A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.

December 1977 Volume 23 No. 4


Orchids and the Discovery of the Cell Nucleus. Joseph Arditt   38
A Letter from The American Association for the Advancement of
Science   38
Meetings, Conferences and Courses   39
Botanical Potpourri   39
Deaths of Members   40
Professional Opportunities   40
Personalia   41
Annual Report of the Program Chairman   42
Quote without Comment   42
Annual Report of the Treasurer   42
Honors and Awards   43 Book Reviews

Physiological Aspects of Dryland Farming. U. S. Gupta (ed.)   44 Microbial and Plant Protoplasts. J. F. Percerdy, A. H. Rose, H. J. Robers and

E. C. Cocking (eds.)   44

Tropical Pulses. J. Smartt   44

Marine Algae of California. I. A. Abbott and G. J. Hollenberg   45

The Plant Kingdom. Fourth edition. H. C. Bold   45

Introduction to the History of Mycology. G. C. Ainsworth   45

Evolution of Crop Plants. N. W. Simmonds (ed.)   46 Pollination Mechanisms, Reproduction and Plant Breeding. R. Frankel

and E. Galun   46

Plants, Food and People. M. J. Crispeels and D. Sadava   46

Index Hepaticarum Part VIII. Jungermannia. C. E. B. Bonner   47

Foliose and Fructose Lichins from Tristan Da Cuna. P. M. Jorgensen   47

Index Hepaticarum Part VIIa. Supplementum A-C. C. E. B. Bonner   47

Tea. T. Eden   47

Plant Biology. K. Norstog and R. W. Long   47

Plant Biochemistry. Third edition. J. Bonner and J. E. Varner (eds.)   48

Water and Plants. if. Meidner and D. W. Sheriff   48

Sexual Interactions in Plants. H. Van Den Ende   48


Orchids and the Discovery of
the Cell Nucleus*

Joseph Arditti
Department of Developmental and Cell Biology
University of California
Irvine, CA 92717

Darwin is reported to have called Robert Brown the greatest of botanists. Humboldt wrote of him as being "easily first among botanists" (Rogers, 1914). The complete statement in Latin is: "Facile Botanicorum princeps, Britanniae gloria et ornamentum. This description has been paraphrased as "he stands out as an ornament and a glory, not only of Britain and of botany, but of the whole world of science" (Gilmour, 1944). At the age of 16, he enrolled as a medical student at the University of Edinburgh, but left 6 years later without a degree "having apparently no taste for the profession" (Rogers, 1914). He "possessed a severe singlemindedness which must have been . . . overpowering . . . but the respectful veneration felt for him . . . seems to have become, sooner or later, mingled with real affection" (Gilmour, 1944). This may have happened when he met Sir Joseph Banks (then president of the Royal Society, a botanist of repute and a wealthy man who both financed and sailed with Capt. Cook). The two men became friends and the young botanist was appointed naturalist aboard the Investigator, a 334-ton sloop commanded by Capt. Matthew Flinders; the purpose of the voyage was to survey the southern coast of New Holland (Australia).

In 1805, at the age of 32, he returned laden with specimens and spent the rest of his days at his microscope and books. After transferring Bank's collection to the British Museum in London, he was appointed keeper in 1827 and remained there until the age of 84 (having been born in Montrose in 1773).

Many honors came his way. He was a foreign member of the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg; the Royal Academies of Science in Sweden, Denmark, Bavaria, Prussia, Brussels, etc. as well as a corresponding member of the Royal Institute of France. Only eight names could appear on the rolls of the Foreign Associates of the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of France. When his name was proposed, he received 29 (out of a possible 47) votes as against no more than 7 for his nearest competitor in a group which included Faraday and Herschel. He joined an elite group which at one time or another included Newton, Linnaeus and Leibnitz.

His discoveries are many. "Often nonchalantly announced—as it were, in parenthesis—were . . . the distinction between the two great groups of flowering plants [and] the movement of small particles suspended in liquids" (Gilmour, 1944). In addition, "nearly every group of flowering plants . . . bears the work of his genius" (Gilmour, 1944). He discovered and/or named numerous orchids and his initials grace many a species. Some species were named after him by others, including the First Professor of Botany at London University, John Lindley, considered by many to be the father of modern orchidology. Brown's greatest discovery was the cell nucleus, which he observed during a study of orchid pollination.

The discovery is described in an article entitled "Ob-

* At present, our orchid research is supported in part by a donation from Mrs. Emma D. Menninger.

servations of the organs and mode of fecundation in Orchideae and Asclepiadeae," published in the Transactions of the Linnean Society of London Botany, Volume 16 (2) : 685-720, 1883. The reprint I own is marked, apparently by Robert Brown's own hand: "For M. Choisy with R. Brown's compliments." It was printed by Richard Taylor and dated October 24, 1831 and carries the notation "[For Distribution]." In the Transactions of the Linnean Society, the discovery of nuclei is described on pp. 710-713 but the pagination of my reprint is different and the appropriate section is on pp. 19-22.

Biologists are virtually unanimous in crediting Brown with the discovery of nuclei (Gabriel and Fogel, 1955). This was a great discovery which opened new vistas in all of biology and made a better understanding of cells possible.


Brown, R. 1883. Observations of the organs and mode of fecundation in Orchideae and Asclepiadeae. Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Botany 16: 683-720.

Gabriel, M. L. and S. Fogel. 1955. Great experiments in

biology. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Gilmour, J. 1944. British Botanists. William Collins, Lon-


Rogers, R. S. 1911. An introduction to the study of South Australian orchids, 2nd ed. Government Printer, Adelaide.

A Letter from the American
Association for the Advancement
of Science

Dear Colleague:

The AAAS Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility is undertaking a range of activities directed towards resolving value conflicts between individual scientists or engineers and the society in which they work. The Committee is reviewing individual cases involving allegations of infringement of scientific freedom in the United States and foreign countries, and is also developing materials which address the broader patterns of value conflicts in the areas of professional and social responsibilities, the boundaries of scientific freedom, and science education.

As you know, the issues of scientific freedom and responsibility go to the fundamental relationships between individual professional persons and their employers. Many of these relationships are addressed in the codes of ethics promulgated by the professional societies. Yet situations involving conflicts between perceived social or professional responsibilities and the demands of private or public employers seem to arise in the course of the careers of a significant fraction of professional persons.

It would appear therefore that the education of scientists and engineers in the issues of conflicting loyalties associated with scientific freedom and responsibility should be a major concern of professional societies. In fact, however, there is a surprising lack of discussion of these issues in the society journals and newsletters which we have read. Perhaps this is due to some concern about the controversial nature of the questions which arise during such conflicts, yet the effect is to isolate the individual professional man or woman from the benefit of learning


from the experiences of other colleagues in dealing with these situations. Since the issue of conflicting loyalties, when it arises, can have a devastating effect on the lives and professional careers of the individuals involved, as well as on the public health and safety of society, we believe that professional societies must begin to under-stand and apply the relationships inherent in their professional codes of ethics to the real problems experienced by their members. Furthermore, it may be necessary for societies to assist in the development of appropriate counseling and institutional arrangements for dealing with these problems and their consequences.

For these reasons, we urge you to open a forum in your journal or newsletter for a discussion of issues of scientific freedom and responsibility as it relates to your own profession.* If you are interested, we would be happy to provide a list of some of the existing literature in this area and to occasionally direct to you items of potential interest as we encounter them.

We would be most interested in your reactions to this suggestion of a journal forum.

H. Bentley Glass, Chairman Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility,

American Association for the
Advancement of Science.

* What's your pleasure? (Editor, PSB)


PUBLIC FORUM ON PROSPECTS AND POTENTIAL USES OF THE WINGED BEAN and a workshop/ seminar will be held on 10-13 January 1978 in Manila, The Philippines. Contact Mr. Louis Lazaroff, The Asia Foundation. P.O. Box 3223, San Francisco, CA 94119.

AN INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TROPICAL TAXONOMY AND PLANT GEOGRAPHY will be held on 10-15 August 1978 in Aarhus. Contact Prof. Kai Larsen, Organizer, Botanical Institute, University of Aarhus, 68 Nordlandvej, DK-8240, Risskov, Denmark.

THE 1978 NATIONAL TROPICAL FOLIAGE SHORT COURSE will be held 15-18 January 1978 in Orlando, Florida. Contact the Foliage Education and Research Trust, Inc., P.O. Box 605, Apopka, FL 32703.

THE SOCIETY OF AMERICAN FORESTERS will hold its annual meeting of the Southeastern Section at the Hyatt House in Birmingham, Alabama on 31 January 1978. The meeting theme will be "Timber Taxes and the Future Fibre Market." Contact R. Lee Laechelt, Alabama Forestry Commission, 1225 Forestdale Blvd., Birmingham, AL 35214.

A POPULATION AND FOOD POLICY CONFERENCE will be held 22-24 February 1978 at the International Inn, Washington, D.C. Sponsored by the Population/Food Fund and co-sponsored by the Institute for Ecological Studies, and other persons and organizations and coordinated by the Division of Continuing Education, University of North Dakota; conference papers are soli-cited. Contact Dr. Charles M. Cargille, Department of Conferences and Institutes, Division of Continuing Education, Box 8277, University Station, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202.

A RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY CONFERENCE will be held 13-15 September 1978 under the same auspices. Contact Dr. Charles M. Cargille.

A BOTANY TEACHING SYMPOSIUM will be sponsored by the Teaching Section of the Botanical Society of America at the 1978 meeting at Blacksburg, Virginia. Dr. Charles R. Curtis, Department of Plant Science, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711 invites contributed papers, panel discussions and your input and will place your name on a mailing list for future notices and developments.

THE TWENTIETH INTERNATIONAL HORTICULTURAL CONGRESS will be held 15-23 August 1978 in Sydney, Australia. Contact The Secretariat, P.O. Box 475, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia.

THE TENTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON MUSHROOM CULTURE will be held 31 May-9 June 1978 in Paris, France. Contact Secretariat, 10e Congres Champignons Comestibles, INRA, Bordeaux, 33140, Pont de la Maye, France.

THE THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON PLANT PATHOLOGY will be held 16-23 August 1978 in Munich, Germany. Contact Congress Plant Pathology, Biologische Bundesanstalt, Messeweg 11/12, D.3300 Braunschweig, FR Germany.

THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGIST AND THE PLANT GROWTH REGULATOR WORKING GROUP will meet 25-30 June 1978 with the Botanical Society of America at Virginia Poly-technic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE will meet 12-17 February 1978 in Washington, D.C.

A SYMPOSIUM ON CLONING HIGHER PLANTS: A BRIDGE BETWEEN RESEARCH AND APPLICATION will be held 16-19 April 1978 at the University of Tennessee. Contact the Department of Botany, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916.

AN INTERNATIONAL LEGUME CONFERENCE will be held 24 July—4 August 1978 in England, Contact A. Bunting, University of Reading, RG6 2AS, England.

THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON PLANT CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE will be held 20-25 August 1978 at the University of Calgary, Canada. Contact International Association for Plant Tissue Culture, Conference Office, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta, Canada.


The Iowa State University Press announces the completion of Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains, a study of the vascular plants of the prairies and plains of central North America.

The National Museum of Natural Sciences of Canada is currently involved in the publication of The Flora of Canada, a four-volume manual by Dr. Homer J. Scoggan. Parts 1 and 2 will be available in early 1978, part 3 in late 1978 and part 4 in 1979.

In forthcoming issues of BioScience, articles on "Toxins from Blue-green Algae," "The Role of Roots in the Chemical Economy of Life on Earth," "Cellular and Metabolic Aspects of Senescence in Higher Plants" and "The Destruction of the Tropics" will appear.


The Southern Weed Science Society announces the revision and expansion of Research Methods in Weed Science edited by Bryan Truelove. Copies are available for $7.00 from Dr. Truelove at the Department of Botany and Microbiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36830.

Dr. Patricia K. Holmgren, Secretary of the Botanical Society, announces the availability of several new publications of the Society. The Guide to Graduate Study in Botany for the United States and Canada, 1977 lists 123 plant science departments in the U.S. and 19 in Canada which offer the Ph.D. Listings include fields of specialization in the department; name, academic rank, area of specialization of faculty and titles of theses of recent Ph.D. degrees granted. The cost is $3.00 until the end of 1977 and $4 thereafter. The Directory of the Botanical Society replaces the Yearbook of the Society. It includes names, addresses and research specializations for current members of the Society plus lists of officers and commit-tees. Cost: $7.50. Abstracts of Papers presented at the East Lansing Meeting of 1977 are available at a cost of $2.50. All publications can be obtained from Dr. Holmgren at the New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458.

The Instituto de Botanica Darwinion announces the initiation of the journal HICHENIA published by the Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, 1640 Correo Martinez, San Isidro (FNGBM) Argentina.

The Society for Economic Botany invites all members of the Botanical Society to join. The Society for Economic Botany is an international scientific organization founded in 1959 which fosters and encourages research on the past, present and future uses of plants. Membership on a regular ($20.00), family ($25.00) or student ($15.00) basis includes a subscription to Economic Botany. For membership applications or additional information, please contact Dr. Susan Vorhoek, Department of Biology, Lebanon Valley College, Annville, PA 17003.

Dr. John T. Mickel announces that reprints of the 1976 symposium on the Psilotaceae can be obtained at a cost of $3.00 from BRITTONIA, New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, N.Y. 10458.

Dr. Bruce MacBryde reports that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, has listed the first Endangered Plants in the 11 August 1977 issue of the Federal Register 42(155) :40682-40685. All are endemic to San Clemente Island, CA. They are Lotus scoparius (Nutt.) Ottley; ssp traskiae (Abrams) Raven; Malacotharnnus clementinus (M. & J.) Kearn.; Delphinium kinkiense Munz; and Castilleja grisea Dunkle.

The Committee on the Darbaker Prize of the Botanical Society of America will accept nominations for an award to be announced at the Annual Meeting of the Society at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, in June 1978. Under the terms of the be-quest, the Award is to be made for meritorious work in the study of microscopical algae in all its facets. At present, the Award is limited to residents of North America, and only papers published in the English language will be considered. The value of the prize for 1978 is expected to be about $425. The Committee will base its judgment primarily on the papers published by the nominee during the last two full calendar years, i.e., papers dated 1976 and 1977. Nominations for the 1978 award, accompanied by a detailed statement of the merits of the case and by reprints of the publications for 1976 and 1977 supporting the candidate, must be received by March 1, 1.978 by the Chairman of the Committee, Dr. Larry R. Hoffman, Department of Botany, University of Illinois, Urbana. Illinois 61801. For further information write the Chairman or call him at (217) 333-0048 or 344-3466.

Dr. Sabina Sulgrove, Cox Arboretum, 6733 Springboro Pike, Dayton, OH 45419 has been appointed as International Registrar for the genus Hedera and will be compiling a checklist. A preliminary checklist of cultivated Hedera is available for $5.00 ($8.00 foreign) from the National Center for American Horticulture, Mt. Vernon, VA 22121.

The third edition of the Personnel Directory—Plant Growth Regulation has been published by the Plant Growth Regulator Working Group in July 1977. Copies may be obtained for $3.00 from Dr. E. F. Sullivan, Great Western Sugar Co., Agricultural Research Center, Sugar-mill Road, Longmont, CO 80501. Dr. Page Morgan of Texas A&M University was elected Chairman of the Group. The Group also published in July 1977 a Plant Growth Regulator Handbook giving detailed technical in-formation on 37 plant growth regulants. Copies are avail-able at $8.00 from Dr. Sullivan.


DR. HAIG DERMEN, Research Cytology and Collaborator in the Florist and Nursery Corps Laboratory, Agriculture Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture died 30 July 1977.


A HEAD OF THE BIOLOGY DEPARTMENT is being sought by the Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University. Applicants must have an earned Ph.D. in some biological discipline with experience in both teaching and research and a strong commitment to both. The department of 22 full-time faculty offers Bachelor and Master degrees in biology. A detailed statement of teaching and research interests and accomplishments, vita and names of at least three references should be sent to Dr. L. D. Brown, Chairman of the Biology Search Committee, Ogden College of Science & Technology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101. Closing date for applications is 10 January 1978.

A MYCOLOGIST is being sought at the University of Michigan to be appointed jointly by the Herbarium and the Division of Biological Sciences. The appointment involves a research program of the appointee's choosing, responsibility for curatorial operations of the Herbarium's fungal division plus teaching one course per year (alternating between mycology and introductory biology). The position, at the Assistant Curator-Assistant Professor rank, will be on a 12-month basis. Applicants should send a curriculum vitae, academic transcripts, statements of re-search interests, experience in teaching and curatorial work and should arrange for three letters of recommendation to be forwarded to Dr. Robert L. Shaffer, Director of the University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Closing date for applications is 1 January 1978.


THE COUNCIL FOR INTERNATIONAL EX-CHANGE OF SCHOLARS is still accepting applications for Fulbright-Hayes scholars for 1978-1979. Contact Richard F. Crabbs, Executive Associate, Council for International Exchange of Scholars, Suite 300, 11 Dupont Circle, Washington, DC 20036.

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY WOMEN announces their fellowship program for dissertations, post-doctoral research and selected professions. Contact the AAUW Educational Foundation Pro-grams, 2401 Virginia Ave., Washington, DC 20037.

THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN offers several graduate fellowships in systematic botany and related fields. Fellows devote half time to formal graduate study at Lehman College of the City University of New York and half time to herbarium or laboratory work or special assignments in systematic and floristic research at the Botanical Garden. Applicants should send transcripts, letters and three letters of evaluation to the Administrator of Graduate Studies, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458.

AN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN TROPICAL BOTANY is being sought by the University of Florida. Applicants should have a Ph.D. and be capable of teaching both introductory botany and biology and graduate-level courses in their chosen field. Experience in tropical botany is required and applicants must develop a strong research program. Three letters of recommendation, vitae and a statement of research and teaching interests should be sent to Dr. James Kimbrough, Chair, Search Committee, Department of Botany, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.

A PLANT ECOLOGIST is being sought by the Department of Botany, University of Alberta. The successful candidate should have physiological interests to teach and direct research at the graduate level in one or more of the following areas: autecology, physiological ecology, and population ecology, and should contribute to undergraduate courses in ecology and environmental biology, as well as direct or be significantly involved in the management and use of one of the largest Controlled Environmental Facilities on the Continent. Candidates with strong interests in controlled environment as well as field studies of the flora of western or northern Canada are preferred. Salary will be commensurate with qualifications; current minimum annual salary for professors is $30,100. Applicants should send a vitae, complete list of publications plus 5 reprints of most significant work and arrange for at least 3 letters of recommendation to be sent to Prof. P. R. Gorham, Chairman, Department of Botany, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada before 1 February 1978.

A PALEOBOTANIST is being sought by the Department of Botany, University of Alberta at the rank of assistant professor. A Ph.D. in paleobotany specializing in megafossils is required. The successful candidate will be expected to teach one or more courses in paleobotany, an undergraduate biology course, supervise graduate students in paleobotany and actively pursue research. Cur-rent minimum annual salary is $17,625. Applicants should submit vitae with a list of all publications, reprints of 3 most important papers and should request three persons to send letters of recommendation to: Dr. David D. Cass, Chairperson of Paleobotany Search Committee, Department of Botany, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada. Closing date for applications is 1 February 1978.

AN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF BOTANY is being sought by Cornell University. Candidates are expected to show promise of excellence as teachers in a large course at the elementary level, with emphasis on morphology, anatomy, development, reproduction, evolution and plant identification. The appointee will also be expected to con-tribute to advanced undergraduate and graduate training in an area of research specialization, and to undertake a vigorous research program. Inquiries are invited from all applicants qualified for the primary teaching role. Applicants should have a Ph.D. degree in Botany or a related area. Curriculum vitae, transcripts and three letters of recommendation should arrive by January 15, 1978 ad-dressed to: Dominick Paolillo, Search Committee Chair-man, Section of Botany, Genetics and Development, 238 Plant Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853.

AN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN BOTANY is being sought by the University of California, Berkeley, with teaching and research interests in plant physiology. The successful candidate will teach courses in plant physiology, contribute to the teaching of general biology or botany and develop a graduate research program. Applicants should send a curriculum vitae, bibliography with copies of publications and a summary of teaching and research objectives to: W. M. Laetsch, Chairman, Search Commit-tee, Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley CA 94720. Applicants should also send three letters of reference. Review of applicants will begin 1 December 1977. Women and minorities are urged to apply.


DR. NOE HIGINBOTHAM of the Department of Botany, Washington State University, received the Senior Scientist Humboldt Award and will spend the year in West Germany.

DRS. STEVEN N. HANDEL AND JAMES F. HANCOCK, JR. have joined the Biology Department of South Carolina University as assistant professors. Dr. Handel, a plant ecologist, received his doctorate from Cornell University and Dr. Hancock, a systematist, graduated from the University of California, Davis.

DR. ALICE BOURKE HAYES, formerly chairperson of the Department of Natural Sciences, has been appointed Dean for the Natural Science Division at Loyola University, Chicago.

DR. ROBERT W. KIGER has been appointed Acting Director of the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh. DR. GILBERT S. DANIELS, former Director, has stepped down to devote full time to research at the Institute.

THEODORE W. BOSSERT retired as Curator of portraits at the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation. Formerly vice president of the Aluminum Company of America, he joined the Institute in 1962 as a volunteer. In recognition of his dedicated service and contributions to botanical biography and iconography, he has been appointed Curator Emeritus.

DR. MICHAEL T. STIEBER has been appointed archivist at the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation. Dr. Stieber received his Ph.D. at the University of Maryland in systematic botany. In addition to supervising the Institute's archival and biographical collections, he will continue his research in agrostology and the history


of botany, concentrating first on a biography of Agnes Chase.

DR. DAVID LEE, formerly of the Botany Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpor, Malaysia, is now at the Institut Botanique, Montpellier, France where he is working in the Laboratoire de Botanique Tropical.

DR. Y. P. S. BAJAJ, formerly with the Canada Department of Agriculture has been appointed Professor of Tissue Culture at the Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (Punjab), India.

DR. DAVID M. GATES, Professor of Botany and Director of the Biological Station at Michigan State University will be the first Dalgarno Distinguished Lecturer in Botany at the University of Manitoba.

Included among the American Fulbright-Hayes Scholars for 1977-1978 are DR. MARTIN ALEXANDER, Cornell University; DR. JOHN J. EWEL, University of Florida. Gainesville; DR. GARY E. LARSON, Bethany College, West Virginia; DR. KARL MARAMOROSCH, Waksman Institute of Microbiology. Rutgers University; DR. DAVID KEEN SHORTESS, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro; DR. JOHN A. SILANDER, JR., University of Connecticut, Storrs; and DR. LLOYD T. WILSON II, University of California, Davis.

Report of the Program Chairman

The program for the 1977 meeting included 47 sessions in 11 sections. About 260 contributed papers, ten symposia, two workshops, and a special lecture are included, as well as banquets and other social functions. I wish to thank the sectional program officers for their efficiency in helping to assemble the program. The abstracts for the contributed papers were published by the New York Botanical Garden this year and the estimated cost promise a considerable saving compared to commercial presses.

The AIBS program-planning conference in Washing-ton, D.C. was held in early December when I was out of the country; Dr. David Dilcher, program officer for the Paleobotanical section, substituted for me as representative of the Botanical Society. This meeting is useful to give the societies a voice in early planning, particularly to obtain priority for symposium time slots. As one of the largest societies in AIBS, the Botanical Society does have influence. If members or sections have particular suggestions or complaints about meetings, these should be passed along to the program director before the December meeting in Washington.

An innovation last year at the meetings in New Or-leans was to convene the program officers for all sections of BSA to make tentative plans for this year's meeting. It is especially useful to get ideas from the sections about symposia. We will repeat the procedure this year.

Shirley C. Tucker

Quote Without Comment

"In the old days, there were fewer but wealthier people. People now think that five children are not too many and, if each child has five more children, there will be twenty-five before the death of the grandfather. There-fore, there are more people and less wealth and people work harder for less. The life of a nation depends on the people having enough food and not on the number of people.   Han Fei-Tzu (Chou Dynasty, 500 B.C.)

Report of the Treasurer

1. The membership of the Society as of 19 July 1977 is as follows:

Regular members


Student members


Family members


Life members


Retired subscribers




Non-paying, retired members


Corresponding members


2. The membership by section affiliation is as follows: A member may belong to more than one section

























3. A summary of the state of our finances 1 January 1977-30 June 1977:

Balance from 12/30/76

$ 24,773.66

Savings accounts


Interest on savings


Dues collected


Publication and computer list sales


Subscriptions, Plant Science Bulletin







Richard M. Klein, Editor
Department of Botany
University of Vermont
Burlington, Vt. 05401

Editorial Board
Donald Kaplan, University of California, Berkeley

December 1977   Volume Tewnty-three Number Four

Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., Dr.Barbara D. Webster, Department of Agronomy & Range Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Society can be obtained for $10.00 per year. Orders plus checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." should be sent directly to the Treasurer of the Society.

Manuscripts for the Plant Science Bulletin should be submitted to the editor. The Bulletin welcomes announcements, notes, notices and items of general interest to members of the Botanical Society and to the botanical community at large. No charge for inclusion of notices is made. Material submitted must be typed, double-spaced and in duplicate. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of the Bulletin.

Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.

The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401. Second class postage paid at Burlington, VT.



Accountants fees

$   77.50

AIBS travel for BSA representative


To American Journal of Botany


Dues refunded


Plant Science Bulletin


Expenses: Program Director


Expenses: Secretary


Expenses: Sections of the Society


Expenses: Treasurer


Tax bureaus


Bank entries


$ 35.252.10

4. Our balance as of 30 June 1977 is determined as follows:



Less Savings & interest




Less Iiabilities



$ 16,200.37

5. The Council of the Society has approved several changes in dues:
a. The Early Dues Discount has been discontinued; there will be a single dues schedule.
b. Eligibility for student membership dues has been extended to seven years. The student's major professor must certify eligibility with a signature to accompany the dues payment.
c. Life memberships are now $1,000.00.

Barbara D. Webster

Honors and Awards of the Society

The Merit Awards of the Botanical Society of America are made to persons judged to have made outstanding contributions to botanical science. The first awards were made in 1956 at the 50th anniversary of the Botanical Society and one or more have been presented each year since that time. This year, the Merit Award Committee selected three botanists who are eminently qualified to join the ranks of Merit Awardees.

To Sherwin Carlquist, Claremont Graduate School, Pomona College, and Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden: "Noted anatomist, naturalist, and explorer, Professor Carlquist has given us new understanding of adaptations of xylem, island evolution, and plant dispersal."

To Rogers McVaugh, University of Michigan: "for distinguished contributions to the exploration for. and systematic studies of, New World plants and to the general area of plant nomenclature."

To Peter Hamilton Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden: "in recognition of his excellent contributions to angiosperm biogeography and the systematics and general biology of the Onagraceae as well as his outstanding success in both teaching and administration."

The Darbaker Prize is made for meritorious work in the study of microscopical algae. The recipient is selected by a Committee of the Society and bases its judgement primarily on papers published during the last two full calendar years. The 1977 Darbaker Prize was awarded to

Alfred R. Loeblich III of Harvard University "for his significant contributions to our understanding of the biology of the dinoflagellates, ranging from studies on nutrition, genetics, systematics and evolution. He has measurably advanced our knowledge of the systematic position and evolutionary perspective of these algae through his perceptive use of cytological and biochemical data coupled with scholarly speculations."

The New York Botanical Garden presents an award to the author of a recent publication making an outstanding contribution to the fundamental aspects of botany. The 1977 Award was presented to Philip R. Larson, U.S. Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI "for an extraordinary piece of research presenting a complete picture of vascular development in a growing shoot by the use of techniques unparalleled in scope and accuracy in morphogenctic investigations. The research is of a distinct theoretical value in giving a morphogenetic significance to concepts of vascular differentiation and a new meaning to the theory of phyllotaxis. The citations to the work are: "Procambium vs Cambium and Protoxylem vs Metaxylem in Populus deltoides seedlings. Amer. J. Bot. 63: 1332-1348. 1976." "Development and organization of the primary vascular system in Populus deltoides according to phyllotaxy. Amer. J. Bot. 62: 1084-1099. 1975." "The Leaf-Cambium relation and some prospects for genetic improvement. In: Tree Physiology and Yield Improvement, pp. 261-282. 1976. Academic Press, N.Y."

The Henry Allan Gleason Award of the New York Botanical Garden is given annually for an outstanding recent publication in the fields of plant taxonomy, plant ecology or plant geography. The 1977 award was made to James A. Doyle, University of Michigan and Leo J. Hickey. Smithsonian Institution for their paper, "Pollen and leaves from the mid-Cretaceous Potomac Group and their bearing on early Angiosperm evolution," published in the symposium volume, Origin and Early Evolution of Angiosperms edited by Charles B. Beck. Drs. Doyle and Hickey are at the forefront of the ongoing massive re-interpretation of the early fossil record of angiosperms, and their correlation of pollen and leaf fossils is particularly important in establishing the creditability of the newer outlook.

The Jessie M. Greenman Award is presented each year by the Alumni Association of the Missouri Botanical Garden. It recognizes the best paper in plant systematics based on a doctoral dissertation published during the previous year. The 10th award, in 1977, was presented to Kare Bremer of the Institute of Botany, University of Stockholm for his monograph, "The genus Relhania (Compositae)" published in Opera Botanica 40:1-86, 1976, with a supplemental paper, "The genus Rosenia (Compositae) published in Bot. Not. 129:97-111, 1976. The Greenman Award Committee solicits reprints of papers for consideration for the 1978 award. Papers should be sent to Dr. A. H. Gentry, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110 before 1 May 1978.

The Ralph E. Alston Award of the Phytochemical Section of the Botanical Society is given for the best paper dealing with phytochemistry presented at the annual meeting. The 1977 awardee is John Olsen, University of Texas. Austin, for his paper, "Chemical contributions toward understanding species relationships in Zaluzania (Asteraceae: Heliantheae)."

The Isabel C. Cookson Award is given for the best contributed paper in paleobotany or palynology presented at the annual meeting. The 1977 awardee is David F.


Brauer, State University of New York, Binghamton for his paper "Barinophyton citrulliforrne Arnold from the Famennian of Pennsylvania."

The George R. Cooley Award is given annually by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists for the best paper in plant systematics presented at the annual meeting. The 1977 award was presented to Howard C. Stutz, Brigham Young University for his paper, "Heritable variation in Atriplex canescens."

The Physiological Section Award is presented to the student giving the best paper dealing with some aspect of plant physiology. The first annual award was presented to S. G. Pallardy for his papers entitled, "Early root and shoot growth of rooted tip cuttings of four Populus clones," and "Leaf resistance and leaf water potential of four Populus clones."

The Pteridological Section Award is presented for the best paper dealing with any aspect of pteridology presented at the annual meeting. The 1977 award was given to Leslie G. Hickok of Mississippi State University for his paper, "Somatic recombination and duplicated loci in Ceratopteris."


GUPTA, U. S. (ed.). Physiological Aspects of Dryland Farming. Allanheld, Osmun and Co. Publishing, Inc., Montclair, N.J. 1976. xv + 392 pp., illust. $18.00.

A more complete understanding of physiological processes of crop plants appears essential for the development of improved agronomic techniques or new cultivars which will be needed to meet the increasing demand for agricultural products in the future. Much agriculture is practiced today in regions where temperature and deficient moisture for plant growth frequently become severe. A great challenge lies in the development of methods of synchronizing cropping with optimal environmental periods and/ or the production of tolerant, high-yielding cultivars. This text presents physiological information and growth characteristics of plants with the overview of assisting agronomists and plant breeders in increasing production, particularly in semi-arid regions. Eleven plant scientists from universities and government laboratories of six different countries contributed to the authorship. The book deals with dryland crop production and general physiological principles, drought injury and resistance, root patterns as related to water and nutrients, mulches, humidity, wind, antitransparents, photorespiration, and the heat unit concept. The chapters are of the quality of those reported in the Annual Reviews. Most contributors met the objective of the text and included suggested desirable agronomic practices based on known physiological information of crops. A large portion of the book deals with physiological principles of dryland agriculture and numerous topics, superficially treated in this chapter, are discussed in detail in subsequent chapters. Absent is a discussion of the modern techniques of gene transfer in cell culture which could be of value in the development of high yielding cultivars by breeders in the near future.

The book holds value as a reference for upper level crop physiology courses and those researchers interested in dryland agriculture. Many figures are produced in a simple manner and the paper, as well as pictures, appear below the average in quality.

Murray Duysen North Dakota State University

PERCERDY, J. F., A. H. ROSE, H. J. ROBERS AND E. C. COCKING (eds.). Microbial and Plant Protoplasts. Academic Press, London. 1976. xii + 370 pp.

This volume is a collection of invited papers presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Yeast and Other Protoplasts, held at the University of Nottingham in September, 1975. Most of the review-type articles are on yeast or fungal protoplasts, but bacterial and higher plant protoplasts are also reasonably well covered. The recent development of procedures to enzymatically pre-pare viable protoplasts from bacterial, fungal, or plant cells, has provided a valuable and elegant new system to study cell-wall biosynthesis, induced uptake of cell organelles or foreign genetic material, organelle-cytoplasmic interactions, and most of all for the induced fusion of somatic cells resulting in the formation of true hybrid cells or organisms. The book provides a reasonably good summary of research in this area, with particular emphasis on bacterial and fungal systems.

One problem with volumes of conference proceedings, and this one is no exception, is that they tend to publish review articles which have appeared in one form or an-other at several other places, but ignore the contributed papers. These are probably of most interest to active research workers because they describe the newest experiments and approaches. Keeping in mind the high cost of modern books, would it be too much to ask from the publishers and the editors of such proceedings to also include a one or two page summary of each of the contributed papers?

Indra K. Vasil University of Florida

SMARTT, J. Tropical Pulses. Tropical Agriculture Series. Longmans Group Ltd., London. 1976. ix + 348 pp., illust. $29.50.

This is an excellent book. It is a basic account of the origin, history and development of legume (pulse) crops, their botany, worldwide use, and role in human nutrition. Physiology of growth, development and reproduction, and crop cultivation are discussed, including basic practices, disease and pest control and crop handling. There are chapters on breeding and improvement of crops and their economic importance. There is a substantial bibliography and a comprehensive index.

The author believes that legumes have a much greater role to play in tropical agriculture than has been thought feasible. This comprehensive summary of the extensive literature is intended to give workers in the tropics and elsewhere the fundamental information needed for legume cultivation and the solution of problems that may arise. Smartt indicates regions where legumes might be grown in order that with cereals and oilseeds they can meet the great need for balanced plant proteins in human nutrition.

This book is more than a very useful technical hand-book. It is especially interesting for its excellent presentation of biological principles basic to the applied aspects and its emphasis on the relationship between plants and man. It is a valuable contribution to the literature of agriculture and of economic botany, but it should also be recommended as interesting reading for students of botany and biology in general.

Sydney S. Greenfield Rutgers University

ABBOTT, I. A. AND G. J. HOLLENBERG. Marine Algae of California. Stanford University Press, Stan-ford, California. 1976. xii + 827 pp.

The phycological community has long awaited a definitive treatment of benthic marine algae for the California coast. With the publication of this handsomely executed volume by Stanford University Press, a monumental project of compilation, synthesis, and interpretation has been achieved. It is indeed well worth the wait. Even though the focus of this flora is essentially restricted to green, brown, and red algae of multicellular structure and usually macroscopic size, an impressive total of 669 species is reached, confirming the fact that the California coast is one of the richest marine algal regions in the world, probably second only to the coasts of Australia and New Zealand.

Undoubtedly owing in large part to their intimate familiarity with these algae both in the field and in the lab and their experience at teaching students during summer sessions at Hopkins Marine Station, Drs. Abbott and Hollenberg have made every effort to present the mass of information in as meaningful a fashion as possible. In the Introduction the viewpoint is expressed that the aim of the book is to attempt to satisfy the needs of a diverse clientele, ranging from the systematists to ecologists and environmental consultants. It seems to me that they have largely succeeded in meeting that goal. They have included words of caution concerning the pitfalls so common to novice students of the seaweeds, such as missing the division to which a form belongs. A series of coastal maps and a glossary are included as well as "Master Keys to the Genera" along with keys to most orders, families, genera, and species. The difficulty in composing a key is evident from a glance at those for the red algal orders Cryptonemiales and Gigartinales; a single family may appear in the key two or three places, indicating the difficulties in separating these groups.

The expertise of half a dozen specialists in specific groups has been taken advantage of, and the inclusion of an historical account of phycological exploration off the Pacific North American coast by George F. Papenfuss has added depth and perspective. Much of the artwork in G. M. Smith's Marine Algae of the Monterey Peninsula, California has been incorporated into the present work, with the addition of many new illustrations of comparable high quality. The authors have wisely interspersed the figures throughout the text, making for a more convenient format. A minor vexation is the lack of a reference to the particular figure in the description of a species, but usually the illustration is located within a page or two of the description. The fact that all species are illustrated is to be lauded.

This book will be welcomed by professional phycologists and other biologists whose research interests impinge upon California marine algae.

Michael J. Wynne University of Michigan

BOLD, HAROLD C. The Plant Kingdom, Fourth Ed. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1977. 310 pp. $7.95 (paperback).

Since many of us knew or owned earlier editions of "The Plant Kingdom", it is important to note some con-tent differences and mechanical changes in the current work which are likely to modify its use and the market it will serve. First, one is impressed with the size of the cur- rent volume. The original short text was often owned along with other volumes in the Foundations of Modern Biology series as a short introduction to an area. These books could properly be regarded as "motivational" and not primarily concerned with strict factual matter. Stu-dents then read the monograph and referred to it at their own discretion to increase their general knowledge. The third edition (1970) was 190 pages long including glossary, selected reading and index. Some drawings, photo-graphs and legends were in sepia which perhaps added to the restful non-text aspect of the book. The current volume is still longer and is much more like a self-contained textbook.

The book is intended to be the major text for a one-quarter or one-semester course. The volume comprises a coherent well-organized account of the morphology of plants. All major groups of algae including blue greens are included as well as bacteria, slime molds, fungi and bryophytes. Information on all these groups as well as vascular cryptogams and seed plants is very up-to-date. There is a clear account of the structures and life cycles of representatives of members of the groups included. There is a wealth of interesting factual material related to usefulness of plants as food, fiber and forage as well as research potential which will help hold the interest of the reader.

It is a pleasure to find an author still capable of handling all the included topics in a consistent style which is a great boon to the reader. The hook is illustrated with numerous photographs and line drawings well integrated with the contents. The sepia color has been dropped, but the typeface is darker and slightly larger, with bold type instead of italics for emphasis. This makes the book easier to read. There are more headings and subheadings and review questions have been added at the end of each chapter. The level of writing is appropriate for a general studies student, and the book is financially within the reach of a student who might buy it because of general interest. It should hold the attention of such students. While the book is not as technical as the author's Morphology of Plants and other similar texts, instructors of plant morphology courses which are primarily service in nature, might consider this as a text due to its readability and increased content.

Paul E. Richardson Oklahoma State University

AINSWORTH, G. C. Introduction to the History of Mycology. Cambridge University Press, N.Y. 1976. xi + 359 pp. illust., indexes. $27.50.

This brief book of eleven chapters is an introductory survey of the history of our developing knowledge of the fungi and of the men and women who worked with these organisms. The chapters are concerned with ideas on the origin and status of fungi, their structure, nutrition, sexuality, pathogenicity, and use of fungi plus their distribution and classification. Mycological organizations, text-books and journals are noted. The chapters are chronologically oriented so that each may be read and appreciated as an historical entity. There are cross references to other chapters as well.

Ainsworth brings each chapter more or less up-to-date
although the discussions concerning people and events
post-1940 are exceedingly short. Many significant investi-
gations are obviously not mentioned, a necessary omission
when summarizing a 400-year old history in so few pages.
The book is well illustrated with reproductions from


herbals and original publications; there are also photo-graphs of some of the outstanding early mycologists. Ainsworth included brief translations of a few original publications; e.g., the early 18th century experimentalist, Antonio Micheli. The selection of illustrations is excellent and serves to make these people, and the book, come alive.

There are some errors of omission and commission: The term phylum is used rather than division, which has historical precedence for botanical taxonomy; two, rather than three, sexual hormones produced by Mucor are mentioned; only a cursory explanation is given of the historical background for the name St. Anthony's Fire, a term applied to gangrenous ergotism.

This introductory reference is suitable for an under-graduate library or for someone not familiar with the historical development of mycology; the mycological specialist may find the chapters of interest rather thin al-though there is a reasonable bibliography. The various indexes enhance the value of the book. This is an interesting book in spite of its shortcomings.

Deana T. Klein St. Michael's College

SIMMONDS, N. W. (ed.). Evolution of Crop Plants. Longman, London. 1976. xii + 339 pp., maps and tables.

"The need for a book such as this became apparent to me some fifteen years ago when I was trying to read up on the evolution of crops that might offer illuminating parallels with bananas and potatoes." So begins the editor's introduction. It is fortunate that Simmonds recognized the need and did something about it. The lack of easily available, concise and authoritative information on crop plant evolution in one language is constantly en-countered by teachers and research workers. If only in filling this void, Simmonds' effort will be commended by many scholars for many years for we now have available key material on more than 100 crop plants presented by experts and in capsule form usually with critically selected bibliographies. The book has already been a valuable encouragement to economic and agricultural botany and allied disciplines.

All of the major crops are adequately reviewed by well recognized specialists: Yen (Sweet Potato), Whitaker and Bemis (Cucurbits), Wycherley (Rubber), Goodman (Maize), Hymenowitz (Soy Beans), Simmonds (Bananas and Potatoes), Heiser (Red Peppers), Rick (Tomatoes), Cope (Cacao) to name only a few. As is to be expected in any work authored by so many writers, the contributions vary somewhat in coverage and interpretation, but under Simmonds' editorship the excellence of all of the sections has been kept high and, for this type of compendium, variation from one section to the other is minimal.

Perhaps one of the most useful parts of this book is its unusually complete coverage of "Minor Crops". The write-ups on each crop are very brief, yet a wealth of material is set forth which many investigators would find it hard to get elsewhere. The attempt has been made—and attained—"to summarize very briefly the available information on the evolution of some crops (or near-crops) which are either minor or so poorly documented that little can be said about them." Well over 85 species are considered, including many very poorly known and geographically limited crops such as Ullucu, Queensland Arrowroot, Niger Seed, various Millets, Wattle, Guar,

Lupin, Sainfoin, Yam Bean, Topee-tambu, Oca, Akee, Rambutan, Tree Tomato, Isanu and others.

Other unusual aspects of the book make it an exceptionally useful tool. The many charts and maps, for ex-ample, provide quickly available summaries of often voluminous and intricate data. Another aid is the publication of the addresses of all 77 contributors from 16 countries. There are three indices: one to the names of all scientists to which reference has been made in the text; one for scientific epithets; one for common names.

At $35.00, this volume might appear to be expensive. When, however, one considers the high quality of printing, the great array of expert essays and the broad cover-age of the topic, the price is certainly not out of line in today's market. One is purchasing literally a small encyclopedia.

Simmonds' Evolution of Crop Plants should be in the hands of all plant breeders, is strongly recommended as a reference book for all biological libraries and could easily be employed as a text in certain types of courses in economic botany, agronomy, genetics and plant breeding.

Richard Evans Schultes Harvard Botanical Museum

FRANKEL, R. AND E. GALUN. Pollination Mechanisms, Reproduction and Plant Breeding. Springer-Verlag, N.Y. 1977.

Recent rekindling of the interest in study of pollination ecology so popular in the last century has resulted in increasing numbers of publications on the subject. In this translation of a work originally in German, pollination ecology is adapted to the classroom with examples drawn primarily from economically important plants. The text, primarily for students interested in the role of pollination in agriculture, also proves useful to pollination enthusiasts who are curious about garden vegetables as well as exotic flowers. Fortunately, the present book goes beyond pollination ecology to include fundamentals of reproductive biology in plants. A substantial amount of information on applied aspects of pollination and reproduction-related phenomena applicable to agronomy completes the hook. Unfortunately, it seems that the translator does not al-ways do the authors justice. In some passages the intent is clear, though in others the meaning is confused by awkward usage and unclear terminology.

David S. Barrington University of Vermont

CHRISPEELS, M. J. AND D. SADAVA. Plants, Food, and People. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco. 1977. 278 pp., illust.

It is difficult to discuss such sweeping problems as "the world food crisis" in a thorough yet succinct format. Plants, Food, and People provides such a discussion in a highly readable book.

The book begins by providing a foundation in the fundamentals of human nutrition, plant biology and soil science. It then follows the history of agriculture, ending with a description of current agricultural practices. From this base, the book describes the involved agricultural problems of pest control, plant breeding and the `green revolution' in food production. Speculation on more efficient methods for growing food, such as microbial production of protein and aquaculture, conclude the book.

The authors present an abundant variety of scientific


information which can be understood by those without a scientific background. Much of the material is a review to those working in the plant sciences, but the diversity of material and cohesive presentation make the review enlightening. The technical material is frequently given in historical perspective. The humanistic aspects of the book could have been broadened by including information concerning the influence of religion and folk customs on food production. The book is reasonably objective, without the crusading alarmist style which often enters writing in this area.

A brief glossary of basic scientific terms is included, along with an average index. A list of suggested reading accompanying each chapter supplies substantial material for those who might want to read more. The figures and tables were valuable adjuncts to the text. The illustrations were well chosen, especially in the areas of plant structure and soil science. The book would be an excellent addition to any survey course concerned with the role of plants in human nutrition. It is well worth reading outside the class too.

Daniel R. Cooley University of Vermont

BONNER, C. E. B. (Compiler). Index Hepaticarum. Part VIII. Jungermannia. J. Cramer, D-3301 Lehre, Germany. 1976. 414 pp. DM 120.

After a lapse of years we welcome another volume of this series. Its appearance is particularly pleasing for several reasons: Jungermannia is historically one of the most fundamental genera and is taxonomically very complex with a large number of species and varieties. Also, it is gratifying that Dr. Bonner was able to complete the manuscript before his untimely death.

As in previous volumes, the names of species and varieties are recorded without much synonymy or evaluation. About 2,000 names of taxa are listed and, for each, the name of the author, the date and place of publication. where feasible the place of origin and present location of the type, and the general range of the taxon are given. This information is very valuable to monographers of many groups of hepatics, in which many taxa were de-scribed originally as members of Jungermannia. We are deeply indebted to the memory of the compiler, Dr. C. E. B. Bonner, for performing the tedious and difficult task of preparing this valuable tool.

A. J. Sharp University of Tennessee

JORGENSEN, PER M. Foliose and Fruticose Lichens from Tristan Da Cuna. Norske Vidensk. Akad. Skrifter Mat. Naturv. Kl. N.S. 36:1-40, 8 fig. Avail-able from Columbia University Press, New York.

A list with descriptions of 84 species of lichens from the Tristan da Cuna group, collected by E. Christophersen and Y. Meiland on the Norwegian Scientific Expedition in 1937-8. They were able to visit the outlying islets, accounting for the 69 species not reported by previous expeditions. Several species are tentatively identified owing to scanty material or nomenclatural problems. Panne/fella parvula, Ramalina elegantula, Usnea nigropunctata and U. vermicularis are described as new. A study of the few crustose lichens is reserved for a later publication.

C. W. Dodge University of Vermont

BONNER, C. E. B. ($) (Compiler). Index Hepaticarum. Part VIIa. Supplementum A-C. Curavit H. Bischler. J. Cramer, D-3301 Lehre, Germany. 1977. Foreword by Ruth Bonner and obituary and bibliography of C. E. Bonner by Jacques Miege, i-viii. pp. 741-907. DM 60.

Thanks to the willingness and efforts of Mrs. Ruth Bonner and friends of Dr. Bonner, particularly Dr. Helene Bischler of Paris, we have this supplement which includes taxa which were overlooked previously or have been recently described. The genera range from Acanthocoleus to Cyrtolejeunea. As with previous parts of the Index, scientific names are followed by the author, place and date of publication, and where feasible the place of origin and present location of the type, and distribution of the taxon.

This volume will be of interest not only to bryologists but to general botanists and historians of the science be-cause of the extensive biographical and bibliographical notes about Dr. Bonner given in the front of the book.

A. J. Sharp University of Tennessee

EDEN, T. Tea. Third Edition. Tropical Agriculture Series. Longmans Group Ltd., London. 1976. xiv -1- 236 pp., illust. $29.50.

This compact monograph has a wealth of specific in-formation, including the results of the latest scientific research, on all aspects of the cultivation and manufacture of tea. Tea history, the extent of current cultivation, climate, soils, fertilizers, botany, seeds, vegetative propagation, planting, pruning, and harvesting are all discussed in some detail and illustrated with good photographs. Principal diseases and pests are described and methods of control given. There is an account of the chemistry of the tea leaf and of various processes used in the manufacture of the finished product, with descriptions of machinery used.

The third edition of this useful work incorporates recent scientific work and contains a list of the major tea research institutes and their programs. A statistical review indicates the pattern of current sales and consumption, and the book has an extensive bibliography and useful index. This book will be primarily useful to those engaged in any aspect of the tea industry, but it should also be of interest to students of economic botany and of world agriculture in general.

Sydney S. Greenfield Rutgers University

NORSTOG, KNUT AND ROBERT W. LONG CO. Plant Biology. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. 1976. vi + 585 pp. illust. $14.50.

Designed to be an introductory text for a one-semester course in plant biology, this book seems admirably suited to its purpose. It begins with the role of plants in human history and of botany in modern science. Early chapters discuss the origin of life, evolution, cellular biology, photosynthesis, respiration, energy relations and ecology. The mid-section discusses algae, fungi, bryophytes, primitive vascular plants and gymnosperms, while the last set of chapters covers the biology of flowering plants with final chapters on genetics and on growth and development. The classification of Cronquist is used. There is repeated emphasis on evolution and on plants


and human affairs, and the book is profusely illustrated with excellent diagrams and photographs. The text is written in a lucid and interesting style and set in easily readable type. Each chapter has a heading of contents, a summary, discussion questions and a list of supplementary readings. There is a useful glossary and index.

This is a fairly well balanced text, but it leaves some things to be desired. Considering the ample detail given to most other aspects of plant biology, more on the physiology of the flowering plant is needed. For example. there is no mention of mineral nutrition, solution cultures or hydroponics. Nevertheless, it is good to see a new introductory text that includes important aspects of current botanical science without sacrificing adequate treatment of the diversity of the plant kingdom, and moreover, in a proper evolutionary sequence.

This text should give the beginning student a more comprehensive and much better balanced understanding of the nature of plant biology than other recently published books on the same level.

Sydney S. Greenfield Rutgers University

BONNER, JAMES AND JOSEPH E. VARNER (eds.). Plant Biochemistry, Third Edition. Academic Press, N.Y. 1976. 923 pp., illust. $24.50.

Bonner and Varner's Plant Biochemistry, 3rd edition, has successfully achieved a balance between the old and new. An attempt by the authors has been made to present comprehensively each topic by starting initially with general principles and ending with current state of the subject. The text is divided into 26 chapters which are categorized into three sections: the plant cell—substructures and subfunctions; basic metabolism; and autotrophy. Each section attempts to deal with the particular areas of biochemistry peculiar to plants as well as stressing the degree of similarity between plants and other organisms.

Some topics which appeared in the first edition are omitted; however, most of those have been regrouped in a fashion which stresses their interrelationships. Several new topics, i.e., microbodies, vacuoles, nucleic acid metabolism, and microtubules, which were omitted or only briefly discussed in the earlier edition, are now full chapters. In keeping with the earlier edition, each topic is discussed by recognized authorities in the field in a concise and readable manner. Each chapter is accompanied by charts, tables, graphs, and photographs which con-tribute to text clarification. The text, so composed, is an asset to both plant biochemists and physiologists. It should make an excellent text for advanced graduate students to study alone or for adaptation in graduate level courses.

Joe H. Cherry Purdue University

MEIDNER, HANS, AND DAVID W. SHERIFF. Water and Plants. John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. 1976. 143 pp. $5.95.

Water and Plants is a brief, well illustrated. modern discussion of plant water relations treated on a thermodynamic basis. The authors first present a classical description of the unique properties of water and some concepts of thermodynamics. Subsequent chapters cover Water Vapor and the Atmosphere, Water Movement Through the Plant, Water in Soils, Water in Cells and Tissues, and the Role of Water in Plants. This sequence (transpiration covered first, plant water transport second, soil water third, and cell water relations last) is somewhat unorthodox, but is not confusing to the reader.

Of course, in such a brief book which attempts to cover numerous aspects of plant water relations, the authors are unable to devote much time to any specific aspect of the subject and conflicting theories are generally omitted. The authors have included a series of experiments at the end of each chapter which demonstrate the basic concepts covered in the chapter and are a valuable addition. This book, supplemented by numerous additional readings on pertinent topics, could serve as a nucleus of an upper level course in plant water relations.

John R. Donnelly University of Vermont

VAN DEN ENDE, H. Sexual Interactions in Plants. Academic Press, London. 1976. 186 pp., illust. $14.75.

This book is Volume 9 of Experimental Botany, an International Series of Monographs. The author's stated purpose was to explain selected experimental systems in plants where specific metabolites have been shown to control their sexual behavior. He has devoted four chapters to specific fungal systems; four to the algae; and one each to the ferns and flowering plants.

This volume is not an outstanding contribution in that the presentations, although limited essentially to biochemical aspects of sexual interactions, are brief and sketchy. The undergraduate student may not have sufficient background to understand the material presented. On the other hand, the reader who is familiar with the topic may find the book unsatisfactory because the chapters are more summaries than discussions. The book will be of some value to researchers who are looking for an interesting problem in physiological-biochemical aspects of sex in plants as the author has endeavored to point out areas where further investigation is needed. The book is well illustrated and has a reasonable reference section.

Deana T. Klein St. Michael's College


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