The Council evaluates these proposals and presents its selected nominees to The Society for election at an annual business meeting.

Currently there are 40 Corresponding Members. Except for those recently deceased, they are listed on page 90 of the Membership Directory and Handbook of The Society. This year there were no nominations for Corresponding Members, surely an oversight on the part of our active membership. There are many foreign botanists deserving of this honor who should be considered by The Society for election. Please help us

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by nominating plant scientists in your area of interest. Send all nominations, accompanied by curricula vitae, letters of support, etc., to the Chairman of this year's Committee on Corresponding Members by March 1, 1987: William Louis Stern, Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

Library Receives Grant for Preservation

The Missouri Botanical Garden's library has received a grant of $10,000 from the National Endowment for the Arts. The grant will help finance the conservation treatment of selected books from the Garden's rare book collection between April 1, 1986 and September 30, 1987. A total of 135 books will be preserved via rebinding or full restoration. Twenty-seven of the rare books will be preserved in the Garden's bindery, with the other 108 books sent to private conservators. The books are too valuable to send to commercial binderies.

The rare books to be preserved were selected based on their immediate need for treatment and their artistic importance. The best botanical illustrations of past centuries are represented, with much of the artwork and binding of the books hand-created, unique or otherwise significant. Many of the rare books are also early examples of woodcuts, with hand-colored plates and extraordinary paper quality. The Garden's rare book collection contains over 4,000 volumes, 1,000 of which are pre-Linnean (pre-1753) books. The 127-year-old library is one of the nation's most comprehensive botanical libraries, with more than 90,000 total volumes in its collection.

Library Receives Grant from Department of Education

The Missouri Botanical Garden's library has been awarded a grant from the United States Department of Education to continue its ongoing project of recataloging and reclassifying its collections into an automated cataloging database (OCLC). The grant award of $240,044 for OCLC entry will be shared with the New York Botanical Garden. The Missouri Botanical Garden's share is $104,370. The facilities boast two of the nation's most comprehensive botanical libraries.

Effective from October 1, 1986 to December 31, 1987, the grant award enables the continuation of the project that began in October, 1978. Estimated completion of the project is 1990. The Department of Education will consider continued funding of the project based on satisfactory progress being made towards the goal of entering the remaining 6,550 titles and the availability of funds. The continued entry of the libraries' holdings into OCLC is significant due to the over 6,000 OCLC participating libraries that possess terminals and rely heavily on access to the data. It is estimated that the two libraries hold more than 80 percent of the world's printed literature on the following: plant systematics; plant distribution and floristic studies; plant identification; history of botany and horticulture; herbal literature; pre-Linnean botany; and the biographies and bibliographies of botanists, plant explorers and horticulturists. The libraries also hold more than 65 percent of the world's significant published literature in other areas of botanical and horticultural science and gardening.

The Missouri Botanical Garden's library got its start in 1859 when Garden founder Henry Shaw organized his own book collection, and had George Engelmann, his scientific advisor, purchase books in Europe. The depth and importance of the collection today is the result of the strong foundation established during its early history, as well as the ongoing commitment to collect the taxonomic botanical literature on a world-wide, comprehensive basis. In addition to general book and journal collections of more than 90,000 volumes, other aspects of the library include a rare book collection, archives and bindery.

AWARDS

The 1986 Jesse M. Greenman Award

The 1986 Jesse M. Greenman Award has been won by Daivd H. Lorene for his publication "A Monograph of the Monimiaceae (Laurales) in the Malagasy Region (Southwest Indian Ocean)," which appeared in the Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, volume 72, number 1. The publication is derived from a Ph.D. dissertation from Washington University under the direction of Alwyn H. Gentry. This comprehensive account of fifty-five species, all endemic to the region, is based on herbarium and extensive fieldwork. It includes
information on pollination syndromes in relation to floral morephology, cytological investigations, population biology, vernacular names, and economic uses.

The Award is named for Jesse More Greenman (1867-1951), who was Curator of the Missouri Botanical Garden Herbarium from 1919 until 1943. A cash price of $250 is presented each year by the Garden, recognizing the paper judged best in vascular plant or bryophyte systematics based on a doctoral dissertation that was published during the previous year. Papers published during 1986 are now being considered for the 19th annual award, which will be presented in the summer of 1987. Reprints of such papers should be sent to: Greenman Award Committee, Department of Botany, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299, U.S.A. In order to be considered for the 1987 award, reprints must be received by 1 July 1987.

Luigi Provasoli Award

The first Luigi Provasoli Award was announced at the 40th Anniversary Meeting of the Phycological Society of America held at the University of Rhode Island, Kingston. The Provasoli Award is offered biennially in recognition of an outstanding research paper in the Journal of Phycology published during the preceding two-year period. Recipients of the 1986 Award were Lynda J. Goff of the University of California, Santa Cruz and Annette W. Coleman of Brown University, who were honored for their 1985 paper on "The Role of Secondary Pit Connections in Red Algal Parasitism." Professor Provasoli, first Editor of the Journal, was present to make the Award along with Johan A. Hellebust, current Editor.

BOOKS RECEIVED

Abbott, Lois A., Bisby, Frank A. and Rogers, David J. Taxonomic Analysis in Biology: Computers, Models, and Databases. Columbia University Press, 562 West 113th Street, New York, NY 10025. 1985. vi + 336 p., illus. ISBN 0-231-04926-9 (HC) 0-231-04927-7 (PBK). Price: $40.00 (HC) $16.50 (PBK). (A basic text that describes both computer aided and traditional methods of taxonomic analysis, as well as methods of data storage and information retrieval.)

Abramoff, Peter, and Thomson, Robert B. Laboratory Outlines in Biology IV. W.H. Freeman and Company, 41 Madison, Ave., New York, NY 10010. 1986. x + 529 p., illus. ISBN 0-7167-1758-1. Price: $17.95. (A laboratory manual designed to meet the needs of introductory biology courses for both majors and non-majors.)

Bajaj, Y.P.S., ed. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry 1: Trees I. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. 1986. xv + 515 p., illus. ISBN 0-387-15581-3. Price: $110.00. (Thirty-one chapters and articles on the biotechnology of tree improvement for rapid propagation and biomass energy production, virus-free trees through tissue culture, micrografting, induction of rooting, production of haploids, nitrogen fixation, pollen and germplasm preservation.)

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Bajaj, Y.P.S., ed. Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry 2: Crops I. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094-2491. 1986. xviii + 608 p., illus. ISBN 0-387-15842-1. Price: $125.00. (A series of thirty-three chapters dealing with the in vitro study of cereals, vegetables, legumes and tubers and the general application to agricultural biotechnology.)

Baker, N.R., Davies, W.J., and Ong, C.K., eds. Control of Leaf Growth. Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series 27. Cambridge University Press, 32 E. 57th Street, New York, NY 10022. 1985. xii + 350 p., illus. ISBN 0-521-30480-6. Price: $39.50. (A series of papers presented in a symposium in 1984 that review the current knowledge of the factors regulating leaf growth.)

Beattie, Andrew J. The Evolutionary Ecology of Ant-Plant Mutualisms. Cambridge University Press, 32 E. 57th Street, New York, NY 10022. 1985. x + 182 p., illus. ISBN 0-521-25281-4. Price: $24.95. (A discussion of ant-plant mutualisms including the natural history, experimental approach and integration with contemporary evolutionary and ecological literature.)

Bechtel, Helmus, Cribb, Phillip and Launert, Edmund. The Manual of Cultivated Orchid Species. The MIT Press, 28 Carleton St., Cambridge, MA 02142. 1986. 444 p., illus. ISBN 0-262-02253-2. Price: $75.00. (A revised edition of an authoritative handbook on orchids including over 700 color illustrations, historical documentation, classification, and details of morphology, life history and ecology.)

Bryant, John A. Seed Physiology. Studies in Biology No. 165. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., c/o The Maple Press Fulfillment Center, York County Industrial Park M100, York, PA 17405. 1985. 76 p., illus. ISBN 0-7131-2898-4. Price: None given. (A paperback dealing with the physiology of seeds including development, dormancy, and economic aspects.)

Campbell, R. Plant Microbiology. Edward Arnold, c/o The Maple Press Fulfillment Center, York County Industrial Park M100, York, PA 17405. 1985. iii + 191 p., illus. ISBN 0-7131-2892-5. Price: None given. (An examination of the microorganisms associated with vascular plants in terrestrial environments including saprotrophs and biotrophs, pathogens and harmless or beneficial organisms.)

Cody, Vivian, Middleton, Elliott, Jr., and Harborne, Jeffrey B., eds. Plant Flavonoids in Biology and Medicine: Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structure-Activity Relationships. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research Vol. 213. Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 East 11th Street, New York, NY 10003. 1986. xxi + 614 p., illus. ISBN 0-8451-5063-4. Price: $76.00. (A multidisciplinary approach to review the role of flavonoids in plants and animals including their occurrence, function, chemical and physical properties and metabolism and effects on enzyme and cell systems.)

Coombs, J., Hall, D.O., Long, S.P., and Scurlock, J.M.O., eds. Techniques in Bioproductivity and Photosynthesis. Second Edition. Pergamon Press, Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523. 1985. xxvi + 298 p., illus. ISBN 0-08-031999-8 (HC)00-08-031998-X (PB). Price: $37.00 (HC), $19.00 (PB). (A series of papers that consider many new techniques used in photosynthesis and productivity research.)

Craker, Lyle E., and Simon, James E., eds. Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in
Botany, Horticulture, and Pharmacology. Vol. 1. Oryx Press, 2214 North Central at Encanto, Suite 103, Phoenix, Arizona 85004-1483. 1986. vi + 359 p., illus. Price: $65.00. (A volume that covers a variety of topics relating to herbs, spices and medicinal plants, especially those focusing on their growth and biochemistry.)

Crozier, Alan, and Hillman, John R., eds. The Biosynthesis and Metabolism, of Plant Hormones. Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series 23. Cambridge University Press, 32 E. 57th Street, New York, NY 10022. 1985. xii + 288 p., illus. ISBN 0-521-26424-3. Price: $29.95. (A series of review papers presented in 1983 that outline the recent developments on all the main natural growth substances, as well as a contribution on the metabolic fate of synthetic growth regulators in plant tissue.)

Dodds, John H., ed. Plant Genetic Engineering. Cambridge University Press, 32 E. 57th Street, New York, NY 10022. 1985. vii + 312 p., illus. ISBN 0-521-25966-5. Price: $39.50. (A series of papers that outline the latest techniques in plant genetic engineering to crop plants.)

Dyer, Betsey Dexter, and Obar, Robert, eds. The Origin of Eukayotic Cells. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. 1986. xv + 347 p., illus. ISBN 0-442-21952-0. Price: $44.50. (A series of benchmark papers that deal with the symbiotic origin of eukaryotes.)

Fan, A. Plant Anatomy. Third Edition. Pergamon Press, Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523. 1982 (reprinted 1985). xi + 544 p., illus. ISBN 0-08-028030-7 (HC), 0-80-028029-3 (PB). Price: $73.00 (HC), $29.50 (PB). (A revised and up-dated edition of a basic plant anatomy textbook.)

Fiskum, Gary, ed. Mitochondrial Physiology and Pathology. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. 1986. xiv + 207 p., illus. ISBN 0-442-22725-6. Price: $46.50. (A series of papers dealing with the biology of mitochondria and the interaction of such multidisciplinary fields as molecular genetics, endocrinology and pathophysiology.)

Fox, Michael W. Agricide: The Hidden Crisis That Affects Us All. Schocken Books, 62 Cooper Square, New York, NY 10003. 1986. xv + 194 p., ISBN 0-8052-4013-6 (HC), 0-8052-0818-6 (PB). Price: $15.95 (HC), $7.95 (PB). (A volume that underscores the ecological, economic and political repercussions of agribusiness on farmers and consumers.)

Groth, James V., and Bushnell, William R., eds. Genetic Basis of Biochemical Mechanisms of Plant Disease. The American Phytopathological Society, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121. 1986. vii + 157 p., illus. ISBN 0-89-54-068-3. Price: $18.00 (Member), $24.00 (Non-member). (The results of a symposium held in 1984 on biochemical mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions, and including topics on coevolution, pathogenesis, cytology, genetics and biochemistry-physiology.)

Hickey, Kenneth D., ed. Methods for Evaluating Pesticides for Control of Plant Pathogens. The American Phytopathological Society, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121. 1986. vii + 312 p., illus. ISBN 0-89-54-071-3. Price. $44.00 (Member), $59.00 (Non-member). (A series of papers that present state-of-the-art methods that will assist in the evaluation of pesticides.)

Holliday, Robin, ed. Genes, Proteins, and Cellular Aging. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. 1986. xiii + 333 p., illus. ISBN 0-442-23246-2. Price: $42.50. (A series of papers on aging including proteins and aging, changes at the DNA level, cellular aging and the concept of error accumulation.)

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