PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
September 1972 Vol. 18 No. 3
Philosophical Separation of Botany and Zoology David H. Rembert, Jr. 22
Harold St. John on G. Neville Jones 23
What Every Ph.D. Candidate Should Know, Opinion/Commentary Adolph Hecht 24
Air Pollution Workshop Harris Benedict, Merrill Pack, and Walter Heck 25
Professional Opportunities 26
Editor's Notes 26
Reduced Introductory Membership Rate Offered New 1973 Members 26
8th International Conference On Plant Growth Substances 26
Arnold Arboretum is 100 Years Old 27
Botanical Society of America, Inc. Committees for 1972 27
The Rust Fungi of Cereals, Grasses and Bamboos, George Cummins 28
Photosynthesis and Photorespiration, M. C. Hatch, C. B. Osmond, and R. O. Slat yer (eds) 29
Chemistry of Pesticides, N. N. Melnikov 29
Plant Cell Physiology: A Physicochemical Approach, P. S. Nobel 30
Chemotaxonomy of the Leguminosae, J. B. Harborne, D. Boulter, and B. L. Turner (eds.) 30
The Trees of South Florida, Vol. I. The Natural Environments and their succession, Frank Craighead, Sr. 31
Physiological Plant Pathology, Vol. 1, No. 1. I. F Preece, and B. J. Deverall (eds.) 31
Flora of the Australian Capital Territory, Nancy T. Burbidge and Max Gray 32
Philosophical Separation of Botany and Zoology
David H. Rembert, Jr.
Department of Biology
University of South Carolina
Columbia, South Carolina
The student, before his first academic exposure to biology, has an understanding
that plants are non-motile and for the most part green while animals are motile
and food seekers. This initial impression, though naive, is closer to the
actual picture in higher plant and animal biology than the continuing student
is led to believe. In recent years biologists have made great strides in pursuit
of a continuity of life. The freshman college student, with an academic requirement
for laboratory science, more of-ten than not passes through a principles course
in general biology. This may be satisfactory for curriculum requirements but
it is most damaging to philosophy of biology. The actual philosophical separation
of botanists and zoologists is a reality. A look at almost any biology department
will reveal the accuracy of this observation.
First of all, looking at the animal as an organism (any vertebrate for convenience),
we must conclude that a very important biological consideration involving
individual survival (basic drive) concerns the ability of an animal to ingest
food, digest it, and egest the non-digestible portion. This alimentation is
a specialized form of heterotrophism but therein lies its significance in
animal evolution. In order for an animal to participate in alimentation, motility
must be involved. The kinds of locomotion and the accompanying symmetry that
have evolved have been subjected to much study by zoologists in the past.
If an adult animal is sessile and cannot move through the environment it must
have some mechanism for moving the environment to or through itself. Sessiled
animals are aquatic.
It may be argued that some fungi approach this alimentation with the production
of extra-cellular enzymes. Alimentation here is defined to include ingesting
food, digesting, and egesting the indigestible remains. This is obviously
not a consistent feature of fungi. The so called carnivorous angiosperms plainly
are not exceptions to this. Members of the plant kingdom have no such alimentation
and therefore considerations of motility and symmetry in plants cannot be
pursued with the same biological philosophy as in animals.
Ethological considerations are second only to alimentation in significance
in organismic survival in zoology. Problems related to species recognition
including such things as courtship dances, plumage display (optic); bird and
frog calls (auditory); and chemical sensations (olfactory) are absent in the
plant kingdom. Pheromones that have been demonstrated in "lower plants" are
not ethology. This is not to ignore the plant-animal relation-ships in exotic
methods of pollination, etc., but rather point out that it is the animal not
the plant with the ethological involvement. Nastic movements, nutations, and
tropic plant response should not be confused with ethology. At some future
time an analogous situation may be demonstrated in plants but as of yet the
evidence is not available. Recognizing analogous behavioral patterns in plants
carries the decided possibility, expecially for zoologists, of applying animal
characteristics, i.e., "behavior" to botanical philosophy and slipping dangerously
close to teleological observation. The whole idea of animal behavior, from
sex to the psyche, stirs within a few zoologists all sorts of ideas of investigation
that have no counterpart in the plant kingdom, a few zealots not withstanding.
Very few zoologists appreciate the significance of plant morphology. Animal
growth, considered determinate, enables the zoologist to observe the individual
animal relative to his alimentation, motility, symmetry, and behavior. Plant
morphology serves the botanist with an import equal to all the zoological
considerations not relative to plants. A few volatile compounds may be lost
and leaves dropped, but for the most part plants retain the products of their
metabolism (not spent as energy in nervous activity, locomotion, temperature
regulation, etc.) as deposition in secondary growth in the form of gums, resins,
tars, essential oils, alkaloids, etc. The ac-cumulation of excess food reserves
as indirect as well as direct products of the photosynthetic process, (carbohydrates,
proteins, lipids) is reason enough for the position of plants as producers
in the biotic community.
With reference to morphology, another point may be made concerning the plant
body. The sporophyte generation of angiosperms opens the door for a renewed
look at the concept of "individual" in the plant and animal kingdoms. The
motile animal is an individual by almost any definition. He feeds as a unit
and reproduces his kind with meiotic products produced in gonads. The importance
of this is realized when we consider that somatic mutations in the animal
kingdom are not of evolutionary significance. (With clonal concepts of plant
biology currently invading vertebrate zoological thought, this picture may
change.) Plants, on the other hand, present us with another circumstance.
The indeterminate (in growth) sporophyte is in reality a collection of individuals.
Each branch represents a growth region in terms of mitotic activity, cell
enlargement, and differentiation. Each branch of the sporophyte also has meiotic
sites (spore production) independent of other such sites. Further, genetic
changes (DNA modifications, chromosomal aberrations, aneuploidy, polyploidy)
that occur in a single branch may be passed on, through the developing gametophyte,
to future sporophytes. These changes, if occuring in a hybrid, may result
in a new species (allopolyploid). The angiosperm sporophyte should be considered
a clone. It could be argued that all cells of an organism have a common genetic
origin thus should be technically a clone. It may be argued that a consideration
of the angiosperm sporophyte as a collection of individuals (a clone) is a
"degree" rather than a "kind" of difference. While it is true that comparable
situations can be found in lower animal phyla, the fact remains that this
is a consistent feature of the higher plants and not of animals. There is
a basic philosophic separation of the higher plants and animals here. Any
genetic contribution the higher animal makes to future generations will come
through gametic fusion. Animal gametes and plant gametophytes are not analogous.
Animal gametes are meiotic products that function in syngamy to produce zygotes.
Plant gametophytes are haploid plants developing from spores by mitosis and
producing gametes by mitosis. The angiosperm megagametophyte is in fact an
obligate parasite housed
for its entire existence within the tissues of the sporophyte (ovule). The
microgametophytes (pollen grain) participates in parasitic activity as it
delivers the sperm cells to the megagametophyte. There are several theories
concerning the origin of the sporophyte and gametophyte generations, but the
important point here is to appreciate the vast difference in the gametophyte
and a gamete.
The angiosperm sporophyte, in addition to production of spores (ultimately
gametophytes), has a significant potential in vegetative propagation. All
sporophyte parts (whether roots, stems or leaves) in many species possess
attributes of asexual reproduction. This clonal concept sustains the `Winesap'
apple, the `Bartlett' pear, etc. The sporophyte branches are connected by
a common vascular supply. It is not suggested here that what takes place in
one meristematic area will not have an effect on another branch with a common
vascular involvement. It could be argued, however, that plant organ association
by hormonal interaction should not be compared with what may be construed
as analogous situations in animal organ-circulation interaction. Transpiration
and translocation have no true analogue in animals. While it may be true that
the end served by the phloem is similar to a blood circulatory system, the
means is not. While it is a generalization, we could say that zoologists tend
to think in terms of the end in many comparative situations while botanists
are more concerned with the means. For example, it may be true that plants
and animals are living things and therefore both have the problem of securing
an energy supply. When we look at the means, however, we see the large separation
of autotrophy and heterotrophy.
Individual plants in an iris clone may be thought of as individuals until
dug up to reveal that these "plants" are really attached to the same stem
(rhizome). Would we consider an earthworm a clone'? We are able to make 2
from 1 without the intervention of sexual reproduction. Identical twins have
the same genotype but we have no difficulty in considering them individuals.
What if there is a physical connection as in `Siamese' twinning? But is a
tree an "individual"? A single organism? There are literally thousands of
meiotic sites (sporangia) that arise new each year on each branch. A Camellia
japonica branch may be very easily grafted to a C. sasan qua bush. Is the
result an individual organism? An individual placed in 2 different species
at the same time? There are almost unlimited opportunities for further illustration
of this concept in the plant kingdom. In looking for a comparable situation
in the animal kingdom we are forced to explore colonial coelenterates or some
equally primitive group. The major philosophical question here is not nutrition
but rather the absence of alternation of generations in animals as developed
in the long history of plant evolution.
This line of reasoning raises the question of life cycle patterns. The gametophyte
generation in part can account for the survival of aneuploidy in the plant
kingdom. The sporophyte generation in plants, with its success in asexual
reproduction, gives to a species a tremendous potential in sustaining hybrids
and subsequent possibilities for allopolyploidy (new species). The importance
of understanding life cycle patterns may be illustrated with an example. Malaria
is a disease that possibly kills 1 million people per year in the world today.
The organism responsible has been placed in the genus Plasmodium, Phylum Protozoa.
The life cycle pattern of this organism demonstrates a gametophyte generation.
Plasmodium with its true alternation of generations must be considered a plant-like
organism or, if not, then the only animal with a gametophyte. Perhaps if we
were to start asking questions of Plasmodium as a plant or fungus we might
get different answers.
If we could begin to understand that there is in fact a difference in the
philosophy of studying plants and animals we might come to a better meeting
of the minds in biology. We should not be lulled into thinking that plants
and animals can be studied with similar philosophies because of apparent overlaps
and transfers of knowledge from botany and zoology recently in cytogenetics,
cell culture, and clonal manipulation. Plants and animals are literally kingdoms
I would like to express my appreciation to my depart-mental colleagues and
students for their interaction on the questions raised in this essay.
Harold St. John on
G. Neville Jones
At that time I was a professor of botany at Washington State College, in
Pullman, Washington. Besides my teaching I was very busily collecting and
studying the species that made up the flora of that state. A Mr. G. N. Jones
either sent me some plants for identification or wrote with a botanical query,
I have forgot-ten which. In any case, he made an impression on me. As there
were very few people in the state interested in botany, I decided to look
him up. There was a small railroad running from Seattle 40 miles south to
a mine. Jones was employed at a way station, selling passenger tickets. He
was a tall, slender young man, with a shock of black hair, and intense dark
eyes. He made a good impression, so I invited him to join my party for a week's
exploration of Mt. St. Helens, a 9,677-foot peak in the Cascade Mountains.
The party also included my students R. T. Davison and C. S. English, Jr. My
car also held food, tent, and camping equipment.
Today there is a paved road leaving the Pacific High-way 99 at Castle Rock,
and following up the Toutle River valley to Spirit Lake. We drove in on August
1, 1925, and successfully made the 40-mile trip, but the road required a skilled
driver. The gravel stretches in the valley were not bad, but midway the road
for several miles climbed up one side, then down the other side of a mountain
as a plank road. The planks were laid lengthwise, a single 12-inch, 12-foot
plank for each wheel, nailed to cross pieces end and middle. The cross pieces
rested on the forest floor and once had been firm. We found many of the nails
loose or lost, and some tread planks warped up at the end. It was hard driving.
Spirit Lake is a clear, beautiful mountain lake at the north base of Mt.
St. Helens. The mountain itself is a perfect volcanic cone, inactive at present,
but built up by fairly recent eruptions. It is unique among the Washington
volcanoes in having the surface formed by a layer of pumice 20-40 feet thick.
As a result, all drainage sinks through the pumice and flows underground on
older solid lavas. Hence, the tree line is very low, at about 2,500 feet,
and the upper and middle slopes are mostly bare. The pumice is of rounded
balls of all sizes, up to a foot in diameter. Climbing the peak is a very
arduous task, as on
a sand hill, one loses half of each stride. Then, one must be alert, keeping
watch upwards, to be ready to dodge every pumice boulder that comes bounding
down the slope.
We made good collections and had fine times together on the mountain. Apparently
Jones was inspired, for in September 1925 he quit his railroad job, and came
to Pullman to register as a student. He had not attended high school, but
in Manitoba had studied at a commercial school. He was allowed to register
at Washington State College, but only in the Preparatory Department. He could
take regular college courses, and get the credit if he passed them. He had
to go to the Pullman High School, and pass their final exams in 5 or 6 subjects
to make up his deficiency. One after another he passed these required high
school classes, except English. He was proud of his ability to speak and write
English, which he did well, and of his broad knowledge of English literature,
so he asked, then pled repeatedly, to be excused from the English exam. The
officials refused him. He did his college work well, and at last was ready
to receive his B.S., having met all the requirements, except his entrance
English. After a final plea, his pride broke, and he took and passed the required
English. By that time I had accepted another professorship and moved to the
University of Hawaii.
Jones worked each summer to earn money for his college expenses. In Pullman
he boarded in an attic room and lived frugally. He arrived with and kept an
old touring car which was useful to carry him and other students on botany
trips. To be economical he never licensed the car; hence, on trips he would
set out before dawn, and return after dark, lest in daylight some town con-stable
should note the lack of a current license plate. He was older than the other
students, but kept friendly relationships with them. He liked to provoke and
enter into arguments, especially on social and economic subjects. I don't
actually know that he had been a member of that radical labor group in Seattle,
but he sympathized with and frequently raised the issues and arguments that
were presented by the IWW.* Another favorite line of his was to quote ideas
stated by Tom Paine which he thought would shock the present Americans.
He developed a wide interest in botany. Under my guidance he collected and
studied the higher plants of Washington and Idaho. Under Dr. F. L Pickett
he did the same for mosses and eventually wrote a small manual on the mosses
of southeastern Washington. I published several taxonomic papers with Jones
as joint author.
At that time the herbarium was in a big basement room in College Hall. Several
of the advanced students were issued keys to it, so it became a meeting place
for them, where they studied, argued, and had lively discussion well into
the evenings. He was a regular in that group.
Except in the winter I used every weekend to make botanical exploring trips.
I filled my car with students, always including Jones, and we had many an
interesting collecting and camping trip. He was a keen collector and a good
On one of my last years in Pullman, he consulted me about his father who
was in poor health in Seattle. A "wonder doctor" there for a large sum said
he could cure anything. For diagnosis he had a large black box, with dials,
lights that flashed, bells that rang, etc. It was said to work by electronics.
At that time, 1928 or 1929, the word "electronic" was a synonym of electric.
Jones showed me a descriptive pamphlet on the box, and asked
`Inchr,str'icrl Workers of the World
me to give an opinion, to which I demurred. He pled with me, so finally I
agreed to study it and give my opinion on its value. I found nothing convincing
in the advertising tract, so gave a negative opinion. I never learned whether
the father took the medical cure or not, but he died soon afterwards.
Jones said he grew up in western Canada, but gave few details, and never
mentioned England, and almost never his family. He stayed on at Washington
State College, and took his M.S., under Prof. Pickett. He then moved to Seattle,
studied under Dr. T. C. Frye, and obtained his Ph.D. He was later on the staffs
of the Arnold Arboretum and the University of Illinois.
Pr»)cssor G. 1Veuille iltmes, Curator of the Herbarium in the Department
of Botany, University of Illinois, died in Champaign on June 25, 1970. The
above notes by Dr. Harold St. John were contributed by him at the request
of H4/limn L. Stern, Untversity of Maryland, following the recommendation
of Dr. William A. Weber, University of Colorado, Dr. St_ John, formerly on
the faculty of the Unir'erst(y of Hawaii, is now Professor of Botany Emeritus
and serves on the herbarium staff at the B. P. Bishop Museum in Honolulu.
A recent biography by Robert A Evers (Translations of the Illinois State Academy
of Science 63: 434-938, 1970), a former student of Professor ,Jones, contains
a complete biography. However, the period covered by St. John's notes is barely
treated since no botanist now living knew Jones in the 1920s.
What Every Ph.D. Candidate
Shortly after I passed the comprehensive examination for my bachelor's degree
in botany, some graduate students urged that I take a preliminary examination
as soon thereafter as possible. They knew
that I was primed on details of the diverse areas of botany and would probably
forget some of this in-formation in learning more and more about less and
less in pursuit of a graduate degree. As it turned out I went elsewhere for
the Ph.D., but must admit that many of the facts I had learned became a bit
hazy in my mind by the time I was ready for my prelims. Some, of course, were
no longer "facts".
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
ROBERT W. LONG, Editor
Life Science Bldg. 174
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33620
Elwood B. Ehrle, Mankato State College
Adolph Hecht, Washington State University
Donald R. Kaplan, University of California (Berkeley)
Erich Steiner, University of Michigan
Beryl S. Vuilleumier, Smithsonian Institutuin
September 1972 Volume 18
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc., Dr. C. Ritchie Bell, Department of Botany, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 26514.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical
Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a year. Send orders with
checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.
Material submitted for publication should be type-written double-spaced,
and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent
issues of the Bulletin.
Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University
Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of South
Florida, 4202 Fowler Ave., Tampa, Fla. 33620. Second class postage paid at Tampa,
What, then should we now expect our Ph.D. candidates to know'? Anatomy, bryology,
cytology, cytogenetics, developmental botany, ecology, genetics, microbiology,
morphology, mycology, paleobotany, pathology, phycology, physiology, and taxonomy
would be the "clear" answer readily obtained by interviewing the faculty of
any large department of botany. And the importance of related areas of biochemistry,
biometrics, chemistry, geology, mathematics, physics, soils, and zoology would
undoubtedly be stressed as co-equals.
Perhaps a more reasonable standard might be all the areas at levels presented
in some of the more comprehensive "Introductory Botany" textbooks. It is well-known
that these have been used by many of the more astute candidates as guidelines
in their reviewing. Many recent "introductory" textbooks are reasonably thorough
in their coverage of the basic information of the major botanical areas. But
do the contents of these "elementary" textbooks constitute a standard adequately
high for measuring knowledge for the most advanced degree? Certainly they
do not, yet it would be hoped that few Ph.D. candidates cease to learn in
areas other than their specialty after passing the preliminary examination.
Here is where the influence of the major professor, the graduate faculty member,
can be of considerable importance. He should be a person of botanical (as
well as other) interests beyond his current research, and one who can infect
his students with his enthusiasms for breadth and diversification.
It would by my suggestion that the departmental faculty indicate one or several
high-level introductory textbooks which they will use, but only as outlines
or points of departure, for their examination questions. Each candidate might
then be expected to know something beyond this level for perhaps three or
four of the subfields covered by courses usually taken by undergraduates in
the department. Some substitutions might be allowed for individuals having
exceptional strengths in chemistry, physics, mathematics, etc., but even these
persons I think should qualify at the introductory textbook level.
Few will dispute the wisdom of this (partial ?) listing, though some may
deplore the requirement that a student engaged in the research of his area
learn Professor X's field. The real problem probably centers about what depth
of knowledge the candidate ought to have. What is taught in these areas to
undergraduate classes might be a reasonable standard were it not for the fact
that many advanced undergraduate courses either are as thorough as graduate
courses or are courses designed for undergraduate as well as graduate students.
As a con-sequence an undergraduate will often be enrolled in a selection of
graduate level course work.
Adolph Hecht Washington State University
Air Pollution Workshop
For the past four years, a group of investigators con-ducting research on
the response of vegetation (especially agricultural crops) to air pollutants
have assembled yearly at centers of such research: Center for Air Environment
Studies, Pennsylvania State University in 1969; Biology Department, University
of Utah, 1970; Statewide Air Pollution Research Center, University of California
at Riverside, 1971; and National Environmental Research Center (NERC), Raleigh,
Carolina, 1972. These meetings are called the Air Pollution Workshop. Their
main objective is to provide an open forum in which the many problems associated
with air pollution research on all plant life can he freely discussed. Participants
in the workshop have been from industry, federal experiment stations, state
universities and experiment stations, private universities and research institutes
in the United States and Canada. At the meeting at NERC there were about 75
in attendance, including extension specialists, research scientists and directors
of research at air pollution research centers. Most of those attending have
experience in — but not limited to — the fields of plant physiology,
plant pathology and economics. The group is neither industrially nor environmentally
oriented, but is interested in obtaining essential information on the effects
of air pollution on plants and seeing that strong programs are maintained
in this field.
At the meeting in Raleigh, the main emphasis was on developing future program
goals and research needs pertaining to the effects of air pollution on vegetation
and finding ways of communicating these needs to other scientists and program
planners. As a result, the following priority list of research needs was developed.
The group felt that information on the effect of pollutants on yield and
quality of agricultural and ornamental crops should have the highest priority.
Such in-formation could be obtained by (a) country-wide monitoring of yield
and quality effects by means of field chambers in which plants would be grown
in ambient and pollutant-free air; (b) studies of chronic effects as developed
by long-term exposures to specific pollutants in controlled environments;
(c) studies of effects resulting from interaction of two or more pollutants,
as well as biotic and other ahiotic factors; and (d) as a corollary to "a,"
the development of time-concentration fumigation models so that effects on
yield and quality can be predicted as a result of exposures for given lengths
of time at definite concentrations.
In spite of the emphasis that ie now being placed on practical results, the
workshop group felt that the next important item was studies on the mode of
action by which air pollutants produce their effects. Next in priority was
research on the ability of vegetation to remove pollutants from the atmosphere.
That is, while effects of pollutants on vegetation can result in economic
loss, vegetation may also have the capacity of cleaning up the air through
its capability to absorb large amounts of pollutants.
Finally, the workshop group felt that a mutually beneficial exchange of ideas
might arise from a broader disciplinary base and that scientists in related
fields might be interested in the above list of priorities and in joining
the workshop. Therefore, the undersigned were designated to prepare this communication.
The 197:3 workshop will be held at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant
Research, Yonkers, New York, probably in March, 1973. Anyone interested in
attending should contact Dr..Jay S. Jacobsen, Boyce Thompson Institute, 1086
N. Broadway, Yonkers, New York 10701, or Dr. Guenther Stotsky, Biology Department,
New York University, New York, New York 10003.
Harris M. Benedict
Stanford Research Institute
Walter W Heck
U. S. Department of Agriculture Merrill R. Pack North Carolina State University
Washington State University
THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA invites applications for position as Assistant
or Associate Professor, salary from $9,500 depending on qualifications and
rank, effective July 1, 1973. Applicant must hold Ph.D. or equivalent, and
have a strong botanical background. Duties involve teaching, with a demonstrated
interest and ability in teaching a first-year course in Introductory Biology
and in the undergraduate and graduate program in the area of specialization;
and research, with preference in one of the following fields: biosystematics,
population genetics, reproductive biology. Apply not later than November 1,
1972 with curriculum vitae and names of three person who can provide letters
of reference, to The Head, Department of Botany, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver 8, B. C., Canada.
THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION AND THE U. S. PEACE CORPS have undertaken a cooperative
program to assist the developing countries in their efforts to obtain qualified
personnel for environmental and natural resource assignments. These assignments
cover a very broad spectrum of scientific and technical fields:
forestry, fisheries, wildlife management, national
park planning and management, ecological research,
marine biology, watershed management, en-
vironmental monitoring, preservation of endangered
species, air and water pollution research, water
resource development, conservation education, en-
vironmental health, etc.
Many of the assignments are field research projects; others are primarily
administrative positions. The individual placements are normally with a host-government
institution or with a local scientific or conservation organization. Occasionally
the assignment will be with an international scientific program assisting
the host country.
For information and applications, please contact Robert K. Poole, Office
of Ecology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 20560.
A quick glance down to the PSB masthead statement will reveal a few changes.
I am pleased to welcome three new members of the Editorial Board who are replacing
three botanists who have given long and faithful service. Dr. Donald Kaplan,
Department of Botany, University of California (Berkeley) replaces Dr. Harlan
Banks. Dr. Kaplan is a plant morphologist and anatomist, and presently is
also chairman of the General Section of the BSA. Dr. Vuilleumier replaces
Dr. William Stern. She is a biosystematist, and before joining the Smithsonian
Institution recently as an Associate Curator, was a Research Associate at
the Gray Herbarium, Harvard University. Dr. Elwood Ehrle, Dean of Arts and
Sciences, Mankato State College, replaces Dr. Sydney Greenfield, is much interested
in biological education. Before his present appointment he was on the staff
of the Office of Biological Education, A.I.B.S. I am hoping we shall see frequent
by-lines by our new Board members. Knowing them I am sure they have a lot
they want to say!
I also want to take this opportunity to extend my sincere thanks to our retiring
Editorial Board members. Their interest in and loyalty to PSB have helped
to further the objectives set forth by Dr. Fuller when he founded the Bulletin.
Reduced Introductory Membership Rate Offered New 1973 B.S.A. Members
In an effort to increase society membership the Council, at the recent meeting
in Minneapolis, appointed a membership committee to coordinate a membership
drive. In the same action the Council authorized an initial 50% reduction
in the dues for the 1973 members joining the Botanical Society before 1 January
1973. New student members who join the Society between 1 September 1972 and
31 December 1972 will pay only a $3.00 membership fee for 1973; new regular
members will pay only $5.00 for their first year's membership. These reduced
rates for new 197:3 members apply during the fall of 1972 only. All new 1973
members will receive the American Journal of Botany beginning with the January
To insure the printing of sufficient copies of the A.J.B., all new memberships
at the reduced introductory rate must be returned on or before 1 January 197:3,
to the new Treasurer, C. Ritchie Bell, Department of Botany, Coker Hall, University
of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514. New memberships should
be on the special New Membership" blanks that will be sent out to all present
BSA members in the various fall mailings. The reduced introductory rate, coupled
with the improved printing (and authorized larger size) of the American Journal
of Botany should make it relatively easy for each present BSA member to get
one new member. Give it a try! NOW! A separate announcement on
colored paper is included in this issue of PSB that may be detached and placed
on bulletin boards, and we urge you to do this in your institution. Additional
special application blanks may be secured from the Treasurer, Dr. Bell.
8th International Conference on
Plant Growth Substances
This is a preliminary announcement of the arrangements for the 8th International
Conference on Plant Growth Substances to be held in Tokyo, August 26 - September
1, 1973, under the auspices of the International Plant Growth Substances Association
(Secretary, Denis Carr, Canberra; President, Kenneth V. Thimann, Santa Cruz).
The main sessions of the scientific program will he devoted to the (1) chemistry,
(2) physiology, and (3) assays of natually occurring and synthetic plant growth
substances, with emphasis on the fundamental aspects of the action of these
substances. We intend that the conference will be truly international and
that the scientific program will be composed of papers on work in progress.
Please note that it will be necessary to restrict the number of participants
for this reason. Limited funds may be available to assist some overseas participants,
particularly younger scientists, but it is hoped that senior scientists will
be able to cover their own travel costs.
The Organizing Committee has the responsibility for keeping a close contact
with growth substance workers. If you are interested in the Tokyo Conference,
please let us know by airmail your name, title and full address for the pre-registration.
Organizing Committee of the 8th International Conference on Plant Growth
c/o Professor Saburo Tamura
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Tokyo
Yayoi, Tokyo 113, Japan
Arnold Arboretum is 100 Years Old
The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University celebrated its Centennial Anniversary
May 21-28, 1972 with an elaborate program of symposia, tours, special lectures,
and social events. An all-day symposium on "The Potential of Arboreta and
Botanical Gardens" was con-ducted in two concurrent sessions, one emphasizing
horticulture, the other botany. The botanical section in-
eluded lectures by Richard S. Cowan speaking on "The Herbarium as a Data
Bank"; William Stern on "The Wood Collection — What Should be its Future?";
Gilbert S. Daniels on "The Botanist and the Computer"; and, Lalit M. Srivastava
on "Cambial Activity in Trees". The afternoon speakers were Otto Solbrig speaking
on "Chromosome Cytology and Botanical Gardens, a Marriage of Convenience";
Frank Santamour on "Arboretums, Genes, and Plant Improvement"; and, Calaway
Dodson on "Pollinators and Flowers".
The lectures and symposia are to be printed in forthcoming publications of
the Arnold Arboretum.
Botanical Society of America, Inc. Committees — 1972
(with expiration dates)
Committee on Corresponding Members
Chairman 1972: Richard C. Starr (1974) Lincoln Constance (1973) Harlan P.
Merit Awards Committee
Chairman (1972): David R. Goddard (1972) Ernst C. Abbe (1972)
W. Dwight Billings (1973) Albert C. Smith (1973) G. F. Papenfuss (1974) Ex
Darbaker Prize Committee
Chairman (1972): Isabella A. Abbott (1972) Bruce C. Parker
(1973) Norma J. Lang (1974)
New York Botanical Garden Award Committee
Chairman (1972): Bruce C. Parker (1972) J. William Schopf
(1972) Robert E. Cleland (1972) William F. Millington
Jeanette Siron Pelton Award Committee
Chairman (1972): Augustus E. DeMaggio (1972)
Taylor A. Steeves (1972) Edward C. Cantino (1973) John G. Torrey (1973)
Chairman (1972): Walter R. Tulecke (1972) Kenton L. Chambers
(1973) Lawrence Bogorad (1974) Patricia L. Walne (1975) Ex officio: Secretary
Chairman (1972): Peter Kaufman (1973) John P. Rier, Jr.
(1972) Elwood B. Ehrle (1972) Nicholas C. Maravolo
J. Donald LaCroix (1974) Paul C. MacMillan (1974) Kt officio: President
Secretary, Secretary of
Teaching Section, Editor
of Plant Science Bulletin, Representative to AAAS Co-operative Committee
Teaching of Science and
Mathematics, Past Chair-
man of Committee
Chairman (1972): Elsie Quarterrnan (1973) Charles E. Olmsted
(1972) Estella B. Leopold (1972) Norton H. Nickerson (1972) William A. Niering
(1973) Catherine Keever (1973)
By-Laws Committee (1972 only)
Chairman: Harold C. Bold Howard J. Arnott Billie L. Turner
Chairman: Aaron J. Sharp Committee will become active in
September, 1972. Committee members have not been selected as yet.
REPRESENTATIVES TO VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS OR COMMITTEES AAAS
W. Gordon Whaley (1974)
A. Orville Dahl (1975)
AIBS Governing Board Roy L. Taylor (1974)
AAAS Cooperative Committee on the Teaching of Science and Mathematics Robert
W. Hoshaw (1973)
Division of Biology and Agriculture, National Research Council Donald E.
Following the general pattern of official visits, Dr. Steere's schedule,
during the ten days of this stay in Japan, was an exceptionally crowded one.
It included press and TV interviews, travel, and lectures. Dr. Steere spoke
at the National Science Museum in Tokyo; and later, at a botanical symposium
held in Nara, he delivered a lecture on "Two Impossible Bryophytes" which
related to a botanical anomaly somewhat akin to that of the continued existence
of dinosaurs in modern zoological affairs.
Not content with impossible mosses, Dr. Steere, working in conjunction with
the International Date Line, managed the somewhat unbelievable feat of returning
to California almost eight hours before he left Japan!
At the 109th annual meeting of the National Academy of Sciences, the election
of 75 new members was announced. They were elected in recognition of their
distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Among the
newly elected members are botanists Harold J. Evans, Oregon State University;
Jack R. Harlan, Unviersity of Illinois; and, Reed C. Rollins, Harvard University.
The Department of Botany, University of Texas announces that Prof. A. E.
Bell will return to King's College, University of London, England to replace
Professor Whatley as Head of the Department of Botany at that institution
(Dr. Whatley has accepted the Chair of Botany at Oxford University). Two new
appointments in Botany, effective September 1972, have been made at the University
of Texas, both at the level of Professor; these are: Dr. Theodore Delevoryas
(currently Prof. of Biology, Yale University and Dr. Donald Levin (currently
Associate Professor of Biology, Yale University).
The President of New York Botanical Garden, Dr. William C. Steere, has brought
numerous honors to the Botanical Garden over the course of years, but none
quite so replendent as his latest. The Emperor of Japan, following upon the
recommendation of the Japanese Diet, has recognized Dr. Steere's work in promoting
good international relations in the field of science by arranging for student
exchange between the two countries.
On March 30, at special ceremonies in the Ministry of Education, Tokyo, the
Second Class of the Order of the Sacred Treasure was conferred upon Dr. Steere.
This is a most unusual award to he given outside political and diplomatic
circles (First Class of the Order is reserved solely for heads of state),
and is indicative of the value placed upon Dr. Steere's efforts.
Apart from the actual receipt of the Imperial Decoration, the most memorable
highlight of the ceremonies surrounding the event was an audience with Emperor
Hirohito, held in His Imperial Majesty's laboratory within the Palace. Again
a most unusual distinction was granted to Dr. Steere, for the audience was
conducted on an informal basis with the Emperor, Dr. Hara (botanical counselor
to His Majesty), and Dr. Steere discussing matters of scientific interest
on a scientific plane rather than a political one. Such an event is of extreme
CUMMINS, GEORGE B. The Rust Fungi of Cereals, Grasses and Bamboos. Springer-Verlag
of New York. 570 pp. 1971.
George Baker Cummins, formerly Professor of Botany, Purdue University, now
retired, has contributed to Mycology a comprehensive treatise on the rust
fungi (Uredinales) of the Gramineae of the world. This book is an illustrated,
descriptive, taxonomic nomenclatorial manual of these important pathogenic
fungi. The full title is The Rust Fungi of Cereals, Grasses and Bamboos.
There are 419 species belonging to 6 valid genera, Puccinia, Uromyces, Physopella,
Phakopsora, Dasturella, Stereostratum, and included is the form genus Uredo,
where the perfect (telial or teleutosporic) stage is not known. The majority
of the species, 262 of the 419, are illustrated with pen and ink drawings
by the author. It is impossible to praise too highly these fine illustrations.
They are based on the spores thus placing the emphasis on the fungi rather
than on pathogenic reactions of the hosts. Type material, or authentic sources,
are the bases of the drawings. A list of the source of the material for many
of the figures is given with credit to various workers. It must be pointed
out, however that the form of citations are so incomplete that it would be
difficult, if not impossible, to check many of them.
The illustrations are of the same magnification thus facilitating comparisons
of species. The urediniospores (urediospores) and teliospores are illustrated
and in several forms, optical sections showing thickness of walls and numbers
and positions of pores, and sculpturing of the wall. To better indicate the
sculpturing there are included exterior or surface views which are expertly
The keys to the species are of two kinds, (1) by the genera of the grasses
and (2) by the structure of the spores of the species of fungi. By using the
keys based on the fungi it becomes feasible to make identifications when the
identity of the host plant is not known.
Statistically author Cummins states that 95% of the species belong to
Puccinia, Uromyces, and the form genus
Uredo. This is a verifiable fact but whether the author's claim that his
"delimitation of the species is conservative" raises a question upon which
it is difficult to comment. In taxonomy, workers vary in their opinions as
to what constitutes conservatism. This reviewer is inclined to accept the
Cummins claim but questions will certainly be raised by those familiar with
The appearance of this book should not come as a surprise to anyone familiar
with the interests and publications of Dr. Cummins. It was forecast. First
by "The species of Puccinia on the Andropogoneae", Uredineana 4: 5-89. 1953,
where a "Group System" was proposed based on the uredial stage. But more specifically
by "Host Index and Morphological Characterization of the Grass Rusts of the
World", The Plant Disease Reporter, Supplement 2:37, 52 pp., 1956. In this
paper it was stated, "This host index and tabulation of the principal morphological
characteristic of the rust fungi parasitic on the grasses has been compiled
as a preliminary but necessary adjunct to a monographic study of the grass
rust fungi of the world." In this 1971 book we have that promised monograph.
The preliminary presentation revised the "Group System" which had been initiated
in Uredineana paper. Nine main groups were recognized based on the uredial
structures including the paraphyses and the markings and pores. Modestly the
author admits that some records have probably been omitted, and some errors
made, but believes it to be of value as a compilation of the rusts of grasses
assembled, and characterized, with probable synonomy indicated.
We are fortunate that Dr. Cummins has fulfilled his promise of 1956 by this
1971 volume. His grasp of the subject, with his access to wonderful records
and herbaria, and opportunities for field studies, have enabled him to present
a masterful treatise indispensable to mycologists, pathologists, and useful
to many others.
In the publicity for this 1971 volume several "Related Titles" are listed
which are too general to be of much value. It is a little surprising that
no reference is made to a book of 269 pp. purporting to cover the Cereal Rusts.
The word purporting is used because actually this volume by K. Starr Chester
(Oklahoma A. & M. College) is a restricted treatment dealing only with
the Leaf Rusts, and only with the Cereal Wheat. For a review of Starr's book
see Jour. N. Y. Bot. Garden 49: 44-45, 1948.
This reviewer cannot refrain from expressing regret that no Bibliography
is included in this 1971 monograph by Cummins. Bibliography is here used in
the sense of a systematic list of literature, whether cited or not.
Here such a list would be extensive as it would include the many sources
in detail, which the author must have consulted. It would be especially helpful
to future workers in this field to have such a list presenting in the usual
form of a bibliography the author, date, title, and
citation. Frank D. Kern Penn. State Univ.
HATCH, M. C., C. B. OSMOND, and R. O. SLATYER. (Editors). Photosynthesis
and Photorespiration. Wiley-Interscience, New York. 1971. 565 pp.
Do you completely understand the difference between plants which fix carbon
dioxide in photosynthesis by the C4-dicarboxylic acid or "Hatch and Slack"
pathway and those with the C. or "Calvin" pathway? Moreover, do you know the
relationship of photorespiration and
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to these two car-bon reduction processes?
More specifically, do you know how various environmental factors, such as
light in-tensity, temperature, CO2 and oxygen concentrations affect these
different types of plants? What is the difference in leaf or chloroplast morphology
between a Cs and a C., plant, and what does the term "Kranz type" morphology
refer to? What is the role of the microbodies?
If you have not stayed abreast of the development in this area of research
and would like a good treatment of these topics, I highly recommend Photosynthesis
This book represents the collection of 62 papers which were presented at
a meeting held at the Australian National University from November 23 to December
5, 1970. This meeting was concerned with advances in photosynthesis and photorespiration
with emphasis on the recent research on the C4 dicarboxylic acid pathway.
Since the book was reproduced using a photographic technique it was available
soon after the conference and therefore most of the work presented is still
The format of the book is well planned with four major topic areas: environmental
and evolutionary aspects; carbon dioxide assimilation; chloroplast structure
and function; and photorespiration microbodies. Within each of these four
areas there are three distinct sections; first, from one to three introductory
review papers which are followed by a number of shorter research papers, which
in turn are followed by one or more summary or assessment papers. Therefore,
each of the four sections stands somewhat independent as a topic area. If
you are not interested in research detail you can read the more generalized
papers and refer only to those research papers which interest you most. Examples
of some of the very good review papers are: M. D. Hatch, Mechanism and Function
of the CI Pathway of Photosynthesis; I. P. Ting, Nonautotrophic CO2 Fixation
and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism; N. K. Boardman, The Photochemical Systems
in C3 and Ca Plants; M. Gibbs, Biosynthesis of Glycolic Acid; N. E. Tolbert,
Leaf Peroxisomes and Photorespiration; and H. Beevers, Comparative Biochemistry
of Microbodies (Glyoxysomes, Peroxisomes).
I must highly recommend this collection of papers as very useful for the
researcher in this area or in related areas of plant cell metabolism. In addition,
it would be very useful for the teacher in the area of plant physiology and
even general botany. Much of the information now available should be incorporated
into general courses even at the introductory level since the dicarboxylic
acid type photosynthesis makes a very interesting story from an evolution
and adaptation point of view.
Donald Miles University of Missouri
MELNIKOV, N. N. Chemistry of Pesticides. Translated from the Russian. Springer-Verlag,
New York, Inc. 1971. 480 pp. $19.80.
Professor Melnikov ranges far in his coverage of the chemistry of pesticides
of all types in this volume. The number and diversity of compounds discussed
are most impressive. The book consists of an introductory chapter, a chapter
on formulation and 29 chapters on pesticides grouped according to chemical
type rather than according to biological specificity. This arrangement offers
a useful contrast to most books on pesticides which focus attention on classes
of compounds as they affect a specific group of organisms. The arrangement
used makes readily evident
the broad spectrum of biological activity within a chemical group. For example,
the extensive chapter on organophosphorous pesticides reveals that within
this group are not only many effective insecticides, nematocides, and acaricides,
but also some fungicides and herbicides.
Primary consideration is given to synthesis and to the chemical and physical
properties of the compounds. Brief comments, however, are almost always made
about the practical applications of each pesticide and information on mammalian
toxicity is given for a high percentage of the compounds. There is appreciable
information on structure-activity relationships, but little on modes of action.
This volume is an updated version of the 1968 Russian edition. Discussions
of recently developed systemic fungicides (benomyl, thiabendazole and furidazole)
and systemic oxathiin fungicides (Vitavax and Plantvax) leads one to believe
that the book is reasonably up-to-date in its coverage of various types of
pesticides. These systemic fungicides are just now being accepted for practical
The book is documented only by general references averaging about 10 at the
end of each chapter. Thus much of the information in the book is obviously
cited from secondary sources. Lack of specific reference citations is probably
the major weakness of the book as a reference source for the research worker.
