PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
March 1972 Vol. 18 No. 1
Continental America's Tropical Garden William T. Gillis 2
Rare Plant Study Center in Texas 5
General Section Symposia 5
Professional Opportunities 5
Botanical Potpourri 6
The Annual Meeting of the Botanical Society of America
A Symposium on Contemporary
Problems in Chloroplast Structure and Function
The Friday Harbor Laboratories Marine Botany Courses
The Canadian Botanical
Association's Annual Meeting
The Mountain Lake Biological Station Program
The Edward W. Browning Award
The 22nd Annual Spring Wildflower Pilgrimage
A European Horticultural Exploration
A Field Biology Course on Nantucket Island
Albert E. Dimond, 19144972 7
Minutes of the Business Meeting, Botanical Society of America 7
Botanical Society of America, Inc. Officers for 1972 8
Morphology of Vascular Plants, David W. Bierhorst 10
Fungal Spores, Their Liberation and Dispersal, C. T. Ingold 11
Tree Pathology—A Short Introduction, William H. Smith 12
Everyman's Guide to Ecological Living, G. M. Cailliet, 12
P. Y. Setzer, and M. S. Love
Continental America's Tropical Garden
William T. Gillis
Fairchild Tropical Garden
10901 Old Cutler Road
Miami, Florida :33156
Have you ever heard of a garden that sponsors the region's largest white
elephant sale, grows no annual plants, sometimes has to plant trees with a
stick of dynamite, and invites the public to walk on the grass? The Fairchild
Tropical Garden near Miami, Florida, is such a garden.
The Fairchild Tropical Garden is one of the few thriving tropical gardens
in the world; it is certainly one of the few in the Western Hemisphere that
is not retrogressing. It was the dream project of Colonel Robert H. Montgomery
who founded it. Montgomery had one of the largest private palm collections
in the world. Im the mid_30's, he felt that there was a need for a garden
full of tropical and subtropical plants which could be enjoyed by the public.
He and his wife, together with some friends, started what is now known as
the Fairchild Tropical Gar-den, and named it after Dr. David Fairchild. Fairchild,
a prominent plant explorer, was a retired chief of the United States Department
of Agriculture, Seed and Plant Introduction Section.
Many persons have become acquainted with the name of Fairchild through his
five books, especially his autobiography, The World teas My Garden. Both Fair-child
and Montgomery owned property on the ridge of Miami oolitic limestone which
runs more or less parallel to the Atlantic coast in Dade County. The area
is the most frost-free of any place in peninsular Florida. It is on this limestone
ridge that Colonel Montgomery founded the 8:3-acre Fairchild Tropical Garden.
The garden immediately adjoins Matheson Hammock, a large tract of undisturbed
native growth donated to the county by the Matheson family.
William Lyman Phillips, a landscape architect, was invited to draw up a plan
for the garden. Phillips assisted Frederick Law Olmsted in laying out the
Mountain Lake Sanctuary( Bok Tower) at Lakes Wales, Florida, and was chief
consultant in the development of McKee Jungle Gardens at Vero Beach. He also
designed the townsites of Balboa and Pedo Mi/iuel in the Canal Zone. Originally
the garden was laid out in plots which centered on special plant families.
Now, although plants are often placed in the garden according to their systematic
position, this policy is not followed to the letter. Rock walls of native
limestone, a number of lakes, and other accoutrements of landscaping were
established on several levels so that the garden provided a number of interesting
vistas--as much as could be obtainable in a relatively flat area such as South
Florida. One of the problems in planting is the rock near the surface. Often
when a moderate size tree is placed in the ground, the hole to receive it
must be blasted with a stick of dynamite.
A number of special collections are world famous. There are nearly four hundred
kinds of palms at Fair-child Tropical Garden; its palm collection is one of
the largest assembled in any one garden in the world. Additional palm taxa
of unknown species in the garden may represent new species when more study
is carried out.
The garden has specialized in cycads and has close to eighty species representing
all ten genera. From the first, a collection of vines was planned for the
garden. Fair-child was very interested in them and had introduced tropical
vines from all over the world to this area. A large number of these decorate
the vine pergola which runs along Old Cutler Road at the front of the garden.
A number of trees have interesting ground cover plants at their bases. The
ground cover collection includes Asystasia, Rhoeo, Wedelia
and Oplismenus species. In addition, a very large collection of plants
indigenous to the Bahama Islands is planted in the lowland area of the garden.
The plan is to have nearly every native tree of the Bahamas growing here as
a germ plasm bank of material against. the time when the natural habitat of
these plants may be destroyed by the growing development of the Bahamas. An
extensive orchid collection is housed in the rare plant house along with a large
fern, begonia, and bromeliad collection. A special area of the garden is known
as the Rainforest. It simulates to some extent the natural West Indian rainforest.
Sprinklers provide water to this area of the garden every morning when it doesn't
The bookshop at the garden, one of the finest south of Washington, D.C.,
in terms of botanical selections, has a very good collection of current titles
on tropical gardening, horticulture, landscape design, and economic uses of
plants, along with current botanical reference books. Adjoining the bookshop
is a museum which specializes in memorabilia of Fairchild and houses a special
exhibit on the use of the coconut in the world's economy.
An educational program has been established at the garden for a long time.
Courses are offered year round to the general public in basic horticulture,
plant iden_ lifieation, palms and cycads, palm weaving, orchids and their
culture, ornithology, etc. For several years the gar-den has cooperated with
the University of Miami and'the National Science Foundation in offering a
seminar in advanced tropical botany (luring the summer. Several members of'
the garden's professional staff have adjunct faculty posts at the University
of Miami and occasionally offer courses there. A link with Harvard University
has been established through adjunct staff members at the Harvard Forest.
A quarterly bulletin is issued to members of the garden. It contains news
of garden events, special notices about plants of note, articles on various
aspects of horticulture and botany, and other items of interest. A newsletter
keeps members informed of events between issues of the bulletin.
The research program of the garden has been growing steadily for the last
ten years. In 1967, a new research laboratory was built at a cost of Si 53,000.
This laboratory, named the William J. Robbins Plant Science Building, is located
about a mile from the garden on a section of Colonel Montgomery's estate that
was set aside for educational and scientific purposes. On these grounds are
located the director's home, the laboratory, the nursery, and the slathouse
for the main garden. Many unusual trees and shrubs which are not found elsewhere
in the area but which were introduced by Montgomery or Fairchild during their
travels are growing there. A major portion of the cycad plantings is on the
grounds. The research center building, named after Rob-bins, who was president
of the garden at the time the building was constructed, houses the herbarium,
an anatomy-morphology laboratory, a physiology laboratory with a control room
for special growing conditions, a studio for the botanical illustrator, a
library, a photographic darkroom, offices for the staff, a seminar room, and
an office for the secretary and receptionist.
Twenty-eight research papers were produced by the research program's small
staff during 1970 and published in nineteen journals. A major contribution
to the research at the garden was Dr. P. B. Tomlinson's studies on the anatomy
of the monocotyledons with emphasis on palms. In recent years additional work
has been carried out on mangroves, the morphology and growth of South Florida
trees, the physiology of fruit ripening, the role of ethylene in plant growth,
and taxonomic problems in Anacardiaceae, Theophrastaceae, Picrodendraceae,
and Malpighiaceae, as well as Bahama flora. The director, Dr. John Popenoe,
has been working on cultivation of Annona and Rollinia species and cultivated
forms of Cassava (Manihot). A large planting of Tripsacum and other maize
relatives has been established at the research station for workers throughout
the country. Development of plantings of Old World mangrove species, an interest
of Fairchild's, continues.
The herbarium of the garden is housed in the research center. The curator
attempts to have all of the plants growing in the garden represented in this
collection both in flowering and fruiting condition, an objective which will
probably not be fulfilled in his lifetime. Specimens are also filed here of
plants growing in cultivation elsewhere in South Florida such as at the U.S.
Department of Agriculture Plant Introduction Station, a short distance down
Old Cutler Road. Many of these plantings represent the only living specimens
of the species concerned outside of their wild state, e.g. Ulbrichia beat
ensis, endemic to Beata Island. Also the herbarium is a repository for wild
plants of South Florida, especially those of the Everglades National Park
and the Florida Keys, and for vouchers of plants being studied by the staff.
A rather large collection of West Indian plants has been built up. The general
emphasis of the herbarium is upon cultivated tropical and subtropical plants
from all over the world especially the native flora of South Florida and the
Caribbean basin. An exchange program is in progress with other herbaria. Presently
the herbarium houses about 15,000 specimens including ten cases of palms.
The garden has several "specimen trees" which are unusual and which attract
considerable attention among botanists as well as the lay public. Among these
is a very fine specimen of a cannonball tree, Couroupita guianensis, and several
mature specimens of baobabs, Adansonia digitata. The Bailey palm, Copernicia
baileyana, is represented by a grove, presumably the only such collection
of this palm outside of its native Cuba (discounting. those the garden distributed
to members.) The garden also has the mangrove palm, Nypa fruticans, in several
of its lakes. Another group of specialty items in the garden is the gingerbread
palms, various species of Hyphaene. A current project attempts to grow tropical
representatives of primitive Magnoliales.
The garden's records were rather sketchy at first, but they have been brought
into good order by several persons and now are presided over by a full time
records clerk. They were considered complete enough to be included as one
of the pilot studies by the American Horticulture
Society Plant Records Center in Pennsylvania where copies of all of the records
have been microfilmed and computerized. Included among these records are the
name of each plant, its origin, accession number, and whether or not a herbarium
specimen has been made of it.
It is remarkable, in a garden of this size, how many of the necessary activities
are fulfilled. The lack of substantial endowment, however, has forced a number
of peculiar situations. For example, the garden relies very heavily upon volunteer
help to carry out many of its endeavors. All specimens in the herbarium are
mounted by volunteers. Many of the nursery chores, such as potting and transplanting,
are also carried out by volunteer workers. Without the work of the volunteers,
the garden's budget would have to be expanded several times to continue its
present level of activities.
An unusual event takes place the first week in December every year. One of
the largest rummage sales in the Southeastern United States is held at the
garden under the name, "The Fairchild Ramble."
It is unusual for a botanical garden to raise money by selling such things
as old and new books, used clothing, antique furniture, boats, chinaware and
other assorted odds and ends which have been donated by local residents, but
the amount of money that is made during this time, a necessary addition to
the garden's budget, cannot be ignored. Interestingly, this has become a major
social event in Dade County which attracts persons from all over South Florida.
The garden's botanical illustrator, Miss Priscilla Fawcett, has created a
number of water color paintings of flowers and fruits with scientific realism
combined with true artistry. Most of these adorn the walls of the William
J. Robbins Plant Science Building, but she also prepares illustrations, including
dissections of flowers and other plant materials, for research articles by
members of the staff.
The garden has also sponsored a number of plant explorations for members
of the staff, especially in the West Indies and in Central America. Over the
years, the name of the garden has been associated with plant collecting trips
throughout the tropics.
Each year there is a distribution of three different plants per person to
members of the garden. These usually include outstanding plants which are
growing in the garden or which have recently been introduced and
generally are not available at local nurseries. In fact, many local nurserymen
have obtained stock plants of interesting new species at the distribution.
Seedlings of palms, cycads, large trees, smaller trees, and shrubs are always
A number of names in botanical history have been associated with the growth
of the garden including Liberty Hyde Bailey, Elmer D. Merrill and Walter T.
Swingle. The current staff of the research center consists of director, Dr.
John Popenoe; physiologist, Dr. Stanley Burg; taxonomist, Dr. William Gillis;
and illustrator, Priscilla Fawcett. Other personnel include graduate students
in physiology and taxonomy, visiting staff on leave from their institutions,
a post-doctoral fellow, technicians, a secretary-receptionist, and the nursery
and maintenance staff. Visiting personnel are welcome to work at the laboratory
on a short or long term basis when space is available. A bench fee for extended
work is negotiated through the director's office. A single apartment attached
to the laboratory building is available for long-term visitors. Other guest
facilities may be worked out on an individual basis.
Montgomery probably did not realize the far-reaching influence and activities
that his garden would have in a mere 30 years. He would not have dreamed that
this gar-den would be so well-known in the scientific world as it is. Fairchild
permitted his name to be used for the garden only after much persuasion. He
said that one should not name an institution after a living person for one
could not know if he would still be worthy of the honor in future years. Montgomery
chose wisely and well.
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
ROBERT W. LONG, Editor
Life Science Bldg. 174
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33620
Harlan P. Banks, Cornell University
Sydney S. Greenfield, Rutgers University
Adolph Hecht, Washington State University
William L. Stern, University of Maryland
Erich Steiner, University of Michigan
March 1972 Volume 18
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc., Dr. Theodore Delevoryas, Department of Biology, Yale University,
New Haven, Connecticut.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical
Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a year. Send orders with
checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.
Material submitted for publication should be type-written double-spaced,
and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent
issues of the Bulletin.
Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University
Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of South
Florida, 4202 Fowler Ave., Tampa, Fla. 33620. Second class postage paid at Tampa,
Rare Plant Study
Center in Texas
The Rare Plant Study Center at the University of Texas, Austin, was established
in 1971 with funds donated for the purpose by public-spirited Texans. The
Center studies methods to prevent the extinction of rare and endangered species
of native plants and to promote, generally, the survival of uncommon and desirable
species of native trees, shrubs, wildflowers and grasses. As of the beginning
of 1971 about 100 species of native plants, a third of them endemic to Texas,
were considered rare and endangered. The number is likely to increase year
by year. Some species are already presumed to be extinct.
The Center not only intends to call attention to uncommon plants, to produce
a significant effort to locate important plant communities, to encourage their
survival as native habitats, but to see them respected in private and public
planning and land management. The Center is also engaged in a three-stage
program on a continuing basis: (1.) to collect seeds, cuttings and specimens
of unusual native plants, (2.) to propagate materials and record their development
under sound horticultural practices at the Rare Plant Propagation Laboratory
in Austin, and (3.) finally, to distribute specimens where they will be assured
of reasonable care, for example in parks and gardens, public grounds, highways,
institutional areas in general and especially botanical gardens and arboreta.
This attempt can succeed only if state agencies and other organizations,
and concerned individuals, such as landowners and collectors, will help. Persons
and organizations that may help or that require help in such efforts are encouraged
to contact the Center. On request, the Center will send lists of names and
regional distributions of rare and endangered plants as well as of other plants
considered unusual enough for concern. Director: Marshall C. Johnston; field
directors: Anders S. Saustrup, Stuart K. Strong; horticultural consultants:
Lynn R. Lowrey, Lee G. Marsters, Jr.; botanical advisors: Donovan S. Correll,
Robert A. Vines.
General Section Symposia
In an effort to function as a focus of common interest between the various
specialist sections of the B.S.A., the General Section will participate more
actively in the sponsorship of symposia at the meetings this year in Minneapolis.
In addition to our usual breakfast business meeting and contributed paper
sessions, the section has initiated, with the co-sponsorship of the Paleobotanical,
Systematic, Developmental, and Physiological Sections, an all-day symposium
on "The Evolution and Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons."
The morning session will be chaired by Arthur Conquist and will be devoted
to problems of phylogeny and comparative morphology. It will include lectures
by James Doyle on the fossil evidence of early origin and evolution of the
monocotyledons; Harold Moore, Jr. and Natalie Uhl on the palms and the origin
and evolution of monocotyledons; P. B. Tomlinson on branching in monocotyledons;
and Donald Kaplan on the problem of leaf morphology and evolution in the monocotyledons.
The afternoon session will be concerned with problems of comparative biology
of monocotyledons and will include presentations by Jack Fisher on the control
of growth and development; David Benzing on the corn_ parative aspects of
mineral nutrition among monocotyledonous epiphytes; Clanton Black on pathways
of carbon metabolism related to net carbon dioxide assimilation; and Martin
Zimmermann on transport problems in arborescent monocotyledons.
In addition to the monocot symposium, the General Section will co-sponsor
a symposium on the biology of pollen, with the Developmental and Physiological
Sections. Both programs will be of broad interest and appeal, and we hope
that as many members of the B.S.A as possible will be able to attend what
promises to be some very interesting sessions.
D. Kaplan University of California, Berkeley
THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN is seeking someone with a bachelor's or master's
degree in botany who has an interest in plant taxonomy and some greenhouse
experience, or a horticulture student with strong interest in botany, to take
charge of their new research greenhouse. The position offers a chance to exercise
great initiative and responsibility and requires some study and experimental
work. Salary will be $9000 or more depending on the candidate's qualifications
and experience. Applications, including a detailed summary of background and
experience, a transcript of credits and two letters of recommendation, should
be sent to John T. Mickel, chairman, Research Greenhouse Committee, New York
Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458.
FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY has openings in all fields of biology at
all ranks appropriate to qualifications and experience. The Ph.D. is required
with preference given to persons with teaching and research experience at
a post-doctoral level and with competence bridging interdisciplinary fields.
All facilities are new and opportunities for research and graduate training
will be implemented on a planned schedule of growth and development. For additional
information contact Dr. Abraham M. Stein, chairman, Department of Biological
Sciences, Florida International University, Tamiami Trail, Miami, Florida
OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY has two openings for botanists at two regional campuses,
one at Lima and one at Marion. The successful applicant will be appointed
assistant professor, effective October 1, 1972, with a nine-month contract.
His duties will include teaching general botany and general biology to freshman
and sophomore level students. Applicants should submit complete curriculum
and personal vitae, including transcripts of all university work and three
letters of reference to Dr. John A. Schmitt, chairman, Department of Botany,
Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210.
THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO is seeking a biological scholar of national
renown to head the University's department of biology beginning this fall.
They are interested in someone who will be concerned with seeking outside
financial support for the department and will lead in strengthening the reputation
of the department in research and education. Interested persons should con-tact
Dr. William W. Johnson, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque,
New Mexico 87106.
THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE B.S.A. will be held in conjunction with the 1972
annual AIBS meeting August 27-September 1, on the campus of the University
of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Special symposia are being planned since this is
the 25th anniversary of the founding of AIBS. Program Chairman Dr. Samuel
Postlethwait is now preparing the program of events for the society. The call
for papers has already gone out. The general chair-man for the meeting is
Dean Richard S. Caldecott, College of Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota,
St. Paul, Minnesota 55101; the local representative for the B.S.A is Dr. John
W. Hall, Department of Botany, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota
THE INTERNATIONAL LILAC SOCIETY'S first conference will be held May 19 through
May 21 in Rochester, New York, at the Flagship-Rochester Hotel. The purpose
of the new society is to sponsor lilac research, exhibits, and flower shows,
and to supply useful information on lilac cultivation. Further information
on the conference may be obtained from Robert B. Clark, Department of Parks,
375 Westfall Road, Rochester, New York, 14620. For information on the society,
interested persons should contact Dennis Brown, Director of Horticulture,
New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458.
A SYMPOSIUM ON CONTEMPORARY PROBLEMS IN CHLOROPLAST STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION,
organized by Dr. Nicholas Maravolo, Lawrence University, will be held August
26, one day before the opening of the AIBS meeting. Beginning at 8:30 a.m.
Dr. Lawrence Bogorad will speak on "Chloroplast Development"; Dr. Harvard
Lyman on "Chloroplast Evolution"; Dr. Govindjee on "Light Energy and Photosynthesis";
and Dr. Mar-tin Gibbs on "Carbon Fixation." Further information will be presented
in the June issue of the Bulletin.
THE FRIDAY HARBOR LABORATORIES MARINE BOTANY COURSES for summer, 1972, offered
by the University of Washington, will include marine algology and marine mycology.
Marine algology will be offered from June 17 to July 22. This course will
consist of field and laboratory study of marine algae. Observation, identification,
collection, cultivation, and the use of marine algae as experimental organisms
will be among the topics included in the course. The faculty this year are
Dr. J. Robert Waaland, University of Washington, and Dr. John West, University
of California. Marine mycology will be offered from July 24 to August 26.
This course will consist of study of the taxonomy and morphology of aquatic
fungi with emphasis on marine forms, collection, and culture methods. The
faculty of the marine mycology course will be Dr. Frederick Sparrow, University
of Michigan, and Dr. Howard Whisler, University of Washington. Financial support
for both of these courses will be available to qualified applicants. Further
information and application forms are available upon request from the director
of the Friday Harbor Laboratories, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
98195. Applications for admission should be made to the director at once.
THE CANADIAN BOTANICAL ASSOCIATION'S annual meeting will be held at Dalhousie
University, Halifax, Nova Scotia June 19-22. Those desiring information regarding
the program of events can write to Dr. J. E. Cruise, Secretary, Canadian Botanical
Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto 181, Ontario.
THE MOUNTAIN LAKE BIOLOGICAL STATION, University of Virginia, announces that
eight graduate courses emphasizing environmental biology will be offered this
summer. They are as follows: First Term, June 14-July 18: Aquatic Ecology,
Dr. George M. Simmons, Jr.; Algology, Dr. Francis R. Trainor; Herpetology,
Dr. H. G. M. Jopson; Invertebrate Zoology, Dr. Fred Diehl. Second Term, July
19-August 22: Ecological genetics, Dr. David West; Pteridology, Dr. Warren
H. Wagner; Taxonomy of Seed Plants, Dr. Carl S. Keener; Mammalogy, Dr. Charles
O. Handley. The Ivey F. Lewis Fellowship, an annual award of $150, is made
by the Phipps and Bird Company of Richmond to a student undertaking research
or graduate training at the station. Fellowships of $150 for one student in
each term have been made available by the North Carolina Botanical Garden.
This fellowship may not be held concurrently with any other stipend from the
station. The recipients of these awards are chosen by the Research and Awards
Committee of the Department of Biology. Application for awards should be sent
to the Director, Mountain Lake Biological Station, University of Virginia,
Gilmer Hall, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903.
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AGRONOMY is now accepting applications for the Edward
W. Browning Award for outstanding contribution to the improvement of food
sources. Members of the B.S.A. are eligible for this award. The award consists
of $5000 and a bronze medal. Five Browning awards are given out each year
for: Conserving the environment, improvement of food sources, prevention of
disease, alleviation of addiction and spreading of the Christian gospel. Nominations
must be received by June 1. They should be sent to Matthias Stelley, executive
vice president of the American Society of Agronomy, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison,
THE 22ND ANNUAL SPRING WILDFLOWER PILGRIMAGE will be held in Gatlinburg,
Tennessee,and surrounding territory May 4, 5, and 6. It is sponsored by the
Botany Department of the University of Tennessee, the Great Smoky Mountains
National Park, and the Gatlinburg Garden Club. Motorcades and trail hikes
under expert leadership travel to areas where spring wild-flowers grow in
quantity and variety. Early morning bird walks are a feature of each day's
activities, as are birding hikes. Special programs are arranged for photographers,
including a photography clinic, and there is an opportunity to show one's
own slides. Each evening there are illustrated lectures on features of the
natural history of the Appalachians and a plant identification clinic. Detailed
descriptions of each pilgrimage activity are furnished at the time of registration,
and programs are available upon request. For further information, write Department
W. P., Gatlinburg Chamber of Commerce, Box 527, Gatlinburg, Tennessee 37738,
or Dr. Edward E. C. Clebsch, Graduate Program in Ecology, 408 10th Street,
the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, 37916.
A EUROPEAN HORTICULTURAL EXPLORATION TOUR for members of the American Horticultural
Society will be taking off for London May 4. The 22-day tour will cover the
British Isles and Holland taking in the major horticultural shows in Europe
this year. First is Floriade in Amsterdam, a world horticultural exhibition
held only once every ten years. The other is the Chelsea Show in London. The
tour will be coonducted by Harold Epstein, a horticulturist and traveler,
assisted by a
professional British courier leader. Members of the society may contact Flora
and Travel Ltd., 5 Forest Court, Larchmont, New York 10538 for more information.
A FIELD BIOLOGY COURSE ON NANTUCKET ISLAND will be offered by the Biology
Department of the University of Massachusetts at Boston from July 24 through
August 26, 1972. This course, Biology 350, is designed for advanced undergraduates
and offers six credits. Each student is required to conceive, carry out and
write an original research project in field biology. A number of habitats
allowing study of both plants and animals is available at or near the field
station. These include salt marsh and estuarine areas, shallow coastal waters,
sand dunes, moorland and upland scrub. Limited living facilities are available
at modest cost. Students desiring more detailed information concerning admission
and conduct of the course should contact Wesley N. Tiffney Jr., Biology Department,
University of Massachusetts, 100 Arlington St., Boston, Mass. 02116.
Dr. Howard J. Arnott has been appointed chairman of the Department of Biology,
University of South Florida, Tampa. He expects to assume his new post on June
1. Presently, he is a professor of botany at the University of Texas, Austin.
Dr. Guenther Stotzky has been appointed Head of the All-University Department
of Biology at New York University. Formerly he was a professor of botany in
the same department.
Dr. Erik K. Bonde, University of Colorado, will be at the National Center
for Scientific Research in Gif-sur-Yvette, France, during the spring semester
to study hormonal and environmental effects on plants, especially concerning
the growth and development of flowering plants.
Albert E. Dimond
Dr. Albert E. Dimond, chief of the Department of Plant Pathology and Botany
at The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station since 1950, died February
4 at his home in Madison. He was appointed vice director of the station January
1, but illness forced his resignation from that post a few weeks later. Born
in Spokane, Washington, Dimond was a graduate of the University of Wisconsin
where he earned the doctorate in plant pathology. For two years he was a research
fellow at the Connecticut station. He then spent 3 years in teaching and research
at the University of Nebraska. Returning to Connecticut in 1945, Dimond began
his research on the chemotherapy of plant diseases. He became best known for
his work on how wilt diseases damage plants, particularly Dutch elm disease.
Widely recognized for his scientific research, his writings, and his counsel,
he was a former president of the American Phytopathological Society and a
fellow of that society. During the early 60's he was a consultant on the regulatory
biology panel of the National Science Foundation. He served on the executive
and national committees and was chairman of the finance committee of the XI
International Botanical Congress. Dimond was a fellow of the American Association
for the Advancement of Science, a member of the Botanical Society of America
and the American Society of Plant Physiologists, and a lecturer in the Yale
Minutes of the Business Meeting
Botanical Society of America
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
June 22, 1971
President Richard C. Starr called the meeting to order at 4:33 p.m. in
Room V-107 of the Physics Building.
The Minutes of the Business Meeting of 1970 as published in the Plant
Science Bulletin were approved.
In the absence of the Chairman of the Elections Committee, Dr. Robert
W. Lichtwardt, the president, presented the names of the newly elected
officers for 1972:
President: Charles Heimsch, Miami University
Vice-President: Warren H. Wagner, Jr., University of Michigan Member of the
Editorial Board: David W. Bierhorst, University of Massachusetts
The Secretary, Treasurer, and Program Chairman all continue in their respective
offices for 1972.
An amendment to the By-laws, approved by the Council in 1970 and circulated
to the membership before these meetings, was moved, seconded and approved.
Accordingly, the following will constitute the proper wording of the By-laws.
"Article II. Membership dues. Section 1, e. Retired members. All active members
of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., who have been members of the Society
and of the Botanical Society (uninc.) for a total of 25 years, are eligible
for retired membership upon retirement from professional activities."
President Starr reported that the Council had authorized a committee to review
the By-laws, not with the purpose of revising them, but with the view to ,amoving
ambiguities, inconsistencies, etc. which have gradually arisen over the years
as a result of an amendment here and an amendment there.
The Secretary, Dr. Barbara Palser, reported on the status of the Yearbook;
this should be in the hands of the printers before the end of July. It
has returned to the old format which includes a geographical listing.
The new edition of the Guide to Graduate Study in Botany, which will incorporate
many Canadian universities in addition to those in the U. S., is also about
ready for the printer and should be available in the fall.
The supply of career booklets is getting low and the Council has charged
the Education Committee to prepare a new one. There has been great demand
for them, but the information is getting somewhat out-of-date and the cost
of reprinting the present edition has become too high.
Dr. Theodore Delevoryas, Treasurer, presented figures on membership for
the past three years. The lower figure for this year probably is real,
but the difference may not be as great as it appears since the figures
for earlier years are for August 1 rather than June 15.
He also presented the final financial report for 1970, which will be published
in the next Yearbook, the projected report for 1971, which includes a few
uncertain expenses such as printing costs for Yearbook and Guide, and the
proposed budget for 1972. He reported that some funds have been transferred
to a time savings account at a higher rate of interest. The Society appears
to be in satisfactory financial condition and Dr. Delevoryas said that he
saw no need for change in dues for next year. Approval of the reports and
budget was moved, seconded and passed.
It was moved, seconded, and passed that the dues for 1972 remain at the
Regular - $10
Family - $12
Student - $6
Retired subscribing - $5
Life - $250
The Business Manager of the American Journal of Botany, Dr. Lawrence
Crockett, presented a final report for 1970 and a proposed budget for
1972. He also presented figures showing that so far this year, 1971, the
income from page charges has fallen off considerably. The Journal is not
as yet in financial difficulties, but he is anticipating that care may
become necessary in the nottoo-distant future. The report and budget were
Dr. Drew inquired about subscriptions from Communist countries and whetherwe
could anticipate increased subscriptions with
relaxation of restrictions on exchange with Communist China. Dr. Crockett
replied that while there had originally been many subscriptions, particularly
in Russia, there is now essentially one subscription per country. He suspects
that this one copy is being duplicated and circulated widely, but we have
no control over this. The same might well occur with China.
The Editor of the American Journal of Botany, Dr. Norman Boke, gave a
brief report on the status of the journal in terms of numbers of papers
processed, etc. He also reported that because of continued complaints
about consistency in the quality of printing, the Council had voted to
change printers, and Dr. Crockett will run a survey to determine the most
appropriate printer to which to change.
Dr. Robert Long, new Editor of the Plant Science Bulletin, briefly described
the changes that were being introduced and asked for good lead articles.
The Program Director, Dr. Samuel Postlethwait, commented briefly on the
problems encountered in arranging the program this year because of the
earlier meeting date and the coordinating of our sections with their Canadian
counterparts, and expressed the hope that not too many conflicts had arisen.
He presented meeting places and dates for the next two years. The Society
will meet with AIBS at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, August 27
— September 1 in 1972 and at Arizona State University in Tempe, June
3 — 8 in 1973. Several comments and complaints were raised about the
earliness of the latter dates. These will be passed on to AIBS.
Dr. Postlethwait also reported on two Council decisions relative to the meetings.
1) Forms on which abstracts should be typed will be mailed with the Call for
Papers in an attempt to increase consistency of format and eliminate much
of the retyping which has been required in the past before the abstracts can
be published in the Journal. 2) The number of contributed papers is to be
limited to three per person, whether as senior or junior author.
Two problems about this year's program were raised from the floor. 1) Why
were papers allowed to be listed as "Topic to be announced"? Dr. Postlethwait
responded that this had occurred primarily in symposium programs and had been
aggravated by the earlier date of the meetings. 2) This year there had been
a great many "no shows" and there was discussion of what might be done to
alleviate this type of disruption of programs. Several suggestions were made.
a) When a Section Secretary notifies a contributor of the time and place for
his paper, the Secretary should indicate that if for any reason he cannot
attend, he should send his paper to the Session Chairman or, at the very least,
notify the Chairman that he will not be present. b) A record should be kept
of the "no-shows" and the people involved should 1) not he allowed to submit
a paper next year; 2) have their names published in the Plant Science Bulletin;
:3) be written a let-ter by the Section Secretary deploring the fact that
they had not been able to attend and regretting that they had been unable
to inform the Section of their enforced absence. No final conclusion of the
best way to handle this problem was reached.
In the absence of Dr. Lincoln Constance, Chairman of the Committee, President
Starr presented the recommendation of the Committee on Corresponding Members.
Dr. Ove Arbo Hoeg, Professor Emeritus of Botany and retired Director of
the Botanical Museum and Garden at the University of Oslo, Dr. Rudolfo
Pichi-Sermolli, Professor of Botany and Director of the Botanical Institute
of Genoa, and Dr. Armen Leonovich Takhtajan, Chairman of the Department
of Higher Plants of the Komarov Botanical Institute in Leningrad were
proposed for membership and unanimously elected. This raises the total
number of living Corresponding Members to 47, the limit being 50 as determined
by the By-laws.
President Starr reported that in response to action taken at the 1970
business meeting, the Council had discussed the feasibility of a federation
of botanical societies. He said that the Council was in sympathy with
the need for increased cooperation with other botanical societies but
did not feel that we should at-tempt to set up an organization to compete
with AIBS. He felt that the initial steps for increased communication
should be at the sectional level in making a concerted effort toward increased
Dr. Greenfield commented that he would like to see the Botanical Society
be aggressive in taking the lead insofar as botany is concerned and that we
should have regular and active consultation with other plant science societies.
Dr. Long replied that the Council intended to explore the possibility of
the 1974 meetings being a joint meeting of all botanical societies.
Dr. Charles Uhl moved the following resolution:
The Botanical Society wishes to express its gratitude to the administrative
officers of the University of Alberta, of the American Institute of Biological
Sciences, and of the Canadian Botanical Associationll'Association Botanique
du Canada, and in particular to Dr. Wilson Stewart who acted as General Chairman,
for their work in planning the excellent arrangements and facilities provided
for the 1971 meeting." The esolution was seconded and passed unanimously.
The meeting was adjourned at 5:35 p.m.
Barbara F. Palser, Secretary
BOTANICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, INC.
OFFICERS FOR 1972
PRESIDENT: „Charles Heimsch Department of Botany Miami
Oxford, Ohio 45056
VICE-PRESIDENT: *Warren H. Wagner, Jr. Department of Botany University of
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
SECRETARY: *Barbara F. Palser (1970-1974)
Department of Botany Rutgers University
New Jersey 0890:3
TREASURER: "Theodore Delevoryas (1968-1972)
Department of Biology Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
PROGRAM DIRECTOR: "Samuel N. Postlethwait 0970-1972)
Department of Biological Sciences
Lafayette, Indiana 47907
EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Harlan P. Banks (1970-1972)
Division of Biological Sciences
214 Plant Science Building Cornell University
Ithaca, New York 14850
Ernest A. Ball
Dept. of Developmental and Cell Biology
University of California Irvine, California 92664
David W. Bierhorst Department of Botany University of Massachusetts Amherst,
EDITOR, *Norman H. Boke
JOURNAL OF BOTANY: Department of Botany and Microbiology
770 Van Vleet Oval University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma 73069
EDITOR: "`Robert W. Long
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN: (1971-1975)
Department of Biology University of South Florida Tampa, Florida :3:3620
BUSINESS MANAGER, "Lawrence J. Crockett
AMERICAN City College
JOURNAL OF BOTANY: University of the City of New York
Convent Avenue and
New York New York 10031
SECTIONAL OFFICERS AND COUNCIL MEMBERS FOR 1972
PAST PRESIDENT, 1971: *Richard C. Starr Department of Botany
Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana 47401
PAST PRESIDENT, 1970: `Lincoln Constance Department of Botany
University of California Berkeley, California 94720
PAST PRESIDENT, 1969: *Harlan P. Banks Division of Biological
214 Plant Science Building Cornell University
Ithaca, New York 14850 DEVELOPMENTAL SECTION:
Chairman (1968-1972): Ian M. Sussex Department of Biology
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
Vice-Chairman (1968-1972): Richard M. Klein Department of
Botany University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont 05401
Secretary (1971-1973): Donald E. Fosket. Dept. of Developmental
and Cell Biology
University of California
Irvine, California 92664
Representative to AJB Knot. J. Norstog
Editorial Board (1971-1973): Department of
Biological Sciences Northern Illinois University DeKalb, Illinois 60115
Chairman (1972): Donald R. Kaplan Fairchild Tropical Garden
11935 Old Cutler Road Miami, Florida :33156
Vice-Chairman (1972): E. Mark Engleman Departmento de Botanica
Chapingo, Edo de Mexico Mexico
Secretary-Treasurer Albert S. Rouffa
(1971-197:3): Department of Biological Sciences University
at Chicago Circle
Chicago, Illinois 60680
Representative to AJB William F. Millington
Editorial Board (1972-1974): Department of Biology Marquette
University Milwaukee, Wisconsin 5323:3
Chairman (1971-1972): Emanuel D. Rudolph Department of Botany 17:35 Neil
Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 4:3210
Vice-Chairman (1971-1972): Jerry W. Stannard Department
of History University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas 66044
Secretary (1971-1973): 'Ronald L. Stuckey Department of
Botany 1735 Neil Avenue
Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 4:3210 MICROBIOLOGICAL SECTION:
Chairman (1972): George C. Carroll Biology Department University
of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 9740:3
Vice-Chairman (1972): Jerome M. Aronson Department of Botany
Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona 85281
Secretary (1972-1974): Charles E. Bracker Dept. of Botany
and Plant Pathology
Lafayette, Indiana 47907
Representative to the Council *Annette Hervey
(1970-1972): New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458
Representative to AJB Clark T. Rogerson
Editorial Board (1970-1972): New York Botanical Garden Bronx,
New York 10458 PALEOBOTANICAL SECTION:
Chairman (1970): John W. Hall
Department of Botany University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414
Secretary-Treasurer "Thomas N. Taylor
(1972-1974): Department of Biological Sciences
University of Illinois
at, Chicago Circle
Chicago, Illinois 60680
Representative to AJB J. William Schopf
Editorial Board (indefinite): Department of Geology University of California
Los Angeles, California 90024
Chairman (1972-197:3): "Michael J. Wynne Department of Botany
University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712
Secretary (1972-1974): Paul J. Nebel Department of Biology
Carlisle, Pennsylvania 1710:3
Representative to AJB George F. Papenfuss
Editorial Board (1970-1972): Department of Botany University of California
Berkeley, California 94720
Chairman (1971-1973): "Graeme P. Berlyn School of Forestry Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut
Representative to AJB Arthur W. Galston
Editorial Board (indefinite): Department of Biology Yale
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
Chairman (1972): 'Irwin P. Ting Department of Biology University
of California Riverside, California 92502
Vice-Chairman (1972): John E. Averett University of Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri 63121
Secretary (1971-1972): Richard L. Mansell Department of
University of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33610
Representative to AJB Tod F. Stuessy
Editorial Board (1971-1973): Academic Faculty of Botany
Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210
Chairman (1972): David W. Bierhorst Department of Botany
University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01002
SecretaryTreasure• Edward J. Klekowski
(1972-1974): Department of Botany University of Massachusetts
Amherst, Massachusetts 01002
Representative to AJB Rolla Tryon
Editorial Board (1971-197:3): Gray Herbarium
22 Divinity Avenue Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
Chairman (1972-1973): 'Carroll E. Wood, Jr. Arnold Arboretum
Harvard University 22 Divinity Avenue Cambridge, Massachusetts 021:38
Secretary (1972-1974): Duncan M. Porter Missouri Botanical
Garden 2:315 Tower Grove Avenue
St. Louis, Missouri (3:3110
Representative to AJB Donald A. Levin
Editorial Board (1970-1972): Department of Biology Yale
New Haven, Connecticut 06520
Chairman (1972): O. J. Eigsti
Department of Biology Chicago State College 6800 South Stewart Chicago, Illinois
Vice-Chairman (1972): Sanford S. Tepfer Department of Biolo),
University of Oregon Eugene. Oregon 97403
Secretary (1971-1973): *Elwood B. Ehrle School of Arts and
Mankato Stale College Mankato, Minnesota 56001
Representative to AJB Robert W. Hoshaw
Editorial Board (1969-1973): Botanical Laboratories Agricultural
Sciences Building University of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721
Chairman (1972): Name not Available
Secretary-Treasurer 'Mildred E. Faust
(1972-1974): 121(i Westcott Street Syracuse,
New York 13210 PACIFIC SECTION:
Chairman (1972): W. M. Lactsch Department of Botany University
of California Berkeley, California 94720
Vice-Chairman (1972): George C. Carroll Department of Biology
University of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403
Secretary-Treasurer *Joseph Arditti
(1971-1973): Dept. of Developmental and Cell Biology University
Irvine, California 926(34
AAAS Council Leo F. Jones
Representative Botany Department
Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331
Chairman (1971-1973): Ray Noggle
Department of Botany North Carolina State Univeristy
Ralugh, North Carolina 27607
Secretary Secretary-Treasurer *Dana Griffin III (1971-1974): Department
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida :32601
Chairman of Activities John M. Herr, Jr.
Committee (1968-1972): Univerisity of South Carolina Columbia,
South Carolina 29208
HIFRHORST, DAVID W. Morphology of Vascular Plants. The Macmillan Company,
New York, 1971. 560 pp. $14.95.
It is said that one picture is worth a thousand words. Perhaps so. At any
rate, well-chosen words supplemented by good photographs or drawings make
a forceful combination. Professor Bierhorst's Morphology of Vascular Plants
is undoubtedly the most extensively illustrated book of its kind yet to appear.
The dust cover states that there are more than 2,000 illustrations, of which
70';; are original, and I believe it. although I have not counted them personally.
Of course, textbooks with numerous illustrations are quite commonplace. Publishers,
taking their cue from the "glossy" school of journalism, have found that spectacular
photographs sell books. Often-times it turns out that the "cake is all frosting"
and what one sees bears little relation to what one reads. Bierhorst's illustrations,
on the contrary, are "working" illustrations. They are obviously chosen for
scientific rather than artistic merit. Many are good frombothstandpoints;
some are lacking in technical polish but are nevertheless clear and helpful.
A few (fortunately rare) ought to be replaced. For instance, a strobilus of
Cycas is so washed out that only one who knows what to look for would recognize
The reader who is looking for a free-wheeling interpretation of Tracheophyte
evolution will be disappointed. The author makes a determined effort to avoid
the broad generalization and the unifying theory. The homologous and antithetic
theories, implications of apogamy and apospory, and telome theory are not
at all emphasized. The latter in particular receives short shrift and is dismissed
with a wry comment to the effect that one "can-not underestimate the influence
that the telome theory has had and is having on morphological thought." Still,
the author does a good job at marshalling his evidence in such a way that
a student is led to an inescapable conclusion, as for example the implication
of the enations and microphylls in the Zosterophyllophy'tes and I,ycopodiopsida.
Probably the most interesting treatments are those given to the primitive
vascular plants and the Psilotaceae. In his view, all vascular plants are
readily traceable to the Zosterophyllales, an assemblage including plants
with lateral sporangia, or to the Rhyneales. Psiloph-yton ornahn is included
in the former. Psilophyton princips is considered as an erroneous creation
composed of several
unrelated fossil organs.
A great deal of attention is paid to Psilotum and Tmesipteris which are placed
in the Filicales near Stromatopteris. These plants are used to introduce and
exemplify basic problems relative to the fundamental nature of organ systems.
The aerial branches of Psilotum and Tmesipteris are here considered to be
"fronds;" the "microphylls" to be pinnae. What does one say about leaf-stern
relationships when the leaf appears to be a transformed axis? In fact, what
does one say about sporophyte-gametophyte relationships when the vascularized
gametophyte axis of Psilotum gives over to the sporophyte axis? Other cases
of apogamy in Psilotum are also noted, and present a wonderful opportunity
to discuss the homologous theory, as well as apogamy and apospory. Bierhorst,
I think, is somewhat parsimonious with his words in this instance. He says,
"There seems little doubt that from a morphological point of view the sporophyte
is ultimately homologous with the gametophyte. The two generations are too
similar in many taxa." He wisely refrains from speculating on the primitive
gametophyte, pointing out that too little is known about the gametophytes
of Rhynie plants, except to say that "sex went underground as early as Middle
Silurian times." However, I would like to have seen more attention paid to
alternation of generations and in particular to the work of Wetmore, DeMaggio,
Steeves, Whit-tier, and others on apogamy, apospory, and gametophytesporophyte
The treatment of the ferns in this book is particularly good, I think, which
is not surprising in light of the author's long-time interest and experience
with this important group of plants. The Cladoxylales and Coenopteridales
are placed in the classes, Cladoxylopsida and Coenopteridopsida in recognition
of their enigmatic position with respect to the Pteropsids. Other fossil,
fern-like plants such as Aneurophyton, Protopteridium, Eospermatopteris and
Archeopteris are included in the Aneurophytopsida. Archeopteris is subsequently
reintroduced as a protogymnosperm in the chapter on the Cordaitales.
Two chapters dealing with the Filicales discuss a number of significant families
including the more primitive representatives, Os mundaceae, G1eicheniaceae,
Cyatheaceae, and others, as well as more recently advanced groups. Sporangial
morphology is dealt with at some length and a comprehensive list of primitive
and advanced fern characteristics is compared in a table that will be especially
useful to students and teachers.
A student may be forgiven if he is puzzled to learn that an organ (rhizophore)
which originates like a stem, lacks a root cap, and sometimes develops into
a leafy stem, is actually a root; and might not, I think, be entirely satisfied
with the explanation that the term and arguments are of "historical interest
only" being "rooted in a monophyletic concept of the root .. ." Here would
have been a good place to refer the reader to the excellent presentation on
the nature of plant organs given in a later chapter on the Psilotaceae.
But these are after all rather trivial faults; all in all it is a fine book.
More important is the question of where it fits into the educational scheme
of things. It is, in my opinion, first and foremost a valuable reference work,
and no teacher of descriptive botany can afford to be without a copy. I think
it will also prove to be a successful text-book for advanced classes in vascular
plant morphology. Possibly undergraduate students in introductory morphology
classes will find it difficult. Although there is no glossary, new terms are
introduced with synonymy so that the student will acquire the necessary vocabulary
as he goes along. About 450 references, mostly in English, are included at
the back of the book and will serve to introduce the reader to the pertinent
literature, should he desire additional information on a specific subject.
Northern Illinois University
INGOLD, C. T. Fungal Spores, their Liberation and Dispersal. Oxford University
Press, London and New York. 1971.
In the preface of this book, Dr. Ingold states that in-stead of providing
second editions to his two previous works, Dispersal in Fungi and Spore Liberation,
he decided to combine the two into a single volume. Only the chapter discussing
spore liberation in the Bryophytes that occurs in the latter of these two
books was omitted from the revised single volume. This approach seems far
more satisfactory than retaining the closely related phases of dispersal and
liberation in separate volumes.
The book is divided into 16 chapters. The Introduction deals with the form
and function of fungal spores and discusses some of the basic problems of
dispersal in the fungi. The next chapter brings together information pertaining
to the discharge of ascospores. Numerous aspects including the mechanisms
involved in discharge, fruit body architecture, production of ascospores and
the effects of various environmental factors on spore discharge are discussed.
A great deal of new material has been added to that which was previously scattered
in a number of places in the earlier books resulting in this being the largest
of the 16 chapters.
A number of subjects now have been treated in separate chapters. These include:
Discharge by Rounding-off of Turgid Cells; Discharge Connected with Drying;
Water Supply and Spore Discharge; and Blow-off, Splash-off and Shake-off.
In addition the various theories and questions involved in discharge of the
ballistospore have been brought together in a single chapter.
The chapter entitled Spores in the Air is concerned primarily with the general
population of spores in the atmosphere. It begins by discussing examples of
the various types of spore traps used in sampling the air spora followed by
such subjects as dispersal from the point of liberation, vertical profiles,
movement in air masses over sea and land, viability and deposition of airborne
Perhaps the most fascinating chapter in the book is that which deals with
periodicity. Liberation of many fungal spores occurs in definite periodic
patterns. Examples from many groups of fungi are cited to illustrate the various
rhythms, such as circadian rhythms and the effects that various environmental
factors have on these rhythms.
Several of the chapters, including the third dealing with spore liberation
in the Mucorales, are essentially rewritten from chapters of the same or similar
titles of the previous books. Others of which this may be said include the
last four chapters discussing dispersal by in-sects and larger animals, seed-borne
fungi and dispersal in aquatic fungi.
The arrangement of the book is excellent. I believe that the decision to
combine the material of the two earlier books was a wise choice. The various
sections have been brought up to date with the addition of a considerable
amount of new material. Over 80 new illustrations are provided. It, of course,
is presented in the usual fine writing style of Dr. Ingold. Anyone interested
in the biology of the fungi will find it fascinating reading and a most useful
addition to their library.
Charles L. Kramer Kansas State University
SMITH, WILLIAM H. Tree Pathology - a Short Introduction. Academic Press Inc.,
New York, 1970. :309 pp. $11.00.
The material covered in this book, in large part, is easily available to
the members of the academe; however, the work is of great value in bringing
together in a concise manner the old and new ideas and methods for the better
maintenance of our forest resources. Two or three good books have been published
in the last ten years dealing with various aspects of plant diseases, but
there is still room for this one, which is quite distinctive in its character
and style. This is not a book for the general reader or the one with insufficient
knowledge of basic biological concepts, but it is ideal for students majoring
in plant pathology and forestry. The presentation of subject mat-ter is such
that it will be a handy reference source for those interested in silvicultural
The topics are categorized into four parts, namely, Abiotic Stress Agents,
Biotic Stress Agents, Special Topics and Disease Control. The book presents
a brief perspective of diseases of trees in the introductory chap-ter, and
goes on to review the biotic and abiotic factors concerned with tree pathology,
and finally discusses the impact of old and new patterns of prophylactic and
curative plant pathological techniques. There is a total of fourteen chapters
under Biotic Stress Agents, half of which are attributed to fungi as causal
agents; other plant pathogenic organisms discussed are nematodes, viruses,
bacteria and angiosperms. Seasonsal changes in life history, disease spread
and distribution for all the above mentioned pathogenic agents are described
in a systematic fashion. The four chapters under Disease Control (Exclusion,
Eradication, Protection and Resistance) are especially well written. The biological
aspects of parasitism are well discussed, and the work presents a thorough
synthesis of current information on the influence of other disciplines such
as physiology and biochemistry on the study of tree pathology. There is a
short discourse on the effects of environmental extremes and air pollution
on tree health. The biology of tree diseases that are of economic importance
(e.g. Chestnut Blight) is described well, and fairly extensive data on disease
resources in many parts of North America are summarized in succinct tables
(e.g. Table XXVI—Calculation of rate of disease increase per unit
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA, FLORIDA 33620
per year for several important forest tree diseases). Bibliography at the
end of each chapter is divided into 'References' and `General References,'
and represents a painstaking and intelligent understanding by the author and
meets well the needs of the reader.
In general, this book is a good addition to the fine list of books in the
field of plant pathology, and the author deserves warm praise for his attempt.
He modestly states in the Preface that ". . . it is not a comprehensive ac-count
of the diseases of forest trees . ;" however, in addition to being a comprehensive
book on many disease of the forest trees the book has three valuable features.
Firstly, it points out precisely which basic phytopathological problems are
of importance in silviculture. Secondly, it clearly sets out the underlying
principles in maintaining disease free tree stands. And thirdly, it strikes
an admirable balance between the needs of the teacher and the student.
S. K. Ballal Tennessee Technological University
CAILLIET, G.M., Y.Y. SETZER, and M.S. LOVE. Everyman 's Guide to Ecological
Living. The Macmillan Co., New York, 1970. 119 Ph, $ .95
Although this little book aims to be of use to consumers and those interested
in conserving natural resources, and in some respects it does succeed, it
also contains many recommendations that are extreme and highly questionable.
For example, it recommends designing a house so that the nonsewer effluent
(sinks, drains, washers, etc.) he emptied into the garden area so as not to
waste the water, ignoring the soil polluting effects of the detergents, soaps,
bleaches and other contents of this effluent. Other recommendations tend to
emphasize using only those materials essential to our existence and the ad-vice
given in many instances would lead to very uncomfortable living, absurd harassment
of vendors and some very silly actions. The authors had good intentions. It
is unfortunate that a more sensible and scientifically valid implementation
has not been achieved.
Sydney S. Greenfield Rutgers University, Newark
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA,