PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
September 1974 Vol. 20 No. 3
The Missouri Botanical Garden Alwyn H. Gentry and Peter H.
Botanical Potpourri 38
Special Treasurer's Report C. Ritchie Bell 39
Professional Opportunities 40
Books Received by PSB for Review 40
Tropical Crops: Monocotyledons. J. W. Purseglove (H. G. Baker)
Progress in Phytochemistry, Vol. 3. L. Reinhold and Y. Liwschitz (eds.) (Joseph
Vegetation of New Jersey. Beryl Robichaud and M. F. Buell. (Arthur Cronquist)
Molecular Biology of Plants, a Test-manual. J. H. Cherry (R.
Flora of the Pacific Northwest; an Illustrated Manual. C. L. Hitchcock and Arthur
Cronquist. (Murray Evans) 43
THE MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN
H. Gentry and Peter H. Raven Missouri Botanical Garden St. Louis, Missouri
opened to the public in 1859, the Missouri Botanical Garden is the second
oldest botanical garden in the United States and one of the leading botanical
institutions in the world. The Garden now includes both a 70-acre area near
the center of the City of St. Louis and a 2200-acre arboretum at the edge
of the Ozarks, some 35 miles to the southwest. A sizeable scientific staff
concentrates on the vascular plants and bryophytes of tropical regions, on
land-use planning, and on ethnobotany, utilizing the Garden's herbarium of
some 2.4 million sheets and its library. Graduate and undergraduate students
from Washington University; St. Louis University; Southern Illinois University,
Edwardsville; and the University of Missouri, St. Louis; use the Garden's
facilities, and dozens of students have carried out their research for graduate
degrees at the Garden. In addition, the primary and historical Garden functions
of display and public education are still of vital importance.
Missouri Botanical Garden is the principal legacy of Henry Shaw, a wealthy
merchant with a keen interest in plants, who came to St. Louis in 1819 at
the age of 19. Retiring from an active business life in 1840, Shaw set out
to travel to Europe, and finally built two homes, starting construction on
both in 1849. Tower Grove House (fig. 1), around which the Garden grew up,
was his country home, surrounded initially by open prairie. It was built at
a site which was then about three miles outside of the city of St. Louis,
which in 1849 had a population of some 70,000 people. Becoming increasingly
preoccupied with this home, and spending more and more of his time there,
Shaw built his garden near it; his keen interest in plants, and in St. Louis,
ultimately culminated in one of the earliest and finest examples of philanthropy
in the Midwest. Shaw died in 1889, after personally managing the Missouri
Botanical Garden for :30 years and, in effect, serving as its first director.
As specified in his will, his town house was moved to the Garden in 1908 to
house class-rooms, administrative offices, and the Garden's herbarium and
library for some 64 years.
to the terms of Henry Shaw's will, the Missouri Botanical Garden, often known
locally as "Shaw's Garden," was to be dedicated to "the cultivation and propagation
of plants, flowers, fruit and forest trees, and other productions of the vegetable
Kingdom; and a museum and library connected therewith, and devoted to the
same and to the science of Botany, Horticulture, and allied objects . . ."
Shaw originally conceived of the Gar-den primarily as a place to view ornamental
and useful plants and to learn about them, but he was influenced over the
years by George Engelmann, a noted pioneer physician and accomplished botanist,
to expand its activities to include scientific research also. Engelmann called
upon Asa Gray, J. D. Hooker, and other leading botanists of the day, and they
responded with letters to Shaw urging him to develop the Garden's scientific
resources also. Eventually, purchases of herbarium specimens and books were
made in Europe to form the nucleus of the Garden's collections.
some extent, the Missouri Botanical Garden was modeled on the Royal Botanic
Gardens, Kew, which had passed from the Crown into the public domain in 1840
and which was setting up its own scientific program, her-barium, and library
for the first time in the 1840's, following the appointment of W.J. Hooker
as director. The Museum at the Missouri Botanical Garden, where the herbarium
and library were first housed, was built following the plans for the first
wing of the herbarium at Kew. These plans, however, were never put into effect
in England but, were replaced with the larger, but still similar, version
that through the years has been added to and expanded into the Kew Herbarium
we see today. Kew, The New York Botanical Garden, and the Missouri Botanical
Garden remain among the few examples of cornprehensive botanical institutions
built on this sort of a concept.
the years, the education of plant scientists has been one of the most important
activities at the Missouri Botanical Garden. At the time he founded the Garden,
Henry Shaw also established a School of Botany at Washington University in
St. Louis. Together, the Henry Shaw School of Botany (now a part of the Department
of Biology) and the Missouri Botanical Garden have constituted an important
center for graduate training in botany, especially in plant systematics. Many
of the staff members at the Garden have adjunct appointments at Washington
University; St. Louis University; the University of Missouri, St. Louis; and
Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, and faculty members from each
of these universities have adjunct appointments at the Garden and are afforded
research facilities. Seminars are held weekly for the systematic and evolutionary
botanists of the St. Louis area. Both graduate and undergraduate students
carry out research projects at the Missouri Botanical Gar-den, and in many
cases are in residence for periods up to several years. Thus the Garden, although
a private institution and completely independent, serves as an important resource
for each of the local educational institutions, and they in turn employ faculty
who support the Garden's overall program.
effectiveness of the teaching program at the Missouri Botanical Garden can
perhaps be demonstrated most easily by a brief list of some of its graduates
— scientists who are employed at virtually all botanical institutions
in the United States. Among those still active, these include: Caroline K.
Allen, Henry N. Andrews, William C. Burger, Robert L. Dressler, George J.
Goodman, Charles B. Heiser, C. L. Hitchcock, Richard W. Holm, Ding Hou, Hugh
H. Iltis, Lee W. Lenz, Mildred E. Mathias, Robert. H. Mohlenbrock, Jr., L.
I. Nevling, Jr., Joan W. Nowicke, Gerald B. Ownbey, Marion Ownbey, Howard
Pfeiffer, David J. Rogers, Jonathan D. Sauer, Russell J. Seibert, .Julian
A. Steyermark, Louis O. Williams, and many others.
quality of student turned out by the Missouri Botanical Garden largely reflects
the sustained interest in teaching and varied scientific background of the
staff. For example, a list of its directors — William Trelease, George
T. Moore, Edgar Anderson, Frits W. Went, David M. Gates, Peter H. Raven —
includes scientists with a wide array of interests: plant taxonomy, population
biology, cytogenetics, plant physiology, biophysical ecology, pollination
biology, evolutionary biology. Other staff members who have contributed much
to the graduate program over the past fifty years include: Henry N. Andrews,
Edward A. Burt, Carroll W. Dodge, Calaway H. Dodson, Robert L. Dressler, Benjamin
M. Duggar, .Jesse M. Greenman,
H. Linder, Norton H. Nickerson, Lee O. Overholts, Ernest S. Reynolds, George
B. Van Schaack, Robert W. Schery, Hermann von Schrenk, Rolla M. Tryon, and
Robert E. Woodson, Jr.
education has also received a good deal of attention at the Garden, especially
in recent years. The Education Department presents programs and educational
displays for both children and adults. More than 30,000 visits are made to
the Arboretum and Garden each year by participants in the Education Department
programs or the guided tours. Saturday Nature Classes for children 7 to 16
years of age have been one of the most enduring pro-grams; some classes draw
as many as 600 people. During the school year, students from third grade through
high school attend the one-hour lectures and ninety-minute workshops which
make up the Garden's Plant Science Program. Each summer since 1958 the Pitzman
Summer Nature Study Program has taught children 7 to 15 years old to collect
leaves, make butterfly nets, take bird walks, hike along trails, and participate
in other nature study projects under the supervision of experienced instructors.
Many short courses for adults on horticulture, botany, and related topics
are given throughout the year.
fulfilling the educational mandate of Henry Shaw's will, the Missouri Botanical
Garden has continued to be a horticultural showplace and remains one of the
leading tourist attractions of St. Louis. In addition to extensive collections
of roses, water lilies, and orchids the Garden boasts the Climatron, a giant,
controlled-atmosphere, geodesic dome designed on the Buckminster Fuller concept
(fig. 2). In the 15 years since its completion, the Climatron has become a
symbol of the Garden. It houses ponds, a waterfall, an underwater tunnel,
and a varied collection of tropical plants, nearly all labelled with scientific
and common name and place of origin. Among its more than two thousand species
are such botanical novelties as the only Degeneria in cultivation, the recently
discovered Australian Idiospermum, and germinating 30-pound seeds of the double-coconut
Lodoicea. Nor is the Climatron only a collection of exotic plants: in cooperation
with the St. Louis Zoo, such animals as hummingbirds, turtles, iguanas, tropical
fish, pheasants, and several water birds have been introduced. The Desert
House, flanking the Climatron, is planted with representative species of desert
plants. Another large conservatory adjacent to the Climatron is scheduled
to be reopened soon as a Mediterranean House, and includes plants from the
five areas of the World with a mediterranean climate. The Linnaean House,
completed in 1883, contains a large collection of camellias and is the focus
of a midwinter camellia show. Horticultural greenhouses, a floral display
house, the carefully restored and renovated Tower Grove House, and the mausoleum
where Henry Shaw is buried are among other noteworthy features of the Garden.
outdoor plantings include many of the trees and shrubs of temperate regions
that are hardy in St. Louis. In recent years an attempt has been made to introduce
a greater variety of woody plants with Asian species especially being added
to the collections. Representative of these more recent plantings is a tall
Metasequoia-lined avenue near the herbarium. As part of the current effort
to make the Garden an even more enjoyable and educational place to visit,
a master plan for the Garden has been developed by Environmental Planning
and Design of Pittsburgh. This plan is in the first stages of implementation,
and includes the establishment of new public buildings and plantings, including
a boxwood garden dedicated to the memory of Edgar Anderson. The three-
lake constructed in 1908 near the southwestern corner of the Garden will be
doubled in size and made the site of a Japanese Garden planned by Koichi Kawana
of Environmental Design Associates of Los Angeles. A Scented Garden for the
Blind has already been established near the south end of the Knolls, and the
South Rose Garden has been greatly expanded and made more beautiful with the
addition of a magnificent new fountain in memory of A. Wessel Shapleigh, longtime
member of the Garden's Board of Trustees.
plans for the improvement of the plantings in the Garden, and of the horticultural
area in general, will be implemented under the direction of Robert Dingwall,
Chief Horticulturist, with the assistance of several new appointees. John
Elsley, Curator of Hardy Plants, who was formerly Chief Botanist to the Royal
Horticultural Society at its Wisley gardens, has overall responsibility for
outdoor plantings. Walter Brian Ward, who also received his early horticultural
training in England and has come to St. Louis from Hodges Gardens in Louisiana,
was appointed Grounds Superintendent in July, 1974. Charles A. Huckins, recent
graduate of Cornell University, assumed responsibility for the Climatron and
two display green-houses in August, 1974; his doctoral dissertation was a
systematic monograph of the apples, Malus. The horticultural tradition is
strong at the Garden, as exemplified by the notable career of George H. Pring
(1885-1974) who served the Garden for 57 years (1906-1963) as foreman of the
orchid department, floriculturist, horticulturist, and superintendent.
Missouri Botanical Garden cooperates closely with many local and national
horticultural groups. The National Council of State Garden Clubs has its handsome
headquarters building on a seven-acre site at the south end of the Garden.
The American Iris Society has its national headquarters in one of the Garden's
buildings. Test plantings of new introductions of several kinds of popular
ornamental plants are conducted each year. As the Gar-den's record-keeping
system is improved, its plants will be better integrated with those of other
botanical gardens nationally and internationally.
sustained support of the public in the St. Louis area is one of the major
reasons for the continued success of the Missouri Botanical Garden through
the 115 years since it first was established. The Garden receives no direct
tax support from any source: about a quarter of its budget comes from endowment
funds, approximately a third from research and development grants, and the
from memberships, admissions ($1 for adults, 25c for children 6-12), and a
multiagency charitable drive con-ducted by the Arts and Education Council
of Greater St. Louis. Sales at the Garden Gate Shop and sales of living plants
also supplement the Garden's income.
year the more than 5200 members of the Missouri Botanical Garden receive the
Bulletin ten times, free admission to the Garden and to Tower Grove House,
a discount on Garden sales, as well as invitations to sever-al parties, mostly
in conjunction with the opening of seasonal flower shows. The members are
also the principal source of the several hundred volunteers who work regularly
at the Garden and supplement the efforts of its staff of approximately 140.
feature of which the Missouri Botanical Garden is very proud is its 2200-acre
Arboretum and Nature Re-serve, located 35 miles southwest of St. Louis at
the edge of the Ozarks. Purchased in 1925, when it was feared that air pollution
might force the Garden to abandon its city location, the Arboretum includes
extensive plantings of evergreens, large natural areas of upland woodland,
lime-stone glade prairie, and flood plain forest, crisscrossed by a network
of trails. Educational programs are offered to students and the general public,
in part in cooperation with the National Park Service. In recognition of its
out-standing value as an outdoors classroom, the Arboretum was designated
in 1972 by Secretary of the Interior Rogers C. B. Morton as a National Environmental
Education Landmark, one of 16 such sites in the country.
May, 1972, a tremendous boost was given to scientific research at the Garden
with completion of the mod-ern $2.2 million John S. Lehmann Building. This
hand-some, three-level 50,000-square-foot building, covered with one-way reflecting
glass which mirrors the stately dawn redwoods in front of it, enhances the
physical beauty of the Garden. Named for a late St. Louis lawyer who was a
member and then President of the Garden's Board of Trustees for a total of
over 25 years, the construction of the Lehmann Building was made possible
by a local capital fund drive and an award of $600,000 from the National Science
Foundation. It houses the Garden's library, herbarium, education department,
an auditorium, and offices of the Director, herbarium staff, and graduate
students. Henry Shaw's reconstructed Town House, which formerly housed the
herbarium and library, is now being remodeled step-by-step to provide space
for other Garden activities.
Lehmann Building now houses the herbarium and library of the Missouri Botanical
Garden. With some 2.4 million specimens of vascular plants and bryophytes,
the herbarium is the fourth largest in the United States and about tenth in
the World; it is unusually rich in types, with about 75,000. The herbarium
specimens are housed in six large, movable, electrically controlled storage
cabinets called compactors, each with a capacity for some 600,000 specimens
(fig. 3). Without them, about 85% more space would be required to store
the collection, cutting into working space and restricting other activities.
Important collections include the Bernhardi Herbarium; Engelmann's personal
herbarium of some 100,000 specimens, many from early expeditions to western
North America; very large holdings from Panama; and the major collection of
African plants in the New World, a collection which is actively being built
at present. The her-barium, which includes an unusually rich worldwide representation
of taxa, is visited by about 200 systematists each year, many from foreign
countries (fig. 4).
library is perhaps one of the three finest in systematic botany in North America,
and includes some 200,000 items. Among these are an important collection of
Linnaean and pre-Linnaean books, including a large set of herbals. Today the
library is consulted by Garden staff, visiting researchers, and, through interlibrary
loans and xeroxing, by botanists throughout the world. James Reed is the Head
scientific staff at the Missouri Botanical Garden includes the following systematic
botanists: Jim D. Conrad (tropical American plants), William G. D'Arcy (Solanaceae,
flora of Panama), Gerrit Davidse (grasses), John D. Dwyer (legumes, Rubiaceae,
tropical American plants), Alwyn H. Gentry (Bignoniaceae, Apocynaceae, tropical
American plants), Peter Goldblatt (Iridaceae, African plants), Walter H. Lewis
(cytology, palynology), Ronald L. Liesner (tropical American plants), Scott
Mori (tropical American plants, Lecythidaceae), and Viktor Muehlenbach (adventives,
weeds). Thomas S. Croat, Curator of Phanerogams, specializes on Sapindaceae,
Araceae, and tropical American plants; Marshall R. Crosby, Curator of Cryptogams
and Chairman of the Botany Department, is a specialist on tropical mosses.
Hugh C. Cutler is a student of ethnobotany. William M. Klein, Assistant Director,
specializes on Oenothera (Onagraceae) and directs the Garden's growing effort
in land-use planning. The Garden's Director, Peter H. Raven, is a student
of Onagraceae, of biogeography, and of taxonomy in general. During the past
five years this group has produced well over 200 scientific papers.
the Garden's Research Associates are Richard C. Keating, Southern Illinois
University, Edwardsville (plant anatomy); John E. Averett, University of Missouri,
St. Louis (phytochemistry); John C. Semple, University of Missouri, St. Louis
(cytology); Alan P. Covich, Washington University (plant ecology); Owen J.
Sexton, Washington University (ecology); William Meijer, University of Kentucky
(flora of Indonesia, Ceylon; tropical botany); Alan Graham, Kent State University
(palynology); Frank C. Seymour, Gainesville, Florida (floras of Nicaragua
and of New England); John W. Andresen, University of Toronto (forestry); and
Fred Utech (cytology, taxonomy). A major focal point of Missouri Botanical
Garden re-search is the Flora of Panama, which has been published in the Annals
of the Missouri Botanical Garden since 1943, and which will be completed in
1978. In addition, members of the Garden staff are active in collecting and
studying plants in many other tropical countries, including during the past
year many African countries and Madagascar, as well as Belize, Brazil, Colombia,
Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, and Venezuela. As can be seen
from this list, one of the major points of emphasis of the Missouri Botanical
Garden at present is
plant exploration. In the face of rapid and continuing destruction in the
tropics, it is estimated that any at-tempt to record the rich and little known
flora of the lowland tropical forests must be completed before they are completely
destroyed by the end of this century. Particularly valuable in these efforts
has been the Garden's tropical field station at Summit Gardens, Canal Zone,
which is maintained in cooperation with the Panama Canal Company.
the other activities at the Missouri Botanical Garden are publications and
symposia. The Bulletin of the Missouri Botanical Garden is published ten times
per year, and contains articles of general interest about the Garden and its
staff, and about horticulture in the Mid-west. The Annals of the Missouri
Botanical Garden, now quarterly and in its 61st volume, publishes some 800
pages per year and includes in addition to the Flora of Panama scientific
papers submitted both by staff and, occasionally, outside researchers. Symposia
have frequently been published in recent years also, including some of the
annual Systematics Symposia. These meetings are held each year in October
with National Science Foundation sup-port, and are attended by some 300 botanists
and zoologists; registration for the 21st (October 1974) was filled by July.
Shaw's legacy to plant science has clearly been an enduring one, and the Missouri
Botanical Garden continues to try to improve its efforts in scientific research,
public education, and horticulture. In the future, it will continue to play
its role in the local, national, and inter-national field of botany, and is
ready to afford to all students of plants whatever assistance its facilities
and staff will make possible.
RESULTS OF THE RECENT MAIL BALLOT for the officers for 1974 are:
- Peter H. Raven; Vice President - Barbara F. Palser; Secretary - Patricia
Holmgren; Member Editorial Board, American. Journal of Botany - Robert Ornduff.
The Treasurer, C. Ritchie Bell, and Program Chairman, Augustus E. DeMaggio,
continue in office for 1974.
THE BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA/AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLANT PHYSIOLOGISTS CHARTER
FLIGHTS COMMITTEE met in Tempe, Arizona, on June 15, 1974, and selected Finnair
as the charter carrier and the American Travel Association as our official travel
the national airline of Finland, was selected because of its solid reputation
and excellent safety record as well as its comfortable seating arrangements
(a "regular" 185-190/plane vs 211-252 for charters) and low prices. People
who wish to fly by charter but have not yet registered should contact the
Chairman of the Committee, Dr. Joseph Arditti, Department of Developmental
and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92664/714-833-5241.
Late registrations are possible even if no guarantee can he made that seats
will be available. However, it is possible that if there are enough new registrants,
an additional plane may be obtained. Also, the Committee does maintain a waiting
list and cancellations are possible.
American Travel Association, Ltd. (ATA), Suite 511, 815 15th Street, N. W.,
Washington, D. C. 20005 (202-347-7780) was selected as the sole official travel
agent for land arrangements because of its substantial reputation and close-working
relations with Finnair. In-tourist, the official and only Russian tourist
agency, re-fuses to deal with individuals and requires an official agent.
As an Intourist wholesaler, ATA will derive its in-
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
Robert W. Long, Editor
Life Science Bldg. 174
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33620
Elwood B. Ehrle, Mankato State College
Adolph Hecht, Washington State University
Donald R. Kaplan, University of California (Berkeley)
Beryl Simpson, Smithsonian Institution
Richard M. Klein, University of Vermont
September 1974 Volume Tewnty Number
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc. Dr. C. Ritchie Bell, Department of Botany, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 26514.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical
Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a year. Send orders with
checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.
Manuscripts intended for publication in PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN should
he addressed to Dr. Robert W. Long, editor, Life Science Bldg. 174, University
of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 31620. Announcements, notes, short scientific
articles of general interest to the members of the Botanical Society of America
and the botanical community at large will be considered for publication to the
extent that the limited space of the publication permits. Line illustrations
and good, glossy, black and white photographs to accompany such papers are invited.
Authors may order extracted reprints without change in pagination at the time
proof is submitted.
Materials submitted for publication should be typewritten, doublespaced,
and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent
issues of the Bulletin.
Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University
Micro-film, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of South
Florida, 42117 Fowler Ave., Tampa, Fla. 33620. Second class postage paid at
from Intourist commissions and will charge members only an $8.00 visa fee
(retail agents may add 10-20% the cost of land arrangements). All land
arrangements such as hotel and tour reservations as well as visa applications
should be made through ATA since centralization will help reduce problems.
The man to contact is Mr. Aston A. F. Fallen. ATA will also handle visa and
land arrangements for Congress participants who will get to the USSR by means
other than the charter flights.
do not contact the Committee for land arrangements or ATA for the charter
1 NOVEMBER 1974, MANUSCRIPTS FOR THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY should be
submitted to the new editor, Professor Ernest M. Gifford, Jr., Department
of Botany, University of California, Davis 95616. Correspondence concerning
manuscripts in process of review or revision, or those being edited for the
January-March 1975 issues, should be addressed to the present editor, Dr.
Norman H. Boke.
OF THE GEORGE R. COOLEY AWARD at AIBS meetings at Tempe was: Ernest Small
(Plant Re-search Institute, Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada) for his
paper on "The Systematics of Cannabis."
FOURTH INTERNATIONAL PALYNOLOGICAL CONFERENCE will be held at Lucknow (India),
from 29th December 1976 Co 5th January 1977. The first circular was issued
in April 1974. Those who have not received the circular but wish to receive
it, kindly write to the Secretary-General, IV International Palynological
Conference; 53, University Road, Lucknow 226007, India.
expected the fiscal report for 197:3 at the annual meeting of the Society
in Tempe in June contained some good news and some had news. The bad news
was that the Society again ran a deficit for the year. The good news was that
the deficit was only $6,888.90, instead of the $40,919.00 that was projected
for the year at the 1972 meetings! Some $25,000 of the "savings" was accomplished
by a reduction in payments to the AJB ac-count and by changing publication
plans for the 1972 symposium. The remaining $9,000 savings was a joint effort
in premeditated parsimony by the officers of the society — and especially
the treasurer! The $6,888 needed to balance for the year came from our savings.
interim report for 1974 showed an estimated total income for the year of $39,750
and total disbursements of $64,450 for a projected 1974 deficit of $17,100.
This estimated deficit was cut to a managable $7,000 by again reducing the
amount transferred from the regular Society account to the Journal account.
(However, it should be pointed out that this is a mere "sleight of book-work"
expedient since the Journal account, under the AJB Business Manager Richard
Popham, still has its publishing bills to pay and the deficit must still be
made up from Society funds!) We have $:36,000 in savings in the regular Society
accounts, so the expected $7,000 deficit for 1974 can be covered.
costs — for the Journal, for Plant Science Bulletin, for the yearbook,
and for abstracts of papers presented at annual meetings — account for
the greatest part of our Society operating expenses, and these costs seem
to have inflated even faster than many other costs in our present economy.
For 1975 the following (summary) budget was adopted by vote of the membership
to American Journal
Botany account $20,000*
Science Bulletin 5,150
Careers booklet 2,500
FOR PUBLICATIONS $30,150
Office Expenses 5,500
Office Expenses 5,000
Director Expenses 500
Expenses 2,500 Travel of Officers and
to meetings 2,050
AIBS affiliation, etc. 1,300
taxes (city, state, federal) :3,500 TOTAL ALL OTHER SOCIETY
1975 BUDGET APPROVED $50,500
under our present dues structure, the 1975 budget would result in another
sizable deficit and since membership dues must again start covering a more
realistic share of the publication costs of our Journal, the Council recommended,
and the membership approved, a change in the dues for all categories of membership
in the Botanical Society of America as indicated in the new dues schedule
chart (see below). As compared with other botanical and biological societies,
membership in the BSA, with its subscription to the AJB and PSB, is still
a four star "best buy"; as compared with membership cost in the professional
societies of many other sciences it is a downright steal! *
$5.00 per member, versus a Journal publication cost of over $16.00!
DUES AS APPROVED BY THE MEMBERSHIP
18 June 1974 at Tempe, Arizona
if paid and received Discounted dues if paid
calendar year in and received before Dec. 31
membership is of the preceding year in
$25.00 $20.00 (Save $5.00!)
$30.00 $25.00 (Save $5.00!)
$12.50 $10.00 (Save $2.50!)
$12.50 $10.00 (Save $2.50!)
A person wishing to join the Botanical Society of America for the first time
may do so at any time during the calendar year at the discounted rate.
of our members pay their dues within a few weeks of receipt of their annual
dues notice each fall and their membership and Journal subscription continue
uninterrupted into the next calendar year. However, about 20% of our membership
more or less dribbles in over a period of months well into the new calendar
year. Such members are, of course, most welcome even when a bit late, but
late payments do cause an interruption in Journal subscriptions and are a
considerable added expense to the Society through increased postage and handling
costs to send out, on an individual basis, the back copies of the Journal
and other publications.
the new dues schedule a generous "reward" of 20% is given for 1975 dues
payments that are received (not dated, mailed or postmarked, but received,
delivered, in hand) prior to 31 December 1974. The dues notices will be sent
out near the end of October. Please don't dribble! When you get your dues
notice, figure about how many weeks it will take the Postal Service to get
your dues envelope to Chapel Hill, add a few weeks for federal holidays and
mail early in the day! This year promptness will pay!
L. Dilcher, Department of Botany, University of Indiana is the new Secretary-Treasurer
of the Paleobotanical Section 1974-1977. Correspondence regarding membership
and activities of the Paleobotanical Section should be addressed to Dr. Dilcher.
Charles W Good was the recipient of the best paper award at this year's Paleobotanical
Section Contributed Paper program for his paper.
Thomas N. Taylor has moved to The Ohio State University where he has assumed
the duties of Professor and Chairman of the Department of Botany.
Joe Hilliard recently joined Cambrian Processes Limited, a subsidiary of Agra
Industries, where he is the Senior Scientist in the Company's Rapeseed Research
was formerly a Research Scientist in the Department of Crop Science at the
University of Guelph. While there he developed and installed systems for analyzing
proteins, and evaluating carbohydrates in crops. In addition to his analytical
work, he held the position of Di-rector of the Physiological Laboratory and
was an Associate in the Food Industry Research Institute.
J. Weber and W. M. Hess (Department of Botany and Range Science, Brigham Young
University, Provo, Utah) organized and conducted the Second International
Fungal Spore Symposium which was hosted by Brigham Young University during
the week of July 15-19 at Timp Lodge near Provo, Utah. Approximately ninety
scientists from several foreign countries and various states attended. Six-teen
symposium talks were presented with emphasis upon dormant and germinated spores.
The presentations were concerned primarily with biochemistry and ultrastructure.
The proceedings will be published by Wiley Interscience.
1 September 1974 Dr. Jerry J. Brand and Dr. Stephan J. Kirchanski will be
joining the Department of Botany, University of Texas at Austin, as assistant
T. Delevoryas will assume the chairmanship of the Department on 1 September.
DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY AND PLANT PATHOLOGY, Oregon State University, announces
an open position in Plant Physiology effective immediately. Duties associated
with the position will involve technical assistance in the area of biochemical
and biophysical investigations on aspects of hydrogen metabolism of micro-algae.
appointment will be on a 12-month basis at the rank of Research Assistant
Unclassified and for a 1 year minimum duration. Continuation would be dependent
upon performance and upon continued funding of the re-search project. A B.S.
degree is required and preference will be given to applicants who have experience
with techniques of microbiology and biochemistry. Experience with plant systems
desired, but not absolutely essential.
State University subscribes to a policy of active recruitment of women and
ethnic minority persons and invites all interested and qualified persons to
apply. Application and inquiries should be addressed to:
Norman I. Bishop
of Botany and
should include a curriculum vitae, transcripts of academic records, letters
of recommendation and any other pertinent information.
Received by PSB for Review
following books, of interest to botanists, have been received by the Editor
for possible review in the Plant Science Bulletin during the past year. Because
of limitations of space we are not able to include reviews of all books submitted
to PSB, but as many of the advanced treatises and certain particularly useful
texts are re-viewed. In the list below those titles that are starred have
been assigned to reviewers and the books will be described in PSB.
will note that this list is somewhat longer than the one published last year
at this time. The Editor will continue to attempt to choose from the many
books sent to him reviews that appear to be of special interest to the members
of the Society. Highly specialized mono-graphs and freshman texts unfortunately
must often be passed by.
any of the titles listed here that are unassigned to reviewers are of particular
interest to a member of the Society who would like to review it, he should
write the Editor directly. —ed.
F. E. Soil Organic Matter and Its Role in Crop Production. Elsevier Scientific
Publishing Company, 1973, Amsterdam, $52.00.
H. Aquatic Plants of Australia.Melbourne University Press, 1974, Melbourne,
K. F. and R. J. Cook Biological Control of Plant Pathogens. W. H. Freeman
and Co., 1974, San Francisco, $12.50.
D. W. and A. H. Sparrow (editors) Survivial of Food Crops and Livestock in
the Event of Nuclear War. AEC Symposium Series, 1971, $9.00.
L. E. Inventory - Honolulu Botanic Gardens. Friends of Foster Garden Press,
F., T. Buckhardt, and C. Zdero Naturally Oc-
curring Acetylenes. Academic Press, 1973, $36.50.
E. W. Jr. (editor) The Plant Root and Its Environment. University Press of
Virginia, 1974, Charlottesville, Va., $12.50.
H. L. The Ecology of Drosophila Breeding Sites. Lecture No. 2 Harold L. Lyon
Arboretum Univ. of Hawaii, 1971, Honolulu, $5.00.
J. H. Molecular Biology of Plants: A Text-Manual. Columbia University Press,
1973, New York, $12.00.
H. W. (editor) Microbial Metabolism. "Bench-mark Papers in Microbiology" Dowden,
Hutchinson, and Ross, Inc., 1974, Stroudsburg, Pa., $25.00.
F. Recision of the Nostocaceae with Cylindrical Trichomes (Formerly Scytonemataceae
and Riuulariaceae). Hafner Press, Inc., 1973, New York, $14.95.
J. (editor) Flora Boreali- Americana Vol. I A. Michaux, Classica Botanica
Americana. Hafner Press, Inc., 1973, New York, $42.50/set.
J. (editor) Flora Boreali- Americana Vol. II A. Michaux, Classica Botanica
Americana. Hafner Press, Inc., 1973, New York, $42.50/set.
S. Mosses: Utah and the West. Brigham Young
University Press, 1973, Provo, Utah, price not set.
G. E., W. D. P. Stewart, P. Fay, and A. E. Walsby. The Blue-green Algae Academic
Press, 1973, London, $19.60.
G. E. Photosynthesis, Second Edition. American Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc.,
1973, New York, $3.95.
A. J. (editor) Viruses and Invertebrates (Frontiers of Biology, Vol. 31).
American Elsevier Publishing Co., Inc., 1973, New York, $60.00.
I. A New Ecophysiological Approach to Forest-Water Relationships in Arid Climates.
Dr. W. Junk B. V., Publishers, 1973, The Hague.
R. The Geography of the Flowering Plants, Fourth
Edition. Longman, Inc., 1974, New York, $27.00.
A. (editor) Vegetational History of Northern Latin America. Elsevier Scientific
Publishing Co., 1973, New York.
F., et al (editors) International Journal of Chronobiology Vol. 1, No. 1 John
Wiley and Sons, Ltd., 1973, London, $34.00 yearly.
J. L., T. J. Flowers, and R. M. Roberts Plant Cell Structure and Metabolism.
Longman, Inc., 1974, New York, $14.50.
A., M. Toha, and C. G. G. J. van Steenis. The Mountain Flora of Java. E. J.
Brill, 1972, Leiden, $58.50.
J. W. and J. M. Arena. Human Poisoning from Native and Cultivated Plants,
Second Edition. Duke University Press, 1974, Durham, $6.75.
C. E. Mechanism of Translocation in Sugarcane Lecture No. 4 Harold L. Lyon
Arboretum. University of Hawaii, 1973, Honolulu, $5.00.
J. Fouqueriaceae DC. World Pollen and Spore Flora 1. The Almquist and Wiksell
Periodical Co., 1973, Stockholm, $11.50.
J. E. and J. Janick. Food- Readings for Scientific American. W. H. Freeman
and Co., 197:3, San Francisco, $11.00.
D. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden Vol. 25, No. 1 Leguminosae of
the United States: I. Subfamily Mimosoideae. New York Botanical Gar-den, 1973,
Bronx, New York.
C. Biological Nomenclature (Special Topics in Biology Series). Edward Arnold,
1973, London, $6.75.
W. A. The Embryo Sac and Fertilization in Angiosperms Lecture No. 3. Harold
L. Lyon Arboretum, 1972, Honolulu, $5.00.
W. J. Plants in the Laboratory. The MacMillan Company, 1973, New York, $5.95.
Karlheinz. Okophysiologie der Pflanzen. Veb Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena, 1974.
Ya'acov. The Molecular and Hormonal Bases for Plant Growth Regulation. Pergamon
Press, 1973, Oxford, $7.50.
E. M. and M. E. S. Morrison East African Vegetation. Longman, Inc., 1974,
New York, $17.50.
Paul C. Corn: Its Origin, Evolution, and Improvement. Harvard University Press,
1974, Cam-bridge, Mass., $20.00.
D. S. and C. B. Dugdale Leaf Prints of American Trees and Shrubs. Littlefield,
Adams, and Co., 1974, Totowa, New Jersey, $4.95.
H. E. Jr. The Major Groups of Palms and Their Distribution. Reprinted and
Repaged from Gentes Herbarium 11(2):27-141, 1973.
T. C. Research Experiences in Plant Physiology. Springer-Verlag, 1973, New
P. R. How Trees Grow. Edward Arnold Limited, 1973, London, $3.60.
M. F. Jr., and W. K. Purves. Botany in the Lab-oratory. Hamilton Publishing
Co., 1974, California, $6.95.
J. A. (editor) Air Pollution Damage to Vegetation. Advances in Chemistry Series
No. 122 American Chemical Society, 197:3, Washington, D. C., $9.95.
P. S. Introduction to Biophysical Plant Physiology. W. H. Freeman and Co.,
1974, San Francisco, $13.50.
J. and L. Proust Les Iles Canaries, Flore de L'Archipel. Reprinted by Otto
Koeltz Antiquariat, 1973, Koenigstein-Ts./B. R. D., $6.00.
P. Bryophytes - A Broad Perspective Atma Ram and Sons, 197:3. Delphi, India,
K. H. Flora Aegaea, Reprinted by Otto Koeltz Antiquariat, 1973, Koenigstein
- Ts./B. R. D., $155.60.
B. and M. F. Buell. Vegetation of New Jersey. Rutgers University Press, 1973,
New Brunswick, $12.50.
R. Organogenesis of Flowers - A Photographic Text Atlas. University of Toronto
Press, 1973, New York, $27.50.
R. M. The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America. Volume 3 Columbia University
Press, 1974, New York, $25.00.
B. K. (editor) Flora of the U.S.S.R., Volume XIV Geraniales, Sapindales, Rhamnales.
Israel Program for Scientific Translations. Keter Press, 1974, Jerusalem,
B. K. (editor) Flora of the U.S.S.R., Volume XVI Umbelliflorae. Israel Program
for Scientific Translations, Keter Press, 197:3, Jerusalem, $56.00.
A. C. The Pacific as a Key to Flowering Plant History. Lecture No. 1 Harold
L. Lyons Arboretum, 1970, Honolulu, $5.00.
K. and L. Roche Genetics of Forest Ecosystems Ecological Series Volume 6.
Spriner-Verlag, 1974, New York, $29.60.
R. B. (editor) Mycological Guidebook. University of Washington Press, 1974,
F. C. (editor) Plant Physiology A Treatise Volume VI B. Physiology of Development:
The Hormones. Academic Press, 1972, New York, $21.00.
M. and W. Curtis The Endemic Flora of Tasmania Part IV. The Ariel Press, 1973,
H. E. (editor) Plant Tissue and Cell Culture. University of California Press,
V., G. Tackholm, and M. Drar Flora of Egypt. Reprinted by Otto Koeltz Antiquariat,
1973, Koenigstein-Ts./B.R.D., $185.20 (3 Volumes).
M., S. L. Rnason, and J. A. Richardson Plant Physiology, Fifth Edition. Longman,
Inc., 1973, New York, $2:3.50.
F. Flora Sicula. Reprinted by Otto Koeltz
Antiquariat, 1973 Koenigstein-Ts./B.H.D., $40.00.
J. H. and F. B. Sampson. Plants A Scanning Electron Microscope Study. John
Wiley and Sons Australasia Pty, Limited, 1974, Adelaide, $8.50.
H. R. Nematode Ecology and Plant Disease. Crane, Russak, and Co., Inc., 1974,
New York, $19.75.
H. Vegetation of the Earth in Relation to Climate and the Eco-physiological
Conditions. Springer-Verlag, 1973, New York, $5.90.
R. H. Environment and Man, Second Edition, W. W. Norton and Co., Inc., 1974,
New York, $7.95.
G. F. Bacterial and Fungal Diseases of Plants in the Tropics. University of
Florida Press, 1973, Gainesville, $22.50.
T. E., C. R. Stocking, and M. G. Barbour. Botany An Introduction to Plant
Biology, Fifth Edition. John Wiley and Sons, 1974, New York, $13.95.
T. C. (editor) Tree Flora of Malaya Volume 2, A Manual for Foresters. Longman
Group. Limited, 1972, London, $40.00.
J. W. Tropical Crops: Monocotyledons. Halsted Press Divn. of John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York, 1973. Vol. 1, x, :334 pp., 23 illus., $12.00; Vol. 2,
vi, 263 pp., 9 illus., $12.00.
is the completion of a magnum opus. In 1968, John Purseglove published the
first two parts of his comprehensive treatment of tropical crops and the plants
that comprise them. These two parts dealt with Dicotyledons; now the two volumes
on Monocotyledons complete this magnificent work. The preparation of these
volumes was begun while he was Professor of Botany and Plant Pathology at
the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of the West Indies (nee The Imperial
College of Tropical Agriculture) at St. Augustine, in Trinidad. Here was the
library to complement the vast experience that Professor Purseglove had accumulated
in Africa and Asia, as well as the New World Tropics. The works were completed
in England where he has now assumed administrative, advisory and teaching
responsibilities, all connected with tropical crops. There simply is no one
better qualified to have written these books which will surely stand the test
of time as definitive accounts.
author has the right to his own preferences, based on his own experience,
and if anyone is surprised to see a disquisition on ornamental orchids (as
well as the usually lonely Vanilla) among the economic plants it is because
he or she does not appreciate the growing importance of these beautiful plants
to the economy of such countries as Singapore (or the attention that has been
given to their breeding under Professor Purseglove's supervision there and
the monocotyledonous crop plants that are treated are more or less those that
one would expect and desire to be seen in a work such as this. Commendably,
there is a simplicity in their arrangement that every author of a compendium
(including a flora) ought to imitate: the families, the genera within them,
and the species within them are all arranged in alphabetical or-der. This
is a series of books in which you can find some-thing - quickly - especially
as, in addition to the regular text, an appendix is provided in which the
information for each species is summarized in tabular form (in addition to
an index where the vernacular names of the crops are used).
accounts of each species are remarkably complete. Thus, for the African Oil
Palm (Elaeis guineensis
a general treatment of the genus is found on page 479, the chromosome number
of the species is given on the same page. Uses of the Oil Palm cover two full
pages of text, the origin and distribution run from page 481 to page 483,
a treatment of the major cultivars occupies the pages up to 485, and ecology
of the species requires three more pages. Structure of oil palm plants is
given detailed treatment on pages 487-492 (including some handsome drawings
by Miss Marjorie Wong), accounts of pollination and germination occupy three
more pages, husbandry takes us to page 502 and is followed by an excellent
account of oil palm diseases (pages 502-504) and major pests (page 504). Improvement
programs for the Oil Palm are dealt with on pages 504-507 and, lastly, relevant
figures for production and trade occupy two more pages. All this is topped
off with eighteen helpful references.
all crop species get quite as much space as the Oil Palm but a number get
much more. The treatment of rice (Oryza ssp.) is thoroughly up-to-date (including
the contributions of the "Green Revolution") and detailed, as befits one major
cereal crop of the tropics. The maize story is slightly less up-to-date because
there have been major developments since these volumes went to press. Even
so, John Purseglove is always very good at presenting the evidence by which
the putative wild ancestors of crop plants may be traced (a matter of great
importance in view of the need for better breeding programs for adapt-ability,
disease-resistance, etc., in many of them in the future). It is not his fault,
but rather the antiquity of the original domestications of many of these plants,
that often causes the ancestors to escape positive identification.
course, in all these pages, one can expect to find statements with which one
will disagree. My disagreements mostly involve the pollination and breeding
system descriptions - but that is because they are my specialty - and even
there I am picking out just one or two items from a vast array of statements.
(Nevertheless, I do boggle at a key to the genera of cereal grasses that includes
the statement "Dioecious with bisexual spikelets"!)
anyone believe that these books are a dull catalogue, let me emphasize that
they contain a wealth of extremely interesting material for students of the
human condition as well as botanists. The intriguing description of "citemene"
cultivation (page 154-5), and "ash-planting" system indigenous to Zambia,
is just one case where the common view that all native tropical agriculture
follows a common pattern of shifting cultivation dependent on natural soil-fertility
can be disputed from evidence in these books. We have much to learn from these
cases. Another item of considerable biological interest relates to what James
Parsons has called "The Africanization of the American Tropics" in modern
times. Professor Purseglove shows clearly how the botanical characteristics
of such grasses as Pangola Grass (Digitaria decumbens Stent.), which developed
under heavy grazing pressure in southeast Africa, have made them important
pasture grasses now that large-scale cattle raising is the order of the day
in much of the American tropics. Dioscorea is in volume 1, and all "pill"-users
and takers of cortisone should find the information relating to that genus
of interest. And there is much, much more.
hooks are the best kind of gold-mine and, for a modest outlay (considering
their quality), anyone interested in (or teaching about) plants in relation
to man is guaranteed a bonanza.
G. Baker University of California (Berkeley)
L. and Y. LIWSCHITZ, (eds.). Progress in Phytochemistry, Vol. 3, Wiley Interscience,
New York, 1973. xi plus 375 pp. $26.00.
very long ago, just before molecular biology became the rage, the elucidation
of biochemical pathways was very in. It is still being done today, but perhaps
not as much. Hence, the chapter on this subject is very welcome. Brown and
Wetter have written a good and useful chapter which includes a sufficient
number of practical pointers (for example, on the possibility of "H exchange,
p. 9). However, I am not at all happy with the implication (p. 34) that the
contamination of precursor-containing solutions should have been accompanied
by a warning since some of these compounds can be damaging to plants.
alkaloids, derivatives and preparations have an interesting past, a present
which may cause concern and an exciting future: Gangrene epidemics due to
ergotized rye were known in the Middle Ages; bad "trips" due to LSD do occur
at present and agroclavine may lead to a morning-after pill. Thus, the chapter
on this subject by Thomas and Bassett is as timely as it is interesting.
first isolation of orchid sterols occurred not very long ago. As a result,
I have wanted to read more on the subject; and I have found the chapter by
Goad and Good-win informative. My only disappointment is that it did not list
the few orchids in which sterols were found (Wan et al. Phytochemistry 10:
comparative sequence of amino acids is a powerful taxonomic tool. If properly
developed, it can become very fruitful. The chapter by Boulter will, no doubt,
help in that direction.
they include compounds with names like cornmunic acid, bicyclic deterpenes
may well be listed on subversive lists, or those working with them may be
investigated by the "plumbers". And, agathic acid may generate some interest
among jewelers. On the whole, however, I found that chapter by Hanson to be
in-formative and interesting.
last chapter of Takeda deals with a single family (Dioscoreaceae) and their
steroidal sapogenins. Inasmuch as the family includes Dioscorea mexicana (the
Mexican yams are the most important sources of steroidal hormones), it deserves
the careful treatment given to it.
the whole, I feel that this volume is valuable. Unfortunately, its high value
($26.00) may limit it to library shelves only. But, then, a trip to the library
may be good for you.
Arditti University of California (Irvine)
BERYL and MURRAY F. BUELL. Vegetation of New Jersey. Rutgers University Press,
New Brunswick. 1973. 340 pp. $12.50.
book is a synthesis, at the semipopular level, of what is known about the
vegetation of New Jersey: What is there, why it is there, and what might have
been there in the absence of human disturbance. It is an outgrowth of a doctoral
thesis at Rutgers University by Dr. Robichaud, under Dr. Buell's direction.
The emphasis in both text and bibliography is on descriptive synthesis and
interpretation, rather than on the detailed presentation of data and mathematical
analysis. The authors have done a good job of what they are trying to do.
The book will be useful to educated laymen and to botanists who want a well-founded,
quick, and painless introduction to its subject.
Cronquist The New York Botanical Garden
JOE H. Molecular Biology of Plants. A Text-Manual. Columbia University Press,
N. Y. ix + 204 pp. illust. 1973. $12.00.
irregular intervals, a book on technique appears whose time has come. Machlis
and Torrey's Plants in Action, Jensen's Botanical Histochemistry, Hewitt's
Sand and Water Culture Methods used in the Study of Plant Nutrition, H. B.
Sprague's Hunger Signs in Crops are still on our shelves and are still used
regularly. I think that the book under review will join this group. The research
techniques used in macromolecular biochemistry, worked out over the past fifteen
years, are now sufficiently foolproof so that they can be learned and applied
by advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students and many researchers
who have hesitated to get involved in this area.
author notes that his interest and expertise in nucleic acid and protein methodology
has resulted in a manual strong in these techniques but he has included analyses
for plant growth substances and a mixed bag of cell constituents. The section
on photosynthesis is frankly weak and in subsequent editions Professor Cherry
might consider having a photosynthesizer contribute a chapter to round out
the coverage of the manual.
each procedure, a conceptual base is provided, the listing of required supplies
is given and the technique presented in step-by-step detail. The selected
references might have been enlarged to assist the more advanced practitioner.
The illustrations are adequate, but a list of suppliers of the more esoteric
chemicals and supplies would have been helpful. The only obvious typographical
error was my first initial.
M. Klein University of Vermont
HITCHCOCK, C. L. and ARTHUR CRONQUIST. Flora of the Pacific Northwest; an Illustrated
Manual. University of Washington Press, Seattle. 197:3. XIX, 730 pp. $25.00.
manual is a more accomodating companion to the authors' five-volume work,
Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest, prepared by Hitchcock, Cronquist,
Marion Ownbey and J. W. Thompson, published serially from 1955 to 1969 by
the University of Washington Press. This single volume presents an eminently
readable and usable compilation and a pleasant new idea in manual writing.
The whole volume is essentially a series of illustrated keys. There is no
formal presentation of each species with its usual description, flowering
and/or fruiting period, synonomy, distribution, etc. Instead, the species
are identified in keys which include distributional data, synonomy, when particularly
pertinent, common names and generally a more extensive list of characters
than is usual with treatments where abbreviated keys are followed by longer
and often rather redundant descriptions of each of the taxa. There are marginal
line drawings of many of the taxa alongside the keys. These may illustrate
the whole plant or only pertinent amplification of the characters used in
the keys, so that a particular taxon may only be illustrated by a flower or
fruit. In numerous instances a character in the key is illustrated in the
margin in addition to illustrations of the keyed taxa. The keys are very readable,
and the illustrations built into the key should greatly help the person either
not already familiar with taxonomic plant characters or without a fair knowledge
of the flora covered in the manual. About 150 abbreviations and signs are
used extensively to reduce the volume of text material. A list of these are
included with the introductory remarks. A practicing taxonomist should
little need to refer to the explanatory list except for the regional geographic
terms, and interested amateur taxonomists should have little trouble accomodating
to the abbreviated style.
addition to the keys to species and varieties, the manual provides a traditional
detailed description of each genus, and in monotypic genera also a detailed
description of the single species. One is a little surprised, then, at the
overbalance of descriptive material available for a single taxon in a monotypic
genus as compared to genera with more than one species represented in the
flora. The families are arranged in the traditional Englerian sequence except
that the monocots follow the dicots and are arranged according to Cronquist's
The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants, 1968. The genera are
alphabetical within families, again a welcome convenience in large families.
additional feature of convenience, perhaps, and not without its humorous implications,
is that the manual is provided with two keys to the families, one by each
author. One is tempted to fantasize conversations between the two authors
as they argued over which type of key was best and which could write the better
one, the outcome being that they both decided to try their luck and let the
reader decide. The differing philosophies of the authors are expressed in
that the synoptical phylogenetic key is written by Cronquist and the illustrated
artificial key is written by Hitchcock. Again the attempt is to make the hook
usable by anyone and bridge the gap between the professional manual and the
amateur guide, an admirable goal, which I think the authors achieve.
summary, one is left with the strong feeling that the authors have striven
in every way possible to produce an authoritative work that will be useful
to as broad a community of botanically interested people as possible. I think
they succeed admirably. The complexities of taxonomy and its terminology are
inevitably there but are so consistantly cross-referenced with illustrations
at the immediate point of need that the manual should be useful to diligent
and serious beginners as well as professionals. Redundancy has been reduced
to a minimum and all materials are arranged to provide quick access to the
most information in the least space without making the appearance cramped.
philosophically and technically, this volume is a fine addition to the taxonomic
literature, which both combines and breaks through some of the stereotypes
of this kind of literature and should attract the attention of a much broader
audience than do many regional manuals.
Murray Evans The University of Tennessee, Knoxville
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA,