PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
for 1977 2
Officers for 1977 2
of the Society 5
Plants and Man Course. Irving W. Knobloch 6
Beyond the Introductory Course: Plant Anatomy. James L. Seago 6
Conferences, Courses 8
Thai Orchid Species. H. Kamemoto and R. Sagarik 11
Algae: Structure, Reproduction and Evolution in Selected Genera. J.
Development and Function of Roots. J. G. Torrey and D. T. Clarkson (eds.) 11
Human Poisoning from Native and Cultivated Plants. J. W. Hardin and J. M.
Biology of Nitrogen Fixation. A. Quispel (ed.) 12
H. Wagner, Jr. Department of Botany University of Michigan
Arbor, Michigan 48104 313/764-1484
of Botany University of California Berkeley, California 94720 415/642-7036
K. Holmgren (1975-1979) New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458
of Agronomy and Range Sciences University of California Davis, California
State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 504/388-8485
JOURNAL OF BOTANY: Robert Ornduff (1975-1977)
R. Kaplan (1976-1978) Department of Botany
California 94720 415/642-4187
L. Culberson (1977-1979) Department of Botany
North Carolina 27706 919/684-2048; 684-3715
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY: *Ernest M. Gifford
of Botany University of California Davis. California 95616 916/752-6426; 752-0617
Persons so marked are members of the Council. EDITOR. PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN:
M. Klein (1976-1980)
of Botany University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont 05401 802/656-2930
JOURNAL OF BOTANY: :Richard A. Popham
OFFICERS FOR 1977 PAST PRESIDENT, 1976:
Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 201/932-2847
Botanical Garden 2315 Tower Grove Avenue St. Louis, Missouri 63110 314/ 772-7600
Delevoryas Department of Botany University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712 512/471-3329
SECTION: Chairman (1976-1978) :
T. Bonnett Department of Biology University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403
Arbor, Michigan 48109 313/764-1464
of Agronomy and Range Sciences University of California
to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1979):
Central Forest Experiment Station
of Forest Genetics
SECTION: Chairman (1977) :
North Carolina 27706 919/684-5544
Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 201/932-2844
of Biological Sciences University of Kentucky
Kentucky 40506 606/258-8770
to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1979):
Corners, Michigan 49060 616/671-5119
University Herbarium Tulane University
Orleans, Louisiana 70118 504/865-5191
of Botany 1735 Neil Avenue
State University Columbus, Ohio 43210 614/422-6095
to AJB Editorial Board (1973-1977) :
D. Rudolph Department of Botany 1735 Neil Avenue
State University Columbus, Ohio 43210 614/422-3082
Agricultural Exp. Station New Haven, Connecticut 06504 203/787-7421
of Botany University of Florida
Florida 32611 904/392-1096
York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458 212/220-8671
to the Council (1977-1978) :
of California Berkeley, California 94720 415/642-2923
to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1978) : Peter R. Day
Agricultural Exp. Station
Haven, Connecticut 06504
SECTION: Chairman (1977) :
State University East Lansing, Michigan 48823 517/355-4630; 332-6187
of Plant Sciences Indiana University
Indiana 47401 812/337-9455
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
Richard M. Klein, Editor
Department of Botany
University of Vermont
Burlington, VT. 05401
Donald Kaplan, University of California, Berkeley
Beryl Simpson, Smithsonian Institution
March 1977 Volume Tewnty-three Number
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc., Dr.Rirchie Bell, Department of Botany, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 26514.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical
Society of America are obtainable at the rate of$4.00 per year. Send orders
with checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.
Manuscripts for publication in Plant Science Bulletin should
be addressed to Richard M. Klein, Department of Botany, University of Vermont,
Burlington, VT. 05401. Announcements, notes, notes, short articles of general
interest to members of the Botanical Society of America and the general botanical
community at large will be considered for publication to the extent that the
limited space of the Bulletin permits.
Material submitted for publication should be typewritten, double-spaced,
and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent
issues of the Bulletin.
Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University
Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of Vermont,
Burlington, VT 05401. Second class postage paid at Burlington, VT.
to AJB Editorial Board (1976-1977) : Thomas N. Taylor
SECTION: Chairman (1977-1979): *James R. Rosowski
of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska 68508 402/472-3203
North Carolina 27706 919/684-3375
to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1979): Larry R. Hoffman
(1977-1979): *Anitra Thorhaug
of Microbiology University of Miami
(1977-1979): John L. Gallagher
Island, Georgia 31327 912/485-2332
to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1979): Joseph Arditti
of Developmental and Cell Biology University of California
(1977) : *Robert P. Adams Department of Botany
Collins, Colorado 80523
of Chemistry Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 504/388-4418
(1977-1978) : David Seigler
of Botany University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois 61801 217/333-7577
of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee 37916 615/ 974-2256
to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1978): Jean Langenheim
Cruz, California 95064
SECTION: Chairman (1977-1978) : Augustus E. DeMaggio Department of Biological
New Hampshire 03755
J. Gastony Department of Plant Sciences
University Bloomington, Indiana 47401
to AJB Editorial Board (1977-1978) : Dean P. Whittier
SECTION: Chairman (1977) :
Illinois University Edwardsville, Illinois 62025 618/692-3927
T. Horner, Jr.
of Botany and Plant Pathology Iowa State University
of Botany University of California Berkeley, California 94720 415/642-4187
to AJB Editorial Board (1975-1977) : Natalie W. Uhl
New York 14850
SECTION: Chairman (1976-1977) : *Marshall Johnston
of Botany University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712 512/471-4327
of Botany University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98195 206/543-8850
to AJB Editorial Board (1976-1978; William D'Arcy
Tower Grove Avenue
Louis, Missouri 63110
Woman's College Lynchburg, Virginia 24504
(1977): Donald Huffman
of Biology Central College
of Biological Sciences California State University
California 95819 916/454-6360; 454-6535
to AJB Editorial Board (1976-1980) S. N. Postlethwait
of Biological Sciences
Lafayette, Indiana 47907
(1977) : Charles Richards
of Botany University of Maine Orono, Maine 04473
(1977): *LeRoy K. Henry
Pennsylvania 15237 412/ 364-3206
SECTION: Chairman (1977) : Robert F. Thorne
Santa Ana Botanic Garden
N. College Avenue
(1977) : Kenton Chambers
of Botany Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331 503/ 754-4106
of Botany University of Montana Missoula, Montana 59801 406/243-2512
of Botany University of Montana Missoula, Montana 59801 406/243-5382
SECTION: Chairman (1977) :
of North Carolina Charlotte, North Carolina 28213 704/597-2315
(1975-1977): Dana Griffin III
of Activities Committee (1977) : Glenn Ray Noggle
Carolina State University
North Carolina 27607
By-laws of the Society provide that "all active members of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc., who have been members of the Society for a total of 25 years
are eligible for retired membership upon retirement from professional activities
. . . retired members shall be exempt from payment of annual dues. They shall
have all the privileges of active membership including receipt of the Flant
Science Bulletin and Yearbook, except that those who wish to continue receiving
the other publications of the Society (i.e., American Journal of Botany et
al.) may do so by payment of one-half the amount of the annual dues set for
Treasurer's Office keeps a complete* list of memberships, including the number
of years of membership. This historic document can serve to ascertain the
eligibility of members who may fit the "retired" or "retired sub-scriber"
category. The Treasurer should be contacted for further information.
Well, more or less; we try awfully hard!
thought for the day from the $$$ Treasurer:
made to the Botanical Society of America are deductible as provided in section
170 of the Internal Revenue Code. Bequests, legacies, devises, transfers or
gifts to the Botanical Society of America are deductible for Federal estate
and gift tax purposes under the pro-visions of sections 2055, 2106 and 2522
of the Code.
Plants and Man Course
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan
issues of the Bulletin have contained descriptions of general courses designed
to attract students to botany. Indeed, the June 1976 issue of PSB contains
three such articles, all very well done indeed. Each instructor has a different
background and faces different problems. Diversity of approach is therefore
to be expected. Our department has many fine offerings in botany including
a "General Botany" course. In a University of over 43,000, we found that we
had nothing in the plant area sufficiently elementary to be of interest to
majors in History, English, Psychology, Music and other areas and yet we felt
that many of these had a need and a desire for a "cosmic consciousness" acquaintance
with our field.
was decided, therefore, that we would be quite selective and only include
in our projected course such topics as have had or still have an impact on
man himself. We felt that once their interest had been aroused, at least some
of the students might be motivated to take one or more of our advanced offerings.
Botany 201 consisted of about 25 lectures and 3 tests. The course organizer
handled about 10 of the lectures and guest lecturers gave the others. Some
use was made of films and transparencies.
first topics covered were as follows: Man's Debt to Plants, Life History of
a Seed Plant, The Kinds of Plants and Plant Processes. These were of an introductory
nature and definitely non-technical. The next lecture was on Interesting Drug
Plants and told the story of Digitalis, Rauwolfia, Autumn Crocus, Ephedra,
Belladonna, Aloe and Dioscorea.
lectures were given on the use and abuse of "hard" drugs. A member of the
pharmacognosy department found an attentive audience as he discussed marijuana,
cocaine, peyote and opium (and its derivatives). Frequently we were able to
enlist a person on campus to talk on the social and psychological aspects
of drug use (as contrasted to medical effects).
fungi are of great interest and importance and one of our mycologists discussed
edible and poisonous fungi. Another expert lectured (with startling transparencies)
on those fungi which affect man (athlete's foot, blastomycosis and so forth).
Then a wheat rust film was shown and explained, followed by the intriguing
story of the potato famine. Before leaving the fungi, a period was spent on
the respiratory activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the impact this
has had on mankind. We offer no apology for discussing at this point the kinds
of beer, wine, whiskies, and liquors in existence and how they are made. One
could, if one chose to, go into the problem of alcoholism since it is definitely
a plant-oriented subject.
properly handled, the historical aspects of plants can hold the attention
of the non-major. Part of one lecture was entitled "King, Emperor and Opium"
and dealt with the contest between Great Britain and China over the opium
trade. A second lecture, "Cotton, Slavery and the Civil War," provided an
opportunity to discuss plant fibers and epidermal hairs and their value. A
third lecture in this series, "Herbs, Spices and Christopher Columbus," makes
the point that one purpose of the mission was to obtain rare spices from the
Orient. Therefore, in addition to the historical tale, the subject of old
and new world spices is explored. Although malaria is caused by a protozoan
which in turn is carried by the female mosquito, yet the early cure for the
malady was an extract of cinchona bark. Students seemed to be interested in
the history of the search for high-yielding strains of cinchona and related
aspects. There are few more depressing stories in existence than the one concerning
the exploitation of the South American Indian by the Rubber Barons when Hevea
was the principal source of rubber. Not only can one mention the gathering,
curing and shipping of the rubber, but a great deal of attention can be paid
to Henry Wickham's part in the ultimate establishment of rubber plantations
in the far east. Other latex-hearing plants are also mentioned here to round
out the theme. A film on the Bounty mutiny sets the stage for "Breadfruit
and the Mutiny on the Bounty". This topic is a splendid example of how history
and botany may dovetail.
lectures (with transparencies) on edible and poisonous wild plants and one
lecture (with student participation) on organic gardening set the stage for
the final lectures. One of these deals with the anatomy and physiology of
science ("Science and the Citizen"). How scientists work and the attitudes
they must employ is certainly news to our particular group of students. The
education of the public in this area at a time of anti-science, indeed, anti-intellectual
feeling, is of vital concern.
last three lectures, including a film, discuss the food problems of spaceship
earth at a time of growing concern for an ever-expanding population. The parts
that plants have played in the formation of our coal and oil, the Green Revolution,
and the quality of life (as it relates to overpopulation) are given due consideration
in this block.
textbook is available to adequately cover the varied subjects as given. We
felt that a small paperback such as Fuller and Ritchie's General Botany was
sufficient for the strictly botanical (traditional) aspects. Other required
texts were used, however, but these were placed in the Assigned Reading section
of the library.
one hour tests and a two hour final, all multiple choice, were the basis of
grading. With such a lengthy list of books to be consulted, it did not seem
fair to keep the students in a constant state of torment; accordingly, for
every assignment we listed the (in our opinion) most important points and
we did this in question form. We had about 350 questions in all, and the students
were in-formed that these same questions were a pool from which the test questions
would be taken. We did use 200 of the questions on the test, and it was our
feeling that this procedure constituted enough of a challenge. Questionnaires
distributed in the last period were returned with the comment that the grading
system was very fair.
Beyond the Introductory
Course: Plant Anatomy
SUNY, College at Oswego
plant scientists pay significant attention to their teaching activities is
abundantly clear from the number of articles and commentaries which have appeared
in the Plant Science Bulletin, CUEBS reports, and elsewhere. Yet, most of
the concerns involve methods for making
or more efficient the instruction of large groups of students in introductory
courses. It seems to me that too much emphasis has been placed on modifying
courses for the sake of efficiency and ease of the professor and system. There
is more to teaching botany than the demonstration and evaluation of accumulated
facts and theories: students have other needs which have too often been ignored.
I have seen articles on the meaningful participation of students in advanced
undergraduate courses (e.g., Thornton, 1972), I am concerned about the apparent
failure of botanists to engage students in activities that enable students
to appreciate and understand botanical science. Therefore, my purpose here
is to describe an approach to teaching plant anatomy whereby a student might
gain a better understanding and appreciation for the reasons and methods by
which ideas and facts are generated, in addition to learning the current status
of knowledge in this discipline.
FORMAT AND REQUIREMENTS—The plant anatomy course has been taught four
times in seven years to 41 students.
For the first three weeks of the semester, I give lectures providing an overview
of embryogeny, seed structure and germination, development and function of
meristems, primary and secondary growth, origin and structure of organs and
included tissues (root and shoot: dermal, ground, and vascular; primary and
secondary). After I deliver talks on selected aspects of these areas during
the middle of the term, each student gives a 20-30 minute talk on a fairly
narrow topic of his choice during the last weeks of the semester. The student
talks, representing one-fourth the course credit, are accompanied by an out-line
and a bibliography. The quality of these talks has been quite good, and the
discussions generated extend most talks to an hour.
text(s) is used to provide students with background, factual information,
ideas, and theories which are not introduced in the lectures, talks, and formal
labs. Laboratories: Formal labs are normally conducted for only
weeks. These introduce the same topics as above in developmental sequence,
and are of a demonstrative nature, using fresh materials where possible.
When tests are given, they are essay and/or oral, except for lab practicals,
and account for one-fourth the grade.
Approximately half the course grade is based upon a lab research problem and
paper. During the over-view period, students get ideas of the kinds of topics
and areas for potential anatomical study. After establishment of the problem
and determination of procedures to he employed, the student and I decide in
advance if the problem is within the scope of the course and our physical
limitations and is a significant and appropriate anatomical problem. At the
end of the formal lab period, the students are expected to begin the lab phases
of their research problems. The rest of the semester is spent pursuing the
lab research problem. Students are strongly encouraged to share information
and ideas on their problems during this time.
major benefit derived from the problems is that most students learn standard
microtechnique procedures in order to solve their problems. They perform microscopic
measurements and drawings, and about a quarter of them have learned photomicrography
for the presentation of their results. Thus, microtechniques assume a role
in the solution of a problem rather than being an end in themselves.
research paper is due the last day of classes and is written in standard scientific
format. Because each student has already given a talk with a literature review,
the introduction and discussion sections of the paper do not usually contain
a large list of references, but it is expected that each discussion contain
some comparisons to a limited number of reports. 1 read a draft of any paper
to provide the student with constructive comments on content, grammar, and
style. The communicative aspects of science thus assume a greater importance.
selected titles of research papers are: Vascular transition in Cucumis; Tendril
ontogeny in Passiflora; The origin and development of periderm in the Fuchsia
stem; Cortical disintegration in the roots of Pamianthe peruviana; A study
of the origin of adventitious roots in Peltandra virginica; and Morphology
and development of the rhizome of Psilotum nudum.
for an investigative approach to teaching have been provided by Holt et al.
(1969), Thornton (1972), and Cox and Davis (1972). My reasons for adopting
this approach to teaching are: to place students in situations whereby decisions
of relative significance must be made and self-discipline achieved; to facilitate
learning and creativity by letting students do things potentially very interesting
and rewarding to them-selves; to place students in positions where they can
better appreciate and understand why and how scientists generate ideas and
information; and to help them develop concepts of scientific communication.
decision-making process is vitally important: students need to make hard decisions
in order to grasp science; the core of scientific process revolves around
decision-making. While students need some assistance. their major decisions
on the problems, procedures, and work are not taken away. Floundering, inherent
in formulation of problems and procedures and later during collection of data
and observations, is an important aspect of this decision-making process.
Some degree of floundering is useful in the attainment of the self-discipline
in intellect and work habits necessary to pursue a scientific problem. Discipline
which is self-generated, self-directed, and self-perpetuated seems very meaningful
to a student. Students need courses and programs which give them responsibility,
decision-making roles, and the opportunity to practice intellectual autonomy
and self-discipline (cf., Cox and Davis, 1972).
addition to the pedagogical significance which I attach to decision-making
and self-discipline, I should like to reinforce the notion of active participation
by students in research activities (cf. Holt et al., 1969), those things which
scientists engage in and which they relate to others. Certainly, we do not
expect many students to become active scientists, but all of us want our students
to under-stand the processes of science. What better way can this he accomplished
than by active participation in research activities? Such participation seems
to have escaped most of our science students, even majors. The result is that
there are large numbers of college graduates with science backgrounds who
have not really experienced the frustrations, successes, and failures of science
and thus do not understand science.
must be emphasized that involvement in "original research" is not asked for.
The problems can be simple or complex, rehashes of earlier works, or they
may even involve a problem for which credit is given in a concur-
enrolled course, e.g., Microtechniques. For the student, the work is original
and he can begin to determine its overall significance by way of the literature
review and my help and criticism. Providing students problems or directing
them to problems reduces creativity and intellectual curiosity. Therefore,
I do not suggest topics for study in this course and the students do not work
on research areas of interest to me except by their own choices.
research paper and talk are important because they give students chances to
engage in serious scientific communication and meaningful library work and
to see the needs for adequate verbal and writing skills in botanical science.
As a result, it is often easier to get students to take appropriate English
or Public Address courses for improvement or enhancement of writing and/or
many students completing this course have memorized fewer anatomical facts
than have most anatomy students, their research problems, talks, etc., pro-vide
excellent opportunities for significant and meaningful accumulation of knowledge.
The achievement of some minimal standard of knowledge is thus not sought.
conclusion, the major obstacle, especially to handling two such courses concurrently
(Plant Anatomy, Plant Kingdom), is to work within the time limits and the
energy and sanity levels of the instructor.
D. D., and L. V. Davis. 1972. The context of biological education: The case
for change. CUEBS, AIBS Education Division, Washington, D.C.
C. E., P. Abramoff, L. V. Wilcox, Jr., and D. L. Abell. 1969. Investigative
laboratory programs in biology. Bioscience 19: 1104-1107.
J. W. 1972. The laboratory: A place to investigate. CUEBS, AIBS Education
Division, Washington, D.C.
Hampshire. Specialized courses in Underwater Re-search and in Introduction
to Marine Science for Teachers will be given twice during the season and individualized
research in marine biology will also be available. Contact Shoals Marine Laboratory,
202 Plant Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON PLANT CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE will be held
at the University of Calgary on August 20-25, 1978. Information and Circular
No. 1 can be obtained from the IAPTC Congress, Conference Office, University
of Calgary. Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada.
NORTHEAST SECTION OF THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY will hold its field meetings on
3-7 July 1977 at the University of Maine; contact Dr. L. K. Henry, 1023 Whitley
Drive, Pittsburgh. PA 15237.
INTERNATIONAL MYCOLOGY CONGRESS will be held 27 August-3 Sept. 1977 at the
University of South Florida, Tampa. Contact Melvin S. Fuller, Department of
Botany, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOCIETY annual meeting will be held at the University of
Guelph on 25-28 July 1977. Contact R. J. Copeman, Department of Plant Science,
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
SOCIETY OF CANADA annual meeting will be held at the University of Manitoba
on 27-29 June 1977. Contact P. J. McAlpine, Department of Genetics, 685 Bannatyne
Ave., Winnipeg, Manitoba.
INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES annual meeting will be held 21-26 August
1977 at Michigan State University, East Lansing. Information on registration.
housing, field trips, tours and transportation may be obtained by writing
the AIBS Meetings Department, 1401 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209. The
in-formation will also be found in the March 1977 issue of BioScience.
ON PLANT CELL AND TISSUE CULTURE will be held 6-9 Sept. 1977 at Ohio State
University by the College of Biological Sciences in co-operation with the
College of Agriculture and Home Economics. Distinguished speakers from several
countries will lecture, and the program includes discussions on the physiology
of growth and morphogenesis, genetics and applications to agriculture. Contact
The Fourth Annual Colloquium, College of Biological Sciences, 484 W. 12th
Ave., The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
ORGANIZATION FOR TROPICAL STUDIES is offering its fourteenth consecutive year
of graduate courses in tropical science in Central America. The courses are
field-oriented, intensive and conducted at the graduate level. Tropical Biology
courses will be taught in Costa Rica. Contact Organization for Tropical Studies,
P.O. Box DM, Duke Station, Durham, NC 27706.
TO MARINE SCIENCE courses, broadly oriented four-week courses for undergraduates,
will be offered by the Shoals Marine Laboratory operated cooperatively by
Cornell University and the University of
1979 The National Aeronautics and Space Administration will begin launches
every half year of new scientific satellites called "LDEF" (Long Duration
Exposure Facility). Each large, cylindrical structure, about 14 feet by 30
feet, can mount over 70 experimental packages and will remain in orbit for
at least six months, when another shuttle will retrieve it, return it to earth
and NASA will then send the experimental packages back to their owners. Interested
botanists should send their ideas to Universities Space Research Association,
Attention Dr. M. H. Davis, Box 3006, Boulder, Colo. 80307. (And away we go
into the wild blue yonder!—ed.)
New York Botanical Garden announces the publication of Taxonomic Literature
11, A-G by Frans A. Stafleu and Richard S. Cowan. The 1100 page book lists
plant scholars and their works and detailed information is also provided on
outstanding botanical explorers and collectors.
Council for International Exchange of Scholars, 11 Dupont Circle, N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20036 has prepared a Directory of visiting lecturers and research scholars.
Press announces the initiation of Experimental Mycology. An International
Journal with Edward C. Cantino as editor-in-chief. Volume 1, No. 1 appeared
1977 and subsequent numbers will appear quarterly.
Physiological Section of the Society is establishing a prize for the best
student paper in plant physiology to be given at the annual meeting. The paper
must be chiefly research of a graduate student. Additional information can
be obtained from Anitra Thorhaug, Chairperson of the Physiological Section,
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Miami, P.O.
Box 520875, Miami, FL 33152.
articles of interest to botanists that will appear in BioScience include:
D. B. Botkin—"Forests. Lakes and the Anthropogenic Production of Ca,"
and T. W. Mulroy and P. W. Rundel—"Annual Plants: Adaptation to Desert
Societas Internationalis de Plantarum Demographia has agreed to act as distributor
of Russian to English translations of scientific papers. Additional information
can be obtained from Dr. P. A. Werner, W. K. Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan
State University, Hickory Corners, MI 49060.
Gazetteer of the Chihuahuan Desert Region and Supplement to the Chihuahuan
Desert Flora is now avail-able from Dr. J. S. Hendrickson, P.O. Box 8495,
University Station, Austin, TX 78712. The Gazetteer consists of a computer
printout of 22,941 place names plus 22 maps.
Torrey Botanical Club Bulletin will appear quarterly rather than bimonthly
beginning with volume 104. The number of pages per issue will be increased
so that essentially the same number of pages each year will he published.
The Bulletin's pages are open to active, family or life members who wish to
publish in any area of botany and book reviews are also invited. The Index
to American Botanical Literature will be continued. The present editor is
H. David Hammond, Department of Biological Sciences. State University College
at Brockport, Brockport, NY 14420.
vascular plant specimens advertised in ex-change for cryptogams and lower
vascular plants from Texas A&M University in the December 1976 issue of
the Plant Science Bulletin are available from the Biology Department Herbarium,
Department of Biology, and not the Tracy Herbarium, (TAES) Department of Range
Science, curated by Dr. Frank Gould. The Curators regret any confusion that
may have arisen from the announcement.
your editor gets very lonely and wishes that he could hear from the membership.
Suggestions, criticisms, items of general interest and manuscripts are welcomed
from all members of the Society and their friends. Ernie Gifford, Editor of
the American Journal of Botany. has agreed that he will not publish any poetry
and I have agreed that I will not publish any science.
CHAIRMAN FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY is being sought at Miami University
for a five year renewable term. The department, with 15 faculty members, 30
graduate students and ca. 170 undergraduate majors, carries out an extensive
program of undergraduate and graduate instruction and research. Applicants
must have a reputation for excellence in research and teaching. Candidates
should send curriculum vitae and three letters of reference to Dr. Charles
M. Vaughn, Department of Zoology. 282 Upham Hall, Miami University, Oxford,
CHAIRMAN FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY AND MICROBIOLOGY is being sought at
the University of Oklahoma. An established scientist with demonstrated leadership
and proven research record is desired. Applicants must provide evidence of
teaching credentials at both undergraduate and graduate levels. The department
has 20 faculty members. Candidates should send a curriculum vitae, list of
publications and three letters of reference to Dr. Paul G. Risser, Department
of Botany and Microbiology, 770 Van Vlect Oval, University of Oklahoma, Norman,
POSITION IN PLANT ECOLOGY at the State University of New York at Binghamton
will be filled for September 1977. Teaching duties include courses in advanced
ecology, introductory field ecology and seminars in the area of the applicant's
research interest. Candidates should send a curriculum vitae, reprints, preprints,
a list of grant proposals, and a statement on research and teaching interests
to Chairperson, Plant Ecology Search Committee, Department of Biological Sciences,
State University of New York at Binghamton. Binghamton, NY 13901.
PROFESSORSHIPS IN MOLECULAR BOTANY and/or ULTRASTRUCTURE and in PLANT ECOLOGY
are being sought at the University of Massachusetts. Ph.D. degrees are required
and post-doctoral experience is preferred. Candidates should have demonstrated
ability and potential in teaching and research. The positions will involve
teaching and active research in area of speciality, direction of graduate
students, and contributions to the general departmental teaching program including
introductory-level courses. Curriculum vitae, brief statement of research
interests and three letters of reference should be sent to Head, Department
of Botany, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003.
OPPORTUNITIES IN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT are being offered by the Kasetsart University
of Thailand at the Kog-Ma watershed management research project, a 65 ha.
area in the province of Chiengmai at an elevation of 1300-1600 m. Facilities
include an onsite research station, monitored weirs and several climate stations.
Additional information can be obtained from the Department of Conservation.
Faculty of Forestry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand.
PLANT MORPHOLOGIST is being sought by the Department of Biology of the University
of California, Los Angeles. The position is for an Assistant Professor with
commitments to teaching and research. Teaching responsibilities include participation
in the introductory biology course and advanced courses in plant morphology
plus seminars in the area of the applicant's research interests. A curriculum
vitae, list of publications, the names of three references and a summary of
research interest should be sent to Chairman of the Search Committee, Department
of Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024.
PHYCOLOGIST/ALGAL BIOLOGIST is being sought by the Department of Botany, University
of Rhode Island. The area of specialization is flexible, but the appointee
should be able to teach undergraduate and graduate level courses in marine
and fresh-water phycology and develop a strong research program that complements
of the departmental faculty. Statements of professional interest, curriculum
vitae, reprints and names of three referees should be sent to Marilyn M. Harlin,
Chair-man of the Search Committee, Department of Botany, University of Rhode
Island, Kingston, R.I. 02881.
TECHNOLOGIST WITH PLANT PHYSIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND is being sought by the Weyerhaeuser
Co. The applicant will assist with planning and execution of experiments on
the reproductive processes of loblolly pine and will assist with efforts to
improve vegetative propagation of loblolly and shortleaf pine. A M.S. is preferred,
although both B.S. or Ph.D. applicants will be considered. Contact Dr. Michael
Greenwood, Weyerhaeuser Co., Hot Springs Forestry Research Center, P.O. Box
1060, Hot Springs, AR 71901.
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PROGRAM of higher education and research training
awards fellow-ships to support independent research in the Institution's collections,
facilities and laboratories. Supported by stipends of $10,000 per year plus
research allowances; research scholars and doctoral candidates are invited
to apply to the Office of Academic Studies, Smithsonian Institution, Washington,
LECTURERS IN BOTANY are being sought by the Universiti Malaya. A lecturer
in experimental taxonomy of vascular plants with special reference to techniques
such as cytology, phytochemistry, computer-assisted systematives and interest
in evolutionary studies is desired. A lecturer in cryptogamic botany with
emphasis on the Malesian flora is also desired. Both positions are open. Positions
are tenable for 3 years with possibility (not automatic) for renewal. Applicants
must hold Ph.D. degrees. For application forms write (Airmail) to The Registrar,
Academic Positions, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, 22-11,
FACULTY MEMBER IN PLANT DEVELOPMENT AND APPLIED BOTANY is being sought by
the Department of Biology, Millersville State College. Applicants with doctorates
should be interested in teaching biology to non-science students and biology
majors and in developing undergraduate and graduate courses in their speciality.
Opportunity exists to participate in community-oriented education and to engage
in research. Experience in horticulture or plant pathology desirable. Rank
depends on qualifications. Reply by April 15, 1977 to Dr. A. C. Hoffman, Chairperson
of the Search Committee, Department of Biology, Millersville State College,
Millersville, PA 17551.
the annual banquet of the Botanical Society in June 1976, three members of
the Society joined the ranks of Merit Awardees. The first awards were made
in 1956 at the 50th anniversary of the Society and one or more have been presented
each succeeding year. The botanists selected by the awards committee for 1976
RICK, University of California, Davis "for major work basic to economic importance
involving both the cytology and genetics of crop plants and for spreading
his knowledge and capabilities as an authority on this subject to many places
in the world."
WEATHERWAX of Indiana University "for long continued devotion to gaining an
understanding of the probable origin and evolution of one of our most important
crop plants, Zea /nays, and for ancillary information essential to comprehending
the problems in dealing with and improving this most important grain."
W. WHITAKER of the U.S. Department of Agriculture "for distinguished contributions
to the understanding of economic plants, notably their improvement, and for
a unique contribution in interpreting this understanding in terms of their
domestication and their influence on the development of civilizations."
Darbaker Award for meritorious work in the study of microscopical algae was
made to KARL R. MATTOX and KENNETH STEWART of Miami University "for their
cooperative research contributions which have greatly enhanced the understanding
of the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of numerous taxa of
microscopical green algae."
New York Botanical Award for an outstanding contribution to fundamental aspects
of botany was made to ALBERT C. SMITH. of the University of Massachusetts
"for distinguished contributions to our understanding of tropical floras and
primitive angiosperms. His paper, "The genus Micropiper (Piperaceae)" in J.
Linn. Soc. Bot. 71: 1-38. 1975, describes research which forms almost a model
study for completeness of its design, including nomenclature, distribution
patterns, taxonomy, anatomy of apical meristems, SEM of pollen and photomicrographs
of pubes-cent characters."
Henry Allan Gleason Award of the New York Botanical Garden was made to G.
LEDYARD STEBBINS "evolutionary theorist par excellence, whose books, papers,
lectures and personal conversations have for more than 40 years provided guidance
to plant taxonomists and stimulated them to think about the theoretical foundation
of their artful science."
Jessie M. Greenman Award of the Alumni Association of the Missouri Botanical
Garden is given in recognition of the best paper in plant systematics based
on a doctoral dissertation published during the previous year. The 9th annual
award was presented to S. ROB GRAD-STEIN of the Institute for Systematic Botany
of the University of Utrecht, Netherlands, for his dissertation, "A taxonomic
monograph of the genus Acrolejeunea (Hepaticae)," published as Bryophytorutn
Bibliotheca, Volume 4.
Isabel C. Cookson Paleobotanical Award was presented to ELIZABETH WHEELER
of North Carolina State University for her paper, "Some fossil dicotyledonous
woods of Yellowstone National Park."
George R. Cooley Award of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists is given
for the best paper on plant systematics presented at the annual meeting. It
was presented to ROBERT C. GARDNER of Ohio State University for his paper,
"Patterns of adaptive radiation in Lipochaeta DC (Compositae) of the Hawaiian
Award of the Pteridological Section for the best paper dealing with any aspect
of pteridology was presented to HAROLD W. ELMORE of the University of Waterloo
for "Interaction of auxin, gibberellin and cytokinin with ethylene in the
control of apogamous bud induection in Pteridium aquilinurn (L.) Kuhn."
O. Duncan, who received his doctorate from the University of Michigan. has
accepted a position at the University of California, Berkeley. Duncan's dissertation
was concerned with the biosystematics of the Ranunculus hispidus complex.
H. AND R. SAGARIK. Beautiful Thai Orchid Species. Published by the Orchid
Society of Thailand, GPO Box 953, Bangkok, Thailand. 1965.
Haruyuki Kamemoto is Professor of Horticulture at the University of Hawaii,
former Head of the Department, and the outstanding orchid cytologist of our
time. His collaborator, Dr. Rapee Sagarik, is Professor of Horticulture and
Rector at Kasetsart University, founder of the Thailand Orchid Society, and
an orchid breeder and grower. Thailand is a country rich in beautiful orchids.
This book brings all three of them together.
book does not attempt to describe all Thai orchid species (but suggests The
Orchids of Thailand by G. Seidenfaden and T. Smitinand for those who are interested).
Rather it describes and illustrates 20 of the more spectacular genera. Descriptions
are complete, lucid, well-written and easy to read. The color photographs
are excellent. In addition, the book contains accounts and photo-graphs of
collecting expeditions, an account of Bangkok's weekend orchid market and
an Appendix listing the chromosome numbers of Thai orchid species. This is
not only an excellent book, but also a beautiful one. It will enrich any library
and could serve as a welcome gift for any plant or orchid lover.
Arditti University of California, Irvine
J. Green Algae: Structure, Reproduction and Evolution in Selected Genera.
Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts. 1975.
his introduction, Pickett-Heaps states: "The book has become a personal record
of a biologist's fascination with the beauty and variety of algal cells, and
his sense of wonder at how they grow, reproduce, and order their lives." What
follows is an alluring combination of opulent illustrations, factual information,
and stimulating ideas. The outlook is that of a cytologist, and comparative
aspects of cell ultrastructure are the primary concern in evolutionary speculations.
selection of organisms is based largely, but not exclusively, on those algae
which Pickett-Heaps and his co-workers have personally examined. Genera or
groups which have not been extensively studied with the electron microscope
are not considered. Chlamydornonas, Volvox, several unicellular and colonial
Chlorococcales, certain genera of the Ulotrichales (sensu lato), the Oedogoniales,
several genera of the Zygnematales, and Chara are treated in depth; siphonalean
orders are conspicuously absent.
the text, Pickett-Heaps' bias toward microtubules and associated systems is
apparent. A major theme is the diversity of mitotic and cytokinetic details
among the green algae. The structure of the motile cells and the structure
and development of the cell wall receive particular attention. To those who
are not familiar with the previous publications of Pickett-Heaps, Mattox,
and their co-workers, the elimination of heterotrichous chaetophoralean algae
such as Fritschiella from the pre-embryophyte stock may seem surprising. On
the basis of the behavior of microtubules during cytokinesis and of the symmetry
of the motile cell, Pickett-Heaps had earlier postulated that evolution of
the green algae proceeded along two different pathways. This thesis is elaborated
here and has received strong support from the ultrastructural studies of Mattox
and other investigators. The bulk of green algae thus far examined are placed
by Pickett-Heaps in a "phycoplast" line of evolution characterized by ephemeral
spindle fibers, a phycoplast (a system of transversely oriented microtubules
which lie in the plane of cytokinesis) and by motile cells which have radial
symmetry. Other green algae, including Klebshormidium, Coleochaete, the Zygnematales
and the Charales, are characterized by spindle fibers persisting through telophase
and by motile cells which are asymmetric in the insertion of the flagella—features
also characterizing embryophytes. Pickett-Heaps suggests that the primitive
green algae are not among the Volvocales (which belong to the phycoplast line)
but among the diverse flagellates, as the prasinophytes (e.g., Pedinornonas).
From an archetypal green flagellate, one line led to the Zygnematales, Coleochaete,
the charophytes and the embryophytes. This hypothesis, based upon ultra-structural
details, has received strong support from biochemical studies. To date, all
organisms in the embryophyte line of evolution have been found to possess
glycolate oxidase whereas those algae in the phycoplast line lack this enzyme
and most possess glycolate dehydrogenate. Many current notions on the classification
and evolution of green plants need to be radically altered.
outstanding feature of the book is the wealth of illustrations (approximately
860), most taken from previous publications. Many of the scanning electron
micro-graphs are stunning in their beauty, and an appendix with paired micrographs
of desmids and other phycological objets d'art for stereo-viewing is included.
While the large amount of blank space in the book helps to set off some of
the photographs, I felt that it could have been used a little more judiciously
to provide better coordination between the placement of text and illustrations.
For example, discussion of Bulbochaete begins on p. 282 and ends on p. 314
but the illustrations do not begin until p. 311 and run through p. 356 with
many pages blank except for the legends.
there will be details and speculations which specialists may find controversial.
Students in my phycology course found the book a delight and it will see service
in our plant diversity course as well. I wholeheartedly recommend it for every
college library and for the personal libraries of plant cytologists, morphologists
W. Cook University of Vermont
J. G. AND D. T. CLARKSON (eds.). The Development and Function of Roots. Academic
Press, N.Y. 1975. 618 pp. illust. $32.25.
is virtually impossible to review comprehensively a book of this type. Drs.
Torrey and Clarkson, in organizing the third Cahot Symposium, assembled 29
plant scientists whose research encompassed almost all aspects of the structure,
morphogenesis, physiology and ecology of roots. Each participant reviewed
his field of specialization at a level considerably higher than that of an
advanced text and just a bit lower than that of a review in Annual Re-views
of Plant Physiology. In choosing the level of cover-age, the authors very
wisely allowed themselves room to introduce ideas, concepts and, in some cases,
speculations that belong in a book of this sort and are rarely entertained
in a monographic presentation. The result is, frankly, splendid. There is
adequate coverage of the pertinent literature, mostly recent publications
in the field, to provide
base for graduate courses that include the development and function of roots.
The research worker can find enough ideas for a lifetime of intensive study.
The book is very well edited, and the jarring juxtaposition of varying styles
of writing is kept to a minimum. Typographical and egregious errors are few
and far between, the printing and binding are more than adequate, and photographs
are satisfactory, although not sparkling.
would have desired more coverage on mycorrhiza in view of the growing realization
that this fungal-root association may be basic to water uptake by woody perennials,
but several recent volumes fill this gap. Having been bothered for many years
by the apparent absence of root hairs from many plants growing in soil and
the positive statements in texts about the role of epidermal hair cells in
water uptake, I looked in vain for a discussion of this matter. This is an
observation, not a criticism.
M. Klein University of Vermont
JAMES W. AND JAY M. ARENA. Human Poisoning from Native and Cultivated Plants.
Second edition. Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina. xii + 194 pp.,
illus., index. 1974.
book should be dedicated to all those food nuts who go after the wild asparagus
armed only with the naivete and abandon of wood sprites. If you are bent on
savoring natural goodies from the great out-of-doors, this is a guidebook
to take with you.
book includes numerous lists of poisonous plants categorized broadly under
Allergies, Dermatitis, Internal Poisoning. The many black and white line drawings
of flowering plants are simple, but emphasize the morphological characters
that make a meaningful identification possible. Photographs, both black and
white and in color, of a number of important poisonous plants also add to
the general usefulness of this book. The bibliography is subdivided into general
references and manuals listed by U.S. state and Canada. A brief glossary and
line drawings of types of flowers and leaves, leaf shape and margins should
be of great help to the non-taxonomic botanist or non-scientist.
botanist who is asked for information on poisonous plants would do well to
have a desk copy of this volume.
T. Klein St. Michael's College, Vermont
A. (Editor). The Biology of Nitrogen Fixation. North Holland Publishing Company,
recent years numerous volumes on biological nitrogen fixation have been published.
This is hardly surprising. Recent advances in understanding the biochemistry
of the process, transfer of the nil gene controlling the enzyme nitrogenase
between various procaryotes, the natural occurrence of a nitrogen-fixing association
between roots of a non-leguminous plant and Rhizobium, and the demonstration
of nitrogen fixation by free-living rhizobia have rekindled interest in the
process. In addition, the world-wide specter of impending food shortages has
created a plethora of crash programs on various aspects of biological nitrogen
fixation in the expectation this may provide an energy-cheap source of nitrogen
for plant growth.
Editor assembled an imposing array of experts to discuss the multifaceted
nature of biological nitrogen fixation in both free-living and symbiotic systems.
Although the volume is devoted primarily to the biological aspects of the
problem, a 100-page section at the end of the book deals with the biochemistry,
genetics and regulation of nitrogen fixation.
chapter by R. H. Burris on methodology is a welcome summary for the experimentally
inclined reader. The free-living N2-fixers are dealt with both from the view-point
of their activities as studied with pure cultures, in the rhizosphere and
in the phyllosphere. The Arnon and Yoch contribution on photosynthetic bacteria
is excessively devoted to the photosynthetic process, with nitrogen fixation
peripheral, rather than vice versa.
systems are treated effectively by Millbank (blue-greens), Vincent (Rhizobium),
and Bond (actinomycetes) and the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis are thoroughly
discussed by several authors. Appleby provides a fine account of the role
of leghemoglobin. A theme which pervades many of the accounts is the possibility
of extending the process to new plant systems and a chapter on the genetics
of diazotrophs points to some of the exciting possibilities which molecular
biology and genetic engineering may render into realities in the future.
volume of 769 pages combined with the linguistics of 22 authors from 7 countries
poses severe problems. Considering the immensity of the editorial chore, the
volume is well edited. Professor Quispel is to be congratulated for producing
the modern sequel to the classic volume on nitrogen fixation of the 30's by
Fred, Baldwin and McCoy.
S. Silver University of South Florida