A search through a number of references may be required to locate more detail
about a specific point discussed. Nevertheless, this book is a valuable, comprehensive
source of information for all those concerned with any aspect of chemical
pest control, including those concerned with the ecological impact and the
Hugh D. Sider, University of Maryland
NOBEL, P. S., Plant Cell Physiology: A
Physicochemical Approach. W. H. Freeman and Co.,
San Francisco, 1970. viii + 267 pages :34 illus., $7.75.
I recently read a paper entitled "Understanding Plant Physiology and Other
Branches of Mathematics" [Search 2(2), Feb., 1972]. That title applies to
Nobel's book very well. It also wittily points out a paradox in the biological
curricula of recent times. The student majoring in one of the life sciences
is usually required to enroll in at least one calculus course, but too seldom
is he given the opportunity to use this powerful mathematical tool in his
coursework in biology. What a waste!
Users of Park Nobel's hook will not only gain appreciation for some of the
advantages of applying calculus to biological problems, but they may also
find that such applications can be explained lucidly. He has a way of "walking"
the reader through the origin and implications of equations in a manner calculated
to take the edge off of fear of complex mathematics.
In organization this volume proves to be a logical ex-position of its subject
with emphasis on those topics of particular interest to its author. Permeability
and related membrane phenomena and the light reactions and energetics of photosynthesis
predominate. The Calvin cycle and respiration are given scant attention. Theory
is stressed; experimental methods and data are not. A list of general references
is appended to each chapter, hooks rather than journal articles being most
numerous. Literature citation in the text are not used, and, therefore, the
book reads smoothly. However, the in-convenience of having to dig out sources
A work of this kind requires extensive use of approximations and assumptions.
I am especially impressed that Nobel clearly acknowledges these. He is also
careful to distinguish between empirical and theoretical considerations and
between notation arising from convention and that from theory.
Problems follow each chapter, and the appendices include both answers to
the problems and such conveniences as log tables, conversion factors, and
lists of variables and constants.
A reviewer can quibble over details, list differences of opinion, point out
typos, and otherwise demonstrate he has read the book critically, but Plant
Cell Physiology deserves a more positive response. I felt that the approximations
were uncomfortably loose in a couple of places and questioned a generalization
or two, and I noticed only one typographic error of consequence. On the other
hand, the conviction that we need more texts writ-ten with Nobel's approach
(and perhaps by him) grew consistently as I read.
Howard J. Stein Grand Valley State College
HARBORNE, J. B., D. BOULTER, and B. L. TUR-
NER (editors). Chemotaxonomy of the Leguminosae.
Academic Press, London and N. Y. 1971. 612 pp. $31.00
This large and costly volume is still another addition to the growing number
of collections of chemosystematic review papers. Differing from the many previous
publications, the present volume is confined to the analysis of comparative
chemical data in a single plant family, the economically important Leguminosae.
If scientific publications reasonably can be regarded as being either "conceptual"
or "descriptive," then this book is definitely of the latter type. The stated
aim of the editors is "to provide a series of chapters describing the known
distribution of both low molecular weight and macromolecular constituents
[in the Leguminosae], writ-ten by acknowledged experts, together with two
summary chapters fitting the results available into a taxonomic framework."
This aim unquestionably has been achieved.
Vernon Heywood introduces the book in the first chap-ter with a "systematic
purview" of the family complete with discussions of the historical development
of the taxonomy of the group, a list of economically important legumes, discussions
of the taxonomy of each of the four recognized subfamilies, a brief treatment
of the presumptive evolutionary relationships within the family, and systematic
lists of the genera of the Caesalpinioideae and Lotoideae with known chromosome
numbers included for the former. B. L. Turner "sums up" the volume in the
last chapter by giving his view of the systematic implications of macromolecular
and micromolecular chemical data in the family. Sandwiched between these general
introductory and concluding remarks are 13 very specific chapters dealing
with the distribution of the following compounds in the family (respective
authors indicated in parentheses): flavonoids (J. B. Harborne); alkaloids
(J. A. Mears and T. J. Mabry); non-protein amino acids (E. A. Bell); monosaccharides,
oligosaccharides, and polyols (J. E. Courtois and F. Percheron); polysaccharides
(R. W. Bailey); lipids (I. A. Wolff and W. F. Kwolek); terpenoids (J. B. Harborne);
and proteins, structure (D. Boulter and E. Derbyshire), serology (J. Kloz),
phytohaemagglutinins (G. C. Toms and A. Western), enzymes (D. A. Thurman),
urease (C. J. Bailey and D. Boulter), and cytochrome c (D. Boulter and E.
Because the book consists mainly of tables, lists, and discussions of the
occurence of compounds in various taxa of the family, to allow for easy reference
the editors wisely have included four separate indexes to the volume: (1)
authors (including those cited in the bibliographies of the chapters themselves);
(2) chemical compounds; (3) subjects; and (4) genera and species. One disappointing
feature of the book's format, following the convention of most chemical journals,
is the omission of titles from the references cited in the bibliographies
at the end of each chapter.
For the systematist not specializing in the Leguminosae or for the phytochemist
interested in only one particular class of compounds, this book hardly will
be considered top priority, especially considering the price and with the
knowledge that specific chapters probably can be obtained by reprint from
the author(s). But for the serious student of the systematics of the pea family
and for dedicated chemosystematists, the book should prove very interesting
and valuable as a reference. It should be kept in mind, however, that even
for the specialists the value of the book is not in providing new insights
to the systematics of the Leguminosae, but rather in bringing together a large
quantity of chemical data and highlighting certain chemical and systematic
problems in the family that need to be explored further.
Tod F. Stuessy, Ohio State University
CRAIGHEAD, FRANK C., SR., The Trees of South Florida. Vol. I. The Natural
Environments and their Succession, University of Miami Press, Coral Gables,
Fla., 1971. 212 pp. $5.95.
Just over twenty years ago Dr. Craighead retired from his position as Chief
of the Division of Forest Insect Investigation, U.S.D.A., a post he had held
for :36 years. He came then to live in South Florida "in retirement" and has
ever since worked and studied prodigiously the interrelationships of plant/animal
communities of the area, Dade, Collier and Monroe Counties.
This small part of our country has been the focal point of much controversy
in recent times because of the intimate relation of profoundly complex and
significantly fluctuating natural environments and the extensive use and consequent
alteration deriving from both urban and agricultural interests. The region
is in large part new geologically varying only relatively slightly in topography
from sea level. Its natural communities are influenced greatly by various
climatic and edaphic pressures, by slowly rising sea level, by hurricanes,
salinity factors, fire, frost, and both seasonal and cyclic precipitation
levels. These recurring and generally unpredictable, often catastrophic, phenomena
have for some years been exacerbated by disturbances accompanying man's decision
to effect marked and often conflicting changes to meet his own diverse needs.
Hitherto the natural history of southernmost Florida, including changes effected
by man, has been studied for the most part fortuitously and in bits and pieces
by early botanists, persons with general natural history bents, professional
ecologists, wildlife managers, agriculturalists and others. This is the first
time a single individual, with an insatiable curiosity, seemingly limitless
energy, and broad perspective, has sought to gain a thorough knowledge of
its intricacies. He has achieved a monumental synthesis which gives such sloganistic
questions as the developers', "Is the water for man or for the birds and alligators?"
a context sufficient to the need for a proper reply.
The text, specially of the first two (of the three) chapters is not exactly
easy reading although this is not because it is couched in technical jargon.
The rhetoric is plain and simple, a blessing; the difficulty is that there
is described in intimate detail the relationships of features of topography
and geography, dynamics of environmental, vegetational, and animal populational
changes, a plethora of interactions occurring over short periods of time.
Yet even without the reader studiously perceiving every nuance, he can gain
a reasonable sense of the complexity, not to say the beauty, of this island-like
The final, third, chapter treats in detail what the author discerns as nine
physiographic provinces and their respective plant associations. These accounts
tend to be somewhat redundant inasmuch as some plant associations occur in
two or even in several of the provinces.
This is a timely book and will be very helpful both to one who has an interest
in controversial aspects of use of the land in South Florida and to tourists
who may wish to have a more enriching experience in the Everglades generally
or more particularly in the Everglades National Park. Accompanying the text
there is an abundance of black and white photographs (not especially well
reproduced), each with an excellentlycompōsed legend. These should be
very useful in helping visitors to orient themselves.
Given the main thrust of the book, the title is seen to be unfortunate yet
it leads to optimism that a second volume with descriptive accounts of the
kinds of trees will be forthcoming.
R. K. Godfrey, Florida State University
PREECE, I. F. and B. J. DEVERALL (editors).
Physiological Plant Pathology. Vol. I, No. 1. January
1971. Academic Press, London. (Vol. I, 4 issues, $19.00)
The international journal publishes papers on physiological, biochemical,
ultrastructural, genetical or molecular aspects of host-parasite interactions.Most
of these areas are in fact, represented among the nine papers in the first
issue of Volume I. Two papers in this issue consider structural changes in
plant tissues resulting from host-parasite interactions. One of these actually
deals very little with the parasite, but presents a metabolic model for plasticizing
of cell walls and formation of tyloses. The other presents a study of ultrastructual
changes in tobacco associated with the hypersensitive reaction to plant pathogenic
bacteria. Two papers consider enzymes in relation to plant disease. The action
of pectic enzymes produced by Erwinia chrysanthemi on plant tissue is the
subject of one of these; the relationship of peroxidase activity to virus
multiplication in cucumber plants is the subject of the other. Significant
articles on phytoalexin will undoubtedly appear often in subsequent issues
of the journal. The first issue contains two articles on this subject. One
describes the breakdown of pisatin in culture by fungi pathogenic to pea;
the other reports the identity of a phytoalexin produced by alfalfa in response
to fungal infection. The role of leaf-surface ecology in disease control in
examined in one paper and another describes the effect of light intensity
of infection of wheat by Septoria tritici. Among the papers in the first issue,
investigations of viral, fungal and bacterial pathogens are all represented.
One study of a viral pathogen has already been mentioned. A second paper describes
increased virus multiplication caused by actinomycin D.
Generally, the quality of the articles is good. This is a much needed journal
which should be received enthusiastically by plant pathologists throughout
the world. Many of the fundamental papers on host-parasite interactions will
no doubt appear in the journal. By bringing together these papers, the journal
should promote progress in an area of research which holds much promise for
Hugh D. Sisler, University of Maryland
BURBIDGE, NANCY T. and MAX GRAY. Flora of the Australian Capital Territory.
Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1970. vii + 447 pp. $12 (A),
Since the days of Sir Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander, the world has been
aware of the extremely rich and divergent flora and fauna of Australia. The
highly distinctive plants and animals of that country are among its most precious
natural resources. Certainly they serve as a lodestone to draw biologists
from all over the world to study and collect in Australia. And well they should
for, as in so many other countries about the world, agricultural, commercial,
and mining developments are rapidly destroying much of the less widespread
habitats, particularly in the highly populated coastal area. Bureaucratic
insensitivity has permitted the preservation of only a small sample of the
national habitats in state and federal parks and preserves. Surely some species
have already become extinct in Australia, possibly some of them still unknown
to science for many Australian plants remain to be discovered, described,
In view of these distressing developments, masquerading as ever as "progress",
it is imperative that the Australian botanical community prepare a desperately
needed flora of the whole country, a modern Flora Australiensis to replace
Bentham and Mueller's flora of that name (published in 7 volumes in 1863-1878),
now long obsolete and unavailable. Australian systematists have for many years
offered to undertake this huge project if they could be given a minimum of
encouragement by the top levels of Australian science and moderate financial
backing by the national government. For reasons not understood by the world's
botanists, this modest support has not been granted. Therefore, in lieu of
this national flora, the plant taxonomists of Australia have been found to
bring out piecemeal floras of the various states and territories. The very
large degree of overlap in the floras of adjacent states makes this method
of publication highly inefficient and expensive though obviously necessary
under the circumstances.
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA. FLORIDA 33620
The Flora of the Australian Capital Territory is a recent addition to the
growing list of excellent regional floras of Australia. Larger than our own
District of Columbia, the A. C. T. comprises the national capital, Canberra,
on the Murrumbidgee River at the foot of the Australian Alps, and surrounding
country, for a total area of 939 square miles. The Territory at its longest
and widest points is about 52 miles long (north and south) and 32 miles wide.
Elevations vary at least from the Murrumbidgee River at 1,900 feet to Bimberi
at 6264 feet. It is entirely surrounded by the southeastern corner of New
This flora describes all the seed plants, both native and naturalized, known
from the A. C. T., totalling 1035 native species in 412 genera and 92 families,
with 289 additional naturalized species. Almost every genus is illustrated
by the 409 helpful line drawings of Dr. Burbidge. All descriptions are included
in the strictly dichotomous keys to families, genera, and species. The species
keys are quite detailed with the important diagnostic characteristics printed
in italics. They appear to be quite usable. For each species there is a statement
of frequency, habitats, and distribution in the A. C. T. and general distribution
in the Australian states or abroad. Although the hook is prepared primarily
for college and university students, the detailed keys, drawings, and glossary
should make it a most useful tool and reference work for other botanists,
ecologists, foresters, agriculturists, and informed amateurs.
This book is very well printed with a minimum of typographical errors. There
are very few things about it to criticize. A more detailed discussion of the
geography, geology, physiography, climatology, and botanical history of the
A. C. T. would have been most helpful. A vegetation map prepared by Prof.
L. D. Pryor and a brief discription of the several vegetation types are included
in the introduction but they could have been much expanded with photographs
of the various plant communities. Because the taxonomy of the species included
seems to be quite up-to-date, it is unfortunate that the authors chose to
arrange the angiosperm families in a long obsolete, early Englerian system
of classification. They would have been better advised to arrange the families
according to a more phylogenetic system or even alphabetically, at least within
the two subclasses. However, these are rather minor details, for the flora
is obviously a result of much painstaking research. The authors are to be
congratulated for a work very well done.
Robert F Thorne, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA,