PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN

A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

October 1984, Volume 30 No.5

Emanuel D. Rudolph, Editor
Department of Botany
Ohio State University
1735 Neil Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 (614) 422-8952

Editorial Board
Roy H. Saigo, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614
John H. Thomas, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305
Shirley Graham, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242

The Plant Science Bulletin is published six times a year, February, April, June, August, October and December, at The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210. Subscriptions $15.00/yr. Change of address should be sent to Editor. Second class postage paid at Columbus, OH.

BOTANY IN A CHANGEABLE WORLD

William L. Stern
Department of Botany
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Harriet Creighton began her B.S.A. presidential address in 1957 with the paraphrased exhortation, "Botanists of the world unite --and get going." This must be a winning phrase because I noted that Mildred Mathias, in her address last year, drew upon that same call to arms.

Harriet allowed, in preparing for her talk by reading books and speeches, that almost everything she had planned to say about botany in 1957 had been repeated for at least 50 years and some things for over 100! With such an assessment staring at me, I can little hope to invigorate you with startling new revelations, or panaceas for successfully explaining low student enrollments to your department chairman or dean; all I can say, is that the problems and opportunities we see are the very same ones that have always been with us to a greater or lesser degree.

We are challenged today, though, as perhaps never before and we are forced, as botanists, with choices and decisions that affect the very core of our profession and our science. This kind of statement is not new, nor are the lamentations of the botanical doomsayers. We've heard them before. One the first page of the first issue of Plant Science Bulletin in 1955, almost three decades ago, there is the statement, "On the whole, botany has not kept pace with the expansion of the other sciences and in some cases there has been a decline if not an elimination of botany from the curriculum." More than one of you has heard a similar statement within the past months, and perhaps, even more than once. But, we are still here, still concerned with our future, still battling -- I hope -- to keep our profession and science above water. Yet, the ocean seems ever deeper and the undertow ever stronger dragging at us. The fact is, as departments, there are fewer of us than there were in 1955. Recent news has it that since 1978, seven botany departments have gone under -- submerged into some form of biological science unit. How to stem the tide?

There was a time when botany departments could look to their agricultural counterpart departments for support, for "AG" majors who would receive their foundation training in botany departments before going on to the more applied aspects of plant science. Indeed, many, maybe most, of our early-founded botany departments were located in colleges of agriculture in land-grant institutions and they provided that necessary education as a logical step in the training of various plant science majors, agronomists, horticulturalists, etc. Today, many of the botany departments which still survive continue under the aegis of agriculture; others, believing their roles to have changed, have grown away from agriculture and become associated with colleges of arts and sciences, or schools of science, or schools of biological sciences. Regardless, the agriculture which once existed synergistically with botany, now

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actually competes with it on many campuses. Horticulture departments now present taxonomy for horticulture students, schools of forestry teach courses in woody plants, tree physiology, and ecology. Physiology, genetics, mycology have now become the domain of non-botany departments in colleges of agriculture to the detriment of student enrollment in botany. As the pre-med, pre-vet, and pre-dent programs nurture and support departments of zoology, so our courses in plant physiology, mycology, introductory botany, plant diversity, and genetics used to nurture and support the various plant science majors in agriculture. Somehow, we have let these slip away from us. Perhaps we have been complacent and less than vigilant. Perhaps we have not "blown the whistle" when these potentially competing courses crossed our chairman's desks as proposals. I suspect that this is sometimes what has happened. If a course is worth teaching within our departments, then it's worth fighting for.

I suspect that we are only reaching a minimal number of students in areas other than the sciences, that students in the humanities and in the arts do not look to us for instruction as a way to broaden their intellectual horizons beyond the subject matter requirements of their particular disciplines. Some of us have been very successful in reaching out to these students by developing courses which track their humanistic interests and which lay upon their need to know more about plants, and how they influence their lines in the economic sense, and might enrich their lives in the cultural sense. Opportunities go begging because some botanists (and zoologists) are unwilling to extend themselves, to explain their science to just any undergraduate. I have a feeling that these persons are not zealously interested in botany. In my opinion, there are fewer more satisfying pursuits than talking about one's own interest, and teaching, even to those whose special motivation to learn is not in botany. I think if you love botany, then you should want to tell others about it.

In a 1944 article in the Journal of the American Society of Agronomy there is the statement, "Teaching may be a little like love making. If the available literature is to be believed, many technics have been successful in this field, but there appears to be no written record of a successful lover who was not interested in his subject." Are we truly interested in our subject if we are loath to tell others about it? After all, undergraduates in the humanities are not pariahs, and we are missing something in not educating these potential voters about botany, let alone not satisfying their intellectual curiosity as educated human beings.

A significant problem in attracting students to botany courses and encouraging those so interested in science to become majors, are the dim prospects for employment. Jobs for botany majors are scarce. How does one, in good conscience, encourage an under-graduate to major in botany with changes for employment so low? Even at the M.S. and Ph.D. levels, in certain disciplines of botany, there are few openings in universities and to those that do occur the response of applicants is so overwhelming, frequently, that sorting among qualified applicants is a solomonic undertaking. One might ask the question: Are we educating our majors at the undergraduate and graduate levels so narrowly that their choices of possible jobs is limited?

Within my remembering one assumed after embarking on a Ph.D.-degree career, there would be a job, and that job would be within academia. Never did we think of other avenues for our talents and training. Many of us now in professorial and administrative positions in departments of botany have still not realized that botanists can be educated and trained for other kinds of jobs than those in universities and colleges, that our graduates should be encouraged to look elsewhere for employment.

With the merging of individual departments of biological sciences into super-departments of biology, schools of biological sciences, and other administrative machinations which tend to neuter each field, one wonders about the fate of biology itself and of its parts, of the sense of pride which comes with being a zoologist, or microbiologist, or entomologist, or botanist. More of the point, are the best interests of botany and the larger community of science best served by these mishmash departments? Are we providing the kind of botanical expertise needed by society, by industry, by agriculture? I say no, we are not.

Many of us are aware of the scenario which usually follows the merging of a botany department with other biological science departments in any given institution of higher learning. Perhaps there are some of you who have not seen the new play off-Broadway, entitled, "The miscegenation of botany or the dean's delight." The story goes more or less like this: Scene, a dark night; the drapes are drawn in the administration building; the dean huddles with his fawning deanlets; the hotline, which connects directly to the provost's office, glows red. In order to prevent the unconscionable duplication of courses, to stanch the financial drain of salarying three department chairmen, to reduce the bickering and squabbling among members of the botany faculty, for the "good" of the university as a whole, and, most importantly,

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to stem the competition for financial resources among the three biological science departments. It is decided that all these and other as yet unknown problems can be resolved simply and easily by merging botany, zoology, and microbiology into a department of biological sciences. To strength-en the illusion of fairness and evenhandedness, it is decided to bring a new, young hot-shot department chairman from that broad-based bastion of basic biological research, Merrill, Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith.

Botanists on the faculty of the merged department are outnumbered in several degrees of magnitude by their colleagues from other areas. For several years there is no perceptible diminution in botanical instruction or research, although there continues to be rather fierce, under-cover, in-fighting for the still scarce financial resources, which the merger was to eliminate according to the dean, with the botanists coming out third best owing to their lack of voting power among the amalgamated faculty. Then, Professor Tumbleweed, the plant physiologist, re-tires after a long and distinguished career of teaching and research. The stage is set! The faculty moves to replace Professor Tumbleweed with a microbiologist -- or an immunologist, or neurophysiologist. The motion is easily carried owing to the minority of botanists on the biological science faculty. A similar event occurs repeatedly over the years until the number of botanists has been so eroded that it becomes impossible for graduate students to major or even to have an emphasis in botany; undergraduate majors in botany are now nil, and botanical instruction has been all but erased from the curriculum except for, perhaps, a watered-down course called "the natural history of plant science," to help continue the ruse of calling this a biology department. By then all research in botany will have been squeezed out owing to lack of resources and absence of collegial support and communication. End of play. End of botany.

If this seems incredible to you, ponder the fate of the Henry Shaw School of Botany which at one time was a well-known Midwestern center for study in the plant sciences organized under the aegis of Washington University and the Missouri Botanical Garden in St. Louis. The biology department of Washington University is now a heavily, pre-med-oriented department. While you are at it, you might also check on the present state of botany at Yale University, and wonder what will become of botany at Indiana University and the University of North Carolina, both of which support two recently formed departments of biology, given a few years maturation.

Are these mergers all that bad for botany? Isn't botany still carried on vigorously in these departments? Aren't we still turning out well educated plant scientists who can serve academia, science, society, and industry? I say no. But, don't take my word for it. Let me read to you from a recent piece which appeared in the Newsletter of the American Society of Plant Physiologists: "There has been an ongoing and disturbing trend in research graduate training in plant sciences, namely, the elimination or mergers of departments of botany so that the basic undergraduate courses in plant sciences are no longer being taught. This then leads to a shortage of potential graduate students, particularly those trained and motivated to undertake sophisticated and often interdisciplinary research. This trend, along with the fact that departments of biochemistry, cell biology and genetics rarely have faculty actively engaged in research on plants, or are using plant models, exacerbates the decline in interest by potential graduate students. While there will always be a real need for plant systematicists and ecologists, their graduate training and research interests do not make them available as a talent pool for research re-training or re-directing in plant biotechnology. By the same token, the resurgent interest in plant natural products in the pharmaceutical industry has been stymied because the chemists have little or no training or interest in plant systematics or ecology to locate and identify new potential plant sources ..."

What can we do? Permit me some musings. I think I am now fully eligible to join the "American association for retired persons" and one of the very few privileges of age is making wise recommendations for others to follow. For the sake of some organization, let us begin with some proposals aimed at supporting undergraduate education in botany. Most of these suggestions are not novel, but I feel they bear repeating.

  1. Institute a course, or series of courses, in botany for the non-major, or even for the non-science major. It has been my contention, as noted above, that we botanists tend to give courses to prepare students to enter botanical careers and not necessarily to excite students to the wonder of plants and their unique importance to humankind. We have forgotten that there is an intrinsic fascination with plants, and that this love affair was the real reason why we ourselves chose to pursue botany. How exciting it would be to communicate some of our own enthusiasm to other than botany students! We must reach the audience out there but we are not going to reach that audience by teaching botany for botanists. We have professional, societal, academic, and intellectual obligations to "spread the word."
  2. We should develop courses for our botany majors which have practical applications. Jobs at the B.S. level are very difficult to secure; indeed there are few of them, and our students are often not prepared to apply for those which do appear. I contend that we train our undergraduates too narrowly. We must do at least two things: Add certain practical courses to our botany curricula and at the same time insist that our undergraduate majors enroll in applied courses in others departments. A good example is at Miami University where the botany department has developed its own courses in horticulture, environmental issues, plant identification, ethnobotany, etc. Botany undergraduates need to have wider horizons when they graduate than has been the case in the past. They should be prepared for jobs in environmental counselling, recreation, park management, horticulture, landscaping, and as forest rangers and park naturalists. At the graduate level we should be thinking at least about these things:
  3. We must maintain our competence in the traditional areas of botany at the same time we invite into our curricula those area of teaching and research which have more recently been developed. To depreciate traditional studies in favor of (or worse, instead of) newer enterprises would be a mistake. Our newer and perhaps more sophisticated areas of investigation are more firmly based and more convincingly expounded if they are founded on a solid background of traditional material. I feel that interpretation of phenomena and results from molecular investigations, for example, are more likely to be valid, far-reaching, and of general application if they are based on the fundamentals of botanical knowledge from other, non-molecular fields, than if presented in isolation.
  4. At the same time we continue and even reinforce our expertise in traditional areas of botany we should look to the future and actively encourage studies in molecular genetics, biochemistry, cell and tissue culture, etc., all within the legitimate framework of the botany department. These are logical pursuits for botanists and to neglect them, to prevent our students from savoring their delights, is to cower in the backwaters of science. Let us take the advantage, the initiative, and move swiftly into these and related areas of experimental endeavor. I say this for two reasons: One, intellectual -- we ought to learn about these things as educated botanists -- and one, practical -- a knowledge of these sciences will help our graduate students to get jobs.

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"Biotechnology" is one of the bright new areas of opportunity and further expansions loom on the horizon. Let us be prepared. We can manipulate plants with impunity (unless Jeremy Rifkin learns of it), whereas the animal scientists are fettered by different kinds of constraints, including those of a so-called moral nature. We need courses to educate and train our students in the basics of molecular genetics and especially in the laboratory procedures and methods necessary to carry out experimentation in this applied area of science.

We have to think seriously about the possibilities for reorientation and differences in emphases; we cannot afford to be averse to consider changes in our outlook on botanical education; we need to act decisively. Botanists as a group unfortunately tend to be conservative, to be too satisfied with the status quo -- complacent, if you will. Botanists, like others, fear the uncertainty of change. But change we must, both in the lecture hall and at the bench, if we are to survive whole as an integral part of science. It has been said, the turtle makes no progress unless it sticks its neck out. (From the Presidential address given in 1984).

NEW OFFICERS ELECTED

As a result of the election the following new officers will serve the Society in 1985: President Elect - Roy F. Evert; Secretary - David L. Dilcher; Program Director - Thomas N. Taylor; and Member American Journal of Botany Editorial Board - Peter B. Kaufman.

NEW LEADERSHIP FOR AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY

Starting with the next volume the new Editor-in-Chief of A.J.B. will be Prof. Theodore Delevoryas, Department of Botany, University of Texas at Austin; and starting immediately the new Business Manager is Prof. Robert H. Essman, Department of Genetics, The Ohio State University at Columbus, who is filling out the unexpired term of Richard A. Popham who is unable to continue in the office.

FUTURE MEETING OF THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA

The future meeting sites and dates have been confirmed for the Society to meet with the AIBS: 1985 - August 11-15, University of Florida 1986 - August 10-14, University of Massachusetts 1987 - August 9-13, Ohio State University

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SINSKI HATTORI ELECTED CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF B.S.A.

Dr. Hattori a world-famous hepaticologist and Director of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory, Kyushu, Japan, was elected a corresponding member of the Botanical Society of America at its Annual Meeting, in recognition of his outstanding contributions to botany.

AWARDS MADE AT ANNUAL MEETING 1984

Merit Awards

These awards are made to persons judged to have made outstanding contributions to botanical science. The first awards were made 1956 at the 50th anniversary of the Botanical Society, and one or more have been presented each year since that time. This year the Award Committee has selected three botanists who are eminently qualified to join the ranks of merit awardees. Donald R. Kaplan, University of California, Berkeley, a developmental morphologist par excellence, whose detailed investigations and insightful analyses of leaf development have set the standard in the field. Theodore T. Kozlowski, University of Wisconsin, Madison, a distinguished forest physiologist whose contributions to our understanding of tree growth are unsurpassed. His studies of water movement are classics as are his investigations of the mobilization and utilization of photosynthates and seed reserves. Rolla M. Tryon, Harvard University, who is pre-eminently knowledgeable in matters of taxonomy and nomenclature. This foremost pteriodologist is a perceptive student of phytogeography and of the evolutionary impact of the selective process during plant migration.

The Ralph E. Alston Award

The award for the best paper presented each year in the Phytochemical Section was presented to Jonathan Gershenzon, University of Texas, Austin, for his paper co-authored with Ed. Stewart and Tom J. Mabry entitled "Sesquiterpene lactone compositional variation in Helianthus maximiliani."

The Isabel C. Cookson Paleobotanical Award

An award for the best paper each year in paleobotany or palynology was presented to Jon J. Hamer, Ohio University, for his paper entitled "A small Medullosa from the Appalachian Basin."

The George R. Cooley Award

Awarded by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists for the best paper at the annual meeting was presented to Douglas E. Soltis, Washington State University, for a paper co-authored with Bruce A. Bohm entitled "Auteopolyploidy in Tolmiea menziesii (Saxifragaceae)."

The Darbaker Prize

This award is made for meritorious work in the study of microscopical algae primarily based on papers published during the last two calendar years was presented to Mark M. Littler, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., for his numerous studies, 17 in the years 1982/83 alone, on the demonstration through quantitative observational and experimental ecology, that primary productivity, position in the intertidal zone, life-history) strategies, and resistance to herbivory are functions of the morphology of the algal thallus.

Ecological Section Award

This year's winner of the best student paper award given by the Ecological Section was Gayle Muenchow, University of Colorado, for her talk, "Patterns in the incidence of dioecy." Gayle will be awarded a check for $50 and a certificate of award will be presented at next year's annual meeting. This year 18 papers were judged for the award and it is hoped that next year the number of applicants will be even larger. For information contact Dr. Katherine L. Gross, Botany Dept., Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Henry Allen Gleason Award

This award of the New York Botanical Garden is given annually for an outstanding recent publication in the field of plant taxonomy, plant ecology, or plant geography. This year two awards were presented: Carl S. Keener, Pennsylvania State University, for his paper entitled "Distribution and biohistory of the endemic flora of the mid-Appalachian shale barrens" published in the Botanical Review; and Rogers McVaugh, University of Michigan and University of North Carolina, for this Flora Novo-Galiciana."

Lawrence Memorial Award

This annual award by the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation to a doctoral candidate was presented to Mark W. Chase, a student of Dr. William R. Anderson, University of Michigan. For his research Mark has undertaken a revision of the neotropical genus Leochilus in the Orchidaceae. The proceeds of the Award will help support his travel to Costa Rica for field research.

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Physiological Section Award

The annual award for the best student paper presented at the annual meeting was presented to David Ellis, University of Montana, for a paper co-authored with Ralph Judd entitled "SDS-SPAGE analysis of bud-forming cotyledons of excised embryos of Pinus ponderosa grown in tissue culture."

Pteridological Section Award

The annual award for an outstanding paper at the annual meeting was presented to W. Carl Taylor, Milwaukee Public Museum, for a paper co-authored with Mary B. Smith entitled "Megaspore evolution in Isoetes of northeastern North America.

NOTICES

Taxonomic Database on Vicieae

BIOSIS, U.K. Limited and the University of Southampton have agreed to cooperate on the production of a taxonomic database on the plant tribe Vicieae (peas and vetches), which are economically significant due to their role in food production. This database will become part of a comprehensive taxonomic reference file being developed by BioSciences Information Service.

Silviculture and Forest Botany Grants

The American Philosophical Society offers a small number of grants for research in silviculture, which is broadly defined to include forestry, forest botany, and the history of forestry and botany. Grants average under $3,000. Eligible expenses include necessary travel, hotel and meals (to $30 per diem), computer time, consumable supplies not normally available on campus, xeroxing and microfilm, as well as research assistants, equipment, supplies, and typing. The deadline for application and referee letters is February 1, for a decision in April. For application forms write: Dr. Randolph S. Klein, American Philosophical Society, 104 S. Fifth St., Philadelphia, PA 19106.

New Computer Program for Morphometric Analyses of Cellular Ultrastructure

In a paper published in the Texas Society of Electron Microscopy Journal 15(2) 9-10, 1984, a program is described that lists relative volumes of organelles and include statistical comparisons written for FORTRAN IV. Darrell S. Vodopich and Randy Moore, the authors, will provide this program called MORPHO free of charge; write to the senior author, Biology Department, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, for a printed copy including test data, a sample output, and a user's guide with documentation.

Nominations Sought for AIBS Vacancies

The Nominating Committee is interested in suggestions of persons who have commitment to the enhancement of the biological professor as possible candidates for officers and members of the Board of Directors. Suggestions should be addressed to the Chairman of the Committee, c/o AIBS, 1401 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209.

Call for Nominees for AAAS Scientific - Freedom and Responsibility Award

Submission of entries in the 1985 selection of the AAAS Award for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility is invited. Established in 1980, the $1000 prize is awarded annually to honor scientists and engineers whose exemplary actions, often taken at significant personal cost, have served to foster scientific freedom and responsibility. A candidate for the award is selected by a panel of judges appointed by the AAAS Board of Directors. The deadline for receipt of entries is 30 November 1984. Nominations and requests for information should be sent to: Scientific Freedom and Responsibility Award, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1515 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Room 301, Washington, DC 20005.

Gunthart Paintings Exhibited

The Hunt Institute of Botanical Documentation at Carnegie-Mellon University will exhibit "Linger Golden Light" from 19 November 1984 to 23 February 1985. The exhibition will include forty recent watercolors of floral subjects by artist Lotte Gunthart of Regensberg, near Zurich, Switzerland. Open to the public free of charge, the exhibition will be on display from 8:30 a.m. to noon and 1 to 5 p.m., Monday through Friday.

A Call for Author Recommendations

The special papers program of the American Journal of Botany is designed to present articles summarizing exciting research exploring new frontiers of botanical science. The authors are invited to write these special papers based upon the recommendations I receive from peer researchers.

I am particularly interested in identifying the "rising stars" in botany who have yet to summarize their work in any review. I do not need suggestions of authors, however eminent, who have already written their mono-graphs or have reviewed their research in research Annual Reviews or similar publications.

I would appreciate the input of all interested botanists. Please send your suggestions to me: Ross E. Koning, Special Papers Editor, American Journal of Botany, Rutgers University, P.O. Box 1059, Piscataway, NJ 08854.

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Plant Specimens for Sale

The duplicates of 1500 vascular plants, 1000 of them mounted, of 1200 mosses and liverworts and of 400 lichens are for sale. This material comes mainly from Mingan islands, Fort-Chimo, Saint-Pierre and Albert Mountains, Bic region and Magdalen Islands Archipelago. They are all identified and doted with voucher containing ecological data. For information contact: QEF Herbarium, Forest Ecology, Laval University, Quebec, Canada G1K 7P4, (418) 656-2838.

PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

(All positions are by affirmative action/ equal opportunity employers.)

Plant Population Geneticist at Georgia

Applications are invited for a faculty position at the level of Assistant, Associate or Full Professor, jointly appointed in the Department of Botany and the Department of Genetics at the University of Georgia. We are seeking a population geneticist to address important problems in plant biology; we prefer someone with an experimental rather than a purely theoretical approach. This position is a 9-month, tenure track appointment, budgeted 1/3 teaching and 2/3 research. This position will be housed in the Department of Botany but will participate in the teaching and research program of both departments. Training of graduate students will be a significant responsibility. Qualifications include a Ph.D. in plant population geneticists or other closely allied discipline; postdoctoral experience is desirable. Applicants should submit curriculum vitae, re-prints of pertinent publications, a statement of research and teaching interests, and arrange for four letters of reference to be sent to: Dr. S. B. Jones, Chairman, Search Committee Department of Botany, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Application deadline is 26 October 1984. The search may be reopened if necessary to broaden the applicant pool.

Postdoctoral Fellowship at Riverside

A postdoctoral fellowship is available immediately to study structural ultrastructural, and biochemical aspects of palm seed germination for three years. Starting salary is $18,500 plus employee benefits. Previous training in TEM or biochemical and physiological techniques are helpful. Send curriculum vitae, a statement of professional goals, and names of three references to: Dr. Darleen A. DeMason, Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, (714) 787-3580.

Research Assistantship at Riverside

A research assistantship is available Sept. 1, 1985, for an M.S. or Ph.D. student to study some structural ultrastructural, or biochemical aspect of palm seed germination. Please send letter of inquiry to: Dr. Darleen A. DeMason, Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.

Postdoctoral Research Associate at Georgia

For someone with experience in plant anatomy, cytology or morphology the opportunity exists to study subcellular mechanisms of root contraction in monocotyledons using transmission electron microscopy, freezeetching and/or immunocytochemistry. Prior experience with TEM is required. The position is available after 15 September 1984; salary $15,000, with possibility of second year. Send curriculum vitae and two letters of reference to: Dr. J. A. Jernstedt, Botany Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Postdoctoral Research Associate at Minnesota

A plant physiologist or plant biochemist is desired to conduct laboratory and con-trolled environment research on the roles of ethylene, auxin and cytokinins in root and rhizome bud dormancy of common milkweed, Canada thistle and quackgrass. The minimum academic preparation is a Ph.D. in plant physiology, crop physiology, biochemistry, botany or related discipline. The minimum starting salary is $19,296 with a duration of 1-1/2 years. The starting date is November 1, 1984. The application deadline is October 15, 1984. Send a letter of application, resume and transcripts, and arrange for 3 letters of reference by October 15, 1984 to: Dr. William Burn, Dept. of Agronomy & Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, 1509 Gortner Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, (612) 373-1510.

Postdoctoral Fellowships in Tropical Botany

The Missouri Botanical Garden and the New York Botanical Garden seek candidates for two postdoctoral fellowships to undertake a two-year study of the botany and utilization of plants of an area of Amazonian Ecuador. The researchers will work in the field with Ecuadorian scientific counterparts in collaboration with local academic institutions and the Ministry of Agriculture. Applicants should possess a Ph.D. in botany or similar discipline, have a working knowledge in Spanish, have previous field experience in tropical Latin America, and be capable of developing and carrying out a program of floristic and ethnobotanical study of the lowland tropics. The annual salary is competitive and includes full fringe benefits. Closing date is 15 October 1984 or until position is filled. Two positions are avail-able; one at MO, and one at NY. Applicants should send a letter of interest, curriculum vitae, and three letters of reference to: Personnel Department, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166, or to Ghillean T. Prance, Director, Institute of Economic Botany, The New York Botanical Graden, Bronx, NY 10458.

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Research Fellowships at Cary Arboretum

The Institute of Ecosystem Studies was established by The New York Botanical Garden in 1983 to conduct significant, high quality research on ecosystems. The program at the Institute is strongly research oriented, and emphasizes large-scale and long-term approaches to understanding ecosystem structure and function. The Institute is located at the Mary Flagler Cary Arboretum in Millbrook, New York, 120 km north of New York City.

The Institute offers up to three summer research fellowships each year for junior faculty members to conduct research at the Arboretum. Educational opportunities for graduate students are available through the Joint Program in Ecological Studies offered by the Institute and Yale University. In addition, qualified undergraduate and graduate students may undertake research projects with staff scientists. Internships, fellow-ships, research assistantships, work-study, and volunteer positions are available as well.

For further information about the institute and its programs, please contact: Dr. Gene E. Likens, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, The New York Botanical Garden, Mary Flagler Cary Arboretum, Box AB, Millbrook, NY 12545, (914) 677-5343.

Intern Seasonal Naturalists in Florida

Up to 5 intern seasonal naturalists are sought by the National Audubon Society for the Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary. Intern Seasonal Naturalists positions are available during three time periods, winter-spring, summer, and fall. Responsibilities include performing interpretive activities along a 2-mile boardwalk trail through a virgin baldcypress swamp and associated wilderness habitats; working in the Visitors' Center; assisting with land management projects; performing maintenance duties. The major emphasis of specific duties will depend on the season of internship. Intensive training by Sanctuary and research staff will be provided during the first week, and the completion of an individual project of one's own design during the internship is encouraged. A performance evaluation will be received according to guidelines established by each participating institution. Housing and utilities are provided by the Sanctuary grounds. Enrollment in or completion of an accredited degree program in some area of natural science is required. Applicants should send their complete resume by November 1 for the winter-spring internship, and at least one month prior to potential starting date for the summer and fall internships to: Rick Bantz, Chief Naturalist, Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, Route 6, Box 1875-A, Naples, FL 33999, (813) 657-3771.


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