PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
March 1974 Vol. 20 No. 1
Western Botanist in Eastern China Sylvia A. Earle 2
Sketches and Obituaries in Publications of the Botanical Society of America
— An Index Ronald
L. Stuckey and W. Louis Phillips 5
of a Structural Botany Section Donald R. Kaplan 7
Tempe Meeting 7
to Leningrad? 7
of the Business Meeting, Botanical Society of America, Inc. 9
American Journal of Botany Report of the Business Manager 10
Society of America, Inc. Officers for 1974 11
Society of America, Inc., Committees, 1974 13
of Treasurer 13
for Awards Presented at the Annual Banquet, 1973 14
Studies 2. Integrated Experimental Ecology. H. Ellenberg (D.
W. Davidson) 14
Introduction to Plant Biochemistry. T. W. Goodwin, and E.
I. Mercer (J.
K. Bryan) 15
Seed to Civilization: the Story of Man's Food. C. B. Heiser,
C. Smith) 16
of the .Japanese Flora: An Introduction to Plant Sociology of East Asia. Joshiwo
Horihawa (A. J. Sharp) 16
of Halophytes. Yoav Waisel. (Leon Bernstein) 17
in Developmental Botany, James L. Riopel. (L. E. Jones) 17
Plant Nutrition. Hugh G. Crouch. (D. H. Benzing) 18
Tropical Forest Ecosystems in Africa and South America: A
Comparative Review Betty
Meggers, Edward S. Ayensu, and W
D. Duckworth (eds.) (B. Simpson) 18
in a Vanished Landscape. The Life and Times of David Douglas William
Morwood (J. Ewan) 19
A Western Botanist in Eastern China
Sylvia A. Earle
Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History
Los Angeles, California 90007
I am far from being the first western botanist in eastern China, and assuredly
I will not be the last, but my travels in the People's Republic of China (luring
.June, 1973, marked the appearance of the first marine botanist to visit from
the "west" in more than 20 years. Reports by Galston and Signer after their
1971 visit to China (Galston, 1971; 1972 a,b,c: Signer, 1971: Signer and Galston,
1972) brought the first direct news in many years about what, has been happening,
scientifically, in that country.
went to China with a 14-woman delegation of the American Women for International
Understanding, a group that was formed to help contribute toward understanding
and good will among nations through personal contacts with people in other
countries. In Canton, Shanghai, Soochow, Tsinan, Peking, and Choukoutien (site
of Peking Man excavations) we visited schools, factories, communes, and other
places that are often seen by visitors. In addition, efforts were made to
accomodate our special interests and to introduce us to people who had similar
occupations in China. A high point in our visit came when we were received
by Madame Teng Ying Chow (Madame (Thou En-Lai) and six other women who are
prominent in China, including the newly appointed Minister of Health, Madame
Liu Shing Ping.
professional interests of our group were diverse, including the arts, education,
medical science, economics, communications, and public service. As a marine
botanist I wanted to discover what I could about, work being done in systematics,
ecology and oceanography; to see the nature of museums; how and where research
collections are being maintained, and observe current attitudes about conservation
and preservation of rare and endangered species. Two in our group shared my
special interest in museums and collections — Caroline Leonetti Ahmanson,
a member of the Council and Trustees Committee for the American Association
of Museums, and Alison Stilwell Cameron, daughter of the late General .Joseph
W. Stilwell, an artist and teacher who was born in Peking and the only member
of our group who could converse in Chinese. An account of China's museums
and the status of historical collections appears in Museum News (Ahmanson,
our group first entered China each of its was asked by representatives from
the China Travel Service what we would particularly like to see (luring our
visit. The excellent volume, Directory of Selected Scientific Institutions
in Mainland China published by the Hoover lnstitul.ion Press in 1970, had
suggested to me ghat the best place to seek colleagues in my field would be
in various branches of the Academia Sinica (the Chinese Academy of Sciences)
and in certain universities. Nearly all in the group indicated a desire to
visit universities, but at the top of nay list was a request to meet with
members of the Academia Sinica Institutions of Botany, Zoology and Oceanology.
I asked if it would be possible to see Professor Tseng Ch'eng-k'uei (C. K.
Tseng), a ratan who had long been known to me because of the excellence of
his work in my field - the systematics and ecology of marine algae. Dr. Tseng
earned his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1942 and has many friends
and colleagues in the United Stales but communications were rare after Dr.
Tseng's return to China in 1949. For many years no one in the United States
had heard anything from him, so I was not optimistic about getting to see
him. However, when our group stopped in Tsinan, capital of the province in
which the Institute of Oceanology is located, I was told that Dr. Tseng was
attending a scientific meeting in the city and that it would be possible for
him to come to our hotel for discussions. We spent the evening of June 11
together and most of the next day, usually accompanied by another oceanographer
and administrator from the Institute of Oceanology, Mr. Cha Chie-san, and
Mr. Liu Tzehan, interpreter and guide from the Head Office of the China Travel
Service, Peking (also the interpreter for conversations between Chou En-lai
and I)rs. Galston and Sie in 1971). During the discussions (in English) I
learned that a visit to the Institute of Oceanology would not be feasible
during my stay in China in part because they were not yet prepared to receive
are two branches of the Academia Sinica doing oceanographic research, the
Institute of Oceanology (formerly the Institute of' Marine Biology) at Tsingtao,
Shantung Province, and a smaller South China Sea Institute of Oceanology near
Canton, originally a branch of the Tsingtao Institute, but established separately
in 1965-1966. The major center for oceanographic work is at Tsingtao where
there is a scientific staff of 450 individuals and 300 who are concerned with
administration, technical support, or who are sailors. The Institute has a
research vessel, the "Venus", 65 m long, 1000 tons, that accomodates a scientific
staff of 30 to 40 for cruises of short duration. In addition there are three
smaller vessels. Work at the Institute is approximately 60 per cent biological,
40 per cent physical science, some involving geological exploration.
of the research in marine biology is of an applied nature. There is emphasis
on the cultivation of fishes, crustacea (including the shrimp, Penaeus orientalis).
nrollusca (including Mytelis and abalone), and marine plants, especially the
kelp, Laminaria japonica and species of Poiphyra. Other work concerns the
ecology, morphology, taxonomy and distribution of marine organisms, genetics
of algae, the transport of nutrients
photosynthesis of economically important species of algae, and life history
studies. In addition, there is in progress a nationwide systematic survey
of the flora and fauna, terrestrial and aquatic, freshwater and marine. Work
on algae is projected to include more than 30 parts and involves botanists
from various parts of the country. Systematic collections of marine plants
as well as marine fishes and invertebrates are housed and curated at the Institute.
Collections of freshwater and terrestrial plants and animals, including type
specimens, are maintained at the Institute cif Freshwater Biology at Wuhan,
Hupei Province as well as in the collections at the Institutes of Microbiology,
Botany, and Zoology in Peking. Dr. Tseng expressed interest in obtaining and
perhaps exchanging herbarium materials through the Institute. His special
interest, in addition to the cultivation and utilization of algae, is in the
systematics of Sargassum. He also said that he would like to hear from his
colleagues in the United States and to receive their scientific publications.
Other aspects of phycology in China are related in a note in Phycologia (Earle,
reports that I had heard before going to China, I expected to find little
encouragement for basic research. However, although immediate practical results
are desired for most scientific efforts, it appears that the long term gains
of basic research are also recognized. I asked Dr. Tseng specifically about
basic research in China and he replied, "Some institutions must do it. It
may be a small percentage of the total research, perhaps only two per cent,
but it is necessary. Such research may not be of immediate value today, but
we see this as the foundation of science and for the future. The Academy of
Science chiefly has to do the basic work for the good of the whole nation
and for science as a whole."
Tung Ting People's Commune near Soochow, I observed some of the practical
results of basic and applied research. There, agricultural and aquacultural
methods are used by approximately 45,000 people, including more than 11,000
households. The commune has a diversified economy run by 30 production brigades.
Eight brigades concentrate on raising grain, 13 raise fruits and tea, and
nine produce various kinds of fishes, and freshwater crabs and prawns. In
addition, mulberry trees are grown as hosts for silkworms and family vegetable
gardens are common. Knowledge of the food habits and behavior of various kinds
of fishes has made it possible to cultivate successfully as many as five species
of fishes in a single pond, and natural populations of freshwater crabs are
enhanced through cultivation and are harvested seasonally. Shieh Wen-hsung,
who had been chairman of the commune for two years at the time of our visit,
hosted us for a luncheon feast consisting only of foods that had been grown
on the commune: prawns, chicken, duck, trout, eels, "silver fishes", chicken
and duck eggs, potato salad, green peppers, cucumbers, button mushrooms, green
beans, rice, water lily soup, fresh loquats, and tea.
there was no opportunity to see natural areas in China, I observed many familiar
plants in gar-dens, along roadsides, and in the countryside especially during
the visit to the Tung Ting People's Commune and in areas in and around Soochow.
An extensive reforestation program is underway throughout China and young
trees are obviously becoming established both for eventual use as lumber and
as shade trees along road-ways. Pines, sycamores, Catalpa, Sassafrass, Carya,
Acer, Magnolia, Wisteria, Liquidambar, weeping willows, and naturally, Ginkgo,
were among the trees commonly plant.- ed. Melia azadarach, the China-berry
tree, so widely naturalized in the southeastern United States that some facetiously
refer to it as "Georgia-berry", is one of the most abundant ornamental trees
observed in southeastern China.
is the center for many things in China including scientific activity. More
than 150 research institutions are located there including the headquarters
for Academia Sinica. My request to see the Institutes of Botany and Zoology
was granted and I visited both on June 15. At the Institute of Botany I was
greeted by Tien Cho-Po, specialist in plant geography, and was introduced
to Hou Hsieh-Yu, plant ecologist and other members of the staff. More than
200 research personnel plus technicians work at the Institute. There are five
research divisions: (1) plant classification, including geobotany, ecology
and plant distribution; (2) paleontology, including macrofossils and microfossils,
with emphasis on those that relate to exploration for coal, petroleum and
other minerals; (3) palynology; (4) morphology and cytology, with work on
pollen culture and studies dealing with cell fusion; (5) physiology and biochemistry,
with work on photosynthesis, plant hormones and herbicides, nitrogen fixation,
and food preservation.
limited time, I concentrated on the area I know best, the first division,
and was very favorably impressed with the large and well-kept herbarium of
bryophytes, pteridophytes, and spermatophytes, consisting of more than 1,000,000
specimens stored and curated using traditional herbarium techniques. Excellent
vegetation maps are being devised, based on extensive field work. I observed
the fine illustrations in preparation for future volumes of the Iconographia
Cormophytorum Sinicorum the new inventory of China's flora. Two volumes of
the Iconographia, well-illustrated with line drawings, were published in 1972
and three more are expected during 1974. Tomus I has 1157 pages with 1730
illustrations and covers Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and 45 families
of Angiosperms; Tomus II has 1312 pages with illustrations numbering from
1731 to 3954 covering an additional 97 families of Angiosperms.
inquired about the possibility of exchanges of her-barium material and was
told that they are interested in this and that a request had been received
from the Missouri Botanical Garden that they intended to fulfill.
scientists from the Institute of Zoology met with me and discussed work at
the Institute. The director, Professor Ch'en Shih-hsiang, an entomologist
trained at Fu-tan University and the University of Paris, said that the present
institute had been established in 1962 when the Institute of Zoology and the
Institute of Entomology were combined. I asked about work relating to insect
control, and whether or not there is concern, as there is in the United States,
about the widespread use of pesticides. Dr. Ch'en said that non-harmful methods
of pest control were being emphasized, using hormones, physical methods such
as ultraviolet light, and microbiological control. He also indicated that
studies are being made of chemical pesticides and their residual occurrence
in soil and water, and that efforts are being made to decrease their use in
favor of other methods.
the request of several friends in the United States I inquired numerous times
during the trip about the occurrence of the large freshwater dolphin known
to live in Tung Ting Lake and the Yangtze River system. Few people had heard
of this unusual aquatic mammal until I brought the matter up at the Institute
of Zoology, and later, with the director of the Peking Zoo. Apparently it
is not a common animal but it is known locally and has been put on a list
of about 80 species of vertebrates that are protected in China. The list also
includes a large alligator, a giant salamander, giant panda, tigers, approximately
30 other mammals and 45 species of birds. I did not learn of any plants that
are specifically protected but some habitats have been set aside as natural
areas, particularly in the western part of the country. Most of eastern China
is inhabited or cultivated, and it appears that little remains of the naturally
occurring vegetation except in areas unsuitable for farming.
group was invited to see several primary and middle schools, but we visited
only two universities, Fu-tan University in Shanghai and Tsinghua University
in Peking. At Fu-tan, I was greeted by Professor Tan Chiachen (C. C. Tan)
from the Institute of Genetics and chair-man of the biology department. Dr.
Tan received his Ph.D. from California Technological Institute in 1936 but
has been out of contact with most of his former colleagues in the United States
for many years. He indicated that he would welcome communications and publications
directed to him at the Institute of Genetics, Fu-tan University, Shanghai,
P. R. C. Professor Tan confirmed what I had heard previously, that scientific
publications had reached China from other parts of the world during recent
years, although the rest of the world had little information about what has
been happening in China. Together we toured the excellent library, and, in
addition to the Chinese volumes, 1 was impressed with the quality and quantity
of foreign publications, many in English. Since 1971, English has become the
required second language (Chinese, of course, is first) studied in all schools
from the second grade through the universities.
group discussions with students at Tsinghua University in Peking, we heard
that students spend about 15 per cent of their time on political study, five
per cent on physical training, including study of military affairs and agricultural
production, and 80 per cent on their vocational studies. There is a university
in each province in China that educates students selected from that province.
In addition, there are national universities such as Tsinghua University,
that draw students from all parts of the People's Republic of China. Several
excellent ac-counts have appeared about the universities in China (Signer
and Galston, 1972; Galston, 1972 a,1972,c; Yang, 1972). For an understanding
of higher education in China, several articles published in China are helpful.
One such is a pamphlet called, "Strive to Build a Socialist University of
Science and Engineering" printed in 1972, and another, "A New Type of University"
published in the July, 1973 issue of the magazine, "China Reconstructs." These
and other publications from China, including scientific journals and books,
can be obtained domestically from the bookstore, China Books and Periodicals
which has three branches: San Francisco (2929 Twenty-fourth street, 94110),
Chicago (900 W. Armitage Avenue, 60614), and New York (95 Fifth Avenue, 10003),
or can be ordered directly from Peking through the bookstore Guozi Shudian,
Mail Order Department, P. 0. Box 399, Peking.
journals that have recently resumed publication include Scientic Sinica, Scientia
Geologica Sinica, Acta Botanica Sinica, Acta Zoologica Sinica, Acta Microbiologica
Sinica, and Acta Entomological Sinica. All are in Chinese with English summaries
except Scientia Sinica, which also has a foreign edition entirely in English.
we went in China we asked about the possibilities of future exchanges of information
and people, and everywhere received encouraging responses. In practice, visits
to China from the United States will probably continue to be difficult for
the general traveler and communications to be sporadic. The outlook is more
promising for those who wish to go to China for scholarly purposes. Recent
reports from the Committee on Scholarly Communications with the People's Republic
of China, a group formed in 1966 jointly by the National Academy of Sciences,
the Social Sciences Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies,
indicate a small but growing number of scholarly visitors from China to the
United States and the reverse. Up-to-date information about exchanges is contained
in an article by Harrison Brown (1974) and in the China Exchange Newsletter,
published by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the P. R. C. and
available through their office at the National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution
Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418.
C. 197:3. China is a living museum. Museum News 52(4): 17-25. Brown, If. 1974.
Scholarly exchanges with the People's Republic of China. Science 18:3)4120):
of Selected Scientific Institutions in Mainland China. 1970.
Institution Publications Series 96. Stanford, California. 469 pp. Earle, S.
197:3. A report on phycology itt China - 197:3. Pltycologia
A. W. 1972 a. The Chinese unviersity. Natural History 81 (Aug.-Sept.) 18,20-2:3.
1972 b. Down on the commune. Natural History 81 (Oct.): 50-59.
1972 c. The university in China. 13ioscience. 22 (Apr.):217-220. Signer, E.
1971. Biological science in China. Science for the People 3( Sept.): :3-5,
E. and A. W. Galston. 1972. Education and science in China. Science. 175 (.Ian.
Chen-Wing. 1972. Education and scientific research in China. Asia. 26 (sHmmer):
Biographical Sketches and Obituaries in Publications of the Botanical Society
of America — An Index1
L. Stuckey and W Louis Phillips
Department of Botany
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210
history of any organization is derived from the contributions and achievements
of its individual members and associates. Scientific contributions of such
individuals are usually recorded in biographical sketches or obituaries. Two
publications of the Botanical Society of America contain 68 biographical sketches
and obituaries between 1915 and 1972; six in the American Journal of Botany
in volumes 2-15 (1915-1928) and 62 in the Plant Science Bulletin in volumes
4-18 (1958-1972). In the early years of the Botanical Society of America biographical
sketches appeared in the American Journal of Botany through 1928, but the
Society published no biographical notes for the next 30 years. The idea of
a newsletter, or what eventually became the Plant Science Bulletin, was considered
by an appointed committee in 1925, but it did not come to fruition until 1955
when Harry J. Fuller edited the first issue (Tippo, 1956). At that time in
an article giving various suggestions of topics to be discussed, Fuller (1955)
stated that the Bulletin would not emphasize the topic of biographies of noted
botanists. That viewpoint has changed, however. The first biographical sketch
that appeared was the one of Charles Edwin Bessey published in volume four,
issue five, which was also the first issue edited by Harriet B. Creighton
who succeeded Professor Fuller. The first obituaries, those of Harley Harris
Bartlett and Ezra Jacob Kraus, were published in volume six. Since then biographical
notes have appeared in every volume, except volumes ten and fifteen. The peak
volume was number seven, with eleven biographical notes. In order that information
in these biographical notes may be more readily accessible to the Botanical
Society of America members, scholars, and historians, the accompanying index
has been prepared.
the Plant Science Bulletin only those articles that are clearly evident as
feature articles on botanists, biographical sketches, obituaries, and biographical
resumes of elected Corresponding Members are indexed. Personalia items noting
retirements, promotions, andlor honors are not indexed. In the Index the biographical
notes are listed alphabetically by the name of the botanist, with his or her
life dates as given in the article or from some other information source.
The volume, page number(s), and the date that follow are understood to be
for those biographical notes published in the Plant Science Bulletin. Biographical
notes published in the American Journal of Botany are specifically designated.
The author of the biographical note is the last item in the reference.
of the biographical notes published in the Plant Science Bulletin have appeared
since the compilation of the "Barnhart Biographical File." This card file
reference contains biographical information to the late 1940's on an estimated
44,700 botanists by John Hendley Barnhart, which was published in a three-volume
work (Barnhart, 1965). The Index below is a sample of those we have now completed
for 70 current (or recent — since about 1880) American botanical journals
and represents the kind of biographical information available in our card
files. A similar index was earlier prepared by the senior author for
the biographical sketches and obituaries in publications of the Ohio Academy
of Science (Stuckey, 1970).
from the Department of Botany (Paper No. 829) and the Herbarium, The
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43310
GEORGE FRANCIS (1854-1918) Am. J. Bot. 6: :301-308. 1919. W. G. Farlow, Roland
Thaxter. L. H. Bailey, and Henry M. Fitzpatrick.
IRVING WIDMER (1884-1967) 13(4): 7. 1967. Adriance S. Foster.
HARLEY HARRIS (1886-1960) 6(3): 7. 1960. Anonymous.
CHARLES EDWIN (1845-1915) Am. J. Rot_ 2: 505-518. 1915. Raymond J. Pool; Plant
Sci. Bull. 4(5): 7-8. 1958. Raymond J. Pool.
ERWIN (1906- ) 7(4): 3. 1961.
WENDELL H. (1904-196:3) 9(2): 8-9. 1963. Anonymous.
DAVID (1907- ) 7(4): 3. 1961.
AGNES (1869-19631 9(4): 10. 196:3. Anonymous.
VIRGINICUS IIEBER (1876-1966) 12(3): 11. 1966. Anonymous.
DANIEL GROVER (1900-1962) 8(4): 7-8. 1962. Harlan P. Banks.
RALPH ERSKINE (189.2-1971) 17(3): 27-28. 1971. Adolph Hecht.
FRANK SHIPLEY (1848-1920) Am. J. Bot. 12: 54-62. 1925. W. A. Setchell.
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
Robert W. Long, Editor
Life Science Bldg. 174
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33620
Elwood B. Ehrle, Mankato State College
Adolph Hecht, Washington State University
Donald R. Kaplan, University of California (Berkeley)
Beryl Simpson, Smithsonian Institution
Richard M. Klein, University of Vermont
March 1974 Volume Tewnty Number
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc. Dr. C. Ritchie Bell, Department of Botany, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 26514.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical
Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a year. Send orders with
checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.
Manuscripts intended for publication in PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN should
he addressed to Dr. Robert W. Long, editor, Life Science Bldg. 174, University
of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 31620. Announcements, notes, short scientific
articles of general interest to the members of the Botanical Society of America
and the botanical community at large will be considered for publication to the
extent that the limited space of the publication permits. Line illustrations
and good, glossy, black and white photographs to accompany such papers are invited.
Authors may order extracted reprints without change in pagination at the time
proof is submitted.
Materials submitted for publication should be typewritten, doublespaced,
and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent
issues of the Bulletin.
Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University
Micro-film, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of South
Florida, 42117 Fowler Ave., Tampa, Fla. 33620. Second class postage paid at
GEORGE H. (1896-1970) 17(1): 10. 1971. Anonymous.
JACQUELIN SMITH (1883-1965) 12(1): 8. 1966. Anonymous.
EDRED JOHN HENRY (1906- ) 14(4): 3.
VICTOR MACOMBER, JR. (1917-1962) 8(1): 9. 1962. Anonymous.
JAMES GREERE (1891- ) 8(1): 8-9. 1962.
Glenn S. Pound.
ALBERT E. (1914-1972) 18(1): 7. 1972. Anonymous.
ARTHUR JOHNSON (1881-1969) 13(4): 1-3. 1967. Carl L. Wilson.
MICHAEL (1902- ) 7(4): 3. 1961.
WILLIAM GILSON (1844-1919) Am. J. Bot. 7:173-181. 1920. A. F. Blakeslee, Roland
Thaxter, and William Trelease.
RUDOLF (1894-1965) 11(3): 11-12. 1965. C. A. Arnold.
ALBERT (1900- ) 7(4): 3. 1961.
ARTHUR H. (1879-1962) 9(2): 8. 1963. Richard A. Jaynes.
BRYON DAVID (1852-1918) Am. J. Bot. 7: 305-317. 1920. F. L. Stevens, L. H.
Pammel, and Mel T. Cook.
ROGER (1900- ) 7(4): 4. 1961. Anonymous.
J. B. (1879-1961) 7(4): 6. 1961. H. W. Popp. HULTEN, ERIC (1894- )
7(4): 4. 1961. Anonymous.
.JOHN (1884-1972) 18(4): 43-44. 1972. - Anonymous.
IVAN M. (1898-1960) 6(4): 7. 1960. - Anonymous.
GEORGE R. (1888-1971) 18(2): 19. 1972. - Anonymous.
GEORGE NEVILLE (1904-1970) 16(3): 10. 1970. Anonymous; 18(3): 23-24. 1972.
Harold St. John.
THEODOR K. (1894-1960) 6(4): 7. 1960. - Anonymous. -
MARGARET (1903-1963) 9(4): 9-10. 1963. Sara Bache-Wiig.
EZRA JACOB (1886-1960) 6(3): 7. 1960. - Anonymous.
RICHARD (1890-1966) 13(1): 8. 1967. David L. Dilcher.
P. (1904-1966) 12(3): 10-11. 1966. N. S. Rangaswamy.
GEORGE WILLARD (1886-1971) 18(4): 44. 1972. Robert L. Hulbary.
CHARLES RUSSELL (1904- ) 14(4): 3.
WALTER C. (1891-1963) 9(3): 8. 1963. - Anonymous.
PHILIP A. (1892- ) 14(2): 1-2. 1968. Sherwin
BOHUMIL (1873-1966) 12(3): 9-10. 1966. R. L. Stevenson.
FREDERICK CHARLES (1858-1927) Am. J. Bot. 15: 1-5. 1928..J. B. Pollock and
H. H. Bartlett.
ROBERT MEREDITH (1919-1968) 14(3): 6-7.
John R. Raper and Winslow R. Briggs. PARKER, MARION WESLEY (1907-1966) 12(4):
S. B. Hendricks. PETRY, LOREN CLIFFORD (1887-1970) 16(3): 10-11. 1970. Harlan
RAYMOND J. (1882-1967) 13(1): 8. 1967. - Anonymous.
JOSEPH F. (1884-1962) 9(2):'7-8. 1963. Egbert H. Walker.
EDUARD (1876-1960) 7(1): 6. 1961. Claude Weber.
ERICH TSCHERMAK EDLER VON (1871-1962) 9(1): 8. 1963. Anonymous.
LESTER W. (1887-1961) 8(1): 9. 1962. Harlan P. Banks.
EDMUND WARE (1888-1968) 14(1): 6-7. 1968. Katherine S. Wilson.
C. G. G. J. VAN (1901- ) 7(4): 4. 1961. -
VLADIMIR NIKOLAYEVICH (1880-1967) 13(3): 6-7. 1967. V. J. Krajina.
NILS E. (1873-1960) 6(4): 7. 1960. - Anonymous.
HIROSHI (1903- ) 7(4): 4. 1961. -
HUGH HAMSHAW (1885-1962) 9(1): 8. 196:3. Anonymous.
JOHN J. (1872-1962) 9(1): 8. 1963. - Anonymous.
LEWIS HANFORD (1894-1965) 11(2): 8. 1965. Faculty, Department of Biological
Sciences, Northwestern University.
EBEN HENRY (1889-1967) 1:3(4): 7-8. 1967. H. A. Borthwick.
FRANS (1906- ) 7(4): 4. 1961. -
JOHN (1895-1971) 17(2): 19. 1971. Charles B. Beck.
C. W. (1901- ) 1:3(3): 3. 1967. -
JOHN ERNST (1884-1966) 12(4): 7-8. 1966. G. W. Tomanek.
ORLAND EMILE (1885-1972) 18(2): 19. 1972. J. N. Dent, Jacques J. Rappaport,
and B. F. D. Runk.
PHILIP R. (1901-1968) 14(2): 6-7. 1968. Denes de Torok.
John Hendley. 1965. Biographical Notes Upon Botanists. G. K. Hall and Co.,
Boston, Massachusetts. 3 vols. 563 pp., 549 pp., 545 pp.
Harry .J.]. 1955. Editorial platform. Plant Sci. Bull. 1(1): 2.
Ronald L. 1970. Index to biographical sketches and obituaries in publications
of the Ohio Academy of Science, 1900-1970. Ohio J. Sc.). 70: 246-255.
Oswald. 1956. The early history of the Botanical Society of Amierca. Am. J.
Bot. 43: 852-858. Reprinted, pp. 1-13. In William Campbell Steere, ed. 1958.
Fifty Years of Botany: Golden Jubilee Volume of the Botanical Society of America.
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. New York. 6:38 pp.
Formation of a Structural Botany Section
the 1973 meeting of the Botanical Society of America it was decided to establish
a new section of the Society that would have as its central interest the analysis
of plant structure at all organizational levels, from the cell up to the organ
level. The purpose of this change was to provide a more realistic title and
unifying interest for those who are now members of the General Section. At
the next meeting of the Botanical Society we will hold an organizational meeting
for the new Structural Botany Section during the period of time of the General
Section Breakfast meeting. All who are interested in the organization of this
new section are invited to attend that meeting on Tuesday, June 18, 1974 at
7:30 A.M. The exact place of the meeting will be announced at Tempe.
69th annual meeting of the Botanical Society of America will be held jointly
with the Canadian and Mexican Societies. This international meeting will be
held at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona from the 15th to the 20th
of June, 1974. Among the several internationally sponsored symposia will be
programs covering wide-ranging species, botanical teaching with Algae, floristics
and ecology of Mexican vegetation and others. A number of field trips are
planned in the botanically varied Southwest.
maximise the interaction and exchange between the national societies, contributed
paper sections also will be jointly sponsored. The AIRS symposium at the Tempe
meetings, under the theme, "The Varied Environments of the Southwest," will
examine some of the aspects of this diverse and biogeographically fascinating
region. It is in-tended that this general symposium will provide a keynote
for the other, more specialized, society symposia. All botanists should plan
forms and room reservation applications will be made available in Bioscience.
Going to Leningrad?
insure the availability of planes, the joint-Botanical Society of America,
Inc. and the American Society of Plant Physiologists Charter Flights Committee
has had to collect deposits and make arrangements with an airline by December,
1973. However, the Committee realizes that this may be a bit early for some
members. Therefore, an effort will be made to arrange flights for .hose who
wish to register at this late date. Members of he Botanical Society of America,
American Society of 'lant Physiologists, Phytochemical Society of North tmerica,
American Bryological and Lichenological society of America, American Phytopathological
Society, ,merican Society of Plant Taxonomists, American Society rr the Horticultural
Sciences, Ecological Society of merica, Mycological Society of America, Phycological
aciety of America, Society for the Study of Evolution, Id the American Society
of Microbiology. Dependents of embers are also eligible. One copy of the form
completed for each traveler (make Xerox copies if cessary). Each form must
be accompanied by a $75.00 deposit. Send the form(s) and check(s) to: BSA-ASPI
Charter Flights Committee, c/o Dr. Joseph Arditti, Developmental and Cell
Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92664. Checks should be made
to XIlth International Botanical Congress Charters.
OF MICHIGAN, Research Scientist, University Herbarium and Matthaei Botanical
Gardens, and Assistant Professor of Botany. Applicant should be Ph.D. qualified
to teach modern systematics (esp. chemosystematics or experimental biosystematics),
also trained in classical taxonomy with knowledge of a variety of native and
cultivated plants, and interested in working with the Herbarium and the Gardens
in a program of modern systematics. Race, sex, age, religion, and ethnic origin
or the applicant are immaterial. Address inquiries to Rogers McVaugh, Director,
University Herbarium, North University Building, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104,
DEPARTMENT O1'' BIOLOGY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO is soliciting applications
for two new faculty positions for fall, 1974; one in Molecular Genetics and
the other in Developmental Biology.
appointments will be made at the assistant professor level. Appointees will
be expected to develop undergraduate courses in the areas specified as well
as in an area of their own interest. Applicants must have a strong interest
in both teaching and research, and will be expected to participate in the
supervision of graduate students and to initiate a research program in their
particular area of specialization.
persons should submit a curriculum vitae including academic training to: Dr.
Clifford S. Crawford, Acting Chairman, Department of Biology, The University
of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131.
UNIVERSITY is seeking a person to fill a position in the herbarium that would
involve some teaching and administration (half time) and research (half time).
Applicants should have a solid background in vascular plant systematics and
a real interest in the her-barium. The appointment will be jointly in the
Arnold Arboretum and the Gray Herbarium as either Assistant or Associate Professor
of Biology, and the appointee will be a member of the Department of Biology
and an Assistant or Associate Curator of the Arnold and the Gray. Interested
systematists should write to Dr. Carroll E. Wood, Jr., Professor of Biology,
Chairman of Search Committee, The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University,
22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Mass. 02138.
OR ADVANCED ASSISTANT PROFESSOR level for September 1974. Ph.D. Demonstrated
research performance and teaching performance. Background in biophysics or
biochemistry, preferably in membrane research. Full job description available
on request. Applicants should send vitae, 3 letters of recommendation, and
transcripts by April 15, 1974, to: Chair-man, Department of Botany, Washington
State University, Pullman, Washington 99163. An Equal Opportunity/Affirmative
Action Employer. Minority and/or women candidates are encouraged to identify
150 COPIES OF the published contributions of the 1972 Botanical Society Symposium
en-titled "The Monocotyledons: their evolution and comparative biology" which
was published in the June and September 1973 issues of volume 48 of the Quarterly
Review of Biology, are available for distribution. Eight papers in all were
published and they have been bound together as a unit. I will be glad to send
copies free upon request as long as the supply lasts. Please address all requests
to: Dr. Donald R. Kaplan, Department of Botany, University of California,
Berkeley, California 94720.
authors and topics of the papers are as follows:
David H. Mineral nutrition and related phenomena in Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae.
Jack B. Control of growth and development in the monocotyledons - New
areas of experimental research.
C. C., W H. Campbell, T. M. Chen and P. Dittrich. Pathways of carbon metabolism
related to net carbon dioxide assimilation by monocotyledons.
Martin H. Transport problems in arborescent monocotyledons.
James A. Fossil evidence on early evolution of the monocotyledons.
Harold E., Jr. and Natalie W. Uhl. Palms and the origin and evolution
of the monocotyledons.
Donald R. The problem of leaf morphology and evolution in the monocotyledons.
P. B. Branching in monocotyledons.
INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF PLANT TISSUE AND CELL CULTURE July 21-26, 1974,
Leicester, England . . . It is expected that the National Science Foundation
will award a bloc travel grant to sup-port the travel of selected American
scientists to the Leicester Congress. Further information can be obtained
from Professor Indra K. Vasil, Department of Botany, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611.
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA announces eight graduate courses in biology to be offered
at the Mountain Lake Biological Station this summer. They are as follows:
Term: June 12-July 16
of Ecology, Dr. William E. Odum, University of Virginia
of Mosses, Dr. David A. Breil, Longwood College
Dr. Harry G. M. Jopson, Bridgewater College
Zoology, Dr. Fred A. Diehl, University of Virginia
Term: July 17-August 20
Ecology, Dr. George M. Simmons, Jr., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
Genetics, Dr. David A. West,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Taxonomy of Seed Plants, Dr. Warren H. Wagner, Jr., University of Michigan
Dr. Charles O. Handley, Jr., United States National Museum
of $150 for one student in each term have been made available by the North
Carolina Botanical Garden. This fellowship may not be held concurrently with
any other stipend from the Station. The recipients of these awards are chosen
by the Research and Awards Committee of the Department of Biology. Application
for awards should be sent to the Director, Mountain Lake Biological Station,
University of Virginia, Gilmer Hall, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903.
Gregory J. Anderson has accepted a position in the Systematics and Evolutionary
Biology Section of the University of Connecticut.
Lorraine B. Spencer is now at the Department of Biology of Guilford College,
Greensboro, North Carolina.
Frank Willingham, Jr. is now the taxonomist in the Horticulture Department
of Callaway Gardens, Pine Mountain, Georgia.
James M. Scho h, Professor of Geology at the Ohio State University, haseen
given the Gilbert H. Cady Award of the Geological Society of America in recognition
of his many contributions in several fields of geology. Dr. Schopf is a member
of the Botanical Society of America as well as various other botanical societies.
J. Sharp and Frank D. Bowers of the Department of Botany, The University of
Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, 37916, are doing a comprehensive study of
the mosses of Mexico. They would like the opportunity of naming undetermined
Mexican material and learning of obscure collections from Mexico.
officers for the Phycological Section of the Botanical Society of America
are: Chairman, Dr. J. Robert Waaland, Department of Botany, University of
Washington, Seattle, Washington; the new Representative of the Section on
the Editorial Board of the American Journal of Botany is Dr. Karl Mattox,
Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Dr. Paul Biebel, Dickinson
College, is Secretary of the Section.
of the Business Meeting
Botanical Society of America
June 20, 1973
meeting was called to order by President Arthur Cronquist at 1:02 Y.M.
in Room 131 of Morrill Science Center. There were only 20 members present
at the beginning of the meeting, but this was very shortly increased to
about 50 which constituted a quorum.
minutes of the Business Meeting of 1972, as published in the Plant Science
Bulletin, were approved.
the absence of the Chairman of the Elections Committee, Dr. Kenton L.
Chambers, the President presented the names of the newly elected officers
Theodore Delevoryas, University of Texas Vice-President: Peter H. Raven, Missouri
Botancial Garden Member of the Editorial Hoard, American Journal of Botany:
B. Beck, University of Michigan
Secretary, Treasurer, and Program Chairman continue in office for 1974.
Cronquist reported that the Council had considered the recommendation, made
independently by two individuals, that the office of Vice-President be changed
to President-Elect, and voted against the change.
following changes in the By-Laws, approved by the Council in August, 1972,
and submitted to the membership of the Society in writing, were brought
up for action:
II. Membership and Dues. Section 1. Add at the end: All members in good
standing are entitled to receive the publications of the Society.
1I. Membership and Dues. Section 1(d). Corresponding Members. Change the
last sentence to read: They shall have all the privileges of active membership.
II. Membership and Dues. Section 1 (e). Retired Members. In line 21 delete
the end of the section add: Retired members shall be exempt from payment of
annual dues. They shall have all of the privileges of active membership, except
that those who wish to continue receiving the publications of the Society
may do so by payment of one-half the amount of the annual dues set for active
II. Membership and Dues. Section 1 (f). Sustaining Members. From the second
sentence delete: "shall receive the publications of The Society", leaving
the sentence to read: Sustaining members shall have the privileges of
active members except that of the vote .. .
H. Membership and Dues. Section 2. Change the first sentence to read:
At each annual meeting The Society shall determine by majority vote in
open meeting the amount of annual dues for each category of membership.
(The present wording mentions only two of the several categories of membership.)
II. Membership and Dues. Section 3. Change the third sentence to read:
Retired members shall have all privileges of active membership, in accordance
with 1 (e) above. Delete the last sentence. (These aspects have already
III. Officers. Section 5. Delete the first sentence. (This has been covered
in Sections 1 and 3.)
IV. Elections of Officers. Section 1 M. In the next to last sentence change
"incumbent officer" to officer-elect.
of Officers. Section 3. Add the following at the end of the present section:
Unexpected vacancies in the positions of Editor-in-Chief or Business Manager
of the American Journal of Botany or in the editorship of the Plant Science
Bulletin shall be filled by the appointment procedures set forth in the
V. Sections. Section 7. From the second sentence delete the words: "the
Secretary and the". (In practice the Secretary has not been involved in
handling expenses such as these.)
VII. The Journal. Section 1. Delete the third and fourth sentences. (At
present there is a conflict between Articles IV 2 and VlI 1 regarding
the method by which the Editor-in-Chief and Business Manager are chosen.
The procedure in IV 2 is the one used so the conflicting procedure is
VII. The Journal. Section 2. Replace the present section with: The publications
of the Society will not be sent to members who are in arrears. Only at
the discretion of the Business Manager of the Journal, in consultation
with the Secretary, may members in arrears, upon payment of back dues,
receive copies of publications of The Society for the years for which
such payments have been made. (This brings this section in accord with
Article II, Section 1.)
VIII. Meetings. Section 4. In the last line replace "the" with an.
IX. General Publications. In the opening sentence delete the words "Constitution
or". (The Botanical Socity of America does not have a constitution.
of the changes was moved and seconded. Dr. Sydney Greenfield moved an amendment
to the proposed version of Article 11, Section 1(e) to the effect that retired
members will receive the Plant Science Bulletin and Yearbook without payment
of dues. The amendment was seconded and passed with no dissenting votes. The
actual wording of the change was left to the Secretary, and the Article now
reads: "Retired members shall be exempt from payment of annual dues. They
shall have all the privileges of active membership, including receipt of the
Plant Science Bulletin and Yearbook, except that those who wish to continue
receiving the other publications of the Society may do so by payment of one-half
the amount of the annual dues for active members." Following approval of the
amendment, all changes were approved.
Secretary reported on the three Society publications handled by her office:
the "Guide to Graduate Study in Botany for the United States and Canada",
"Botany as a Profession", and the "Yearbook". The Council has asked the
Committee on Education to explore the need and desire for a new issue
of the Guide (present one is 1971). Just under 4,000 copies of' the career
booklet have been distributed cloning the past year. The Yearbook has
been slowed up because of the difficulties with the computer, but is now
being prepared for publication. Dr. Howland suggested from the floor that
phone numbers be included.
Charles Hcimsch, Chairman of the Committee on Corresponding Members, reported
that they were not recommending any new members this year. Only one name
had been submitted. He asked that Sections take a more active part in
making recommendations for corresponding membership.
of the report of Dr. Richard Popham, Business Manager of the American
Journal of Botany, were distributed and the report presented by Dr. Ritchie
Bell. In 1972 the Journal was almost $14,000 short of breaking even. This
was met by an allocation of funds from the Society. It was emphasized
that production and distribution of one volume of the American Journal
of Botany, exclusive of editorial expenses, was $16.17. It was moved and
seconded that the report be accepted; motion passed.
Ritchie Bell then presented the Treasurer's report. He commented on the
problems which arose as a result of moving the computer records from Yale
to North Carolina, which were compounded by a very successful membership
drive held during the fall of 1972. The present membership total stands
at a little over 4,000, but there are close to 600 1972 members not yet
paid for 1973; the retired members are not on the list at present; and
there have been a number of omissions from the computer list which are
in the process of being corrected, so the membership is higher than this.
financial reports were distributed: the final report for 1972, which will
be published in Plant Science Bulletin, a report through May :31, 1973, and
a projected report for the remainder of 1973. Because of the need to transfer
funds to the Journal, the Society has been operating in the red, and has had
to draw on reserve funds. Dr. Bell said that the proposed budget for 1974
was about $45,000 and did not include an allocation to the Journal as large
as requested, because it was hoped to obtain part of these funds by other
Bell also reported that the Council had voted to establish an endowment fund.
The interest from this fund is to be used to subsidize publication of papers
by students in the American Journal of Botany.
was moved and seconded that the treasurer's report be approved; motion passed.
of the financial difficulties in which the Journal finds itself, and thus
the Society as a whole, the Council had recommended a change in dues:
Active $15.00 Life $500.00
Family 17.50 Sustaining 350.00
(unchanged) 6.00 Retiring subscribing 7.50
Eyde moved and Dr. Wallace seconded the motion that the new clues recommended
by the Council be approved. Motion passed with no dissents.
Editor of' the American Journal of Botany, Dr. Nor-man Boke, reported
on the Status of the Journal. During one year, June 1, 1972 to June 1,
1973, 185 manuscripts had been received, 26 rejected, and 116 published.
One comment from the floor was "Keep up the good work" which was greeted
Cronquist commented on another Council action, one relative to the publication
of the 1972 symposium on 25 years in botany. A committee composed of Drs.
Wagner, Chairman, Boke, Heimsch, and Bold are to explore the possibility of
an alternate means of publication. If they find or want no other means, instead
of a separate entire issue of American Journal of Botany ($15,000!), the papers
will be published one at a time as the lead paper of each issue until all
are published. There will be an allowance of 16 pages; beyond that the author
will be assessed page charges.
Robert Long, Editor, reported on several items related to the Plant Science
Bulletin. The professional opportunities column, moved to the American
Journal of Botany for a trial year, will return to Plant Science Bulletin.
He gave the dates by which copy needed to be submitted to be published
in the next issue: (February 1 [for No. 1], May 1 [for No. 2], August
1 [for No. 3] and Nov. 1 [for No. 4]. He commented on the large number
of books being received for review, and stated that they hoped that one
of the editorial board would become specifically the book review editor.
He also requested that announcements of sections, personal items, etc.
be submitted for publication.
the absence of Dr. A. E. DeMaggio, Program Chair-man, Dr. Cronquist reported
on conning meetings. In 1974 the Society will meet with AIRS at Arizona
State University in Tempe, June 16-21. The Mexican, Central American and
Canadian botanists are to meet with us. The XII International Botanical
Congress will convene in Leningrad in June, 1975. The Council voted to
have the annual Council and Business Meetings of the Society in Leningrad,
but have left the matter open with respect to the possibility of contributed
paper sessions at the A113S meetings to be held at Oregon State University
in August of that year.
Cronquist reported that a committee, with Dr. Joseph Arditti as Chairman,
has been exploring the possibility of charter flights to Leningrad. Questionnaires
will be submitted to the membership this fall and requests for deposits will
be sent out in early winter to those who have expressed an interest in the
flights. Sur-plus funds, approximately $40,000, from Lhe XI Congress will
be used to pay travel grants (Albert E. Dimond Memorial grants), to be awarded
on the basis of merit and promise, by a separate committee of the Society.
The limit set on any grant is the price of a seat on a charter flight from
the location of the awardee. It was pointed out by several people that there
are federal monies available for travel to international meetings and it was
recommended that these additional sources of funds be explored. This will
William Jensen, who had been appointed Chairman of a committee to obtain
some facts about the status of federal funding of botanical research,
reported on the preliminary results of a questionnaire that had been sent
to over 600 botanists. The results were rather surprising. For NSF grants
the size of the grant for those holding one now and 5 years ago has increased
— the in-crease probably more than compensated for by increased
overhead costs and inflation; there were a similar number of grants lost
and new grants received for the 5 -year period. There has been a decrease
in NiH grants, but the amount of subsidy by home institutions has increased.
As related to other biologists the botanists are holding their own in
several NSF sections. It seems probable that biologists are worse off
than other scientists, but these data were not presented. Dr. Jensen's
committee will continue to accumulate data on other agencies as well as
NSF, and when the situation is clearer, they will submit the facts to
AIBS and any appropriate government agencies.
question was raised about getting funds from the Department of Agriculture
for research. Several people commented on the fact there now are ways in which
this can be accomplished. This possible source of funds needs to be explored
Mildred Mathias moved the following resolution: "The Botanical Society
wishes to express its gratitude to the administrative officers of both
the University of Massachusetts and the American Institute of Biological
Sciences and to their local representative, Dr. David W. Bierhorst, for
the excellent arrangements and facilities provided for the 1973 meetings."
The motion was seconded and passed unanimously.
business. Dr. Cronquist reported that the Society had been approached
by a department chairman, who was being harassed by his administration
and various governmental sources, about the possibility of the Society
compiling information about the composition by sex and race of botanical
faculty and students in this country. The Council had voted not to do
being no other new business, the meeting adjourned at 2:32 P.M.
submitted, Barbara F. Palser, Secretary
American Journal of Botany Report of the Business Manager Year Ended December
Withheld Payroll Taxes
Lawrence J. Crockett
American Journal of Botany
Report of the Business Manager
December 31, 1972
in the Chemical Bank
in Savings Accounts at the:
Side Federal 17,218.97
to New Business
A. Popham 10,000.00
to Chemical Bank $
Assets have since been transferred to the new
Richard A. Popham of Ohio State University.
Bank-December :31, 1972 $21,114.39
Outstanding Checks which cleared
Chemical Bank Statement-
31, 1972 $21,132.84
SOCIETY OF AMERICA, INC.
OFFICERS FOR 1974
Delevoryas Department of Botany University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712
Botanical Garden 2315 Tower Grove Avenue St. Louis, Missouri 63110
F. Palser (1970-1974)
of Botany Rutgers University
Brunswick, New Jersey 08903
Ritchie Bell (1973-1977) Botany Department
of North Carolina Chapel Hill,
PROGRAM *David A. Stetler
of Botany Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State U.
COMMITTEE: David W. Bierhorst (1972-1974)
of Botany University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01002
G. Torrey (1973-1975) Harvard Forest
University Petersham, Massachusetts 01366
B. Beck (1974-1976) Department of Botany University of Michigan Ann Arbor,
H. Boke (1970-1974)
JOURNAL Department of Botany &
Van Vleet Oval University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma 73069
W. Long (1971-1975)
SCIENCE Department of Biology
of South Florida
MANAGER, *Richard A. Popham
JOURNAL Department of Botany
BOTANY: Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210
OFFICERS AND COUNCIL MEMBERS FOR 1974
PRESIDENT, 1973: *Arthur Cronquist
York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458
PRESIDENT, 1972: *Charles Heimsch Department of Botany Miami
PRESIDENT, 1971: *Richard A. Starr
of Botany Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana 47401
(1973-1975): *Richard M. Klein Department, of Botany University
of Vermont Burlington, Vermont 05401
(1973-1975): Donald E. Fosket
of Developmental & Cell Biology
of California Irvine, California 92664
(1973-1975): Jane Taylor
Department University of Michigan Flint, Michigan 48503
to AJB Knut. J. Norstog
Board: Department of Biological Sciences
Illinois University DeKalb, Illinois 60115
(1974): Natalie W. Uhl Bailey Hortorium
New York 14850
(1974): Ray F. Evert
of Botany University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin 53706
(1974): *Donald R. Kaplan Department of Botany University
of California Berkeley, California 94720
to AJB William F. Millington
Board (1972-1974): Department of Biology Marquette University Milwaukee, Wisconsin
(1972-1974 ): Jerry W. Stannard Department. of History University
of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas 66044
(1972-1974): Harriet B. Creighton Department of Biology Wellesley
(1971-1974): 'Ronald L. Stuckey Department, of Botany 1735
State University Columbus, Ohio 43210
to AJB Emanuel D. Rudolph
Board (1973-1975): Department. of Botany 1735 Neil Avenue
State University Columbus, Ohio 43210
(1974): James S. Lovett Department of Biological Sciences
Lafayette, Indiana 47907
(1974): Donald J. Niederpruem Illeparttnent of Microbiology
Center Indianapolis, Indiana 46202
(1972-1974): Charles E. Bracker Dept. of Botany and
to the Council *Ian K. Ross
of Biological Sciences
of California Santa Barbara, California 9:3106
to AJB Peter R. Day
Board (1973-1975): Department of Genetics Connecticut Agricultural
Haven, Connecticut 06504
(1974): David L. Dilcher
of Botany Bloomington, Indiana 47401
of Botany Ohio University Athens, Ohio 45701
to AJB Charles N. Miller
Board (1973-1975): Department of Botany University of Montana Missoula, Montana
(1974): J. Robert Waaland Department of Botany University
of Washington Seattle, Washington 98105
(1972-1974): Paul J. Biebel Department of Biology Dickinson
to AJB Karl Mattox
Board 0974): Department of Botany Miami University Oxford,
Department Miami University Oxford, Ohio 45056
(1973-1975): School of Medicine University of Miami Miami, Florida 33149
to AJB Arthur W. Galston
Board (indefinitely): Department of Biology Yale University
Haven, Connecticut (1652(1
(1974): "Jean H. Langenheim Division of
Cruz, Califon is 950(i0
(1974): Robert P. Adams Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology
Colorado State University
Collins, Colorado 80521
(1973-1974): David E. Giannasi
York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458
to AJB Tod F. Stuessy
Board (1971-1974): Academic Faculty of Botany Ohio State
University Columbus, Ohio 43210
(1974-1975): Richard A. White Department of Botany Duke University
North Carolina 27706
of Botany University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01002
to AJB Warren H. Wagner, Jr.
Board (1974-1975): Department of Botany University of Michigan
Arbor, Michigan 48104
(1974-1976): `John R. Reeder Department of Botany University
of Wyoming Laramie, Wyoming 82070
(1972-1974): Duncan M. Porter Department of Botany Smithsonian
Institution Washington, D.C. 20560
to AJB Patricia K. Holmgren
Board (197:3-1975): New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New
(1974): Donald Dean
of Botany Baldwin-Wallace College Berea, Ohio 44017
(1974): Willis H. Hertig, Jr. Department of Biology
Virginia University Morgantown, West Virginia 26505
(1971-1974): *Elwood B. Ehrle
of Arts and
State College Mankato, Minnesota 56001
to AJB Robert W. Hoshaw
Board (1969-1974): Botanical Laboratories Agricultural Sciences
of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721
(1974): Andrew Greller
Baychester Avenue Bronx, New York 10475
Island Museum 75 Stuyvesant Place
Island, New York 10301
(1974): Irving B. McNulty Department of Biology University
of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112
(1974): Fred H. Rickson Dept. of Botany and Plant Pathology
State University Corvallis, Oregon 97330
of Biology Whitman College
Walla, Washington 99362
Council Leo E. Jones
Department Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331
(1974-1976): Albert. E. Radford Department of Botany University
of North Carolina Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514
of Botany University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32601
of Activities Gwynn Ramsey
(1974-1976): Biology Department Lynchburg College Lynchburg,
SOCITY OF AMERICA, INC.
COMMITTEES - 1974
individuals listed as chairmen serve in that office for 1974. In parentheses
following each name is the date of expiration of that individual's appointment
to the committee.
on Corresponding Members
Cronquist (1976), New York Botanical
Heimsch (1975) Bronx, New York 10458 Richard C. Starr (1974)
F. Papenfuss (1974), Department of Botany
Gordon Whaley (1976) Berkeley, California
F. Buell (1976) 94720
N, Andrews, Jr. (1975)
J. Lang (1974), Department of Botany
Neushul (1975) Davis, California 95616 Michael Wynne (1976)
York Botanical Garden Garden Award Committee
W. Hall (1974) Department of Botany
M. Sussex (1974) St. Paul, Minnesota 55101 Richard Norris
B. Heiser, Jr. (1974)
Sit-on Pelton Award Committee
A. Lockhart (1974), Department of Botany
L. Brown (1974) Amherst, Massachusetts
A. Steeves (1975) 01002 Dominick Basile (1975)
J. Crockett (1974), Department of Botany
L. Walne (1975) Convent Avenue & 139th Street
Norstog (1976) New York City, New York
A. Quinn (1977) 10031 Ex officio: Secretary
Donald LaCroix (1974), University of Detroit
C. MacMillan (1974) Sciences
R. Rickson (1975) 4001 W. McNichols Road
W. Payne (1975) Detroit, Michigan 48221 S. S. Tepfer (1976)
F. Scagel (1976)
officio: President, Secretary, Secretary of Teaching Section, Editor of Plant
Science Bulletin, Representative of AAAS Cooperative Committee on the Teaching
of Science and Mathematics, Past Chairman of Committee.
E. C. Clebsch (1974), Graduate Program in Ecology
D. Monk (1974) 408 10th Street
E. Wilson (1974) Knoxville, Tennessee
A. Mooney (1975) 37916
G. Solheim (1975)
C. Hulbert (1975)
on Research Funding
A. .Jensen, Department of Botany
C. Anderson Berkeley, California
S. Fuller 94720
E. Dimond Memorial Award
P. Jacobs Biological Laboratory
Arditti Princeton, New Jersey
Arditti Dept. of Developmental
E. Wilson University of California
Thorhaug Lrvine, California 92664 Graeme P. Berlyn
VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS OR COMMITTEES
Orville Dahl (1974)
Governing Board Roy L. Taylor (1974)
Cooperative Committee on the Teaching of Science and Mathematics Donald Dean
of Biology and Agriculture, National Research Council William L. Stern (1975)
Meetings in Tempe, Arizona,
T. Patten - Local Representative David A. Stetler - Acting Program Chairman
Society of America, Inc.
Report of Treasurer
1 January 1972 - 31 December 1972
on 31 December 1971 $56,869.66
collected 1 January 1972 -
December 1972 $26,748.53
to Graduate Study Sales
of Mailing List
Journal of Botany*
Science Bulletin $ 3,086.94
Plant Science Bulletin 100.00
to AIBS and AAAS 390.:38
of Officers to Meetings 640.00
of Treasurer's Office
Reestablishing of Program 1,508.70
Bank Charges, Refunds
1972 receipts over expenses* $ 4,072.78
*$15,330.00 allocated American Journal of Botany for 1972 was not paid until
Citations for Awards Presented at the Annual Banquet, 1973
Darbaker Prize for 1973
To John West of the University of California at Berkeley.
"for his application of modern culture techniques which have brought about the
laboratory induction and development of important reproductive stages in a variety
of marine algae. His manipulation of temperature, light, and nutrients and his
knowledge of field observations by previous investigators have enables the regulation
of en-tire life cycles of marine algae in the laboratory. Furthermore, his use
of a variety of study techniques in combination, such as light and electron
microscopy, have contributed to a greater understanding of algal life cycles
New York Botanical Garden Award for 1973
To Daniel Branton, recently of the University of California
at Berkeley and now at Harvard University. "for his brilliant and ingenious
application of the freeze fracture and freeze etch techniques to the study of
cell membranes. His contributions in this area are reported in a number of papers
dating back to 1964. If a single paper is to be cited, the following article
is appropriate. Branton, D. 1971. Freeze-etching studies of membrane structure.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 261:133-1:38."
Paleobotanical Award for 1973
The award was presented to Mr. Karl Niklas, Department of
Botany, University of Illinois, Urbana, for his presentation titled "Protosalvinia
from North and South America."
The Seventh Annual Jesse M. Greenman Award
The seventh Jesse M. Greenman Award will be presented at the 1974 annual banquet
of the Botanical Society of America at Tempe, Arizona. This Award of $200 is
presented each year by the Alumni Association of the Missouri Botanical Garden
in recognition of the best paper in plant systematics based on a doctoral dissertation
published during the previous year. Papers published during 1973 are now being
considered. Reprints of such papers should be sent to Alwyn H. Gentry, Secretary,
Alumni Association, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2315 Tower Grove Avenue, St.
Louis, Missouri 6:3110, before May 1, 1974.
William R. Anderson, New York Botanical Garden, is the recipient
of the 1973 Award. The winning publication is his "A Monograph of the Genus
Crusea (Rubiaceae)." Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 22 (4): 1-128. 1972.
Citations for 1973 Botanical Society of America Merit Awards
To Charles Stacy French of the Carnegie Institution of Washington
at Stanford. "skillful and persistent investigator of the spectral properties
and state of chlorophyll in tissues; inventor and gadgeteer par excellence;
able and genial administrator of a productive center of botanical research."
To Mildred Esther Mathias of the University of California
at Los Angeles. "scholarly systematist and distinguished student of the Umbelliferae;
enthusiastic and able teacher; her effective encouragement of tropical botanical
education and her leadership in the development of American botanical gardens
suggest the breadth of her influence."
To Richard Cawthon Starr of Indiana University. "distinguished
student of soil algae, sexuality of desmids, and reproduction and differentiation
of Volvox; his great service to biology in founding and maintaining the culture
collection of algae at Indiana University is widely appreciated."
H. (ed) Ecological Studies 2. Integrated Experimental Ecology. Springer -
Verlag. New York. 1970. 214 pp.
volume, edited by professor Ellenberg (University of Gottingen, Germany),
and comprised of research studies under his direction, represents work on
one of the pilot projects of the International Biological Program, in the
Soiling Research Area, West Germany. At this IBP site, scientists representing
a variety of disciplines - meteorology, soil science, hydrology, botany, zoology,
microbiology, agriculture and forestry - got together to ascertain the practical
possibilities of the analysis of ecosystems. The research, began in 1966,
is still going on. This volume is a report on the methods and the experiences
by most members of the research team on 46 of the research projects. Preliminary
results are presented.
1 in the series, Ecological Studies (Analysis of Temperate Forest Ecosystems,
D. Reichle, Ed.) summarized the existing data on some main topics in global
forest ecosystems. Volume 3 (to be prepared) will be a final synthesis of
the results from the Soiling site.
to that of Belgium, West Germany's Soiling Project was the first comprehensive
pilot project to be initiated under the auspices of the IBP. Dr. Ellenberg
notes that since the largest gaps in our knowledge exist in the sector of
the terrestrial biological communities, the West German National Committee
for the IBP decided to
all its personnel and funds in this area. With a team of 50 research workers,
it has been possible to make a contribution which this preliminary volume
Soiling Plateau was chosen as the study area primarily because it represents
one of Germany's largest deciduous forest areas, dominated by acidophilous
beech forest (the most abundant naturally occurring plant community in West
Germany). The natural deciduous forests are being replaced at an increasing
rate by artificially cultivated spruce (Picea abies), which is favored by
foresters because it is faster-growing than the naturally dominating deciduous
trees. This replacement process by Picea abies was included in the intergrated
research plan at Soiling.
order to acquire data of a more widely applicable nature, in addition to those
valued for the individual ecosystem in question, the workers chose four adjoining
plant formations which, under identical conditions of soil and general climate,
form several ecosystems which are significant for the East German landscape:
a) deciduous beech forest; b) evergreen spruce forest; c) grassland under
different fertilizer treatments; d) cultivated field with annual plants whose
treatment and fertilizer dosages varied.
papers by 33 authors, of various disciplines from 20 different institutes,
are divided into five sections; 1) introductory survey; 2) primary production;
3) secondary production; 4) environmental conditions and 5) range of validity
of the results. In addition, 13 other research projects are listed as currently
under way, but are not yet available for publication. Many of the papers are
short articles in which the methods are outlined, with some results presented
and some discussion. The literature cited in the papers is primarily European.
currently important research topics are covered in this volume including problems
of root productivity, phenology, biochemical composition, caloric determinations,
soil microbial studies, and soil chemistry. What is not apparent in this study
is if the multifaceted Soiling Research Project is being tied together with
the tools of Systems Analysis. It is hoped that this potential aspect of the
study will appear in Volume 3.
factor which aided the cooperative study was the fact that all biological
communities in the Solling Area are relatively poor in plant and animal species.
In the woodland, as in the grassland, very few plants and animals are dominant.
Their quantitative significance in the ecosystem could then be precisely determined.
priority in IBP was assigned to intergrated projects for the study of ecosystems.
That is the stated goal of the Soiling IBP Report, but the present collection
of papers makes no attempt at synthesis or integration. It is hoped this will
be done in another publication, such as the forthcoming Volume 3.
volume contains a wealth of information on instrumentation and methodology
which would be of value for ecologists, foresters, entomologists, soils scientists,
and other scientists. One would conclude that the Solling Project, from its
outset to its conclusion, has been a fine, comprehensive effort by the German
workers. We are extremely fortunate to have the Solling Studies included in
one volume so that persons involved with and interested in the IBP can examine
the analysis of one of the sites by members of the site team.
W. Davidson University of Wisconsin-Superior
T. W. and E. I. MERCER, Introduction to Plant Biochemistry. Pergamon Press,
New York. 1972. VII + 359 pp.
volume deals with fundamental biochemical processes which are characteristic
of many organisms but strongly emphasizes information obtained from plant
systems. Thus more than one-third of the text is devoted to bio-energetics,
enzyme kinetics, respiration and basic metabolism. Additional chapters provide
excellent introductions to the biochemistry of the plant cell wall and photosyntesis.
The chapter on photosynthesis contains such useful material as a discussion
of various reagents which are frequently used in experimental studies and
a consideration of primary photochemistry. Related topics including a good
discussion of redox potentials and a summary of porphyrin biosynthesis are
covered in other chapters. In keeping with the primary orientation towards
more general topics, terpenes and terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids and
related compounds are briefly surveyed. These chapters do, however, contain
numerous structural formulae illustrating the diversity of compounds which
can be synthesized by plants.
features of the format adopted for this text are the inclusion of systematic
nomenclature for specific enzymes at the end of each chapter and the use of
a number of fold-out pages which provide clear illustrations of chemical structures
and metabolic pathways. Each of 15 chapters is outlined and appropriately
subdivided into specific topics.
author's attempts to maintain a moderate size volume have resulted in several
less desirable features. Only limited material on proteins and protein synthesis
is included and from a personal point of view, metabolic regulation is insuffiently
covered. Most of the text material is presented at a level which assumes that
the reader has completed a comprehensive course in biochemistry. In the section
on enzyme kinetics, for example, the listed used of Km could be misleading
in absence of knowledge gained elsewhere. Similarly, the reader is alerted
to the potential lack of accuracy of Linewaver-Burk plots but alternative
transformations are not mentioned. In contrast, a somewhat elementary consideration
of plant cell structure and function is provided in Chapter 3 to aid biochemists
less familiar with plants. Nevertheless, the occasional use of terms such
as "Photosynthetic unit" without definition could be confusing and reference
to the cell wall as a "tough membrane" is inappropriate.
Given that this volume is not intended as an introductory biochemistry text,
its most severe limitation is the complete omission of original literature citations.
Although a few specialized texts and general review articles are cited at the
end of each chapter, readers should anticipate some minor frustration engendered
by being unable to easily clarify such apparently conflicting statements as:
"In plant mitochondria ... little or no cytochrome c ' i s present ... ' (p.
119) and ` ... a cytochrome of the C' type has recently been demonstrated ...
in the mitochondria of higher plants ..." (p. 125). Furthermore, experimental
results which tend to support specific concepts are mentioned with reasonable
frequency. This is highly desirable but such results should be
to the reader for critical examination. Apparent references such as Lucy (1964)
proposed ... "are sometimes included in the text but not cited in the bibliography.
K. Bryan Syracuse University
CHARLES B., JR. Seed to Civilization: the Story of Man's Food. W. H. Freeman
and Co., San Francisco. 1973. xii + 243 pp. $7.50 (cloth), $3.50 (paper).
first portion of this fascinating and informal hook deals with the origins
of agriculture, which the author would date from about 7000 B.C. He gives
cogent reasons for concluding that the earliest plant domestications took
place in the Near East, although other important areas, such as southeastern
Asia and Mexico, became significant only slightly later. It is suggested that
agriculture evolved independently in different parts of the world, arising
from the cultivation of locally indigenous wild species of plants.
inter-relationships of religion, sex, and animal and plane reviewed in A most
comprehensive and entertaining way. The reasons underlying the origins of
domestication, on reflection, are by no means self-evident, and explanations
are here sought through a logical and often startling approach.
taboos are still very much with us. "Much non-sense has been written about
food and, in fact, continues to be written. That much of this nonsense is
believed is indicated by the fact that the people of the United States have
spent an estimated 500 million dollars a year on food nostrums.
underlines the importance to man of the domestication of animals, believing
that plant and animal domestication began at approximately the same time.
About 50 species of animals have been truly domesticated, of which only a
dozen are of paramount importance and wide distribution. Man's oldest domesticate
is perhaps the dog, the short discussion of which dog-lovers are advised to
skip. Other domesticated animals and their uses are covered in satisfactory
detail, with appropriate emphasis on the ruminants.
greater part of "Seed to Civilization" details the domestication, cultivation,
and uses of plants. Only about 200 species of plants "stand between man and
starvation," and not more than a dozen are of major importance. Man's dependence
upon the grass family - especially upon wheat, rice, maize, and sugar cane
- is underlined in detail. The intensive research of recent decades on the
development of these four grasses is summarized in scholarly and very readable
legumes, "the poor man's meat," are the subject of a chapter. They were among
man's first domesticates and are complementary to cereals in making possible
the rapid advance of civilization. The starchy staples, in particular the
potato, the sweet potato, yams, manioc, bananas, avoids, and breadfruit, are
more important than cereals as a mainstay of the diet of many tropical peoples.
The coconut, "man's more useful tree," is also of major importance. Heiser's
discussions of theories bearing on the origins and migrations of the sweet
potato and the coconut are concise and informative.
plants used for food, beverages, and spices are not neglected, but the reader
must explore Heiser's treatment of them for himself. The present book, of
intended to be the comprehensive treatise that we have in John W. Purseglove's
recent four-volume work on "Tropical Crops" (John Wiley & Sons, 1968,
1972), but it serves to supplement that treatment in a most interesting fashion.
final chapter, "Let them eat cake?", is provocative and, in the author's own
evaluation, unhappy. He finds little reason for optimistically assuming that
the "green revolution" will eliminate hunger from the world. This last chapter
is a sober and thoughtful discussion of human population problems. As a highly
regarded student of cultivated plants, Heiser is in a better position than
most scientists to appreciate their limitations, and his words carry weight.
comparatively slim volume here reviewed is an outstanding achievement in its
combination of scientific discussion and concise evaluation. Photographs,
drawings, and maps excellently supplement the text, which should appeal to
the general reader as well as to biologists, agriculturists, and archeologists.
The author deserves our thanks for his scholarly and good humored treatment
of a topic of timely significance.
C. Smith University of Massachusetts, Amherst
HORIKAWA. Atlas of the Japanese Flora: An Introduction to Plant Sociology
of East Asia. 12 pages + 500 maps + I-VIII (Indices). Prefaces by R. Tuxen
and by W. C. Steere. Gakken Co., Ltd., Tokyo. 1972. Price: 25,000 yen (cloth,
culmination of the author's lifetime of phytogeographic study is this beautiful
oversize tome containing 500 maps for as many plant species indigenous to
Japan. The first 25 are those for Gymnosperms; the next 375 for Dicots; then
40 for Monocots, followed by 30 for Pteridophytes; and finally 30, for Bryophytes.
While most of the species are endemic to Japan or eastern Asia, many of the
genera are also common to North America.
page as designed and exploited by the author contains 3 diagrams: the usual
distribution map using dots and two other showing altitudinal distributions.
One of these gives elevations at which the species is found as one moves from
west to east from 120° to 146°; the other, from south to north between
24° and 46°. Accompanying each set of diagrams are the scientific
name and major synonyms of the taxon represented as well as the Japanese name
in Japanese "Katakana" and in Roman letters. Included on the page are indications
of the general habitat and life form (modified from Braun-Blanquet and Ellen-berg);
and the months of flowering and maturing of fruits or spores in the median
part of the range are listed. Also given are the general areas of occurrence
outside Japan, and many miscellaneous short notes of general interest.
will be extremely useful not only to phytogeographers, but to plant sociologists
and ecologists who wish to make comparisons of habitats, life forms, etc.,
between vicariads of Japan and North America. The techniques used in illustrating
distributions could serve as models for future publications.
J. Sharp University of Tennessee
YOAV, Biology of Halophytes, Academic Press, 1972, 395 pages. $18.50.
appreciate the necessity and advantages of multi-disciplinary approaches and
none with more reason than ecologists. They perforce consider the influence
of many variables (soil, air, light, temperature, etc.) that most other biologists
simply control, while studying the effects of a single variable. In making
this treatise multidisciplinary (ecological, physiological, anatomical, morphological),
Waisel was accepting the inevitable but with a notable personal advantage.
His own ecological and physiological researches at Tel Aviv University, many
of which are cited and discussed in this volume, have given him a degree of
multidisciplinary expertise that not many authors can equal.
the sixteen chapters in this book, three deal with the origin, dynamics and
distribution of salines in the environment. The rest are about equally divided
between physiology (water relations, ion transport, metabolism, etc.) and
the specific ecology and characteristics of halophytes.
frequently these days exaggerated prophecies of doom are used to introduce
ecological treatises. Waisel suggests that the increasing salination of the
environment indicates that "the future of plants lies with some group of halophytes"
and understanding their physiology may, therefore, provide the key to survival.
Many would dispute so extreme a judgment, even for the arid zone where the
threat of salination is most acute.
the general treatment of topics in this book is informative and useful, some
inconsistencies were noted. Waisel recognizes that low concentrations of Ca
and Mg are important in antagonizing the preponderant concentrations of Na
often found in nature and that single-salt Na treatments are, therefore, more
toxic than mixed-salt solutions. But this effect is not taken into ac-count
in describing observations with single-salt Na solutions. Attention is constantly
drawn to NaCl by defining tolerance in terms of NaCl concentrations (a customary
procedure in ecological writing) and by frequent references to toxicity of
Na and Cl. Even for most glycophytes, Na and Cl are no more toxic than isismotic
concentrations of other ions and for halophytes, Waisel notes that many tolerate
Ca much less than they do Na. Most halophytes respond favorably to moderate
NaCl concentrations of ca. 0.05 M and show only the progressive decline in
growth at higher NaCl concentrations characteristic of osmotic effects. There
seems little reason for invoking specific Na and Cl toxicity. Of course, excesses
of even favorable factors eventually become damaging. The importance of regulating
intracellular salt concentration is discussed both with regard to alternative
mechanisms found in various halophytes (avoidance, exclusion, dilution and
secretion of salt and abscission of leaves), and with respect to. the possibility
that intracellular cornpartmentation in halophytes may separate salts from
salt-sensitive metabolic processes. Unfortunately, higher plants do not appear
to possess enzymes like those of obligate halophytic bacteria which require
high salt concentrations for optimum activity, just as the cells require salinity
treatise does a credible job of describing the morphological, anatomical,
and physiological characteristics of both coastal and inland desert halophytes
and of relating these properties to the ecological niches they occupy. Of
particular interest is the concluding chapter on ecotypic differentiation
which describes the structural and functional adaptations of different ecotypes
of given species. Further study of these halophytic ecotypes and of closely
related glycophytes may resolve the riddle of halophytism which may well turn
out to have as many answers as the diversity of adaptations of halophytes
to their saline environment.
author suggests his treatise may be useful as a text on salinity. It undoubtedly
will be a useful reference book, but tends to be too uncritically encyclopedic
and discursive and, in places, self-contradictory, to serve well as a text.
For example, at one point SO' is said to induce xeromorphism and Cl, succulence,
but elsewhere Na is cited as the primary cause of succulence. On one page,
C4 plants appear to function best under high water stress but on the next
it is C3 plants that do so. In fact, extremes in salt tolerance and sensitivity
are found among both C` and C' plants.
water relations experts will be annoyed by the author's disregard of the negative
sign for osmotic potentials while using, in most cases, the negative total
water potential values and this after an introduction that stresses the negative
values of osmotic, matric, and total water potentials. These are, to be sure,
minor annoyances, but they, like the occasional lapses of syntax, could have
been corrected by more rigorous editing.
tables and figures are liberally and, for the most part, effectively used.
Some could have been improved by more informative legends. Indices to cited
authors, plant species and subjects are thorough, although single headings
often include too many unspecified references to he readily usable.
is a book well worth reading but the reader, like the book's author, will
still have to make up his own mind about many of the problems that are poorly
S. Salinity Laboratory
JAMES L., Experiments in Developmental Botany, 134 p. Wm. C. Brown Company,
Publisher, Dubuque, Iowa. 1973.
author states that his purpose is to provide "a real stimulus for learning"
development in plants. He uses (a) questions concerning morphogenetic problems;
(b) published research papers; (c) current experimental techniques; and (d)
living, developing plant materials whenever possible. His approach should
enable a student to not only "talk about," but to constructively recognize
and work toward the solution of some of the unresolved problems in developmental
information in this spiral-bound workbook, plus the references given, will
help a teacher who has not had special trainings in these methods. The formulae
and methods for the preparation of standard media are given. Basic techniques
and some methods in tissue culture are described. Living source plants are
listed. The short appendix is valuable; it gives additional information regarding
media, reagents, and the growing of plant materials; the list of commercial
sources is helpful. The reviewer has not had an opportunity, as yet, to use
this book in the classroom. There is where its true "teachability" will be
sequence of topics is logical. The use of research papers is excellent. Many
questions are raised. A constructive experimental approach to some major questions
is given. Then the author wisely stops. He permits each student to have the
pleasure of finding which answers can
obtained. The student does not know these answers prior to setting up his
own experiments and making his own observations.
of the experimental plants suggested are Angiosperms. The author does include
some work using Vascular Cryptogams; ferns do provide excellent experimental
materials. It's unfortunate that one short section telling how to grow Bryophytes
and Fresh-water Algae could not have been included. These also have much to
offer in studies of plant morphogenesis.
am pleased that this book has been written. I believe it will be a great aid
to many teachers and students. I intend to use it, in part at least, in my
E. Jones Boise State College
HUGH G. Inorganic Plant Nutrition. John Wiley. N.Y. 1972 $21.50.
Gauch's book is an elaborate and advanced text that deals not only with the
basics of mineral nutrition in plants but with several aspects of applied
agronomic science as well. One or more of the eighteen chapters making up
this reference deals with such diverse and basic topics as water and soil-plant
relationships, salt absorption, translocation, the fate and occurrence of
various essential and nonessential elements within the plant body and limiting
factors affecting plant growth and yield. An introductory chapter and shorter
references in subsequent chapters provide an appropriate historical prospective.
Emphasis is placed on the Tracheophyta but one chapter is devoted to the roles
of mineral elements in nonvascular plants. References to nonvascular plants
also occur in other chapters where comparisons between lower and higher plants
are drawn. For the practical minded reader fairly extensive and lucid treatments
of hydroponics, problems of soil salinity, fertilization and soil fertility
and the causes and symptoms of mineral deficiencies are included.
Plant Nutrition is well written and illustrated and is fairly free of editorial
errors. About equal emphasis is placed on the major topics considered and
all are developed quite well. Each chapter is followed by an extensive bibliography
containing numerous recent references to the primary literature. Because much
of the text is extensively documented and detailed, a number of chapters like
the ones on the roles of macronutrients and micronutrients in plants are a
bit encyclopedic and therefore may have less appeal to beginning students.
A less inclusive reference stressing intrepretation with fewer citations such
as the recent publication by E. Epstein (Mineral Nutrition of Plants: Principles
and Perspectives) would be better for most undergraduates.
plant nutrition is an authoritative book Authored by an individual who has
made a number of valuable contribution to the subject of mineral nutrition
in green plants. Because of its completeness and readability this book will
prove valuable to advanced students of plant physiology, soil science and
H. Benzing Oberlin College
BETTY, EDWARD S. AYENSU, and W. DONALD DUCKWORTH. (eds.) Tropical Forest Ecosystems
in Africa and South America: A Comparative Review. Smithsonian Institution
Press, Washington, D.C. 1973. 350 pp. $15.00 Cloth; $5.95 Paper.
years ago, the Organization for Tropical Biology was to have held its fourth
International Symposium in Ghana, Africa. Because of lack of funding, the
meeting was never held, but the papers prepared for delivery have now been
assembled and published. Nine of these papers, almost a half of the volume,
are devoted to plants.
first six articles deal essentially with the taxonomic similarities and differences
of the floras of tropical Africa and South America. Delevoryas' article stresses
the similarities of the pre-Cretaceous floras whereas Richards points out
the most striking differences in modern plants. After a thorough examination
of the distributions of numerous Southern Hemisphere plant families, Thorne
concludes that long distance dispersal, rather than continental drift, lies
behind most of the present floristic relationships. A. C: Smith, concerned
primarily with "primitive Ranalian families" strongly asserts that cross continental
migrations were of little importance in the dispersal of angiosperms. Yet,
he seems to ignore the fossil record from Antarctica and the decidely austral
elements mentioned by both Thorne and Moore. Hal Moore's interesting and comprehensive
treatment of the Palmae, is one of the few papers to mention the role of his
taxa in tropical forest ecosystems. Somewhat ironically we find that palms
are essentially not rainforest species but rather occur early in succession
or belong to savanna or marsh communities. Moore also discusses relationships
between the continents and correlates some South American distributional patterns
with recent zoological evidence. Finally, Langenheim treats the Leguminoseous
resin-producing species of Africa and South America showing that close similarities
seem to demand a postulation of recent divergence.
articles on anatomy of tropical plants by Thomlinson and Gill, and Ayensu
highlight the need for studies on the processes of development and adaptive
significance of anatomical features of tropical plants.
last botanical article by Herbert Baker discusses convergent pollinations
systems (principally by bats) found in the forests of the two continents.
remaining papers deal with various animal groups, including man. Several of
these, deserve mention. Jago's paper on grasshoppers is one of the most ecologically
oriented articles in the symposium. He documents the correlation between geographical
replacement of species and climatic differences and propounds a theory (somewhat
misleading to me) of the rainforest as a "species sink" and the transequatorial
areas as "species dynamos." Vanzolini's contribution throws out the tantalizing
suggestion that the rainforest of South America is not rich in species of
its own accord, but owes its diversity to invasions from the surrounding areas
such as the Andes, the Planalto, etc. One of the most useful papers will be
that of Johnson and Bowden because it compiles hard data on the probabilities
of organisms being blown across the southern Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
addition to these papers, there are extensive comparative reviews of many
animal groups including ants, fishes, amphibians, birds and mammals.
last six articles deal with man in the tropical forests. Especially absorbing
is Megger's recounting of distinct social organizations of two Amazonian Indian
these diverse papers, several important facts emerge. One is the accentuated
richness of species in the rainforests of South America compared to Africa.
A second is the importance of historical factors in deter-mining the present
complexity of an ecosystem.
proported purpose of the symposium was to point out convergences in tropical
forests in the two continents and to emphasize problems of adaptations which
the constituent plants and animals face. Stated in this way, most of the papers
fail to achieve these aims. In part this failure is due to the fact that most
of the contributors are systematists and not ecologists. It is in the comprehensiveness
of the taxonomic and biogeographical data and that volume excells. The editors
perhaps could have found a more appropriate title for the book.
for this one drawback there are a few other minor detractions. Nowhere, except
perhaps in Amaden's paper on birds, is there a map of the areas treated nor
is the "tropical forest" ever defined. Moreover, especially for one not schooled
in geography, it is difficult to visualize the localities mentioned in the
different papers. Also, several terms such as "white water," "black water,"
"terse firme," etc., are mentioned long before they are explained. A good,
general introductory chapter would have been useful.
in all, the collection is interesting and most of the articles are well written
and presented. Because of the comprehensiveness of the reviews, the volume
is a necessity for any evolutionary biologist interested in the flora and
fauna of the lowland forested areas of tropical South America and Africa.
The reasonable price of the paperback copy should, moreover, put it well within
B. Simpson Smithsonian Institution
WILLIAM. Traveler in a Vanished Landscape. The Life & Times of David Douglas,
Botanical Explorer. Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., New York, 1973, 24,1 pp. $7.95.
most Americans Douglas suggests a "fir", to the Scot, a pungent red currant
blooming in city squares, to the Briton, gay yellow lupines coloring gardens
along the Thames. Actually Douglas was the answer of the hour: a Scot who
discovered for botany and horticulture hundreds of plants in many a "vanished
landscape" of the Pacific Northwest and California, who zealously collected
seeds and plant specimens, tramped, canoed, and voyaged with his dog Billy,
braved bears and arrows, until on the slopes of Mauna Kea he "expired in the
arms of victory."
power of the Douglas story has been tremendous. From a partial journal of
his travels — that for the most significant period was lost in British
Columbia's Red Rock Rapids — a few surviving letters to his mentor Hooker
and his encourager Joseph Sabine, and a single portrait, have come books and
accounts about Douglas by Barnston (1860), Alice Coats (1970), Eifert (1965),
Harvey (1947), W. J. Hooker (1836), J. T. Howell (1937). Jepson (1933), Murray
(1931), Rogers (1949) and others not mentioned in Morwood's "selected bibliography."
Where does Morwood fit on this bookshelf'? None of these authors match Morwood
for telling a story. But it is not always history. He tells as the jacket
promises, "a good adventure story which, in effect, Douglas's life was." With
many a felicitous turn of phrase the life and times of' David Douglas are
related in twelve chapters, with no documentation, but with a familiarity
born of the author's residence in California.
is when Morwood strays from Douglas's path that he stumbles historically.
Thomas Nuttall was not the first botanist to collect west of the Mississippi.
The Lewis and Clark expedition lost a collection made on the westward journey,
but on the return recollected specimens classic in American botany and described
by Pursh. To say that the Lewis collections had been "spirited away through
neglect and larceny" is a journalistic breeze. Professor Barton's neglect
and the opportunism of Pursh — who departed for England, not Germany,
and certainly was not destined for a "niche in the pantheon of infamy" —
involved relation-ships clearly not comprehended by Morwood. That the publication
of English plant descriptions in Nuttall's Genera "shocked conventional botanist,"
or that Old Curious "never minded shocking people" anyway, sounds odd indeed.
The naming of the legume Hosackia brought dubious immortality for the gentle
generous New York physician since it is now but an obscure synonym of the
genus Lotus. Wild oats (Auena fatua) as a Mediterranean weed was introduced
into California during the early mission period, according to Samuel Bonsall
Parish, quite full fifty years before Douglas noted it near Mission Santa
Clara in 1832.
laces the story with probabilities: "again we must deal in probabilities"
(p. 115), "if Douglas ever saw a bull-and bear fight, it was that summer at
Mission San Jose" (p. 168), etc. Chief of these probabilities is that of Douglas's
falling in love with the "dark lady of the Chinook," fathering a child by
her and her early death and burial at sea, events not. heretofore vouchsafed
by any of Douglas's biographers.
botanists will notice Morwood's oversight of Paeonia californica, a second
endemic peony of the North American continent (cf. p. 84). Incidentally, anyone
wishing to sidestep strictures on the reproduction of any part of the book
may find that most of the line drawings illustrating this Douglas story were
published at the turn of the century by Mary Elizabeth Parsons in her highly
successful Wild Flowers of California; for example, the peony of p. 8:3 is
from Parsons, p. :347. The easy style of Margaret Warriner Buck, the artist,
which meant so much to the public young and old for so long, has not been
acknowledged. Line drawings from the Field Book of Western Wild Flowers by
Margaret (Neilson) Armstrong were also used, without notice. (Morwood, p.
55, orphaned the wintergreen included with salal by Armstrong, p.:343). The
writings of Professor Jepson predicated the route of Douglas (cf. p. 171)
by means of the ranges of endemic species of'California, for example those
in the Mt. Diablo region.
David El Botanico journeys down the El Camino Real in Chapter Nine at least
as far as Santa Barbara. If Morwood's maps interest you, compare it with Susan
Delano McKelvey's classic on the Transmississippi West for the travels of
Douglas and, importantly, of those who followed him up and down California.
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA,