PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
22 No. 4
Sex Discrimination in Botany and the Biological Sciences. Jean E. Simmons 38
W. Long, 1927-1976. Clinton J. Dawes and Knut Nortog 39
Environment and Man: To Be Saved or Betrayed? Joe E. Winstead 40
of the Society 41
of the Sections 41
Conferences, Courses 41
in Saline Environments. A, Poljakofl and J. Gale (eds.) 43
Weed Control. A. S. Crafts 43
Scanning Electron Microscope Study of Green Plants. John N. A. Loll 43
Complete Book of Greenhouse Gardening. Ian G. Walls 43
Anatomy. Forrest F. Stevenson and Thomas R. Mertens 44
Plants: An Introduction to Modern Botany. Third Edition. Victor A. Greulach and J.
Edison Adams 44
Principles of Field Crop Production. Third Edition. James H. Martin, Warren H. Leonard
and David L. Stamp 44
of Flowers—A Photographic Text-atlas. R. Saltier 44
Shoot Apex and Leaf Growth. R. F. Williams 45
Models in Plant Physiology. J. H. M. Thornley 45
Sunflower. Charles B. Heiser, Jr. 46
and Plant Growth. H. N. Krishnamoorthv 46
Genetics and Evolution. Paul Grun 46
and Plant Ecology. I. R. Etlierington 47
in Plant Physiology. Peter B. Kaufman, John Labavitch, Anne
Anderson-Prouty and Nafati S. Gosheh 47
Manipulations with Plant Material. Loden Ledoux (ed.) 47
of Ions by Plant Roots. D. J. F. Bowling 47
Single Cells to Plants. E. Thomas and M. R. Davey 48
SEX DISCRIMINATION IN BOTANY AND THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
E. Simmons Department of Chemistry, Upsala College "Dear God,
boys better than girls? 1 know you are one, but please try and he fair:
against women in the United States is understandable, but inexcusable; our
population is 51.3% female. Consider the economic and psychological competition
to the male sex of millions of women with equal education, equal rights, equal
access to jobs, and equal ambitions. Conscious and subconscious maneuvers
to con-fine women to the lower rungs of the ladder, or to prevent them from
ever getting on it, are not entirely surprising.
such discrimination exist in botany? Interviews of women botanists provide
examples. A botanist working for the federal government since the fifties
said, When 1 first applied for a job. I asked about advancement for women,
and was told, 'We don't put women into administration.' " From another government
worker: The only way I got a step up was to persist, persist, make a nuisance
of my-self, until they promoted me to another part of the country."
botanist at a northeastern university stated that her department head 'realistically'
advises women students that they will earn less than men. A professor of botany
in a southcentral university said, "I've lived through years of watching men
get to be professors in one-third the time it takes us, and always with better
salaries. Now, in the financial squeeze, it is openly said that men should
get the jobs." One woman pointed out that it had cost her more than $ 175.000
during her career for the privilege of being female.
is sometimes accepted, and sometimes not recognized. An assistant professor
at a college told me. "There hasn't really been discrimination. Of course
the salaries for women are lower." And, "The only real problem during graduate
school was the attitude that no one would be surprised if a female did not
complete the degree." Her personal worth as a botanist was not disputed; a
number of women interviewed said that they were treated with respect as individual
scientists. Some with the doctorate were irritated at being called Miss or
Mrs. while their male colleagues were addressed as Doctor or Professor.
statistics support these comments? Women received 25.8% of the bachelor's
and 21.0% of the master's degrees, 1948 through 1960; by 1974 31.2%
and 30.5% (2). In 1973 and 1974 the 21.5% of women receiving doctorates
finally exceeded the 19.5% of the twenties, having gone through the usual
nadir of the fifties, in this case 11.8%. Figures in botany are slightly
lower. For example, from 1920 through 1972, 5,072 doctorates were earned in
botany, 16.1% by women; in 1973 and 1974, of the 391 earned, 19.9%
went to women.
marked advantage held by men in obtaining grants, assistantships, traineeships,
and fellowships in the biological sciences is beginning to disappear. Results
of an AIBS questionnaire show government support given about equally to men
and women, but in the universities a some-what greater proportion still to
men (3). It should be noted that surveys show. at all degree levels, women'
grades and test scores rate somewhat higher than those fo men. attributable
in part to the selectivity process.
1970 women made up 38.6% of those with bache lor's degrees and 32.5%
of those with master's in th( 'experienced civilian labor force' of the biological
sciences .At the doctorate level they were 12.8% of the work force (The
doctorate level accounts for only 15% of all em ployed women bioscientists,
but 42% of the men.)
October 1973, 7.1% of full-time federally employee white collar workers
in the biological sciences were women. Of 121 botanists, 25.8% were women,
but for botany plus related fields, a dismal 4.4%. Some typical examples
are: plant pathology 2.6%; plant physiology 4.0%; micro-biology 29.8%;
horticulture 1.0%; forestry 0.1%; agronomy 0.3%; and agricultural
management 0.3%. Change may he under way in agriculture. Bachelor's and
master's degrees for women have increased from 1.9% to 9.8% between
1948-60 and 1974, doctorates from under one per cent to 4.8%. Great changes
in class registrations are reported. At Cornell. for example, only 2 women
took Agronomy 312. Feed Crops, in 1971; in 1976 there were 22. Job opportunities
for women in applied agriculture are reported as good, but some cautionary
comments need to he made. The legacy of the past leaves agricultural schools
with a very small number of women on the faculty. Statistics are not easy
to interpret, for food science is sometimes incorporated into the agricultural
women bioscientists work in educational institutions. In colleges and universities
the percentage of all female faculty members increased from 19.1% in 1960
to 22.0% in 1975. Women hold relatively fewer positions in universities
and more in two year colleges and less prestigious institutions; they are
employed more frequently at lower ranks and without tenure; their positions
are more apt to involve full-time teaching rather than teaching/ research;
and they are less likely to hold administrative positions or to he on important
councils and committees. The slight amelioration of the last several years
is now being undermined by `last hired, first fired.'
discrimination in the biosciences exists in industry, academe, and government.
In 1973, corrected for year of doctorate, part-time employment, and the 50%
lower percentage of women in high-paying private industry, average salaries
for women Ph.D.'s were only 75-80% those of men, from year of doctorate
in the thirties to 1972. Salaries for both sexes level off after twenty years
of service, the women's at the lower plateau (4). The dollar differential
is thus progressively larger with years of service and advancement in rank.
Furthermore, women are more apt to suffer unemployment. In 1973, for example,
only 0.6% of the men but 4.6% of the women were unemployed in the
must be remembered that these inequities persist in the face of legislation
making it illegal, under most circumstances, to discriminate in educational
opportunity, job opportunity, and salary on the basis of sex. Moreover, it
takes us into affirmative action to compensate for past inequities and provides
programs to overcome difficulties placed in the way of women. Change has,
for enforcement is not yet adequate.
have women in botany accomplished in the face of discrimination? Their work
in the early years of the United States has been well documented. The first
woman botanist in this country was probably Jane Colden (1724-1766) whose
father taught her the then new Linnaean system of classification. She produced
an illustrated flora of native plants of colonial New York. Other plant studies,
pamphlets, books, and `botanical catechisms' exemplify the major role played
by women. It is less well known that the first woman to receive a patent in
the U.S. was Mary Kies, in 1809, for a process of straw-weaving. The 8,596
patents granted to women in the 19th century included a number for agricultural
machinery. Mozans (5) claims that the cotton gin was invented by Catherine
Greene. wife of General Nathaniel Greene, and that she hired a boarder—guess
who? Eli Whitney—to build it and to apply for a patent in his name,
for fear of ridicule for her work. The earliest development of the mower and
reaper is similarly attributed to Mrs. A. H. Manning of Plainfield, New Jersey.
early accomplishments are surprising in view of restrictions on women's education.
The public schools of Boston, established in 1642, were not open to girls
until 150 years later. Girls did not have a public high school education in
New England until 1852. In 1837 Oberlin College admitted women to a degree
program. In 1856 Vassar became the first institution in America for the higher
education of women only (10) ; the first scientific institution to open its
doors to women was MIT in 1876.
in professional societies and women's organizations has traditionally served
as an administrative practice ground for women. There are a dozen botanical
and related groups affiliated with AAAS, but with very few female representatives.
Nor. unlike such organizations as the American Society for Cell Biology and
the American Society for Microbiology, do they seem to have produced committees
or caucuses of women. Perhaps women botanists find outlet in belonging to
women's professional societies as, for example, Sigma Delta Epsilon—Graduate
Women in Science, the Eloise Gerry (she was in forestry at the University
of Wisconsin) fellowships; American Women in Science; and the Federation of
Organizations for Professional Women, an umhrella structure of more than 100
women's societies, committees, and caucuses.
review of sex discrimination in botany and the biological sciences may appropriately
close with Plato's "Nothing can be more absurd than the practice which prevails
in our country of men and women not following the same pursuits with all their
strength and one mind, for thus the state, instead of being a whole, is reduced
to a half." But at another level, one can simply answer the first question
posed in this article and say, "No, Sylvia. They are not."
Stuart. Children's Letters to God.
Vetter. B. M. and E. L. Babco. 1975. Professional women and minorities. A
manpower resource service. Scientific Manpower Commission. Washing-ton, D.C.
Creager, J. G. 1973. Report of the AIBS manpower survey. AIBS Education Division.
National Institutes of Health. 1975. Analysis of sex differentials among
Ph.D.-holding bioscientists. Resources Analysis Memo No. 16. Washington,
Mozans, H. J. 1913. Women in Science. Reprinted in 1974 by the MIT Press,
ROBERT W. LONG, 1927-1976 Clinton J. Dawes and Knut Norstog
friend and colleague, Robert W. Long, died in his sleep July 21 after a long
and incapacitating illness. Bob Long was a complete person both in work and
play. He enjoyed good food, drink, books, music and company as well as mild
sports. He was something of a romantic and was addicted to history. No matter
where he journeyed in his botanical studies, he detoured to visit the scenes
of the past.
1973, Bob was on a heavy dialysis schedule (12 hours a week) due to nearly
complete loss of kidney function. He died after a normal day of'teaching,
research, and advising students. During his years of illness he continued
to work a full schedule although repeatedly urged to slow down. In the past
year, six books and at least five articles were published under his authorship
without relinquishing his teaching duties. He had his work and he was hound
to do it. How he managed and at what a cost in misery we can only imagine.
Yet he was always the optimist and, though not a stoic, took a dispassionate
view of his difficulties. To us his courage was completely magnificent, and
we will never forget it.
W. Long was horn in 1927 in Ashland, Kentucky, the only son of Naomi Long
and Robert W. Long, Sr., Chief Accountant for the Allied Chemical and Dye
Corporation. Bob completed grammar school and high school in Ironton, Ohio
and entered Ohio Wesleyan University where he studied under Claude Neal, a
botany teacher whom he greatly admired. In 1953. he married Gloria Overstreet
whom he met at the University of Indiana where she was an undergraduate music
major and he was a graduate student in botany working under the tutelage of
Charles Heiser. Bob and Gloria had four children: Celia Rose, 12; Robert W.,
15; Nancy Kathleen, 19; and Alice Ann, 20. After his graduation in 1950, he
at-tended the University of Indiana and received the Ph.D. in 1954. The title
of his dissertation is "A biosystematic investigation of Helianthus giganteus
L. and related species." Biosystematics continued to be his chief research
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
Richard M. Klein, Editor
Department of Botany
University of Vermont
Burlington, VT. 05401
Donald Kaplan, University of California, Berkeley
Beryl Simpson, Smithsonian Institution
December 1976 Volume Tewnty-two Number
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc., Dr. Barbara D. Webster, Department of Agronomy & Range
Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Society
can be obtained for $10.00 per year. Send orders with checks payable to "Botanical
Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.
Manuscripts for publication in Plant Science Bulletin should
be addressed to Richard M. Klein, Department of Botany, University of Vermont,
Burlington, VT. 05401. Announcements, notes, notes, short articles of general
interest to members of the Botanical Society of America and the general botanical
community at large will be considered for publication to the extent that the
limited space of the Bulletin permits. Material submitted must be typewritten,
double-spaced, and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style
of recent issues of the Bulletin.
Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University
Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of Vermont,
Burlington, VT 05401. Second class postage paid at Burlington, VT
and for a number of years he was occupied with investigations of breeding
systems in Helianthus. Later, he worked with the Acanthaceae, particularly
members of the genus Rue/11a, as well as floristic and ecological studies
of the vegetation of South Florida. During his career, he authored more than
35 technical papers, about 20 non-technical articles, a number of book chapters
and nine books. Foremost among the latter is the Flora of Tropical Florida
published in 1971 with Olga Lakela.
served as Instructor at Southern Methodist University (1953-54) ; Associate
Professor at Ohio Wesleyan University (1954-62); and as Professor at the University
of South Florida (1962-76). He played a major role in the establishment of
botanical sciences as a viable field in the University of South Florida, and
served as first Chair-man of the Department of Botany and Bacteriology. He
guided and developed proposals leading to establishment of undergraduate and
graduate degrees in Botanical Science and the establishment of the Ph.D. in
Biology at the University of South Florida. He became Curator of the Herbarium
in 1963, and Director in 1965. During his tenure the Herbarium became recognized
as one of the most important in the Southeast. Bob was directly instrumental
in the establishment of the University Botanical Garden in 1968 and served
as Chairman of the Botanical Garden Committee.
a tireless research scientist and author, he considered himself first and
foremost a teacher. He served botanical education at the national level as
a commissioner of CUEBS (Commission on Undergraduate Education in the Biological
Sciences) during the years 1970-1971, as a consultant for the Office of Biological
Education of AIBS, and as a panelist and consultant for the National Science
maintained an active interest in academic affairs in the University. He was
very active in the formation of a faculty constitution and senate at the University
of South Florida. He always advocated the position of faculty rights and spent
considerable time in support of his col-leagues, students and the University.
He served on many University committees, including the Undergraduate Council.
Because of his experience in directing and administering departmental affairs,
he acquired a reputation for consistent and wise counseling and his advice
was often sought.
was an active member of several professional societies including the Botanical
Society of America, American Association of University Professors, and the
Association for Tropical Biology. He served as Treasurer for the American
Society for Plant Taxonomists, Secretary and later President of the Florida
Academy of Sciences, and Editor of the Plant Science Bulletin of the Botanical
Society of America.
of Bob's great professional concerns was that botanical studies not be lost
in the current trend toward the merging of biological disciplines. While he
had no strong objections to the concept behind mergers, he was greatly disturbed
over the frequent loss of botanical curricula as a consequence of departmental
mergers. He worried that students would not have the opportunity for the same
exposure to botanical subjects that he had enjoyed. He was always the champion
of Botany as a valid, indispensible discipline, and readers of the Plant Science
Bulletin will remember the thought-provoking articles on this topic that appeared
during his editorship.
of future trends in biological education, Robert Long's work as a student
and teacher of botany will endure.
Environment and Man:
To Be Saved or Betrayed?
Western Kentucky University
the publicity and public awareness grows concerning the problems of survival
of man, increased rhetoric is found advocating the development of new political
structures, alignments or ethical changes to cope with the potential disasters
that loom ahead due to the population expansion. One such change championed
by political activists would be to develop or require a global oneness or
homogeneous society of man. It would appear that, in a spirit of objectivity,
such a proposal should be examined in a biological context. It is the purpose
of this brief essay to propose a line of thought and hopefully elicit further
discussion concerning, in the simplest sense, an idea of populational (or
societal) differentiation in man.
the past several years, the synthesis of environmental work has been centered
around the ecosystem approach. The development of the ecosystem concept has
of course unquestionably been of tremendous value in ecology. Nearly all biologists
are able to examine questions of ecological importance from the standpoint
of various areas of speciality by their approach to viewing an ecosystem.
Every biologist can look into the ecosystem in a different way. Chemical studies,
populational analysis and genetic feedback, floral or faunal descriptions
can all be integrated within the framework of a delineated ecosystem. More
recently. interest in ecosystems has been expanded and various non-biologists
have sought to find ways to look into ecosystems. Various creatures have scurried
towards the concept with the aim of adding their own viewscopes. From the
left (political pun intentional) rushes a group wishing to perhaps blow an
access to both natural and man-made ecosystems. This group would hope to gain
spiritual, sensual and social benefits from dissecting ecosystems. On the
other side newcomers on the scene have included the promoters, the developers,
the schemers and politicians, all with various ways to view the ecosystem
for gain, whether it be for money, votes, or both. What may be a significant
problem in man's use of the ecosystem concept is the oversimplification that
the spaceship earth is one simple ecosystem.
we adequately speak of man and his societies living in harmony with nature
without realization that nature consists of variability of populations and
societies? While the Ecosystem Concept rightly points out that the environment,
operational or functional, is non-compartmental or holocoenotic, we can not
dispute the fact that populations of the ecosystems are structured in both
form and in utilization of the resources. In a balanced and mature system
there exist fewer dominant organisms, but there is still dominance. Populations
of the same species vary in their productivity. If no two organisms in nature
share the same niche (niche in the sense of role), can we assume that all
populations and individuals of man can, could, or should share the same niche?
assume that we can develop a monoculture of man would be to develop the dangerous
practice of the present frail and susceptible monoculture in agriculture.
If we are to enhance and insure the survival of man, it would seem that an
ideology of lowering the developed and technological societies to a level
of raised underdeveloped peoples where each is given equal food, shelter,
education and, what is perhaps worse, equal material resources would be the
first ideology to be discarded from a biological view.
provide all populations and, or societies with the same energy consumption,
where each receives no more or no less than other societies, is not compatible
with biological systems or with physical laws.
point of comparing man and natural systems is admittedly difficult; and no
one can rightly argue against the fact that our modern western civilization
is an over-consumer. Few logical and educated people deny that all men are
created equal, but it is obvious that as cultures and societies have developed,
some men (populations) have become more equal than others. On a natural basis,
is this different than what has evolved and developed in the multitude of
ecosystems on the earth?
nature or do natural systems exist in a welfare state, or do balanced dominants
evolve existing on producers at various levels? It would appear that the vast
majority of biological evidence points to an affirmative answer to the latter
point. Are not the/ organisms at higher trophic levels (the consumers) dependent
upon the producers at different strata, and do not the lower levels exist
in harmony with the consumers? Perhaps it is folly for hiologists to make
comparisons of the various systems of man with systems in nature. hut those
who demand social change could do worse than to at least examine the known
workings of ecosystems.
Patricia Holmgren. Secretary of the Society, re-ports that only six copies
of the Botanical Society's Fifty Years of Botany edited by W. C. Stcerc are
still available at a cost of $10 each. Checks payable to the "Botanical Society
of America" should be enclosed in the order to Dr. Holmgren at the New York
Botanical Garden, Bronx. N.Y. 10458.
Guide to Graduate Study in Botany, a listing of departments offering the Ph.D.
in plant sciences, can be obtained for $3 from Dr. Holmgren.
of the abstracts for botanical papers presented at the Tulane AIBS meeting
can be obtained from Dr. Holmgren for $2.
Editor of the American Journal of Botany. Dr. Ernest M. Gifford, announces
that the editorial board and the sectional representatives to the AJB have
agreed to begin publication (on a trial basis) of Brief Communications in
the Journal. The papers must not exceed 1: to 2 printed pages in length (three
typed manuscript pages). including illustrative material. These manuscripts
will receive the normal review, but may be published sooner than most of the
longer articles. The articles should be based on research, should be informative
and substantive and not merely accounts of research in progress, and they
should he prepared in the format of longer articles.
Barbara Webster. Treasurer of the Society, wishes to note—with emphasis—that
dues for 1977 and biographical information for the Yearbook of the Society
will he handled differently this coming year. The envelopes for dues are enclosed
in the October 1976 and January 1977 issues of the American Journal of Botany.
Members are urged to complete the information section and send the envelope
with dues to Dr. Barbara Webster, Treasurer, Botanical Society of America,
Department of Agronomy and Range Science, University of California, Davis,
CA 95616. Individual notices will not he sent out. Please take the few minutes
before you forget it.
PHYSIOLOGICAL SECTION will award a 550.00 cash prize for the best student
paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society in the sessions of the
Physiological Section. The paper can be single-authored by the student or
authored by the student and the student's advisor, hut the student must have
done the major share of conceptional and experimental work. Collaboration
between two students is acceptable: the students would share the prize equally.
At the time abstracts are submitted to the program chairman, please indicate
that this is a student paper.
TN INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS will be held 4-9 September 1977
at the University of Reading. Contact Dr. J. Coombs, Tate & Lyle Ltd.,
P.O. Box 68, Reading RG6 2BX Berkshire, England.
GROWTH REGULATOR WORKING GROUP will meet 9-11 August 1977 at the Arlington
Hotel, Hot Springs. Arkansas. Contact Susan Murphy, Horticulture and Forestry
Department. University of Arkansas. Fayetteville. AR 72701.
INTERNATIONAL. GRASSLANDS CONGRESS will he held 18-27 May 1977 in Leipzig,
DDR. Contact R. Lemke. 1157 Berlin, Kopenicker Alec 39-57, German Democratic
INTERNATIONAL TROPICAL. FOLIAGE SHOR1 COURSE will he held in Orlando, Florida
at the Sheraton Towers Hotel on 23-26 January 1977. Additional information
can be obtained from Dr. Richard W. Henley, Agricultural Research (enter,
University of Florida, Rte. 3 Box 580, Apopka. Fl, 32703.
INTERNATIONAL. CONGRESS OF PLANT PATHOLOGY will be held in Miinchen. Germany
on 16-23 August 1978. Additional information can be obtained by writing to
Congress Plant Pathology, Biologische 13undesanstalt, Messeweg 11:12 D3300
Braunschweig. Fed. Republic. Deutschland.
ON PLANT "TISSUE CULTURE is being organized by Prof. Boesmans-Coupure, Links
235, 9000 Ghent. Belgium.
ON MUSHROOMS is being organized by Dr. D. W. Robinson. Kinsealy Research Centre,
Malahide Road, Dublin 5, Ireland.
SYMPOSIUM ON SYNTHESIS OF DEMO-GRAPHIC AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES TO THE
FUNCTIONING OF PLANTS will be held in the Netherlands on 9-12 May 1977. Contact
Dr. I. J. W. Woldendorp at the Institutt voor Oecologisch Onderzoek, Kemperbergerweg
11, Arnheim. Nederland.
OF PLANT PHENOLICS meeting to he held 1-7 September 1978 in Ghent. Contact
Dr. G. R. Waller. Biochemistry Department. Oklahoma State University, Stillwater,
OF DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES IN PLANTS conference to be held 4-9 July 1977. Contact
Plant Biochemistry Institute of the Academy of Science, German Democratic
Republic, P.O. Box 250, DDR-401 HalleiSaale, German Democratic Republic.
Microfilms International announces a new publishing program developed for
research specialists. Called "Monograph Publishing on Demand," the program
provides a means of publishing scholarly works that can-not be published economically
in conventional form. Monographs can be published within three weeks after
final acceptance. Additional information can be obtained from Nicholas A.
Alter, University Microfilms International, 300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI
W. K. Kellogg Biological Station of Michigan State University, Hickory Corners,
MI 48060 has published an International Directory of Plant Demographers as
Technical Report No. 2.
Box 433, Murray Hill Station, N.Y., N.Y. 10016 has available a new catalog
describing the publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency listing
and describing over 700 publications on atomic energy and its uses.
participants from the United States, Canada, England, India and Australia
met on 4-5 September 1976 at the Harvard Forest to discuss the biology and
development of members of the monocotyledonous order Helobiae (Alismatidae).
This specialized interest is appropriate in view of the evolutionary position
of the group, continued uncertainty about many structural, systematic and
ecological features and their distinctive biochemical aspects. Further information
on the meeting can he obtained from Dr. P. B. Tomlinson at the Harvard Forest,
Petersham, MA 01366.
curators of the Herbarium of Texas A & M University are seeking other
institutions interested in receiving herbarium specimens of vascular plants
collected in South-Central and East Texas. There arc more than 15,000 specimens
to be distributed during the coming year. These specimens are available in
exchange for other specimens with fungi, lichens, mosses, liverworts, ferns
and conifers preferred. Contact Dr. John J. Sperry or Dr. Robert S. Egan,
Department of Biology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843.
American Association of Nurserymen, Inc. re-quests the support of the botanical
profession in urging the construction of a new entrance to the National Arboretum
whose development is in doubt because the land to be used will be removed
from the tax rolls. Please contact the National Capitol Planning Commission,
1325 G St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20576 to urge support for this addition.
among the Fulbright-Hayes Scholars for 1976-1977 were Drs. Frederick T. Addicott
(University of California, Davis), Eldon H. Newcomb (University of Wisconsin,
Madison), Lorin Roberts (University of Idaho, Moscow), David S. Seigler (University
of Illinois, Urbana).
T. T. Kozlowski, Department of Forestry, University of Wisconsin was the recipient
of the Arboricultural Research Award of the International Society of Arboriculture
Zachary S. Wochok has resigned his position at the University of Alabama and
has assumed the position as Tissue Culture Scientist with the Weyerhaeuser
Company in Centralia, Washington.
ASSISTANT PROFESSORSHIP IN PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY is open
at the University of Virginia. Candidates capable of teaching plant physiology
and plant biochemistry and who have demonstrated outstanding research capabilities
in some area of higher plant physiology or development are invited to apply.
Contact Dr. James Riopel, Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville,
PROGRAM DIRECTORS in ecology, environmental biology, systematics and ecosystems
studies will be sought by the Division of Environmental Biology of the National
Science Foundation. For further information, contact the Division of Environmental
Biology, National Science Foundation, 1800 G St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20550.
SUPPORT PROGRAM FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS has been announced by the National Science
Foundation to support exploratory research, acquisition of instruments, equipment
and facilities for expanding re-search training of young scientists. Departments
interested in applying for grants should contact Dr. Alfred Borg. RIAS Program,
National Science Foundation, 5225 Wisconsin Ave. NW, Washington, D.C. 20550.
PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON WHITE HOUSE FELLOWS will select 15 to 20 fellows
each year to gain first-hand experience in the governing process of the United
States by assigning fellows to White House staff members, members of the Cabinet
and other officials in the Federal Government. The fellowship is a one-year
sabbatical in public service. Applications are available from the President's
Commission on White House Fellows, Washington, D.C. 20415.
TEACHING AND RE-SEARCH AWARDS should be considered by botanists who wish to
work abroad for a period of time. Eligibility requirements include U.S. citizenship
as well as educational and professional qualifications appropriate to the
appointment. Additional information, application forms and listings of participating
countries and fields of interest can he obtained from the Council for International
Ex-change of Scholars, 11 DuPont Circle, Suite 300, Washington. D.C. 20036.
BIOLOGY COORDINATOR responsible for developing and strengthening programs
at the freshman level; development and teaching of a non-majors integrated
biology course including laboratories; aid in the restructuring of freshman
level botany and zoology courses. The position carries the possibility of
tenure. Significant experience in college teaching, earned doctorate, and
demonstrated leadership and administrative ability required. Salary based
on 101 month period; salary negotiable, de-pending on qualifications and experience.
Beginning September 1, 1977. Applications containing resume, three letters
of recommendation and other supporting documents should be submitted by February
1, 1977 to Dr. Francis L. Rose, Chairperson, Search Committee, Biological
Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409.
SEED PLANT SYSTEMATIST POSITION is available in the Department of Biology.
In addition to research, the position involves teaching both undergraduate
and graduate students in experimental plant
and related areas. Post-doctoral experience is required. Send resume, names
of three references, to Plant Systematist Search Committee, Department of
Biology, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas 77843.
PHYSIOLOGIST wanted for a teaching position in plant physiology/general biology
opening September 1977. The Ph.D. is required. Preference will be given applicants
with full graduate preparation in vascular plant physiology and biochemistry
and a background in general biology. Curriculum vitae, a personal statement
of unique qualifications, official transcripts and three letters of recommendation
should be sent to Dr. Donald J. Drapalik. Faculty Search Chairman, Department
of Biology. Georgia Southern College. Statesboro, GA 30458.
in Saline Environments. Edited by A. Poljakoff-Mayber and J. Gale. Ecological
Studies. Vol. 15. Springer-Verlag, New York. 1975. 213 pp., illust.
is a large subject to be reviewed in such a small volume. But this was not
intended as a definitive treatise. Rather, it is the expressed hope of the
editors to give an overview "of the different problems raised by salinity."
In this, they and the eight other contributors have succeeded. The editors
have performed a valuable service by reviewing some of the Russian salinity
literature. They undoubtedly have a better grasp of it than most scientists
outside the USSR.
ten chapters are grouped into three sections. The first introduces salinity
from an ecological point of view and from an agricultural point of view as
a cause of crop failure. The second section begins with an excellent brief
description of the chemical and physical effects of inorganic ions on soils.
Salinity is distinguished from sodicity, an important distinction not always
observed, even in other chapters. Chapter 4 discusses methods and units used
in measuring salinity and the problems encountered in at-tempts to set water
quality standards and concludes with a discussion of human activities that
increase salinity problems.
last five chapters introduce the manifold effects of salinity interacting
with other environmental factors on plant structures and processes. The literature
cited is a good beginning for the reader desiring more detail. Special attention
is given to salt glands and to membrane-ATPases in relation to salt tolerance.
The salinity effect of primary concern is the suppression of plant growth.
How salinity does that is still moot.
U.S. Salinity Laboratory
A. S. Modern Weed Control. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1975.
360 pp., illust.
Weed Control is a slightly updated version of an earlier book entitled Weed
Control by Crafts and Rob-ins, the third edition of which was published in
1962. In the new book, Crafts has done a modest amount of re-arranging and
some modernizing of the material to include more recently developed herbicides.
The early chap-
During the editorial transition, several book reviews inadvertantly were received
without the name of the reviewer. Flora Brasiliensis Volume III, reviewed
on pp. 34-35 of the September issue was'reviewed by D. Joseph Arditti,I University
of California, Irvine.
introduce the concept of weeds, their interaction with human beings throughout
history and costs imposed on agriculture and therefore society by weeds. Chapters
on weed control, ecology of weeds, and principles of weed control are similar
to corresponding chapters in the 1962 book. Chapters on the properties and
functions of herbicides are updated only in that newly released herbicides
are included. Much of the text, photographs and illustration appeared in Crafts
and Robins. Material in Chapters 14 through 19 comes mostly from the 1973
Weed Control Manual and Herbicide Guide published by Farm Technology and Agri-fieldman,
Meister Publ. Co., Willoughby, Ohio. It serves the function of a handbook
on chemical weed control for specific crops. The chapter on equipment for
application of herbicides is substantially the same as the 1962 hook.
one who has been an admirer of Crafts and who has found exposure to his work
equally impressive, it is difficult to say anything bad. Nonetheless the characteristic
excellence in the writings and thought of A. S. Crafts that I first encountered
as an undergraduate is not evident here. There are volumes of new information,
especially on topics such as ecology of weeds, but they are not noted in Modern
Weed Control. The revision of the 1962 book is so slight that one wonders
why it was published. It simply does not represent the effort and scholarship
I always have had reason to expect from a truly great botanist.
W. Smith North Texas State University
JOHN N. A. A Scanning Electron Microscope Study of Green Plants. C. V. Mosby
Co. St. Louis, Mo. 170 pp. 214 illust. 1976.
the magnification of the micrographs in this hook is within the effective
range of the light microscope, the resolution and depth of field of the scanning
electron microscope is such that one enters a whole new world of plant structure.
Details of waxy surfaces, the surface of root tips. of cut faces of wood,
of hair cells, etc., all be-come immediately comprehensible without the integration
required when determining plant structure from successive paraffin sections.
The book covers a wide range of plant forms, from algae and lichens, through
Bryophytes and up to Angiosperms. Both vegetative and reproductive structures
are figured. The text is thorough but advanced, and the book is not intended
to stand by itself. The vocabulary and the concepts of plant micro-structure
illustrated must be introduced to students via lecture or by readings in more
standard texts in plant anatomy and plant diversity. Although the scanning
electron microscope cannot replace light- and electron-microscopic views of
the plant, the scanning EM will become indispensible in teaching the details
of the structure of plants. This book should be included in every laboratory
in those courses that survey the plant kingdom.
B. Hyde University of Vermont
IAN G. The Complete Book of Greenhouse Gardening. Quadrangle/The New York
Times Book Co., N.Y., 435 pp. illust., indexed. 1975. $14.95.
have certainly been many books published on general greenhouse gardening,
but this is among the more complete works on the subject, which is especially
useful for the beginner.
The first half of the book, entitled "On the Design and Running of Greenhouses,"
is an excellent reference for
wishing to buy or construct a greenhouse. It takes a critical look at a variety
of styles, building materials, construction sites, and various types of greenhouse
hard-ware. One comes away with a good idea of what is the most efficient and
economical for various purposes. Many useful illustrations are included. Soil
sterilization, propagation, composts, lighting, nutrition, heating, and moisture
are among other topics covered in this section which gives all necessary information
for running a greenhouse.
second portion of the book, entitled "On the Growing of Plants in Greenhouses,"
is also well done. It has sections on some of the more common plant groups,
such as vegetables, fruits, bulbs, ferns, pot plants, and orchids. A very
useful table on bedding plant production and another on pests and disorders
of various plants are also included.
the whole this book is very readable and clear. The author has taken a lot
of what could be very confusing information and has distilled it into a coherent
J. Espinet University of Vermont
FORREST F. AND THOMAS R. MERTENS. Plant Anatomy. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
N.Y. 1976. xviii ± 188 p. illus. $4.95.
Anatomy is a self-teaching guide to learning the basic anatomy of flowering
plants. The authors clearly state how to use the guide and provide a list
of objectives for the student. The guide is entirely self-contained and the
student can easily find answers to all the questions it asks. A list of references
is included. The guide helps the student learn by review and repetition. However,
questions may require reasoning as well as memory. The authors integrate form
with function and frequently synthesize previous material to give a better
understanding of the plant as a whole.
guide covers anatomy in seven progressive chapters. They are (1) plant cells
and simple plant tissue, (2) complex plant tissue; xylem and phloem, (3) embryos
and seedlings, (4) the root, (5) the stem, (6) secondary growth, and (7) leaves,
flowers, and fruits. Each chapter is divided into frames which are devoted
to a new bit of information. At the end of each chapter a self test is provided
to help the student judge his progress.
Anatomy is clearly written and well illustrated. The authors lead the student
through lab exercises which are enhanced by both drawings and photographs.
The guide deals in generalities, but may serve as a helpful re-view or preparation
for a course for a beginning botany student.
Harrison University of Vermont
VICTOR A. AND J. EDISON ADAMS. Plants: An Introduction to Modern Botany, 3rd
ed. Wiley. 1976. 586 pp. $13.95.
text was written for a one-term course for both botany majors and non-majors.
Rather than devote brief but equal attention to all the major disciplines
of botany. Greulach and Adams decided to treat in depth subjects they consider
most important while essentially omitting other areas. Plant physiology, ecology,
and genetics comprise over 80% of the text, the remainder being devoted
to plants and man, the plant kingdom, and paleobotany. The treatments of water
relations and mineral nutrition are outstanding and the section on plant genetics
is unusually well developed (though some important achievements are omitted,
e.g., Triticale), but procaryotic cells receive only a few paragraphs. One
chapter and an appendix are devoted solely to chemistry from atomic structure
to DNA. One might question their inclusion at the expense of more basic botany.
This uneven emphasis de-creases the flexibility of the text. Nevertheless,
the text is tailor-made for a large number of introductory courses across
unconventional organization breaks up traditional patterns of presentation,
placing subjects of similar theme into the sane chapter or section. No longer
are life cycles incorporated into the discussion of the plant kingdom. Instead,
they form a separate chapter titled "Sexual Re-production" in the section
with genetics and evolution. This would he unnecessarily confusing if one
were trying to learn the fundamental characteristics of the major plant groups.
However, since the emphasis in the text is on methods of reproduction rather
than the plant kingdom, the organization is consistent with the aim of the
numerous illustrations, photographs, and micro-graphs are worthy of special
note. These say more than a page of text. Students will also find the short
bibliographies at the end of each chapter a valuable guide to the literature
at the level of Scientific American.
text will continue to serve the needs of one-term courses emphasizing physiology,
ecology, and genetics. The text is not adequate, however, for courses of broader
P. Briggs University of Vermont
JAMES H., WARREN H. LEONARD, AND DAVID L. STAMP. Principles of Field Crop
Production, Third Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York. 1976.
1118 p. illus. $16.95.
newest edition of this widely used and respected field crops text brings together
information concerning the many advances in crop science and the newest cropping
practices which are used in today's agriculture. More space is devoted to
a discussion of the scientific principles and the impact of various cropping
practices on the environment than in previous editions. Since crop hybrids,
cultivars, fertilizers, and pesticides used in modern farming are so numerous,
so frequently changed, or are of local interest only, they have generally
been omitted from this edition. In keeping with the policies adopted by most
scientific societies, much of the numerical data is expressed in metric units
as well as U.S. equivalents.
books and symposium monographs which relate to specific crops and cropping
practices have been published. They are referred to in literature citations
following each chapter. Excellent use is made of tables, illustrations, and
photographs to illustrate various principles and practices.
authors are to be commended for bringing together into a single readable text
important information concerning the major field, forage, and industrial crops
grown throughout the world.
C. Wiggans University of Vermont
R. Organogenesis of Flowers—A Photographic Text-atlas. University of
Toronto Press, Toronto. 1973. xxvi + 207 pp. illus. $27.50.
comprehensive atlas of floral development is intended to be the modern counterpart
classic 7'raite d'Organogenie coinparee de la fleur, published in 1857, but
unavailable except in a reprinted version produced by Cramer in 1966. While
Payer's treatise surveyed more species (approx. 335 spp. as compared with
50 in Sattler's), Sattler's book will have a greater impact on modern biologists
because of the clarity of its photographic documentation and the meticulous
de-tail of its descriptions of floral development. Anyone who has attempted
dissections of early floral developmental stages knows that it is more difficult
to prepare photogenic specimens than those illustrated by line drawings.
emphasizes that his atlas is a descriptive work, free of interpretive connotations
that have encumbered previous floral morphological studies. To this end he
has attempted to use more neutral terms and has invented descriptive phrases
which he believes are devoid of the usual interpretive biases. While attempts
at objectivity are laudable, some of his new terminology produces cumber-some
descriptions and vagueness of reference that can be as problematical as the
interpretive pitfalls they are meant to avoid. Had conventional terminology
been viewed in a slightly more flexible perspective, some of the more complex
circumlocutions would not have been necessary.
problems of reader orientation result from the strictly developmental sequence
that dominates each species presentation. Instead of first providing the necessary
introduction to the morphology of the mature flower—except for an unexplained
floral diagram at the beginning—the author plunges directly into the
account of floral ontogeny, beginning with the recently initiated floral meristem.
He leaves the description of mature floral structure until the end of each
section. The reader is forced to follow the complex morphogenetic contortions
without a well-defined structural goal. Furthermore, to give an unbiased developmental
narrative for each species without a prerequisite description of the mature
flower, little to no discrimination is made between significant and trivial
morphogenetic features. Consequently the reader's attention can become sidetracked
from the major developmental events by detailed accounts of the angularity
of the apex, etc. which may be transitory and a result of mutual compressions
in the floral bud. If an overview of inflorescence structure and mature floral
morphology had first been provided, the reader would be able to evaluate more
judiciously the significance of developmental descriptions.
also regret the lack of any summing up or real generalization on the diversity
of floral developmental pat-terns as seen in Payer's treatise. Obviously such
an avoidance of synthesis is in keeping with Sattler's stated intention to
have his work remain purely descriptive. But in view of the broad taxonomic
representation offered, there undoubtedly are some purely developmental, mechanistic
generalizations on floral morphogenesis that can be made which do not rely
on traditional morphological argumentations. To be sure, there are brief discussions
of the literature, but these accounts are taxonomically restricted and limited
to minor discrepancies in observational detail that are of little general
these synthetic and interpretive restrictions, Sattler's atlas will, through
the example of its carefully documented, detailed observations, elicit a great
deal of interest in floral developmental studies. By virtue of its exceptionally
well-illustrated examples, it will acquaint otherwise uninitiated biologists
with the beauty and complexity of floral morphogenetic processes in a more
dramatic way than would ever occur with Payer's more cramped, stylized drawings.
Biologists of a more reductionist persuasion may become aware of the need
to view their detailed molecular mechanisms in a more holistic context and
may even be inspired to try and close the enormous gap between these two levels
of plant organization.
R. Kaplan University of California,
and Fairchild Tropical Garden, Miami
R. F. The Shoot Apex and Leaf Growth. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge
1975. vii + 256 pp. illus. $18.95.
book is a unique contribution to the study of whole plant morphogenesis. It
should be read by all workers concerned with problems of the determination
of higher plant form. In this compact, well-written, superbly illustrated
work, developmental morphology and physiology are welded together into a unique
and significant synthesis through the author's meticulous and detailed analyses
of growth rates in a variety of angiosperms. Although all thirteen of the
species analyzed are of either agricultural or horticultural significance,
there are a sufficient number of structural variants to make this a work of
general morphological significance.
central theme is that physical constraints play a significant role in molding
the form that various shoot components exhibit in phases of development from
germination to reproductive maturity. By painstakingly careful quantitative
analyses of changes in shoot morphology and relative growth rates, he provides
a compelling demonstration of the role of physical forces in shoot morphogenesis.
And while the analysis of shoot development forms the heart of the work, individual
species descriptions are appropriately preceded by introductory chapters on
the quantitative study of plant growth and phyllotaxis, analyses which form
the basis for his specific studies. The book ends with a summary of the analytical
procedures used which will aid those wishing to carry out similar studies
on other plants.
me, Williams' book represents an important and uniquely holistic study of
plant shoot growth correlations that provides greater insight into the plant
growth process than the more limited cell biological approaches. Williams'
kind of analysis offers the promise of new ideas as to how physiological factors
are controlling form. Applications of his approach to broad problems of comparative
morphology can enrich our views of the evolutionary develop-mental mechanisms
that are responsible for the tremendous morphological variety that exists
in the flowering plants as a whole. It is a book I wholeheartedly recommend
to any-one with an insatiable curiosity about the genesis of plant form.
R. Kaplan University of California, Berkeley and Fairchild Tropical Garden,
J. H. M. Mathematical Models in Plant Physiology. Academic Press, London.
1976. xiii + 318 pp. $24.25.
unique book presents a quantitative approach to plant growth and development
based on mathematical equations (models). The steps involved from model construction
to the use of computers in their solution are traced for a series of time-dependent,deterministic
models. The author does not try to cover all fields (e.g., water relations
are neglected), but rather presents a strong case for
quantitative approach to problems in plant and crop physiology.
requisite mathematical principles are introduced by considering Michaelis-Menton
processes, sigmoidal response curves, carbohydrate translocation, and transport
across membranes. The complex formulation for describing light variability
in the plant canopy precedes a semi-empirical presentation of photosynthesis,
including the effect of fluctuating light level. Equations quantifying growth
(dry weight changes) encompass source-sink partitioning of carbon between
leaf, stem, and root compartments. The model is then expanded to include nitrogen
partitioning, and whole plant behavior is compared to growth data on tomato.
Development and senescence is modeled using the cell as the basic unit, and
a new plant growth equation is developed. A mathematical analysis of switching,
as would be appropriate for flower initiation, is presented. Finally, phyllotaxis
and external plant form are interpreted from the provocative vantage point
of the mathematically-inclined modeler.
the reader may he perplexed by some unorthodox definitions, simplifying assumptions,
and the rather mathematical presentation, the material is clearly and logically
organized. The text relies rather heavily on the author's own research contributions,
but a non-dogmatic cautious attitude nevertheless prevails. The book succeeds
in presenting a valuable perspective on modeling in general and the insights
obtainable for plant models in particular.
S. Nobel University of California, Los Angeles
CHARLES B., JR. The Sunflower. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 1976.
xxvi .I- 198 pp. illus. $10.95.
book is not intended to be a complete account of the sunflower, but it does
contain an interesting and useful amount of scientific and cultural information
about sun-flowers. It is profusely illustrated with drawings and many black
and white and color photographs.
brief book has a wide ranging account of the basic botany and of the economic,
cultural and social history of sunflowers. It is well written, with interesting
anecdotes, and it makes for easy and enjoyable reading. The book contains
a good concise treatment of the origin, evolution, genetics, plant breeding,
taxonomy, ornamentals, cultivation, and other aspects of sunflowers. It presupposes
little or no previous technical knowledge, and since it clearly explains the
basic biological principles in the areas discussed, it can he read profitably
by the genera! reader as well as by students of botany and horticulture.
S. Greenfield Rutgers University
H. N. Gibberellins and Plant Growth. Halsted Press, John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.
1975. xv + 356 pp.
book will provide graduate students and professionals with an up-to-date account
of the chemistry and physiological action of gibberellins. It is unique since
it is the first book written in English comprehensively to review gibberellin
1 is concerned with extraction, purification, and chemistry of gibberellins,
while Chapter 2 is devoted to bioassay. Biosynthesis, metabolism, and transport
are discussed in Chapter 3. Chapters 4-8 describe gibberellin effects on dormancy,
germination, vegetative growth, flowering, fruit and seed development, abscission,
and senescence. Anatomical and cytological effects of gibberellins are presented
in Chapter 9. Chapters 10-11 describe the relationships between gibberellins
and metabolism, and the mechanism(s) of gihberellin action. The last chapter
is concerned with gibberellin antagonists and antigibberellins. The most noticeable
omission is a discussion of the relationship of gibberellins to other growth
regulators. Brief discussions of this topic are scattered in the text, but
would he more effective if consolidated and expanded.
chapter of the book was written by a specialist. Evaluation of the experimental
evidence is facilitated by graphs and tables from original papers. Undoubtedly,
the hook's greatest resource are the hundreds of literature references listed
at the end of each section. Whenever possible, the text has been updated by
inserting notes on recent advances.
Petty University of Vermont
PAUL. Cytoplasmic Genetics and Evolution. Columbia University Press, New York.
1976. xi + 435
geneticists usually pay little attention to hereditary factors transmitted
through the cytoplasm. That this is a mistake is shown by Paul Grun's detailed,
precise, and thorough analysis of the literature in this field. He devotes
half of the 22 chapters of his book to the most important carriers of cytoplasmic
heredity, the mitochondria and the plastids. The cooperation between nuclear
and mitochondrial or plastid genes in the synthesis of these organelles is
amply documented by a wealth of experimental evidence, which Dr. Grun has
reviewed critically and impartially. Most botanists will be particularly interested
in his chapter on genetic changes of chloroplasts during evolution, in which
he reviews the earlier and more recent work of German and other European geneticists,
such as Renner, Noack. W. Stubbe and Michaelis. and evaluates hypotheses to
elucidate the role of cytoplasmic evolution in the origin of species. Of equal
interest are the last chapters, dealing with the significant concepts of cytoplasmic
inheritance, interactions between plasmons and plasmon-sensitive genes, cytoplasmic
factors that are in-dependent of chromosomal genes, natural selection that
results from interaction between cytoplasmic and nuclear factors, and the
evolution of coadapted nuclear and cytoplasmic systems of heredity. Dr. Grun
has clearly and elegantly documented the proposition that evolutionary change
is a property of the organism as a whole, including both nucleus and cytoplasm.
spite of his clear style of writing, the book is not easy reading. To a botanist
unfamiliar with this field, facts, experiments, and the alternative hypotheses
to explain them appear with frightening speed, requiring the reader's full
attention every moment. All botanists interested in evolution will need to
have this book on their shelves. It should be read slowly and carefully, and
consulted whenever a problem arises in which the influence of the cytoplasm
on heredity or evolution may be an important factor in its solution. Dr. Grun
is to be congratulated on a pioneer work of fundamental significance.
Ledyard Stebbins University of California, Davis
J. R. Environment and Plant Ecology. John Wiley & Sons, N.Y. 1975. xii
-}- 347 pp. $9.95 in paper.
students progress through an undergraduate curriculum in Botany, they take
courses in biological and physical sciences, hopefully some courses in the
arts and humanities, math and the ubiquitous physical education. Each of these
courses is freestanding, hearing little relation to the others; it is as if
each instructor and class are sealed inside a bottle uncontaminated by other
courses and other instructors. We can tell our advisees that the integration
of subjects and fields will come with time, a statement comparable to telling
someone in the throes of a messy divorce that things will eventually get better.
Our attempts to develop integrated courses in which morphology and development
or ecology and physiology are presented together have, at the undergraduate
level, usually come to nought because students don't really have the background
necessary to make the correlations. This hook is an at-tempt to bridge the
gap between ecology and plant physiology.
the limits of a single volume, the attempt is generally successful. Energy
transfer, soils, water in excess or in short supply, mineral nutrition and
mineral cycling are discussed intelligently and adequately. Competition is
reviewed in terms of edaphic factors, allopathy, and other interactions to
tie together the topics handled separately. One could wish for more discussion
on some topics, less on others and the introduction of still others depending
on one's biases. This does not change the favor-able impression one gets even
by thumbing through the book, an impression that is fortified by reading it.
I would make Environment and Plant Ecology required for advanced courses in
either ecology or plant physiology. Inclusion of some techniques increases
its value as does the extensive literature cited.
M. Klein University of Vermont
PETER B., JOHN LABAVITCH, ANNE ANDERSON-PROUTY, AND NAJATI S. GOSHEH. Laboratory
Experiences in Plant Physiology. Macmillan, New York. 1975. 262 pp. $7.95.
will always he a need for an undergraduate and graduate lab manual which provides
a realistic glimpse of the expanding frontiers of plant physiology and shows
how these frontiers are being explored. This compendium of plant research
methodology in the form of 41 original, modern experiments is an exciting
response to today's needs. Arranged into 9 chapters which parallel those of
V. A. Greulach's and R. G. S. Bidwell's respective texts, each experiment
is placed into context with a brief introduction (as is each chapter) and
is supplemented with penetrating questions for discussion, selected references
to journal publications and, often, an appendix containing anything from helpful
scheduling hints to medium formulae and culturing techniques. The abundant
micrographs, figures, tables (including a key to nutrient-deficiency symptoms)
and glossary enhance a lucid text, resulting in procedures which are easy
to follow and execute.
many of the procedures are standard biochemistry (cell fractionation, isolation
and assay of various organelles and enzymes, tracer studies, etc.) most are
unique to plant physiology (protoplast preparation, the hormone bioassays,
and measurement of transpiration rates). Descriptions are given of scanning
and transmission electron microscopy and the Electron Microprobe Analyzer,
but there is no mention of freeze-etching nor is there an experiment employing
addition to discussing and utilizing a wide range of lab procedures and apparatus,
most of the experiments probe into the heart of current problems in plant
physiology (e.g., nitrogen fixation. allelopathy, ion uptake, hormonal interactions
and photomorphogenesis). Thus, they are far more interesting than experiments
which simply introduce a procedure for its own sake rather than as an investigative
tool (e.g., an enzyme assay) or which present fascinating problems (e.g.,
phototropism) without providing any means for their investigation. The authors
have combined the hest of both, procedure and problem, and this will surely
he reflected in the interest and performance of the students.
this first edition does not have an index. Consequently, a rapid survey of
the information about a particular technique or procedure is impossible. Since
this is the only serious flaw in an otherwise excellent hook. I highly recommend
it to teachers and students alike.
P. Briggs University of Vermont
LUCIEN (ed.). Genetic Manipulations with Plant Material. NATO Advanced Study
Institutes Series, Series A: Life Sciences, Volume 3. Plenum Press, New York.
601 pp. $48.00.
volume appears when the world is hopeful that plant genetics will again provide
sustenance through the development and application of new techniques in plant
breeding. The hook is a compilation of 32 invited papers and several research
communications presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Genetic Manipulations
with Plant Material, Liege, 1974. The intent was to stimulate thought and
discussion and assemble technology and expertise from a diversity of experimental
systems (prokaryotic and eukaryotic, microbe, lower and higher plant). As
such, the forum format of the meetings themselves al-ways offers greater possibilities
for the attainment of the goal than does the more restrictive nature of the
publication. Nevertheless, the written account of papers presented covers
a diversity of techniques and fields ripe for plant genetics or thought by
plant geneticists: cell culture techniques, techniques and mechanisms for
the transfer of hereditary material, "genetic engineering", gene regulation,
nitrogen-fixation. crown gall studies of differentiation.
book has a neat, clean, non-distractive format that is appreciated by the
reader. Figures are distinctively clear, and pictures and micrographs are,
for the most part, well done. The price, however, clearly limits the utility
of the book: this is especially so when one considers that much of the information
discussed in the invited papers is in print elsewhere. The volume will become
the possession of a selected few libraries, and certainly not that of many
C. Ullrich University of Vermont
D. J. F. Uptake of Ions by Plant Roots. Chapman and Hall, London. Halsted
Press (John Wiley and Sons, Inc.), New York. 1976. 212 pp. $20.00.
recent addition to the literature on ion transport in plants confines itself,
as the title states, to roots. Hence it avoids the all-too-common heavy reliance
on information obtained from algae, which is by no means reliably
to tissues of higher plants. The organization of he book is logical, proceeding
from morphology and anatomy of the root to a consideration of the soil-root
interface, then to the process of absorption of ions (four chapters), to transport
across the root, and finally, to long-distance transport toward the shoot.
A short (9-page) chapter, "Some conclusions and a look into the future," ends
the hook. There is a list of references (but no author index) and a subject
index. The book is clearly written, although passages of it bear an uncomfortable
resemblance in their style to some chapters in annual reviews and other such
surveys. The illustrations are mostly graphs and line drawings: they are clear
and uncluttered. There are four pages of excellently reproduced photographs
author does not indicate in his preface the audience for whom the book is
intended. The jacket states that it "should he particularly useful to the
postgraduate re-searcher in the fields of plant nutrition, agronomy and soil
science. . .," and also suited for "senior undergraduates specializing in
experimental botany and soil science." It is not, however, easy to suggest
a suitable audience for this hook. Undergraduates are given no inkling that
the root is a major evolutionary adaptation, the adaptation that made possible
the exploitation of the land. They are not shown the significance of the uptake
of ions by plant roots in the mineral economy of life on Earth. Agricultural
and ecological implications of ion uptake are ignored. The subject is treated
as a narrow plant physiological specialty with emphasis on electrophvsiology,
but surely under-graduates ought to be made aware of the grand role of ion
uptake in the world of life.
students and researchers, on the other hand. are not well served by a hook
of 182 pages—too little for a comprehensive and incisive monographic
treatment of the subject. And they. as well as less advanced readers, may
be misled by loose or downright erroneous statements which are no rarities
in the hook. The ionic composition of the soil solution of "John Innes no.
2 potting compost" given in a table (p. 11) is either very incomplete or very
faulty, because the cations add up to 19.85 mep./ 1 and the anions to 34.00.
And why is this highly atypical soil solution singled out as the only example?
The influence of microorganisms on the uptake of ions other than phosphate
is said not to have been studied (p. 51). although later (p. 82) reference
is made to such experiments on absorption of rubidium. This list of dubious
statements could easily be enlarged.
The advanced student will he surprised by omissions as well as errors. In particular,
the final "look into the future" omits cell culture and use of protoplasts among
the exciting possibilities now wide open for use in the study of ion transport.
It makes no mention of the use of cells or tissues of different but related
genotypes, especially mutants—an approach sure to make its mark in the
years ahead. Electron probe analysis, laser probe analysis, ion probe mass analysis,
and high resolution autoradiography are not in the author's `"look into the
future," nor are the development of automated, low-concentration solution culture
systems and other modern methodologies including computer modeling of ion fluxes.
This book fills the needs of neither beginning nor advanced students.
Epstein University of California, Davis
E. AND M. R. DAVEY. From Single Cells to Plants. Wykeham Publications (London)
Single Cells to Plants" is a small jewel of a book. not only for its vigorous
analysis of the science and practice of plant tissue culture, but also for
its beautiful use of the English language. The book is by no means a substitute
for reading individual papers on specialized cultures of different plant species
(and the authors recognize this in their preface), but it allows for better
understanding of the difficulties involved in translating the complexities
of the "in vivo" tissues into "in vitro" systems.
and Davey give a brief account of the history and development of plant tissue
culture up to plant hybridization by protoplasts, and describe basic materials
and methods widely used in plant cell, tissue and organ culture. 1-lach chapter
pertaining to a different system of plant culture begins with a brief discussion
on the theoretical implications of each of the systems described. The systems
discussed in the book are: cultures of plant organs. including mixed cultures
of excised roots and nitrogen-fixing Rhizobia; cultures of plant cells, massive
(callus) and in suspension: cultures of protoplasts, their behavior. and induced
fusion. The morphology of cells in suspension, the ultrastructure of both
callus and suspension cells, the habituated callus cultures, the effect of
cell density on culture growth are briefly discussed. In the chapter on morphogcnesis
in cell cultures, the authors engage in a lively discussion on differentiation.
de-differentiation and totipotencv. acknowledging various hypotheses. although
without mentioning the researchers involved. The methodology of culturing
haploid reproductive cells is described and discussed for the genetic control
of plant growth and metabolism and for plant breeding. Finally, Thomas and
Dewey emphasize the need to develop new ideas and new methods to overcome
the problems associated with handling complex living systems.
excellent compact review of plant tissue culture, which includes also in the
Appendix a very useful taxonomic index of cultured plant species, misses only
one target: a good bibliography.
Maria franca Morselli University of Vermont
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT BURLINGTON,