PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
17 No. 4
and Environmental Science Harvey A. Miller 34
Conference Devoted to the 50th Anniversary of
Plant Photoperiodism N. P. Aksenova 38
News and Announcements
Section, B.S.A. 40
Organization of Chemosystematics 40
Arboretum Centennial Program 40
of Darbaker Prize in Phycology for 1972 40
Tropical Studies Announces Graduate Course Schedules
for 1972 40
and Honors for Botanists, 1971 41
in the Higher Basidiomycetes, An International Symposium Ronald
H. Peterson, ed. 42
Biomathematics. Mathematical Topics in
Vol. 1. Kojirna Ken-Ichi, ed. 43
of Theses on the Pacific Islands. Diane
Dickson and Carol Dossor 44
Plants and their Contained Alkaloids, 1957-1968 J.
J. Willaman and Hui-Lin Li 44
BRYOPHYTES AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
Department of Biological Sciences
Florida Technological University
Orlando, Florida 32816
role traditionally assigned to bryophytes in discussions of vegetation has
been that of pioneer plants in successional series from bare rock to woodland
or from the ashes of a forest fire to subsequent revegetation. The existence
of these roles has been documented in a general way by many observers. In
confirmation of this pioneering ability, Catherine Keever has shown experimentally
that the moss Grimmia laecigata can become established even on polished granite.
Bryophytes also were the plant pioneers on new lava flows of both Mt. Katmai,
Alaska, and Mt. Kilauea, Hawaii.
the pioneering role in develpment of edaphic conditions suitable for other
plants, bryophytes are correctly credited with being soil binders on steep
banks, water retainers, and favorable seed beds. The moisture retained by
bryophytes over decaying logs enhances conditions for development of fungi
and bacteria with resultant acceleration of nature's endless cycles of growth
and decay. Peat mosses create conditions especially well suited for the preservation
of pollen and spores which provide botanists with an indirect glimpse of past
vegetational and climatic changes.
familiarity with bryophytes reveals that they are a component in the terrestrial
vegetation in all but the most arid regions of the world. Even in arid regions,
some ephemeral bryophytes, as Riccia and Campos, occur following the infrequent
rains. Because of their usual small size and narrow habitat requirements,
bryophytes are often sensitive indicators of microclimates which may be quite
different from the gross climates of the surrounding countryside. Thus, a
species which is essentially tropical, as Hooheria acutifolia which is known
from moist and thermally buffered sites in southern Ohio and Indiana, at nearly
40° N latitude, may be found in a microhabitat hundreds of miles from
its "normal" range. The greatest abundance and diversity of bryovegetation
is developed in the middle altitude cloud forests of the tropics and in the
cool temperate coastal rainforests as found on the Olympic Peninsula, in New
Zealand, and southern Chile. Here deep mats of bryophytes cover the ground,
fallen logs, trunks and branches of trees, and occur on the surface of older
leaves as well. Impressive masses of bryophytes, particularly peat mosses,
develop in moist regions of higher latitudes even beyond the tree line. In
brief, a limitless series of habitats is occupied by bryophytes within the
melange of environmental factors ranging from desert to cloud-forest, tropical
to polar, coastal strand to alpine, and deeply sheltered to exposed situations.
Substrate texture, acidity, orientation, and chemical makeup also affect the
composition of a bryophyte community. As a result, precise characterization
of bryophytic vegetation combined with a good knowledge of the biology of
the species involved can provide us indirectly with a number of significant
the early attempts to summarize the relation-ships between bryophytes and
the environment was the establishment and characterization of life forms summarized
in the following key-like chart adapted from
chapter on Bryocenology in the Manual of Bryology (1932):
in stagnant water NATANTIA
firm substratum ADNATA
loose substatum RADICANTIA
(or with a resting period) Xerogeophytia
Not peat forming.
humus soil Bryochamaephytia
exposed mineral soil Exochomophytia
life forms are useful for gross characterization of some aspects of bryophytic
vegetation but they are so broadly defined that environmental information
which can be extrapolated is very limited.
1950, Gimingham and Robertson proposed a system of 'growth form types" in
which the aspect of the matured colony or of some individual plants was correlated
with light intensity and humidity as well as selected aspects of the chemical
and physical attributes of the substrate. In addition, air-dry weight determinations
were made to assess the possible demand on the habitat. For the sites studied
in England, good correlation was found between growth form and habitat. More
recently, Iwatsuki and Hattori (1968) have continued these studies on vertical
distribution, degree of cover, and constancy of bryophyte cover on selected
species of trees. As more precise data on tolerance limits of the indicator
species and growth forms are developed, the value of these studies will increase.
Forms of Epiphytic Bryophytes Description Symbol
over 5 cm in diameter Cu
not over 5 cm cu
Stems erect and parallel
over 2 cm high Te
under 2 cm t
shoots separate To
from creeping "rhizomes" Tc
Feather forms, "rhizomes" with
frondose branches F
formers. Leafy branches above substrate
Dense interwoven horizontal mats
short erect laterals abundant Mr
branches in plane of the axis Ms
Thread-like, delicate open mats
scattered strands Mt
mats, hepatics only Th
Appressed, small closely attached and
overgrowing, hepatics Al)
Stems loosely intertwined, often ascending
forms. Stems and
hanging free P
poorly developed to absent internal conducting system in bryophytes, the limited
extent of the potentially absorptive rhizoid mass, and the usual physical
delicacy ,i the plants combine to make them quickly and almost totally responsive
to immediately surrounding environmental conditions. Accordingly, limits of
changes can be determined accurately and comparatively quickly when adequate
controlled environment facilities are available. Few such studies have been
undertaken hut the initial results are sufficiently provocative that environmentalists
should consider taking careful note of bryophytes in their analyses.
relations:—Much of the water used by bryophytes is obtained by direct
absorption or is trans-located by surface capillarity from the substrate.
Internal conduction is very limited except in a few genera. Water holding
capacity of bryophytes is considerable but the ability to retain moisture
is dependent on the surrounding atmosphere. So-called xeromorphic mosses with
thick cuticles. strongly papillose leaf cells, and hyaline tips have no greater
water retentive ability than other species. Hydrophilic pectic compounds which
might bind water are known only in trace amounts from a few bryophytes. There
is no direct absorption of water from a moist atmosphere although water content
may increase by capillarity from the substrate (Willis, 1964(. Numerous independent
investigations on both mosses and hepatics indicate clearly that each species
has an individual tolerance to relative humidity. Thus, an individual of a
species can survive only within microhabitats where desiccation does not go
below a critical level for a critical length of time. Hosokawa of al. (1964)
in studies of light, compensation point, daily compensation period, photosynthetic
rate, and water relations in corticolous epiphytes have shown that increased
humidity resulted in increased photosynthesis. As these increases were especially
great for those species which grow below the crown, Hosokawa suggested that
"the ecological range of corticolous species is restricted at their lower
limits by light and their upper limits by water."
of temperature extremes are generally correlated with humidity or water content
of the plants. Eva Clausen (1946) tested about fifty species and found that
a temperature of 45° C was lethal for all but a few drought resistant
species in less than turgescent condition. Heat tolerance dropped markedly
for turgescent plants although most species could withstand :15° C even
when fully moistened. Temperatures to -40° C were tolerated by some of
the Danish populations with slightly better cold tolerance when plants were
slightly desiccated. As with heat tolerance, drought resistant species fared
best but not all were equally cold hardy. A moss has been reported to have
survived treatment. in liquid air at about -190° C but the study should
with better controls than seem to have been present in the original study.
Several species of bryophytes occur naturally in Antarctica and remain frozen
for long periods with no apparent ill-effects, save desiccation of exposed
tips as a result of high winds.
factors:—In general, the same kinds of edaphic factors which affect
growth and distribution of higher plants, i.e., pH, mineral nutrients present,
texture, and structure affect bryophyte distributions. Among the bryophytes
on mineral substrates, some are most successful on nutrient impoverished sites
such as new lava and coastal dunes but others require comparatively abundant
nutrient supplies as found among ashes. Organic substrates including rotting
logs, bark, and leaves support characteristic floras but little is known about
the extent of selectivity for substrate or the nature of the factors which
influence that selectivity. For instance, I have observed that physically
similar leaves of tropical trees with intermingled branches may support different
floras or one species will be abundantly epiphyll adorned and the other will
have naked leaves. The physical and chemical nature of the cuticle or bark
seems to have a selective influence.
relations among terrestrial bryophytes have been difficult to assay because
of the small size of the plants and their shallow penetration into substrate.
The situation is somewhat complicated by seasonal variations in nutrient content
of the mosses themselves. Streeter (1965) found potassium, sodium, calcium,
and phosphorous contents of the moss Aerocladium cuspidatum varied with season,
locality, and rainfall with the observation that potassium is the most important
leachate accounting for the high K content of mats under trees in rainy months.
Schacklette (1965, 1967) compared bryofloras from di 'erse mineral substrates
in Alaska and determined the concentrations of various elements within the
plants. The only obligate relations to minerals that he determined are those
of Gymnocolea acutiloba to copper deposits and Grimmia maritima to salty sea
spray. Among facultative relations, Racomitrium sudeticurn grew on ore containing
30 percent copper, Cephalonia bicuspidata tolerated ore with 13 percent lead
and 34 per-cent zinc, and many other species seemed unaffected by relatively
high concentration of elements including nickel, mercury, antimony, arsenic,
chromium, and iron. Ashed bryophytes showed significant differences from higher
plants in mineral content with only bryophytes showing niobium and scandium.
Some 27 elements are ac-cumulated by bryophytes, especially Ba, Cu, Ph, Sr,
and Zn, to concentrations normally toxic to other groups of plants. The presence
of these relatively toxic minor elements in quantity may limit the palatibility
for animals and susceptibility to fungal attack.
few bryophytes are known to require exotic substrates as guano, dung, or animal
carcasses. Some are facultative coprophiles, but Splachnaceae, especially
Splachnum, require such media. Whitmire (1965) has suggested that the dung
contains some principle which is required for sporophyte production and that
the decline of the plants on old dung results from a lowering of the pH. Until
Gressitt, et al. (1968) discovered bryophytes growing on the backs of large
moss-forest weevils in New Guinea, no epizoic bryophytes were known. This
epizoic flora seems to be comprised of species which are normally pioneers
on young woody branches.
we know of no truly marine bryophytes, two genera of hepatics (Ric/la and
Campos) are incredibly tolerant of alkali. Riella has a remarkably disjunct
distribution which correlates with desert or near-desert ephemeral ponds.
Apparently the spores germinate when the water is sufficiently fresh to indicate
that the pond will last long enough for completion of the life cycle and the
plants thrive even as the pond dries out and becomes quite brackish. Cai'ipo.s
was discovered in 1955 encrusted with alkali along the salt pans of southeastern
Australia and has since been discovered in a similar habitat in South Africa.
energy required for photosynthesis varies for bryophytes but the usual optimim
range is 500 to 1000 foot candles for woodland species. Few data are available
for optimum ranges for species which occur normally under light conditions
different from those of tem-
woodlands. Light is known to be necessary for development of gernmae and protonemata
of some mosses and for development of gametangia in several liverworts. A
time/intensity relationship exists whereby a doubled in-tensity reduces development
time by about half within the critical ranges. Seta elongation in Pellia is
enhanced as light increases to about 20 foot candles. Water absorption in
moss spores seems to be biphasic with the first phase being mechanical imbibition
and the second a blue light regulated phase associated with protonemal development.
Red light, by itself, has produced protonemal anomalies. A cumulative "light
dose" effect which is independent of photoperiod is apparent in bud production
on protonemata of Phvscomitriurn turbinatom (Nebel & Naylor, 1968). Other
effects of light quality and intensity include modification of protoplasmic
viscosity and plastid duplication,shape, size, and orientation. Beyond effects
of red and blue wavelengths on a few species, we know little of the influence
of other wavelengths or of the extent to which the responses are uniform through
the bryophytes. Photoperiod effects have been established for both liver-worts
and mosses in several developmental stages, and phytochrome has been isolated
from two species of Mnium suggesting that bryophytes may also have a red/far
of bryophytes to ionizing radiation and X-ray emissions have shown sensitivity
levels somewhat lower than those for higher plants. Some variation has been
observed among bryophytes but generally mosses are most resistant and small
leafy hepatics are the least resistant. Growing points with larger nuclei
associated with meristematic activity are first to show radiation damage but,
as all living cells in bryophytes are capable of dedifferentiation, destruction
of actively meristematic sites only is not lethal. Somatic. cells of bryophytes
have a very small nuclear volume which reduces the probability of a damaging
or lethal impact. Seven distinct chromosomal races with five different chromosome
numbers were developed by exposure of Brach ythecium rutabulum to high energy
radiation (Moutschen, 1955) indicating that radiation damage is not always
fatal. Even so, aberrant populations of bryophytes exposed to radiation sources
in natural settings seem to be very rare, although damaged plants are evident
for a time after exposure. Steere (1970) has noted that desiccated plants
are more sensitive to irradiation than fully hydrated ones.
might be expected from the tendency of many bryophytes to accumulate heavy
metals, the elements associated with radioactive fallout also tend to be ac-cumulated.
Cesium-137 has been found to be concentrated in mosses of a Cascades mountain
bog; Strontium-90 has been found to be concentrated by bryophytes and lichens
to the extent that it has been suggested that these plants may be used as
indicators of radionuclide contamination; and other radioactive elements are
concentrated over time with the result that bryophyte radioactivity continues
to increase following fallout long after
of higher plants has diminished toward normal.
Pollutants:—Although the initial report of the impact of air pollution
on cryptogamic epiphytes was based on Nylander's observation on lichens in
1866, bryophytes are similarly affected and seem to hold as much promise as
indicators of the presence and degree of pollution as lichens. Epiphytic bryophytes
are sufficiently sensitive that bryovegetational differences have been observed
between the windward and leeward sides of roads in the Netherlands. In central
Florida, epiphytes in hardwood forests show damage, or species are absent,
near highways cut through the woods with the roadside pollution effect extending
a hundred yards or more from the edge of the right-of-way. Mosses and liverworts
are less abundant and less diverse in cities than in distant countryside with
the influence of major metropolitan areas extending far beyond the city limits
in a pattern which reflects wind vectors. De Sloover and Le Blanc (1968) have
proposed an Index of Atmospheric Pollution (IAP) based upon sensitivity of
lichens to pollutants but it is clear that bryophytes, either independently
or together with lichens, can be used in development of IAP. Bryophytes potentially
can be used to determine isopolls indicating limits of comparable pollution
around a source and to evaluate overall impact of continued pollution. Such
information combined with transplant experiments (Broth), 1966) can be of
value in enforcement of air pollution control laws where potential sources
can be identified. Bryophytes and lichens are sensitive indicators of intermittent
and long term pollution which might not be easily detected by instruments
or human sensory organs.
dioxide, a major component of pollution, caused observable damage under controlled
conditions in about ten minutes in an atmospheric concentration of 120 parts
per million. Lower concentrations over longer periods of time were also lethal
with Radala and Orthatrichum being most sensitive. Mnium hornum, with a lower
internal osmotic pressure than other species tested, is more resistant to
SO., . All species were somewhat more tolerant of S02 when partially plasmolyzed.
The initial, and apparently irreversible, reaction converts chlorophyll a
into phaeophytin a followed by plasmolysis and death.
is clearly responsible for concentrated pockets of air pollution which produce
haze or smog but there is natural pollution as well. Rasmussen et al. (1968)
describe biological sources of air pollution involving light hydrocarbons
and monoterpenes which could be photochemically sensitized in the laboratory
to produce a blue haze as that often observed over closed tropical vegetation.
Epiphyte covered palm leaves were field tested in Panama for organic volatiles.
The epiphytes with a "gluey to anise-like aroma" were left on the living fronds
for the first profile of volatiles by gas chromatography. Volatiles were as
much as ten times those of other leaves previously tested. After removal of
surface epiphylls by water washing with mechanical assistance, the volatiles
produced were reduced significantly. The aroma described prior to cleaning
suggest strongly that hepatics in the genera Drepanolejeunea and possibly
Leptolejeunea were responsible for the odor and the terpenes. Rasmussen has
indicated informally that vouchers were not kept (regretably!) but acknowledged
that herbarium specimens of these genera looked similar to their material.
Are some, or all, bryophytes producing the light-convertible, highly volatile,
terpenes which haze the atmosphere? For now, that ecological question and
uncounted hundreds of others remain unanswered.
preceding paragraphs summarize something of bryophyte ecology and environmental
physiology but the coverage is far from complete. We have attempted to demonstrate
that inclusion of mosses and liverworts in environmental studies may yield
unexpected insights into ecosystem dynamics. If this review stimulates further
idterest, or suggests an approach for possible resolution of a difficult problem,
then its purpose will be well served.
I. 1966. Lichen growth and cities: a study on Long Island, New York. Bryologist
Eva. 1964. The tolerance of hepatics to desiccation and temperature. Bryologist
Sloover, J. and F. LeBlanc. 1968. Mapping of atmospheric pollution on the
basis of lichen sensitivity. In Misra, R. and B. Gopal (eds.) Proc. Symp.
Recent Adv. Trop. Ecol. pp. 42-56. Banaras Hindu Univ. Varanasi, India.
H. 1932. Bryo-cenology (moss-societies). In Verdoorn, F. (ed.) Manual of Bryology.
pp. 323-366. Nijhoff. The Hague.
C. H. and E. J. Robertson. 1950. Preliminary investigations on the structure
of bryophytic communities. Trans. British Bryol. Soc. 1: 330-344.
J. L., G. A. Samuelson, and D. H. Vitt. 1968. Moss growing on living Papuan
moss-forest weevils. Nature 217: 765-767.
T., N. Odami, and H. Tagawa. 1964. Causality of the distribution of corticolous
species in forests with special reference to the physio-ecological approach.
Bryologist 67: 396-411.
Z. 1960. The epiphytic bryophytic communities in Japan. Journ. Hattori Bot.
Lab. 22: 159-350.
, and S. Hattori. 1968. Studies on the
epiphytic moss flora of Japan, 18. The epiphytic bryophyte communities in
the broad-leaved evergreen forests of Hanaze, southern Kyushu. Journ. Hattori
Hot. Lab. 31: 189-197.
J. 1955. L'obtention d'une serie de mutants aneuploides chez la mousse Brachythecium
rutabulum Schpr. Soc. Belg. Biol. 1955: 591-593.
B. J. and A. W. Naylor. 1968. Light, temperature and carbohydrate requirements
for shoot-bud initiation from protonemata in the moss Physcomitrium turbinatum.
Amer. Journ. Bot. 55: 38-44.
R. A., R. S. Hutton, and R. J. Garner. 1968. Factors in establishing microbial
populations on biologically inert surfaces. Pp. 79-98. Proc. 1st Internat.
Biodeterioration symp., Southampton, 1968. Else-vier Publ. Co.
H. T. 1965. Bryophytes associated with mineral deposits and solutions in Alaska.
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1198-C: 1-18.
1967. Element content of bryophytes.
U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1198-D: 1-21.
W. C. 1970. Bryophyte studies on the irradiated and control sites in the rainforest
at El Verde. Chpt. D-11, 213-225. In Odum, H. T. (ed.) A tropical rainforest
. U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, TID-24270
D. T. 1965. Seasonal variations in the nutrient content of Acrocladium cuspidatum
(Hedw.) Lindb. Trans. British Bryol. Soc. 4: 818-827.
R. S. 1965.. Ecological observations on Splachnum ampullaceum. Bryologist
A. J. 1964. Investigations on the physiological ecology of Tortula ruraliformis.
Trans. British Bryol. Soc. 4:668-683.
DEVOTED TO THE 50th
ANNIVERSARY OF PLANT
K. A. Tintirvazcr' Institute of
Plant Physiology of the
of Sciences of the USSR
discovery of photoperiodism was announced in 1920 when the work of Garner
and Allard was published. Some evidence on the effect of a daylength on flowering
can be found earlier, e.g. in the works of Tournoi ( 1921) and Klebs ( 1918);
however, a systematic and profound study on the effect of photoperiods on
flowering, growth and ntorphogenesis of various plants was first undertaken
by Garner and Allard who defined the response of plants to the relative length
of day and night by the term "photoperiodism" and delineated the main photoperiodic
groups of short-day, long-day and day-neutral plants.
Conference, devoted to the 50th annivers;try of the discovery of plant photoperiodism
and organized on the initiative of K. A. Timirvazev Institute of Plant Physiology
of the USSR Academy of Sciences, was held on the 17th of November, 1970. About
:300 representatives from 19 biological institutions and organizations of'
Moscow, Leningrad, Novosibirsk, L•kutsk, Ufa, Saratov, Stavropol, Rostov,
etc. participated in the conference.
the opening speech, Academician A. L. Kursanov pointed out that the discovery
of photoperiodism was an important event in biology initiating a very large
number of investigations in many countries and being very significant for
plant science. Then he briefly described the main trends in the research of
photoperiodism represented in the titles and theses of the four speakers.
In conclusion, Academician Kursanov emphasized that the main discoveries of
molecular genetics and general molecular biology, applied for the investigation
of regularities governing plant. ontogenesis, open broad prospects for future
understanding of primary phenomena determining the transition of plant organisms
from vegetative growth to reproduction.
his report "Photoperiodism and Environmental Factors", Corresponding Member
of' the Academy of Agricultural Sciences ( VASKHNIL) V. I. Razunury interpreted
the role of the photoperiodic response for the geographic distribution of
wild and cultivated plants as well as for the establishment of a culturing
time for various species and varieties of agricultural plants. In particular,
he analysed the behaviour of :37 wheat cultures from Australia and 16 cultures
from Mexico grown under conditions of the daylength and temperature of Leningrad.
A particular emphasis in the report was laid on the regularities governing
the interaction of' temperature and photoperiodic factors in the regulation
of' plant growth. It was concluded that temperature conditions produce a considerable
effect on the plant photoperiodic response.
Member of the Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKHNIL) B. S. Moshkov regarded
photoperiodism as a biological phenomenon of a very general nature related
to the inherent rhythmicity of physiological processes interacting with the
daily rhythms of radiant energy. In this connection, the photoperiodic response
of' flowering is one of the special cases of photoperiodism. The role of'
photoperiodism for the plant life and for agricultural practice was demonstrated
of photoperiodic response of growth and dormancy, vegetative growth, accumulation
of organic mat-ter, resistance to unfavorable environmental factors, immunity
to diseases, etc
speaker paid much attention to the comparison of the flowering photoperiodic
response and the photoperiodic response of vegetative growth in Kalcar. throe.
He discussed in great. detail the processes in plant leaves as organ-receptors
of the photoperiodic effect and mentioned the relation of the primary processes
of photoperiodism to the presence of carbon dioxide in surrounding atmosphere.
M. Kh. Chailakhyan discussed plant photoperiodism with respect to the hormonal
conception of flowering and its two-phase character. The transition to flowering
is supposed to consist of two phases: stem formation and flower formation.
Stem formation in long-day species is the phase limiting flowering under conditions
of unfavorable photoperiod, and this critical phase is overcome by gibberellins
which are intensively produced under long-day conditions. The critical phase
in short-day species is the formation of' flowers, and this phase is overcome
lry anthesins which are actively synthetized under short-day conditions. The
speaker presented new data obtained by grafting long-short-day species of
Brvophyllum which demonstrated the participation of different hormones in
the regulation of flowering in this plant.
interaction of extraneous factors and intracellular factors of dflowering
was also analysed. Genetic information on flowering in neutral plants is realized
irrespective of' the day length (the autonomous regulation of flowering),
while its direct realization in species adapted to the day length is controlled
by environmentphotoperiod of a certain duration tthe photoperiodic regulation
of flowering). The correlation between the autonomous and photoperiodic regulation
of two flowering phases is considered in plants belonging to different photoperiodic
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
ROBERT W. LONG, Editor
Life Science Bldg. 174
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33620
Harlan P. Banks, Cornell University
Sydney S. Greenfield, Rutgers University
Adolph Hecht, Washington State University
William L. Stern, University of Maryland
Erich Steiner, University of Michigan
December 1971 Volume 17
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc., Dr. Theodore Delevoryas, Department of Biology, Yale University,
New Haven, Connecticut.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical
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The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of South
Florida, 4202 Fowler Ave., Tampa, Fla. 33620. Second class postage paid at Tampa,
V. V. Skripchinsky discussed the laws of evolution of photoperiodism. Since
the pattern of evolution can be based on the knowledge of present processes,
the speaker analyzed the data of geography, ecology, physiology and genetics
of plants, and their taxonomy and evolution.
is shown to be a useful adaptive reaction of plants which helps them survive
unfavorable times of the year; therefore, evolution of angiospermous plants
is closely connected to photoperiodism. Geographical distribution of plant
photoperiodical types depends on the latitude, temperature and the altitude
above sea level, hence, short-day species are mainly distributed in the tropical
zone at low altitudes and long-day species at high altitudes.
was a discussion of the variability of photoperiodic response among angiospermous
plants belonging to different families, genera and species. Evolution of photoperiodism
was shown to be due not to changes taking place at the level of large taxons,
but rather to the processes of variability and selection within the same species
and population. No essential obstacles were found to evolutionary changes
of the type of photoperiodic response, for the transition between the short-day,
long-day, and neutral types of response, and for their realization in the
course of evolution. Elementary processes of hereditary change of photoperiodic
response depend on various mutations, and further evolution of photoperiodism
is due to selection related to specific conditions of the medium.
data of paleogeography, as well as the data on photoperiodism in algae, mosses,
ferns and gymnosperms suggest that ancient lepidophytes and psilophytes belonged
to the non-photoperiodic type (plants primarily neutral to the day length),
while Devonian plants were typical short-day and then long-day species.
academic botanists today want to show that plant science and especially their
own research are important to modern society. Our lead article in this issue
is an example of this interest. Perhaps it is necessary since our problem-oriented
society appears to demand material justification for everything not connected
with its own leisure-time pursuits. A few years ago it would have been difficult
to imagine a more esoteric branch of botany than bryology, even though mosses
have been known to be sensitive phytometers of air pollution for a long time.
The bryologist has become relevant, just as the rest of us must!
article, appearing earlier in the pages of PSB, unfairly suggested that many
botanists were themselves asleep to the importance of plant science in the
modern world. My own observations tell me very much the opposite. It is not
necessary here to point out in detail the leadership assumed by plant scientists
in adapting new learning techniques and curricula in the presentation of the
botanical sciences; or the important role botanists have taken in the actions
of national biological commit-tees including those studying social issues;
or the many who are noted for their imaginative and productive careers in
research and in academic administration. There is an increasing proliferation
of botany courses especially for non-majors in response to the growing interest
in plants by ecology-minded undergraduates. To borrow a phrase, botanists
have been involved in a green revolution for the past several years. The relative
importance of plant science in biological curricula or in research programs
is not an issue in any modern institution of higher learning.
University of Idaho, Department of Biological Sciences, announces that applications
are now being received for plant ecologist, at the rank of Assistant Professor,
with salary of $9,750-$10,750, beginning September 1, 1972. The candidate
must have the Ph.D. and post-doctoral experience is desirable. Application
should be made to Doyle E. Anderegg, Department of Biological Sciences, University
of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, 83843.
College, Department of Biology, is soliciting applications for a bacteriologist
at the rank of Instructor, beginning August 1972. The candidate must have
the master's degree, and preference will be given to a person who plans to
return to graduate school in about two years. Application should be made to
Dr. John A. Freeman, Chairman, Biology Department, Winthrop College, Rock
Hill, South Carolina, 29730.
are now being solicited from candidates for the position of Head of the Department
of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Massachusetts. The position
is that of senior departmental executive officer, reporting to the Dean of
the College of Agriculture. Salary will be commensurate with the responsibilities
and the applicant's qualifications, and will be based upon a 12-month appointment.
Interested persons are urged to forward a personal resume, list of publications,
and names of at least three references to Dr. Charles F. Cole, Chairman, Search
Committee, Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Holdsworth Natural
Resources Center, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, 01002.
newly formed Pteridology Section of the Botanical Society of America was organized
at the joint Canadian Botanical Society-Botanical Society of America meetings
at Edmonton in June. The By-laws have been approved by interested members
and the following officers were elected: Chairman: David Bierhorst; Secretary-Treasurer:
Edward Klekowski; Representative to Editorial Board, American Journal of Botany:
Rolla M. Tryon.
concentration of leadership in Massachusetts is a fortuitous circumstance
and all people interested in Pteridology from all parts of the country are
urged to indicate their interest by joining the Pteridology Section of the
BSA. Membership in the latter organization is, of course, necessary.
name and address to the Secretary-Treasurer (E. Klekowski) along with one
dollar in annual dues, care of the Department of Botany, University of Massachusetts,
has been discussed in Chemical Plant Taxonomy Newsletters, the rapid expansion
of the chemical approach to systematic problems in biology has brought about
a number of specialized problems unique to
which could be greatly aided through international cooperation. As a result,
a joint Inter-national Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)—International
Association of Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) ad hoc Committee on Chemotaxonomy has
been formed to look into all aspects of the organization of international
collaboration in chemosystematics. The Committee consists of Dr W. F. Grant
(IAPT)—Chairman, Dr T. Swain (IUPAC)—Secretary, Dr J. B. Harborne
(IUPAC), Dr. A. Love (IAPT), Dr. T. J Mabry (IUPAC) and Dr B. L. Turner (IAPT).
Committee solicits comments from interested per-sons in all fields of biological
sciences as well as those in biochemistry, chemistry, and the pharmaceutical
sciences. These may be sent to the Chairman or the Secretary: Dr. W. F. Grant,
Chairman, Joint IUPAC—IAPT Committee on Chemotaxonomy, Genetics Laboratory,
MacDonald Campus of McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue 800, Quebec,
Canada; Dr. T. Swain, Secretary, Joint IUPAC—IAPT Committee on Chemotaxonomy,
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, England.
Arboretum Centennial Program
Centennial Celebration for the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University has
been set for May 21-May 28, 1972. The event will feature lectures by distinguished
visitors and scientific symposium on botanical and horticultural themes. A
formal banquet, the opening of an exhibit of rare books at the Houghton Library,
and an evening concert of the Boston Pops Orchestra will highlight events
of a more social nature. An afternoon lecture series is designed especially
for Friends of the Arnold Arboretum. For representatives of botanical gardens
and arboreta there will be bus tours to areas of exceptional botanical and
horticultural interest in Massachusetts. Further information can be obtained
by writing to Dr. Richard A. Howard, Director, Arnold Arboretum, The Arborway,
Jamaica Plain, Mass. 02130.
of Darbaker Prize In Phycology For 1972
committee on the Darbaker Prize of the Botanical Society of America will accept
nominations for an award to be announced at the annual meeting of the Society
at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1972. Under the
terms of the bequest, the award is to be made for meritorious work in the
study of microscopical algae. The Committee will base its judgment primarily
on the papers published by the nominee during the last two full calendar years
previous to the closing date for nominations. At present, the award will be
limited to residents of North America. Only papers published in the English
language will be considered. The value of the Prize for 1972 will depend on
the income from the trust fund but is expected to be about $325. Nominations
for the 1972 award accompanied by a statement of the merits of the case and
by reprints of the publications supporting the candidacy must he received
by March 1, 1972, by the Chairman of the Committee, Dr. Isabella A. Abbott,
Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California 93950.
Studies Announces Graduate Course
its tenth consecutive year of conducting research and training programs in
the American tropics, OTS in 1972 will offer four graduate courses. Three
of the courses will be scheduled in Ecology and Advanced Biology, while the
fourth will be offered in Geography.
the winter semester, January :31 to March 25, the ecology course will consist
of Tropical Biology: An Ecological Approach. This will be open to 20 participants
and will be conducted at the regular field sites in Costa Rica which demonstrates
the whole range of tropical environmental conditions existing from sea-level
to the highest altitudes in the central mountain ranges.
the spring semester, April 17 to May 27, OTS will offer a new course in advanced
biology entitled The Pine Forests of Central America. The extensive pine forests
of Western North America extend south into the highlands of Central America
to northern Nicaragua. The course will be coordinated by Dr Gordon H. Orions,
Professor of Zoology, University of Washington, assisted by a staff of full-term
and visiting scientists. The training will be con-ducted entirely in Guatemala
the summer semester from July 3 to August 26, two courses will be offered
in Costa Rica. One of the courses will be a repeat of Tropical Biology,- An
Ecological Approach, while the second will be a course in Geography, a study
of Man's Impact on Tropical Ecosystems in Costa Rica, Past and Present. This
course is designed to give the student field experience in problems associated
with man's interaction with tropical ecosystems. The course will be co-coordinated
by Dr. Robert C. West of Louisiana Slate University and Dr Jonathan D. Sauer
of the University of California at Los Angeles. They will be assisted by a
staff of two visiting scientists.
forms may be obtained from the North American Office of the OTS at 5900 S.W.
73rd Street, South Miami, Florida, 33143. The deadlines for filing applications
for each semester are as follows; Spring: January 15, 1972; Summer: April
and Honors For Botanists, 1971
the Annual Dinner for All Botanists held on the campus of the University of
Alberta, Edmonton, June 23, 1971, President Starr announced the Merit Awards
for 1971, the winners of the Darbarker Prize and the Cooley Prize, and the
new corresponding members of the Botanical Society of America. The annual
Merit Awards were presented to four distinguished recipients, as follows:
Murray F. Buell of Rutgers University
ecologist, teacher, and editor; his research on ecological processes in eastern
North America has led to an understanding and public awareness of man's role
in changing natural ecosystems."
Verne Grant of the University of Texas
and student of the biology of flowers, especially of the phlox family. His
works on speciation and adaptation in the higher plants are models of clarity
Ruth Patrick of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia
gifted teacher and scholar with a consuming curiosity, she brings out the
best in both scholars and students by her unique ability to generate excitement
over intellectual ideas. Best known for her work on the systematics of' diatoms,
she has also been deeply concerned with the pollution of streams, rivers and
bays, and has used her knowledge of diatom taxonomy and ecology — and
her eloquence — to convince industries and cities of their responsibility
in this area."
A, Erling Porsild of the National Museum of Canada
for his share in the Great Reindeer Trek; intrepid arctic explorer and distinguished
student of the flora of Canada; and a Canadian diplomat as well."
Darbaker Prize in Phycology was presented to: Richard W. Eppley of the Institute
of Marine Resources in LaJolla,
his original and new approaches to the understanding of phytoplankton ecology."
Michael J Wynne of the University of Texas,
outstanding contributions in the taxonomy and morphology of marine algae,
particularly the Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta,"
George R. Cooley Prize for the best paper presented at the annual meeting
of the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, was awarded to Dr. Beryl Simpson
Vuilleumier, Harvard University, for her paper entitled "Multiple modes of
speciation in the Pereziae of southern South America."
New Corresponding Members are as follows: Gee Arbo Hoeg, professor emeritus
of botany and retired director of the Botanical Museum and Garden at the University
of Oslo, is the dean of Scandinavian paleobotany and one of the foremost authorities
in the world on early Paleozoic floras. His major works include a classic
study of the Downtonian and Devonian flora of Spitsbergen, a detailed consideration
of the Glossopteris flora of the Belgian Congo, and, most recently, a world-wide
treatment of the perplexing Psilophyta. His breadth of interest and knowledge
has been demonstrated by activities in the fields of ethnobotany, particularly
folk medicine, and dendrochronology. His sterling character, most kindly personality,
and genuinely helpful attitude have endeared him to his colleagues and to
Pichi-Senn ulli, presently Professor of Botany and Director of the Botanical
Institute at the University of Genoa (Genova), is a well known authority on
the classification and relationships of the ferns. Additionally, he has made
invaluable contributions to pteridophyte systematics as a bibliographer and
as a member of numerous international nomenclature committees. As director
and editor of the "Adumbratio Florae Aethiopicae" he has devoted part of his
energies to floristic and ecological studies on the plants of eastern Africa,
especially Ethiopia. His versatility and scientific accomplishments, together
with great personal charm, have gained him renown and the respect and affection
of' the botanical community.
Leonouich Takhtajan, chairman of the Department of' Higher Plants of the Komarov
Botanical Institute, is a leading Soviet plant taxonomist and morphologist
and an internationally pre-eminent authority on the classification, origin,
and historical phytogeography of flowering plants. Fortunate, indeed, are
English-speaking scientists now to have at hand his book Flowering Plants:
Origin and Dispersal, an extensively revised translation of his earlier Russian
work Origins of Angiospermous Plants to which much new material has been added.
His outstanding accomplishments, extensive international travels, and warm
personality have won him admiration and affection throughout the botanical
new faculty members joining the Department of Botany of The University of
Tennessee, Knoxville in September 1971 were Drs. Otto J. Schwarz and Mark
W. Bierner. Dr. Schwarz has completed a postdoctoral traineeship in the Biology
Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory after receiving his Ph.D. in Plant
Physiology from North Carolina State University. Dr. Schwarz will teach plant
physiology and continue his research in the biochemical and developmental
aspects of enzyme regulation in plants. Dr. Bierner received his Ph.D. from
The University of Texas and will teach in the plant taxonomy program and carry
on his biochemical and morphological systematic studies on several genera
in the Compositae.
Society of the Sigma Xi announced today through the chairman of its grants-in-aid
of research committee an award to Di: H. Lloyd Mogensen of Northern Arizona
award has been made to Dr. Mogensen to assist him in his study of "The ultrastructure
of fertilization in Quercu.s gambelii: Normal vs. abortive zygotes."
Richard S. Furr has been named assistant professor of biological sciences
at Lake Superior State College. Dr. Furr received his bachelor of arts degree
in biology from Pfeiffer College, Misenheimer, N. C., his master from North
Carolina State U. and his doctorate in botany from the University of Tennessee.
RONALD H. (Editor), Evolution in the Higher Basidiomycetes, an International
Symposium. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. 1971.
i-x, 562 pp. 13 black & white plates.
I may quote from the preface of Evolution in the higher Basidiomycetes: "Perhaps
no higher praise can be given a scholar and his work than for him to be honored
by eminent specialists of his own discipline. Such a tribute was paid to Lexemuel
Ray Hesler in August, 1968, when, on the occasion of his eightieth birth year,
mycologists from Holland, Great Britain, France, Mexico, Canada, Czechoslovakia,
and from many areas of the United States assembled on The University of Tennessee
campus in Knoxville to participate in the symposium on which this volume is
based. The meeting honoring Dr. Hesler proved to be highly appropriate, for
the papers presented—and indeed the discussions— reflected a liveliness
of intellect and enthusiasm for learning that have characterized the honoree
throughout his long career".
Petersen is to be congratulated for a splendid job of organizing this symposium,
and for the excellent editorial work that went into assembling, organizing,
and preparing for publication the papers and discussions that make up this
book. Biologists will find some, or perhaps most, of the papers of great interest.
Mycologists will be impressed not only with the titles of papers, but more
the list of participants in the symposium.
book is divided into three sections. Part I, the Introductory Address, is
provided by M. A. Donk, the eminent mycologist from the Rijksherbarium in
Leiden, Holland. He discusses progress in the study of the classification
of higher Basidiomycetes. He attempts to show the process of transmutation
of the Friesian classification, founded mainly on hymenial configuration,
into a more natural system based upon cultural, cytological, developmental,
as well as morphological features. Although he draws heavily on his years
of research on the Aphyllophorales, his numerous comments on other groups
reveals his keen interest in and vast knowledge of many phases of mycology.
II contains a series of papers on "Supportive Characters in Systematics".
Varro E. Tyler, Jr., (School of Pharmacy, Purdue University) stimulates much
interest in his review of "Chemotaxonomy in the Basidiomycetes". His discussion
l of biosynthesis of various chemicals within plants is helpful in understancling
the utility and limitations of chemotaxonomy in fleshy fungi. He summarizes
the data obtained thusfar on several genera of Agaricacales, Aphyllophorales,
and Gasteromycetes. In their paper on "The Pigments of Basidiomycetes: Their
Chemotaxonomic Interest", Noel Arpin and Jean-Louis Fiasson, University of
Lyon, after a lengthy discussion of pigment systems and their evolution in
fungi, imply that perhaps pigment. pathways will enable us to tell which way
the arrow is pointing in many groups. Paul L. Lentz (Plant Industry Station
in Beltsville, Md.), analyzes the use of modified byphae as a tool in taxonomy
research in the higher basidiomycetes. He concludes that the term "modified
hyphae" is hardly definitive, and that comparisons are needed between such
hyphae in the heterobasidiomycetes and monobasidiomycetes before we can consider
their use as taxonomic tools. In his paper on "Nuclear Behavior in the Mycelium
and the Evolution of the Basidiomycetes", Jacques Boidin, (Universite de Lyon,
France), discusses the correlations of nuclear behavior, clamp connections,
and spore nuclei, how they may be applied to various taxa and their significance
in evolution and phylogeny.He interestingly concludes with the belief that
primitive Basidiomycetes were binucleate, clamped, and heterothallic. Nuclear
behavior is approached in greater depths by John R. Raper and A. S. Flexer
in their presentation of "Mating iystems and Evolution of Basidiomycetes".
They nota that such features as various forms of basidia, the dolipore septum,
the dikaryon, the clamp connection, and several mating systems which occur
in these taxa, if correctly read, should indicate the course of evolution
with some degree of accuracy. Their text deals mainly with mating systems,
expecially the control of sexual morphogenesis in Schizophyllum commune. Dr.
Mildred Nobles, (Plant Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada), convincingly attempts
to show that a knowledge of extracellular enzymes, such as oxidise, correlated
with other cultural and morphological features, can aid greatly in showing
relationships among wood inhabiting basidiomycetes. Her paper, entitled "Cultural
Characters as a Guide to the Taxonomy of the Polyporaceae" provides a unique,
but useful, key to numerous species of these fungi. A somewhat similar approach
to the Agaricaceae is made in Orson K. Miller's (U. S. Forest Service, Beltsville,
Md.) paper on "The Relationship of Cultural Characters of the Agarics". He
refers mainly to his studies of several genera of Tricholomataceae, emphasizing
the types of asexual spores, cell types, microchemical reactions in vegetative
cells, and other features that might provide phylogenetic information. A rather
novel approach to a study of evolution was suggested in Edward Hacskaylo's
(USDA, Forest Physiology Lab., Beltsville, Md.) paper on "The Role of Mycorrhizal
Association in the Evolution of Higher Basidiomycetes" in which he suggests
that mycorrhizal associations may have evolved much earlier within primitive
higher plants, and in effect may indicate that these fungi are mor primitive
than those that have developed a similar association with more advanced plant
III consists of a series of papers on "Systematic Studies of Fungus Groups".
The first of these is Donald P. Rogers' (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana) "Patterns
of Evolution of the Homobasidium". He stressed that some characters are of
greater, even enormously greater, importance that others; this being the basidium
of the basidiomycetes. The question of whether the heterobasidium or the holobasidium
is primitive, and the possible evolutionary pathways between the two are discussed.
Variation in the resupinate homobasidiomycetes is dealt with by M. P. Christiansen
(Copenhagen, Denmark) in his paper by that title. He describes and illustrates
the types of spores, basidia, and sterile elements found within the resupinates.
(Univ. of Arizona, Tuscon) presents a somewhat similar account in another
group in his "Phylogenetic Relationships of Hymenomycetes with Resupinate,
Hydnaceous Basidiocarps". Along with a discussion of cultural, developmental,
and morphological characteristics, a key to genera of Aphyllophorales containing
species with resupinate, hydnaceous basidiocarps is provided. The "Diversity
and Phylogenetic Position of the Thelephoraceae" is presented by Albert Pilat
(Narodni Museum, Prague, Czech.). we find the beginnings of the evolutionary
branches of almost all eubasidiomycetes as well as the meeting point of various
branches of the Auriculariales and Tremellales. He discusses the evolution
of basidiomycetes in general, the influence of hyphal systems, and characters
used in grouping species. Evolutionary lines away from the Thelephoraceae
are suggested in Derek Reid's (Kew, England) "Intermediate Generic Complexes
Between the Thelephoraceae and other Families". Problems of classification
at the family level are stressed in light of the sharp contrast of this family
in the traditional versus modern restricted circumcription. Ronald Petersen
(Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville) in his "Interfamilial Relation-ships in the
Clavarioid and Cantharelloid Fungi" pictures them as intermediate groups in
which the direction of evolution is difficult to establish. Yet, evolutionary
path-ways are suggested for several groups. In "The Evolutionary Lines in
the Fungi With Spines Supporting the Hymenium", Kenneth Harrison (Univ. of
Michigan, Ann Arbor) concludes that spined taxa are present in a number of
genera that are not even closely related and that spines can best be regarded
as primitive. Several directions of evolution seem to be exemplified in various
genera of hydnums. "Multiple Convergence in the Polyporaceous Fungi" was the
subject of a second paper by M. A. Donk (Rijksherbarium). Along with a general
discussion of family delimitation and the "peculiarities" of liberal and conservative
taxonomists, he evaluates all of the features of the growth and development
of polypores as to their use in taxonomy. Harry Theirs (San Francisco State
College) discusses "Some Ideas Concerning the Phylogeny and Evolution of the
Boletes". In this group one is confronted with the major difficulty of deter-mining
characters which might be potentially significant in indicating phylogenetic
relationships. Of those, hymenial configuration and perhaps spores provide
useful information. The possible affinities of other agarics and gasteromycetes
to the boletes are also discussed. "A Revision of the Genus Melanomphalia
as a Basis of the Phylogeny of the Crepidotaceae" is the subject of a paper
by Rolf Singer (Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago). He also provides
keys and descriptions for 17 species of the genus, along with a discussion
of family relationships. Some overall aspects of evolution of fungi are discussed
by Alexander Smith (Univ. of Michigan) in his "Origin and Evolution of the
Agaricales". He feels that perhaps the basidiomycetes is one of the latest
groups of plants to undergo an extremely rapid evolution. To climax a series
of excellent papers, one would be pressed to find a more capable individual
than Roger Heim (Museum of Natural History, Paris). Broad phylogenetic pathways
for the series Asterosporae, the Boletaceae, the Agaricales, and a general
phylogenetic scheme for all of the basidiomycetes are presented in his paper
on the "Interrelationships Between the Agaricales and Gasteromycetes".
discussions follow almost all of the above papers. Very often there is not
a consensus, and frequently much useful information is received through these
have little or no adverse criticism of the book. After reading a number of
the papers, one is impressed with a repetition of the same ideas, theories,
or references. However, this often signifies the enormous contributions that
certain individuals have made to the field. It is unfortunate that some of
these individuals were not able to participate in the symposium. Notable was
the absence of E. J. H. Corner whose developmental studies have been widely
followed by both ascomycete and basidiomycete specialist.
prominence of the authors, the nature of their subjects, and the vast amount
of bibliographic informations on fungal evolution will make this book one
of the most widely sought after. It certain to become a standard reference
for most mycologists. The authors, the editor, and the publisher should be
congratulated for a very useful and attractive hook.
KOJIMA. (Editor) Vol. 1 Biomathernatics. Mathematical Topics in Population
Genetics. Springer Verlag, New York, Inc. 1971. 400 pp., 55 figs. $17.70.
field of biomathematics has always been rather fragmented and there are very
few textbooks in the area which attempt, let alone succeed in giving an overview
of the applications and uses of mathematics in biology. In the past the student
of the discipline has had to rely on chapters in various biology or mathematics
textbooks giving specialized knowledge about one particular aspect of the
field, and on review articles in the literature. The appearance of a series
of monographs of biomathematics has the possibility of filling a void in the
scientific literature and is therefore particularly welcome.
first volume is devoted to mathematical topics in population genetics (the
second volume to be devoted to stochastic processes and applications in biology
and medicine), and each of the authors in this book are well-known for their
development of a particular aspect of genetics. The title and the price may
scare away the casual biologist-reader, which is perhaps unfortunate since
several of the articles in this volume are not unduly mathematical in nature
and are of considerable significance to the understanding of principles of
are several articles of value in this volume; the first article by Professor
Sewall Wright is a clear ex-position of his "shifting balance" theory of evolution,
long regarded as a cornerstone of population genetics. His paper includes
recent development of the theory and a particularly valuable section is devoted
to answering criticisms and misinterpretations by other authors. A crucial
feature of Wright's theory is the random differentiation of gene frequencies
in small populations. Wright was the first to work out the expected distribution
of gene frequencies in small populations, and his work was extensively developed
by Kimura. The article in this volume by Kimura analyses the effects of small
population size under certain conditions of mutation, selection, etc. Diffusion
equations, which employ continuous approximations to gene- frequency change
are used exclusively to derive the results in this paper.
R. G. Truner takes considerable pains to produce a comprehensive review of
work relating to Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection. Many workers
have pointed out that Fisher's theorem is not as general as it was first thought,
and Turner's review is an excellent summary of all the work on the subject.
The paper will be invaluable for a research worker investigating extensions
or limitations of the theorem, but probably not for many others. Fisher's
fundamental theorem has in the past attracted considerable interest probably
only due to Fisher's rather optimistic use of the adjective "fundamental".
analysis of two locus polymorphisms was initiated by Lewontin and Kojima in
1960. In this volume these authors review the dynamics of two locus systems
and present some recent analytic results due to Karlin and Bodmer. The nature
of and importance of interallelic interactions is discussed both in terms
of experimental situations and in terms of multi-locus models.
article deals with an old and important concept in population genetics, the
relationship between fitness and optimization. This paper and others by Levins
at-tempt to insert ecological concepts into population genetics models. The
results he obtains are very important to an understanding of the population
genetics of natural populations. However, this article tends to be rather
terse and highly mathematical in nature and one fears it well be overlooked
by many biologists who should be acquainted with the ideas in this paper.
genetics has always been closely allied to the applied fields of plant and
animal breeding and three papers in this volume reflect this close relationship.
All three deal with a central problem in selection experiments, namely which
strategy should be employed to maximise the genetical potential of a population.
W. G. Hill compares specific selection regimes with a relatively simple model
(genetically speaking) whereas Robertson's article takes a more general approach
to the problem with a multilocus model. Selection schemes inevitably involve
a considerable amount of inbreeding which can lead to the fixation of loci
for alleles which are not necessarily advantageous. The paper by Cockerham
takes a probabilistic approach to ask the question, which type of mating pattern
allows the minimum amount of fixation.
articles of Schaffer and Li have a somewhat different orientation to the rest
of the papers in this collection. They each consider a specific aspect of
probability theory and illustrate how it may be used to answer questions in
population genetics. Schaffer's paper deals with branching processes, and
demonstrates how the theory can be applied to determining the ultimate survival
probability of mutant genes. The paper of Li's is
more interesting insofar that it points out a common statistical complication
which is usually ignored or overlooked in many studies. In many cases experimental
data conforms to a binomial distribution, but often the frequency of one or
more classes is impossible to ascertain. The analysis of this type of situation
is illustrated in terms of examples from human genetics (segregation analysis).
This paper should be very illuminating for the biologist concerned with the
correct analysis of his data.
DIANE AND CAROL DOSSOR. World Catalog of Theses on the Pacific Islands. Pacific
Monograph Series No. 1, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 1970.
135 pp. $4.25.
ambitious undertaking is presented as an expansion of an Index of Social Science
Theses on the South Pacific published in 1957. From the title, one would expect
that it would be a rich source for tracing botanical and biological studies
as cited;, the selection is heavily oriented to the social sciences. The basis
for selection of botanical titles is obscure — A. R. H. Lamberton's
study of The anatomy of some woods utilized by the ancient Hawaiians (1955)
is included but numerous floristic, taxonomic, anatomical, physiological,
and microbiological theses from the same period were overlooked, even though
of broader botanical interest than Lamberton's study. Further, although both
the compilers and general editor are apparently aware of the publication of
Dissertation Abstracts, it is clear that a thorough check of titles from every
U. S. institution was not made. Thus, Glassman's Ph.D. dissertation on the
flora of Ponape (published in 1952) submitted to a university not specializing
in Pacific island studies was overlooked just as many similarly produced American
dissertations have been. Let us hope that the next edition provides better
coverage for botanical science. Until then, a library copy should suffice
for any botanist except the most dedicated Pacificophile.
J. J., AND HUI-LIN LI. Alkaloid-bearing Plants and Their Contained Alkaloids,
1957-1968. Lloydia, Supplement Vol. 33, no. 3A, Cincinnati, Sept. 1970. 286
pp. paperbound. $5.00.
work consists of two lists, the names of plants arranged in taxonomic groups,
giving their contained alkaloids, with literature references; and secondly,
a list of the names of alkaloids and their empirical formulas with references
to where they are to be found in the first list. It represents a continuation
of a previous compilation through 1957 that was issued as a U. S. D. A. Technical
Bulletin no. 1234.
amount of data published on alkaloids in plants (luring the 1957-1968 period
is quite enormous, and ac-cording to the authors, exceeds that of all records
ac-cumulated in the past up to 1957. This volume brings together in convenient
listings, a great. amount of data on the occurrence of alkaloids in plants
from many scattered literature sources. It does not attempt to describe or
interpret or to give structural formulas, but it is rather a basic guide to
the voluminous literature. It is a valuable and useful reference work.
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA,