PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
17 No. 3
Uses of Diversity Lincoln Constance 22
in Plant Science Philip H. Abelson 23
News and Announcements
New Service by the Plant Science Bulletin 24
Directory of Fusarium Research Workers 24
on Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 25
to Graduate Study in Botany 25
Summary of the Edmonton Meeting 25
vs. Pollution 26
Union of Biological Sciences 26
Erskine Cleland 1892-1971 27
of the Potato (Solanutn tuberosum) H. W Howard 28
Northwest Ferns and their Allies T M. C. Taylor 28
Handbook of Alkaloids and Alkaloid-Containing Plants R. F
Anatomy Abraham Fahn 29
Biochemistry: The Molecular Basis of Cell Structure and Function Albert
L. Lehninger 30
Paradoxical Plants Charles R. Heiser, Jr. 30
Physiological Aspects of Photosynthesis O. V. S. Heath 30
Holmensis Hans Tralau 30
Manual of Plant Names C. Chichelev Plowden :31
to the Fine Structure of Plant Cells M. C. Ledbetter and
K. R. Porter 31
Mechanisms in Plant Development. Arthur W Colston and Peter
J. Daisies 32
The Uses of Diversity1
of California Berkeley, California
my unexpected designation as president of the Botanical Society of America
for 1970 was announced, one of my colleagues remarked that the greatest service
I could perform for American botany would be to abolish the annual post-prandial
President's address. A second colleague warned me that whatever I had to say,
if I insisted upon complying with tradition by giving an address at all, had
better be relevant. One of my distinguished former students wrote that I had
a duty to say a good word for "Biosystematics," but since he has subsequently
written a very respectable book on that subject, I think I am relieved from
at least that responsibility.
inclination was to follow the advice of my abolitionist colleague. The prospect
of having to give an address two years hence can be devastating. Besides,
I have already given my philosophical-autobiographical speech at least four
times: "The Versatile Taxonomist" in 1951, "The Role of Plant Ecology in Biosystematics"
in 1953, "Plant Taxonomy in an Age of Experiment" in 1957, and "Systematic
Botany—an Unending Synthesis" in 1964.
suggested to our presiding officer that perhaps she would like to give the
address, since we are in Canadian territory, or at least that she might like
to have equal time. She replied coolly that a presidential address was not
a tradition she intended to establish, and that if I were too cowardly to
perform my obligation, then she could probably arrange for an interesting
speaker. Stung by this rebuff and admittedly attracted by the opportunity
to appear before a captive, bi-national audience, I reluctantly agreed to
perform, but with the stipulation that mine would be the shortest presidential
speech on record, not counting those that were not given at all.
heightened panic ensued when, last December, I was asked for a title; fortunately
I was not asked for a digest of what I planned to say. The present title occurred
to me one morning while shaving—I am frequently not at my best in the
early morning. As my son remarked when he heard it, "It. sounds like something
left over from one of Clark Kerr's books on higher education," but I suspect
that that witticism is too far away. from home to gain much mileage here.
biology there seems to be a widespread impression that all important matters
end upward at the level of the single cell, which is about as far as strictly
physicochemical approaches can yet be utilized. Since some cells can operate
as completely independent units, the cell biologist can defend himself against
the charge that he does not concern himself with whole organisms. No doubt
it is largely a matter of taste, but I do not find unicellular organisms,
despite their admitted diversity, necessarily the most interesting organisms,
and I am content to leave them to the tender mercies of those who do.
as I respect the giant strides that have been made made in clarifying basic
principles and processes of wide applicability, 1 have chosen to celebrate
diversity. It is
of the Retiring President of the Botanical Society of America, Inc., presented
at the Society's annual banquet, .June 23, 1971, at Edmonton, Alberta. well
enough to know that all music can be reduced to a relatively few notes and
a minimum of ways of evoking and receiving them in the human ear. This does
not suggest to the music lover that symphonies, sonatas, and operas are redundant
because their parts and processes can be analyzed. All literature, after all,
is merely spun out of words. Human beings are a lot alike, but it does not
necessarily follow that there is no point in knowing more than one of them.
Even the most wonderful molecule has its limitations.
appears to he a general misunderstanding among the public and among other
scientists, who should know better, that the process of recognizing and naming
natural objects, given to Adam (and doubtless shared with Eve) by .Jehovah
was completed in the middle of the Nineteenth Century, and that any valid
conclusions from the lengthy process were summarized by Charles Darwin, who
incorporated them into his Theory of Natural Selection. Although the doctrine
of "Special Creation" of species has lacked any scientific status for a hundred
years, many people seem still to be thinking in terms of a finite number of
objects created once and for all, and which have merely to be recognized,
described, and named. Actually, of course, the living world consists of a
bewildering multitude of forms, interrelated to varying degrees, which can
only with great difficulty be made to correspond to our formal categories
of family, genus, and species.
is every reason to suppose that large numbers of organisms remain to be discovered
and described, and that a large number of existing names are superflous, since
many forms have inadvertently been named more than once. A one-to-one correspondence
between names and organisms is far from having been achieved. The whole assemblage
of organisms must be continually examined and re-examined, bit by bit. The
study of a group of any size, or even of a single species, almost in-variably
results in changes in the number and presumed relationships of its members,
especially if new kinds of evidence are considered.
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
ROBERT W. LONG, Editor
Life Science Bldg. 174
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33620
Harlan P. Banks, Cornell University
Sydney S. Greenfield, Rutgers University
Adolph Hecht, Washington State University
William L. Stern, University of Maryland
Erich Steiner, University of Michigan
December 1971 Volume 17
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc., Dr. Theodore Delevoryas, Department of Biology, Yale University,
New Haven, Connecticut.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical
Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a year. Send orders with
checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.
Material submitted for publication should be type-written double-spaced,
and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent
issues of the Bulletin.
Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University
Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of South
Florida 33620. Application to mail at second class postage rates is pending
at Tampa, Florida.
it is always interesting to discover something new, too much emphasis should
not be placed upon initial discovery. The real objective of the systematist.
is to learn as much as possible about the organisms with which he is concerned,
in the hope of establishing the pattern of their interrelationships and how
this pattern may have come about. This is the ideal goal. It is very rarely
if ever accomplished fully, but that does not prevent it from giving an aim
to taxonomic investigations. So far are we from a full and final understanding
of the flowering plants, which are estimated to consist of some quarter of
a million species, that no systematist can hope to be proficient with any
very large portion of them. Natural diversity is truly overwhelming.
classical method of studying plants was to describe their external features
so that they could be identified precisely and rapidly for chiefly medical
purposes. The early history of Medicine and of Botany is quite in-separable.
The first botanists were physicians, the physicians had of necessity to be
botanists. The techniques of description and accurate illustration improved
over the years, and ease of identification improved with them.
of the features that accompanied an interest in medical botany was the development
of herb gardens, so that pharmaceuticals could readily be supplied and particularly
so students could be trained in the recognition of important. drug plants.
But in most countries one can neither spend the whole year in the field nor
can he expect to grow all his materials year-roundd. Since plant structure
can he studied in preserved material, and drying is the most feasible and
economical way of preserving most plants, ever since the middle of the 16th
Century, collections of dried plant specimens or herbaria have been created
and built up. More and more, these collections are coming to contain the sole
representation of many species or at least the only tangible record of their
previous distribution. Thus, there is a tremendous amount of material and
incipient information stored in the world's herbaria. This diversity merits
1940 the so-called New Systematics," "Experimental Taxonomy'', or "BM-systematics"
began to come to the fore, with its emphasis on the cytological features associated
with reproduction and the behavior of plants when artificially crossed. It
was suggested that the associated new methodology would make plant classification
truly "scientific" for the first time and eliminate, or at least materially
reduce, the element of subjective judgment that is unquestionably a major
constituent of all classifications to date, If the results have not lived
up to the early claims, there can be no doubt that new stocks of evidence
have been provided which hear upon problems of plant interrelationship, and
that the basis of systematics has thereby broadened. The newest wrinkles in
classificatory biology are the procurement of biochemical data and their application
to problems of relationship, evidence from electron microscopy and the handling
of all data by mechanical means. Thus, diversity of approach has added greatly
to the useful information available to taxonomists in the solution of their
he is charged with responsibility for nomenclature, the systematist must be
something of an historian of science, as well. The first American plants studied
seriously were obtained by expeditions sent out by all the principal European
countries during the 15th to 19th centuries. The published results of these
land and ocean voyages and the preserved materials of their collections are
the basis for our knowledge of the floras of most parts of the world. The
exact course taken by each plant collector assumes importance as a possible
clue to the identity of materials described from his collections. So the systematist
becomes a geographer, a student of travels, a fancier of place names, and
a collector of old maps and defunct, railroad time-tables.
will think that a phase of biology concerned with the dieer;sity of organisms
rather than primarily with their common chemistry and physics is at least
as much an art as it is a science. To me, this is one of the great assets
of systematic biology. The systematist must be, to some extent, a student
of morphology, anatomy, cytology, genetics, ecology, and biochemistry. He
must work and observe in the field, the garden, and the laboratory, but he
must continue part of his investigations also in the herbarium, the map room,
and the library. He must be something of an historian, a bibliographer, and
even a connoisseur of illustration. He must be as versatile in his knowledge
and approaches as fits the astounding diversity of his subject. Indeed, taxonomists
have been stated to be "the most humanistic of scientists" and they can perform
a vital role in making science comprohensible and palatable, and perhaps in
some measure help to close the gap of suspicion, fear, and misunderstanding
wt.ich has come increasingly to separate science from the social sciences
and humanities, and from the general public.
last type of diversity that is of concern to all biologists is the existing
variety of the living world of organisms and its tragically accelerating decimation.
More and more kinds of animals and plants (although the latter are frequently
overlooked) are not, only becoming endangered but are actually perisheng.
It is an encouraging phenomenon of our era tha the youth, especially, have
suddenly hit upon "Ecology" - whatever they may mean by it - as an attractive
cause for their characteristically ambivalent crusades. Let up hope that their
energetic influence will help to counter the forces of destruction that are
so rapidly wiping out so many kinds of life, thus reducing the diversity I
have been commending so highly! For as we were reminded by one of the speakers
at the plenary session, "Variety is the spice of life".
in Plant Science'
H. Abelson Editor, Science
Association for the
major determinant of the quality of future civilization will he the wisdom
and effectiveness with which man deals with renewable resources and with the
natural environment. Central to good management of these matters is first-class
competence in the plant sciences. Recently there has been much talk about
ecology and the environment, but there has been no corresponding acceleration
in the undergirding fundamental science.
one time botany and zoology were roughly coequal in biology at universities,
The emergence of large federal support for medically oriented research changed
that relationship. Some aspects of botany, such as growth, were supported
moderately by the National Institutes of
as was photobiology, including photosynthesis. Other aspects , such as ecology,
were not encouraged. Thus, botany came to be overshadowed in some universities
and lost identity and stature.
financial strains of the past few years have been felt rather keenly by plant
biologists. The NIH and the Atomic Energy Commision have found it necessary
to diminish their support. The National Science Foundation has begun to increase
its funding for botany, but the level is still quite low.
are almost. unanimous in their disappointment that the Agricultural Research
Service (ARS) has not chosen to institute a grant system comparable to that
of NIH. Although academic botanists concede that agricultural research has
been cost effective, they feel that ARS has not given sufficient support to
work of a truly fundamental nature.
an improved intellectual climate and a moderate increase in funds, the plant
sciences would flourish. There are substantial matters, both applied and fundamental,
to address. The practical challenges facing plant biology include applications
in temperate and tropical agriculture and in management of fields and forests.
We have developed extraordinarily productive farm crops, but monoculture and
the use of limited strains of plants makes the food supply vulnerable to plant
enemies such as the southern corn leaf blight. Most of our agricultural research
has been devoted to plants of the temperate zone, and the knowledge acquired
is not readily adaptable to tropical conditions. Success to date of the "green
revolution" indicates what might be accomplished.
superb group of tools and techniques developed for use in animal biochemistry
can be employed effectively in the study of plants. As one example, the use
of amino acid analyzers has been crucial in the selection of maize mutants
possessing a high lysine content and correspondingly high nutritive value.
Recently, it has become clear that plants are involved in a complex chemical
warfare with pests and with each other (Science, 26 February 1971). Greater
knowledge of the biochemistry of plants will add an important new dimension
to comprehension of ecological relationships. The use of atomic absorption
equipment can enlighten us on requirements and utilization of limiting trace
elements. One of the developments that seems particularly useful is the creation
of mobile laboratories, which enable investigators to study the behavior of
plants under a wide range of natural conditions. Thus, the performance of'
a twig or leaf' can be measured under contolled conditions while still attached
to a plant.
opportunities in many aspects of botany await the energetic and imaginative
investigator. Modest in-creases in support for fundamental research in the
plant sciences would bring beneficial returns of disproportionately large
are received now, regularly, from the American Society of Agronomy and from
the American Horticultural Society, Inc. In turn, copies of the PLANT SCIENCE
BULLETIN are sent to the publication officers of these societies in order
that they may copy any announcements or other similar kinds of information
by permission from Science, 172:1195, 18 June, 1971. Copyright 1971 by the
American Association for the Advancement of Science.
be of interest to their membership. These steps have been taken to foster
a larger spirit of cooperation between the various plant sciences, and to
allow the botanists of various persuasions to read about what their colleagues
are doing in the various `distant' branches of the science. In addition to
the agronomists and horticulturists. other plant science societies will be
contacted in the future.
our own family societies closely related to the Botanical Society, such as
the Phycological Society of America, the American Fern Society, and others
are encouraged to send to the Editor information that they believe to be of
general interest to all botanists. Some societies are more aware of their
responsibilities and opportunities in this regard that are others. All plant
science groups are encouraged to make the BULLETIN one of their chief' means
of publication of information for plant scientists.
New Service by the Plant Science Bulletin
is no reason to believe that the current academic and scientific market place
has been any kinder to botanists than it has to other scientists who are searching
for positions these days. The Council of the Botanical Society recognized
this state-of-affairs at their recent annual meeting at Edmonton, and considerable
discussion was held about what the Society should be doing to help our colleagues.
There is special concern for the newly graduated Ph.I).'s in botany. A motion
was made and passed that now makes it possible for departments and institutions
to list openings for botanists in the Plant Science Bulletin free of charge.
precedent exists for this kind of service by the BULLETIN. It would seem appropriate
that announcements comparable to those appearing in other professional journals
would be published in the BULLETIN. Department chairmen, principal investigators,
deans and other personnel officers who are interested in listing professional
opportunities are invited to send the information to the Editor who will then
place the announcements in the next issue of the BULLETIN. We would anticipate
publishing not only openings for faculty, but also post-doctoral positions,
full-time research associateships and assistantships, technical positions,
and other similar kinds of professional employment suitable for newly trained
persons in the plant sciences.
Directory of Fusarium Research Workers
International Executive Committee of Fusarium Research Workers established
under the chairmanship of Professor J. Colhoun, University of Manchester has
been compiling a world directory of Fusarium research workers. An initial
call elicited about 50 replies. Since the directory is in the final stage
of preparation, we urge all persons engaged in Fusarium research, who wish
to have their names included, to send the following details to Dr. T. A. Toussoun,
Fusarium Research Center, Dept. of' Plant Pathology, The Pennsylvania State
Park, Pa. 16802. 1) Name; 2) Address of Institution where working; :3) Specific
interests in Fusarium 4) Number of years actively engaged in Fusarium research.
on Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture
Tissue Culture Association offered an advance course on PLANT CELL, TISSUE
AND ORGAN CULTURE at the new W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center at Lake Placid,
N. Y., from July 12 to August 6, 1971, under the direction of Indra K. Vasil
of the University of Florida. This was the first course of this kind offered
in the United States and was enthusiastically received by participants from
Canada, Denmark, Israel, and the United States, with training and background
in biochemistry, horticulture, microbiology, pharmacognosy, and plant physiology.
The following taught parts of the course: Donald K. Dougall (W. Alton Jones
Cell Science Center), J. Eugene Fox (University of Kansas), William A. Jensen
(University of California. Berkeley), Joseph P. Mascarenhas (SUNY at Albany),
Donald J. Merchant (W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center), Ray A. Miller (Prairie
Regional Laboratory. Saskatoon), Toshio Murashige (University of California,
Riverside), E. John Staba (University of Minnesota), Ian M. Sussex (Yale University),
Indra K. Vasil (University of Florida), and Vimla Vasil (University of Florida).
Extensive lecture-discussion and laboratory sessions were held on such topics
as past, present and future of plant tissue culture: theory and practice of
aseptic techniques; physiology and cytology of plant t issue cultures; criteria
for evaluation of growth in tissue cultures; morphogenesis in plants; role
of plant growth substances in growth and development; nutrition of plant tissue
cultures; morphogenesis and embr,yogenesis in vitro; culture of shoot apex,
root, nucellus, ovary, ovule, embryo, anther and pollen grains; plating, suspension
and mass culture techniques: nurse tissue and single cell culture: plant protoplast
culture; histological and histochemical techniques; plant tumors; metabolism
and enzymes in plant tissue cultures; secondary plant products in tissue cultures;
development, structure and function of plastids in tissue cultures; and effect
of visible and invisible radiation on plant tissue cultures.
broad-based four-week courses for general background and training in plant
tissue culture, as well as short-term courses on topics of' special interest
and application are planned for future. Topics and dates of new courses will
be announced in these columns later.
to Graduate Study In Botany
third edition of the Guide to Graduate Study in Botany, published by the Botanical
Society of America, has been compiled. It includes information on the degrees
offered, nutnber of graduate students, fields of specialization, and detailed
information about the individual faculty members for 106 departments in the
United States and 19 in Canada where one can earn a Ph.D. in plant sciences.
edition should be available in late September or early October, 1971. It can
be obtained for 83.00 from Dr. Barbara F. Palser, Secretary, Department of
Botany, University Heights, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N. J. 0890:3.
Checks should be made payable to the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
Summary of the Edmonton Meeting
Society owes a special word of congratulations to Drs. Wilson Stewart, University
of Alberta, who was General Chairman, and Sam Postlethwait, Purdue, who was
Co-Chairman of the recent joint meeting of the Canadian Botanical Association
and the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Everyone with whom we talked
was of the opinion that the Edmonton congress was among the best planned and
best administered of our recent annual meetings. The total number of registrants
exceeded 1,000. One botanist was overheard to say, "We should always have
either the Canadians or the English organize our annual conferences; they
do a great job of it!"
Alberta is a city of over 400,000 with many new buildings and every appearance
of recent, rapid expansion. The meetings were held on the attractive campus
of the University of Alberta which presently enrolls over 17,300 students,
with about 20`1 of these pursuing graduate studies. The CBAIAIBS headquarters
and general meeting area were in the Lister Hall complex of high-rise dormitories.
The small exhibits display and some of the demonstrations were located in
the new Biological Sciences Center that houses the departments of botany,
genetics, microbiology, psychology, and zoology. This 829,000,000 facility
was one of the finest we have seen on any campus. Among its special features
are numerous Controlled Environment Facilities that include Trop-Arctic greenhouses
and growth chambers. Six sections of the rooftop greenhouse are designed to
reproduce environmental situations from the tropics to the high arc-tic. The
greenhouses are designed with a double glass shell, with hot air forced between
the layers to keep snow and ice off the outside glass and eliminate condensation
opening plenary session was planned around the theme "Our Northern Plants:
Their Importance in the World's Resources." Those who attended were pleasantly
surprised to hear excellent presentations at a plenary session.
paper sessions were conducted by the American Bryological and Lichenological
Society, American Fern Society, American Society of Plant Taxonomists, Canadian
Botanical Association, Canadian Phytopathological Society, Mycological Society
of America, and the Phycological Society of America. The American Fern Society
sponsored an excellent symposium on "Evolution and Classification of the American
Tree Ferns", chaired by Dr. Rolla Tryon. Jr. A symposium on "Plant Species
Disjunctions—The Study of Disjunctions" was co-sponsored by the American
Fern Society. American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the Pteridological and
Systematic Sections of the Botanical Society. The morning and afternoon sessions
were chaired by Dr. Roy Taylor and Dr. James Soper, respectively.
Botanical Society and the Canadian Botanical Association co-sponsored symposia
on "White Spruce—the Ecology of a Northern Resource" with I)r. R. G.
McMinn presiding, and "History of Botanical Interest in the Polar North",
chaired by R. D. Rudolph, and "Aspects of Northern Botany." The Phytochetnical
Section of' the Botanical Society presented symposia on "Techniques in Enzymology"
and "Techniques in Localization of Plant Constituents", chaired by Dr. Jerry
McClure and by Dr. Richard Mansell, respectively. The Developmental and Physiological
Sections held symposia
"Flowering", with Dr. Jan A. D. Zeevaart presiding; "Physiology of Meristems",
with Dr. Graeme Berlyn, chairman; and "Fern Gametophyte Morphogenesis".
Phycological Section co-sponsored with the Phycological Society of America
a symposium on "Northern Algae", chaired by Dr. H. C. Bold. The General and
Teaching sections of the Canadian Botanical Associations and Botanical Society,
together with the AIBS Office of Biological Education presented a symposium
on "Botany in the Undergraduate Curriculum", with Dr. W. G. Barker, presiding,
while the Microbiological and Mycological Sections with the Mycological Society
of America co-sponsored a symposim on "Analysis on Development in Fungi",
chaired by Dr. Melvin S. Fuller. The Canadian Phytopathological Society conducted
a symposium on "The Role of Plant Pathologists in Pollution Abatement", chaired
by Dr. L. V. Edgington.
contributed paper sessions were ample and generally well-attended. Most speakers
were apparently able to conjure up travel funds despite the general con-traction
in budgets, but there were "no-shows" in several sections. Abstracts were
published in the June number of the American Journal of Botany.
Social events were also strongly supported. The City of Edmonton sponsored
an All-Society social evening called "Klondike Days", featuring special acts,
singing, music, dancing, and even can-can girls. Our domestic AIBS meetings
were never like this! Another high point in the social whirl was the Banquet
for All Botanists, with Banquet "mistress" Dr. Janet Stein presiding. She
is currently president of the Canadian Botanical Association—L'Association
Botanique du Canada. On official, formal occasions in Canada both English
and French are spoken, and Dr. Stein was required to deliver her official
statements in both languages. Although her English was flawless, her French
was ‘lawful', and she may inadvertently have set back English-French
relations in the Commonwealth! Actually it may have been due to too much sparkling
Alberta wine that was served with the banquet! Our retiring President, Dr.
Lincoln Constance, gave a brief but lucid and appropriate address to the crowded
banquet room to conclude this most memorable social occasion.
the Edmonton meeting can be used as an indication of what future American-Canadian
Botanical meetings would be like, then I am sure many of us would vote for
more of the same. There are numerous advantages to be gained in these interdisciplinary
meetings of botanists, over the large, hetergeneous, typical ALBS meeting,
and hopefully we shall be scheduling others in the years to come.—Ed.
is a time in history when horticulture can help change the course of the (polluted)
is the message implicit in the Spring Edition of The American Horticultural
Magazine published by the American Horticultural Society and edited by Dr.
Frederick G. Meyer of the U. S. National Arboretum staff in Washington, D.
foreword, and a half-dozen authoritative articles set forth in reasoned terms
the harsh effects of pollutants on some plants, and, conversely, the important
part that plants play in alleviating the had effects of pollution upon the
knowledgeable use of plants can help cleanse the polluted air, screen unsightly
areas, contribute to high-way safety, deflect unpleasant loud noises, bring
back worn-out land, save our vanishing wild-flowers, beautify the concrete
and steel landscape of the cities.
latest edition of the AHS' quarterly magazine, is not a how-to-do-it manual,
for that would require a veritable encyclopedia. It is an accurate and non-hysterical
summary of the problems of environmental horticulture written for gardners
and the professionals and industries who serve them. The keynote is one of
optimism for horticulture can, indeed, help to change the course of' the polluted
of the Magazine are available for the small price of $2.2i5 from The American
Horticultural Society, 901 North Washington Street, Suite 704. Alexandria,
Union of Biological Sciences
XVII General Assembly of IUBS met in Washington, D. C. on October 4-6, 1970.
A summary of their botanically relevant actions and points of general information
are presented below.
Donald S. Farner (USA) re-elected
Presidents: Ivan Malek (Czechoslovakia), re-elected
Knut Faegri (Norway) Treasurer: Karl Egle (Germany), re-elected Sections:
Zolyomi (Hungary), re-elected
E. Gibbons (Canada)
Analytical Biology-A. Monroe (Italy), re-elected
Biology-L. C. Birch (Australia) F. di Castri (Chile)
General Assembly recommends the establishment of international committees
to develop proper supra-national laws, which can be accepted by the national
governments concerned. It further recommends that the appropriate department
of the United Nations be consulted in this matter.
"Considering that in many cases insufficient knowledge exists to manage our
environment, the General Assembly of IUBS recommends that the national governments
encourage and finance inter-national coordinated integrated research."
Warfare. The Assembly adopted the following resolution on this subject:
of worldwide effort to abolish research on biological warfare the International
Union of Biological Sciences in its XVII General Assembly
the recommendations of the Division of Microbiology for abolishing the production
and use of biological agents for purposes inimical to human welfare, and
its adhering organizations to press for the transfer of the facilities and
information, that will become available by the reorientation of activities
in this field, to the intensified pursuit of human welfare as exemplified
in the attached documents."
Expenses to Congresses. The General Assembly resolved: "That this Assembly
expresses its concern at the growing tendency for attendance with expenses
at Congresses to be made available only to those wishing to read papers at
the scientific meetings, and instructs 1UBS to make representations to member
countries so that in future support is not dependent on the delivery of a
Control. "The Assembly approved the report calling for a new International
Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants and resolved
to endorse the report and recommendations of the meeting on biological control
convened by the Secretary-General of IUBS in Amsterdam in November 1969. The
IUBS Ad Hoc Committee on this subject was instructed to actively support recruitment
of members and to assist in plans for the OII.B (Organisation Internationale
de Lutte Biologique contre les animaux et les plants nuisibles) General Assembly
in April 1971."
Sections and Commissions. Within the new structure (five divisions) the following
new sections were approved:
on Ethological Conferences
Group on Systematic and Evolutionary Biology Congresses
Meetings of Interest.
International-Congress of Plant Pathology, 915-12, Minneapolis 1973
XIII International Congress of Cell Biology, July, Sussex, UK, 1972
International Photobiology Congress, 8112-25, Bochum, Germany, 1972
Congress of Developmental Biology, Montreal, 1973
International Conference on the Global Impacts of Applied Microbiology, Brazil,
International Congress of Plant Protection, Sept., Moscow, 1975
International Horticultural Congress, Poland, 1974
International Congress of Radiation Research, Seattle, 1974
General Assembly of IUBS, Dubrovnik, 1973
International Mycological Congress, 917-16, Exeter, UK, 1971
International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 5/17-21, Ann
International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology, 811.1-11, Boulder,
International Congress in Mushroom Sciences, 9/7-15, London, 1971
International Congress of Biochemistry, -July, Stockholm, 1973
International Congress of Plant Physiology, Innsbruck, 1972
General Assembly of ICSU, September, Helsinki, 1972
Pacific Science Congress, 8118-913, Canberra, 1971 UN Conference on Human
Environment. Stockholm, 1972
General Assembly of IBP, Seattle, 1972
desiring additional information on the IUBS can direct their questions to
the National Research Council through the BSA representative: Dr. Donald E.
Stone, Department of Botany, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27706.
1892 - 1971
are looking well" was my greeting upon seeing Ralph Cleland at a recent meeting.
Ln answer Cleland replied, "There are, you know, three ages of man: youth,
middle age, and 'You are looking well.' " Indeed he was looking well and remained
as spirited and as active in scientific and civic affairs as ever until .June
11, 1971, when still at work in his office-laboratory at Indiana University
he suddenly died.
Erskine Cleland was born at Le Claire, Iowa, on October 20, 1892. He was married
in 1927 to Elizabeth P. Shoyer, who survives him at the family home in Bloomington,
Indiana. The Clelands had three sons, all now members of university science
faculties: W. Wallace, a biochemist at the University of Wisconsin; Robert
E., a botanist at the University of Washington; and Charles F., a botanist
at Harvard University.
Cleland's junior year at the University of Pennsylvania, until then as a classics
major, a friend suggested that he take a course in botany. The die apparently
was cast at that moment, for Ralph Cleland continued, after an A.B. in 1915,
to earn an M.S. in 1916 and a Ph.D., in 1919, both in botany. Reprints of
his Ph.D. thesis on the red alga, Nemalion, were lost at sea, but he returned
to the United States after World War I service in Italy and was appointed
an instructor at Goucher College in Baltimore, where he rose in the academic
ranks to professor and departmental chairman, until his acceptance of the
botany chairmanship at Indiana University in 1938. As soon as he had gotten
settled at Goucher, he began his cytological studies with Oenothera and soon
discovered the chromosomal basis for the unusual genetic behavior of many
of the species of this genus. Others had observed atypical association of
the chromosomes in Oenothero, but Cleland was the first to point out that
these "irregularities" were of regular occurrence and that each species or
race was essentially consistent in the number and size of chromosomal groupings
at meiosis. Dining the 1920's he continued to subject every species and collection
he could obtain of this cytologically difficult genus to his meticulous checking
of its meiotic chromosomal arrangements. Concurrently, John Belling, working
with Datum, formulated an hypothesis that. the chromosome rings of four in
hybrids of Datum were the consequence of interchanges between nonhomologous
chromosomes. It occurred to Cleland and others that Belling's hypothesis might
also serve to explain the rings of Oenothera chromosomes, even though many
of these included all fourteen of the chromosomes. In discussions with the
late A. F. Blakeslee, an associate of Belling's,
came to realize the possibility for using data he had already accumulated
in obtaining a logical answer to the mechanisms that might account for these
multiple associations. Accordingly, he and Blakeslee, as recorded in their
Cytologia paper of 1931, set up an analytical procedure for assigning numbers
to the chromosome ends of the many species that Cleland had used in his hybridization
experiments of the past decade. This method, adopted by Cleland, his students,
and his fellow researchers in other countries led to a some thirty-year program
through which chromosomes of the major species of Oenotltera have come to
have labels assigned to them, labels that have been used most effectively
by Cleland and his students in working out the probable evolutionary pathways
in the speciation of this remarkable genus.
addition to his being Professor of Botany and Head of the Department of Botany
at Indiana University from 1938 to 1958, Cleland was Dean of the Graduate
School from 1952 to 1958 and was honored with appointment as a Distinguished
Service Professor from 1958 until his official retirement in 1963. Since 1963
he has been Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus. From 1940 until 1946
Ralph Cleland was Editor-in-Chief of the American Journal of Botany. During
his long career he received many honors and was elected to high positions
in many professional societies in recognition not only of his distinguished
research record but also of his capacity for highly responsible acceptance
of obligations to his colleagues. Among these honors and positions were the
following: Guggenheim traveling fellowship (1927-28), presidencies of the
Botanical Society of America (1947), the Genetics Society of America (1956),
the American Society of Naturalists (1912). He was a member of the National
Academy of' Science, Fellow of the American Academy. first chairman of' the
American Ltstitute of Biological Sciences (1948-49), vice-president of the
Inter-national Union of Biological Sciences (1953-58), vice-president of the
American Philosophical Society (1965-68), Corresponding Member of the Deutsche
Botanische Gesellschaft, honorary Foreign Member of the Genetics Society of
.Japan, Honorary Life Member of the Botanical Society of Korea. Iie was awarded
an honorary Set). (1958) from the University of Pennsylvania and an honorary
L.L.D. (1957) from Hanover College. He was a member of both the Society of'
Sigma Xi and of Phi Beta Kappa and served actively in the affairs of' his
Cleland's early background in the classics con-
tributed deeply and importantly throughout his life. Ile
was devoted to good music and was himself a competent
pianist. His knowledge of Greek served as a link in his
friendship with the late Otto Renner with whom he
worked during his Guggenheim in 1927-28. Protocol in
Germany at that time required that a visiting scientist
pay his initial visits to the leading professor of the field
concerned, and at that time it was Otto Renner. Not
knowing this, Cleland spent his first weeks at another
German laboratory and then heard that Remrer took this
as a slight. In an attempt to make amends, Cleland called
upon Renner at his home, was asked by a maid who an-
swered the door to be seated in a waiting room while she
announced his arrival to Professor Renner. Cleland
picked up an attractive volume on a table nearby and
began reacting it when Renner arrived. It was a book itr
the Greek language, and reading the classics in their
original language was Renner's avocation. Discovering
this community of' interests, Renner's pique dissolved and
a long-lasting friendship and collaboration was the result.
Hui-Lin Li, professor of botany at the University of Pennsylvania, has been
named acting director of the University's Morris Arboretum in Chestnut Hill.
He succeeds Dr. A. Orville Dahl, who resigned.
Li has been associated with the Arboretum since joining the University faculty
in 1954 when he became taxonomist. He has been curator cif the University's
her-barium since 1966.
Loeblich, 1II, has taken an Assistant Professor-ship with the Biological Laboratories
at Harvard University. Dr. Loeblich is a graduate of' Scripps Institution
of' Oceanography, specializing in marine phytoplankton.
H. W., Genetics of the Potato (Solanum tuherosum). Springer-Verlag New York,
Inc., 1970. ix, 126 pp. 56 illus., $8.60.
this little book Howard has given a very concise ac-count of the genetics
of the potato. Earlier more extensive accounts of the genetics of the potato
and related species, two of which were authored or co-authored by Howard,
have appeared in Bibliographica Genetica. The present account is limited almost
entirely to Solanum tuberosum. The book opens with a brief treatment of the
taxonomy of Solanum. and the history of the potato. This is followed by chapters
on cytology, fertility and sterility problems, anthocyanin pigmentation, morphological
characters (these two chapters, as might be expected, place the emphasis upon
the tubers), physiological characters, disease and pest resistance, dihaploids,
and chimeras. The book concludes with a short treatment of potato breeding.
There are separate indices for authors, gene symbols, species, and varieties
as well as a subject index.
potato is a tetraploid species and has relatively small chromosomes so that,
as Howard points out, it is not an ideal plant for genetic studies. Whether
the potato is a autotraploid or allotetraploid still has not been definitely
established, but the evidence seems to point to it being a segmental allopolyploid
between two very closely related species. Perhaps of the greatest general
interest is the occurrence of dihaploids in potatoes. These have proved to
be of considerable genetic importance but as yet they have been of little
significance in potato breeding. Howard doubts that they will have great value
for producing new varieties in the future.
book will serve as a useful reference work as well as being essential for
research workers engaged in studies of the potato. The cover jacket states
that it will be useful to botanists and plant breeders in a more general context,
but I feel that the material is so specialized that it will be of rather limited
interest. Few people perhaps would be willing to put out $8.60 for a book
of 126 pages. This price seems a little inflated even in these times.
B. Heiser, Jr. TAYLOR, THOMAS M. C. Pacific Northwest h'erns and
.Allies. University of Toronto Press, Toronto
Buffalo, 1970. 2,17 pp. $15.00.
"Northwest" of' this hook comprises Oregon, Washington, British Columbia,
the Yukon Territory, and Alaska. Ninety-seven species of plants are described,
this being about one-fourth of' the species of pteridophytes in North America
north of' Mexico.
are keys to families, genera, and species. Each species is covered by a short,
but adequate, description, line drawing, distributional map, and comments
on habitat, range, and other aspects of its occurrence in the area. Synonymy
is kept to a bare munimum, but it seems adequate for general use. The arrangement
of families, genera and species is strictly alphabetical, thus Isoetaceae
follows Equisetaceae at the front of the book, and the related Selaginellaceae
is at the end, following Salviniaceae. Included are a list of chromosome numbers,
a list of species arranged according to distributional pat-tern; a glossary,
and an index.
author has relied heavily on the most recent monographs, but has obviously
exercised his own critical judgment, based upon many years of experience.
The drawings by Katherine Jones are simple, but accurately and clearly executed,
with emphasis placed upon those characteristics most useful in identification.
are now two excellent treatments of the pteridophytes of the Northwest, the
other being found in volume I of Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest
by Hitchcock, Cronquist, Ownbey, and Thompson. Dr. Taylor's book has the advantage
of being small enough to carry in the field. It will undoubtedly prove useful
to both professional botanist and amateur for many years to come.
University of Toronto Press has lived up to its usual high standards of design
and production. Printing errors are remarkable few, although one, the dropping
of the "e" at the end of Ophioglossaceae, is repeated on several pages.
ROBERT F. A Handbook of Alkaloids and Alkaloid-Containing Plants. Wiley Inter-Science,
N.Y. 1970. 1256 pp. 550.00.
compendium represents a monumental effort on the part of the author. The main
body of the volume consists of' a set of tables, arranged in alphabetical
order of plant families, which list the name of the alkaloid, the genus or
genera in which it is found, and, where known, the molecular formula, molecular
weight, melting point, optical rotation, and a single reference. This reference
is to standard works covering alkaloids if isolation and description are well
documented.Otherwise the citation is a recent review or the latest reference.
The author purports to have covered the alkaloid literature through mid-1968.
While there are several omissions of which I am aware, and probably others
of which I am unaware, this is a rather trivial criticism considering that
some 1,0(11) alkaloid names are covered in the Handbook.
main body of information is followed by a series of cross indices which permit
entry to the main set of tables. These included molecular weight index. The
structure tables, which are arranged alphabetically according to family will
be of special interest to those interested in chemotaxonomy and biosynthesis.
major drawback of this excellent volume is the absence of specific epithets
and author citations. The investigator who wants to know whether a particular
species has been examined for alkaloids will be forced to check each reference
for the genus. Those who may wish to use this hook for chemotaxonomic purposes
will likewise have to resort to the literature cited in order to determine
which species as well as how many species of a given genus contain the various
spite of this, the volume belongs in the library of all those who are interested
in the chemistry and biology of alkaloids and plants which contain them.
C. Paul FAHN, ABRAHAM. Plant Anatomy. Pergamon Press. Oxford, London, New
York, etc. 1967. 534 pages. $11.50.
is not an overproduction of different textbooks in plant anatomy in the English
language. One calls to mind those by Esau, Eames and MacDaniels, Carlquist,
and Foster. Only those by Esau and Carlquist have been completed within the
past decade; only those by Esau survey the entire field. Each of the above
works in its own way is unique and contributory to the teaching of the subject
in colleges and universities. The addition of a further, recently produced
text by Abraham Fahn is welcome, because in its own way, it too is special.
Pergamon Press revised edition is based upon a capable translation by Sybil
Broido-Altman of' the 1962 Hebrew language version, "Anatomya shel Hatsemach,"
published in Israel by Hakkibutz Hameuhad Publishing House Ltd. Professor
I"ahn's book is an adequate and well-balanced survey of the usual topics contained
in text-books of plant anatomy. That is, it covers the various tissue systems
authoritatively, describes the structure of the component parts and derives
them ontogenetically. Each chapter is documented with a competent bibliography
of works cited. A glossary of terms completes the volume.
Abraham Fahn has expended considerable research effort on the structure and
ontogeny of tissues of plants growing in arid lands, a subject of' considerable
interest to agriculturists, botanists, conservationists, and ecologists involved
in arid land use, the several sections of his hook which deal with the anatomical
modifications of xerophytes are particularly well done and pertinent. Thus,
we find parts on, "Structural changes of epidermis and mesophyll in leaves
of xerophytes," "Adaptations of roots to xeric conditions," and "Adaptations
of' the stem to desert and saline habitats."
discussions of nectaries and other secretory tissues in the Fahn book are
outstanding and are based in large part on his original research. Professor
Fahn devotes considerable attention to phylogeny as related to anatomical
structure, a subject which is not adequately portrayed in most books on plant
anatomy, despite its high biological interest and importance. Plant Anatomy
contains several sections which emphasize the practical aspects of plant anatomy.
Thus we find portions on the commercial importance of' fibers and cork and
discussions of the physical and mechanical properties of wood—weight,
strength, durability, grain, figure, defects—as related to anatomical
structure. Professor Fahn also develops the nomenclature and classification
of wood anatomy, subjects hardly treated in other general texts in plant anatomy.
single had feature of Professor Fahn's book are the incredibly poor halftone
reproductions. In contrast to these, the line drawings are well-executed and
reproduced, and are a distinct aid and support to the textual material.
Fahn's text is well-adapted to a one-semester course in plant anatomy, containing
more detail and exploring more subjects than Professor Esau's Anatomy of Seed
Plants without being as encyclopedic and over-documented for teaching purposes
as her Plant Anatomy. Were it not for the inadequate halftone reproductions,
Professor Fahn's book would doubtlessly be more widely used than it is presently.
Considering the abundance of desirable and unique features, one would hope
that he and the publishers would see fit to redo the poor illustrations. Some
real competition in the textbook world of plant anatomy would doubtlessly
prove healthy, both for students and teachers.
L. Stern and Robert E. Phipps
ALBERT L. Biochemistry: The Molecular Basis of Cell Structure and Function.
Worth Publishers, Inc., N.Y. 1970. 792 pp. $16.75
subtitle of this book, The Molecular Basis of Cell Structure and Function,
is an accurate statement of the content. The author has attempted to survey
the molecular basis of cell structure and function at the level of a terminal
course in general biochemistry for undergraduates, graduates, or medical students.
book is divided into four major sections: 1) the molecular components of cells,
2) catabolism and the generation of phosphate-bond energy, 3) biosynthesis
and the utilization of phosphate-bond energy, and 1) replication, transcription,
and translation of genetic information. These topics are covered in thirty-four
chapters. The author challenges the reader with problems at the end of most
chapters and provides answers in an appendix. Annotated references are given
at the end of each chapter. Students can make profitable use of the summary
which accompanies each chapter.
found that the author's style of writing provided easy comprehension of the
essential facts. A generous amount of space is devoted to drawings, graphs,
tables and pictures of space filling molecular models and electron micrographs.
An innovative approach is the discussion of the properties of water in the
second chapter. The introduction of important topics from physical biochemistry
continues throughout the text. As the biochemical topics relating to cell
structure and function are encountered, relevant discussions of molecular
biology are presented. The balanced inclusion of physical and biological discussions
yields a very satisfying description of biochemistry.
and practicing scientists seeking an up-to-date review of biochemistry will
be well rewarded by reading this text.
CHARLES B. JR. Nightshades—The Paradoxical Plants. W. H. Freeman and
Co., San Frattsisco. 1969. 200 pages. $5.95.
small volume consists of trine chapters devoted to ac-counts of selected members
of the fancily Solanaceae which are noteworthy as economic plants. Included
are discussions of the food plants, potato, pepper, and tont;to, the poisonous
and medicinal plants, nightshade, henbane, and Jimpson week and few of the
more popular ornamentals such as Petunia and Schi_anthu.s. Tobacco is the
subject of one chapter and another tells of the cont•oversy which developed
over the ..wonderberry' a Solantun developed by Luther Burbank and promoted
as a new and original horticultural creation.
author has interwoven folklore, history, and scientific data with a sprinkling
of wit into interesting and highly readable accounts of those representatives
of the nightshade family of particular use to man. The titles of the chapters
are intriguing and serve to stimulate the curiosity of the reader. The successive
treatment of a series of economic species may often be dull and monotonous
when the pattern oi' presentation is not varied; the author has avoided this
pitfall with skill. Each chapter represents a fresh and original approach
to the considerable amount of factual information that has been brought together
about a particular group of species.
accuracy of the information appears to have been carefully checked and evaluated,
although no attempt has been made to document sources in a formal and consistent
manner. Various authors are mentioned in the text, but only selected references
are listed according to chapter at the end of the volume. While the book is
inten- (tended for the layman, more citations and a detailed bibliography
would not have made it less attractive or interesting to the lay reader, and
would have increased its usefulness to the student. and professional botanist.
Many of the "stories" cleating with various aspects of economic plants seem
to be handed down from one generation of writers to the next without adequate
documentation. This, along with the semi-popular nature of much of the writing
often makes it difficult for the student to evaluate the authenticity of the
lore of economic species.
chapter on the wonderberry is useful in calling attention to the misconceptions
about Luther Burbank that persist among the general public; it gives insight
into the controversy that arose regarding the nature of Burbank's contributions.
book will be especially useful to classes in economic, humanistic, and applied
botany. Its compact format and lively style should attract student and professional
as well as the interest layman.
O. V. S. The Physiological Aspects of Photosynthesis. Stanford University
Press, Stanford, California, 1969. 310 pages. $8.50.
chapter titles suggest the scope of this volume: chloroplasts and the pigments;
the diffusion paths; methods of investigation; interaction of factors; respiration
in light and related topics; water supply and leaf water content; light, temperature
and compensation points; chlorophyll content and light (light absorption);
light quality and duration; stages in photosynthesis postulated from physiological
investigations; physiology in future work. This volume is the only one of
its kind known to me and should prove a. valuable aid to both the teaching
and the research plant physiologist, and even to the specialist in photosynthetic
research. The author has wisely curtailed consideration of the biochemical
and physical aspects of the subject which have been and continue to be adequately
covered in recent books and reviews, in favor of the over-all process as it
occurs in cico, stressing experimental evidence obtained using leaves of higher
plants. The chapter on methods of investigation is quite complete and will
give the student an in-depth appreciation for the significance of experimental
findings which can only come from realizing how the experiment is done.
HANS (editor). Index Holmensis. A World Phytogeographic Index. I. Equisetales
- Gymnospermae. Compiled by Marit Mandersson, Aina Scotland, Sigvard Olsson,
and Jozef Weytko. Scientific Publishers, Ltd., Zurich. 1970, 264 pp.
to the careful and prodigious labors of Dr. Tralau and his associates, with
the cooperation and ad-vice of Professor Hulten himself', we now have this
in-valuable bibliographic "fallout" from the lifelong phytogeographic researches
of Eric Hulten. Over more than 20 years, Professor Hulten, assisted by various
members of the staff in the Botanical Department of the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum
in Stockholm has pains-takingly compiled an enormous file of plant distribution
maps in the course of preparing his several monumental Floras and distribution
atlases. This file is being opened to botanists through Index Holmensis. The
Index lists bibliographic references to the publications from which the maps
filed in Stockholm were clipped or photocopied. Like the file itself, the
Index is arranged by species or other taxon mapped. The taxa are arranged
alphabetically within a few major groupings (e.g., Gymnospermae), and under
each taxon the citations to maps
arranged chronologically by date of publication. The citations are abbreviated,
but not to the point of making a literature search difficult. It is important
to note that the geographic designation after each citation describes the
area of the base map, not the area of the distribution mapped. Despite the
difficulties of standardizing a method of designating the actual area mapped,
this would have been preferable. When one sees "North America," one assumes
automatically that the known distribution for the continent is mapped, when
in fact a single state or even a smaller area may be mapped but on a North
American base map. Of this drawback we are duly warned by the Editor in the
Introduction, where he also puts us on notice to beware of finding the same
taxon indexed under more than one name, because nomenclatural investigations
were not possible. These short-comings are minor, however.
Tralau and his associates are performing a great service in preparing this
Index. Extensive bibliographic research is required to complete and standardize
the oft-times cryptic citations in the original file. The result, though based
largely on Professor Hulten's work, is an in-dependent resource that stands
on its own merits. Index Holmensis is a brand new bibliographic tool that
quickly should become a standard reference for all who are interested in the
geography of plants. Future volumes will be prepared with the assistance of
an international Editorial Board, and it is to be hoped that before long the
Index can be incorporated into an information retrieval system through the
action or cooperation of the publishers.
important new series commenced in Professor Hulten's 75th year, and it was
altogether fitting that Dr. Tralau dedicated the first volume to him.
C. CHICHELEY. A Manual of Plant Names. Second (revised) edition. Printed in
Great Britain for the Philosophical Library, New York, 1970. 260 pp. $10.00.
author states in his preface that the book is intended to involve the "gardener
with the plant world by, on the one hand, examining as many aspects as possible
of the naming and describing of plants; and, on the other, explaining the
relationship of plants with each other." In short, it is aimed at those who
work with plants in the garden, but who may know little or nothing about the
terminology of botany and the Latin nomenclature of plants. The volume is
divided into seven principal chapters, the first four of which are indexes,
respectively, to Generic Names, Specific Epithets, Common [i.e. English] Names,
and Botanical Terms. The last three short chapters are devoted to botanical
descriptions of the flower and the in-florescence, the leaf, and the general
features of plant-classification including notes on the more important families
of flowering plants and important cultivated genera.
chapter on generic names, after a short introduction explaining how they are
formed, comprises a list of almost 1200 genera of which some species are commonly
cultivated. Like the rest of the book, this chapter is strongly oriented toward
British gardens, but Americans (at least those in the eastern half of the
continent) will find most of the familiar garden genera. Each entry includes
the generic name, an English name if applicable, the name of the family to
which the genus belongs, something about the derivation of the Latin name,
and of-ten some words about the reason why the name was given. As there is
no appended bibliography or list of sources, one can but wonder how the author
arrived at some of his conclusions. Clitoria, for example, is said to derive
from the seed forming inside the flower long before the petals drop.
chapter on specific epithets comprises more than 2000 entries, including in
one alphabetical list genuine epithets, plus prefixes and suffixes. Each Latin
term is briefly defined. To botanists this may well be the most useful chapter
in the book, as many unusual epithets are included with the more common ones.
The definitions in general appear to be carefully worded and accurate, but
some of them may be too brief' to be really useful (e.g. "linear-formed" for
linearis). Botanists trying to avoid trite epithets when naming new taxa will
rejoice in such rarities as baxarius, capax, epistomi.us and togatus.
long index to common names, occupying pages 121 - 174, may be of least interest
to American gardeners and botanists, because of its English provincialism.
Zinnia, for example, does not appear in the list of common names except under
the heading Youth-and-old-age; Symphoricarpus is called Wolf-berry (although
in the index to generic names it is called Snow-berry'; Chionanthus lirginica
is Virginian snowflower; Polygonum amphibi.um (commonly called Smartweed in
the United States), is Amphibious persicary; Casuarina is Native oak; Sechium
edule is called Charity, whereas in America it is usually called by the Spanish-American
definitions in the glossary ("Botanical Terms," pp. 178 - 191) are suggestive
but often uncritical and unsatisfying. For example, aristate is defined as
"bearded" (evidently with reference to the so-called beard of some of the
cereal-grains, although this is not stated), and on the same page beard is
defined as "a hairyness"; deltoid is "triangular"; flaccid is "soft"; florets
the "individual members of the flowers in Compositae and Dipsaceae [sic]";
gibrous [sic], "swollen at one side"; inserted, "at.-tached"; lineate, "having
lines lengthwise" [ why length-wise?]; scape, "a leafless peduncle...especially
in orchids"; .sub-species, "a variant of a species".
textual matter dealing with plant-morphology and with the "plant system" (i.e.
with classification) is simply written, and adequate to serve as an introduction
to the botanical side of plant-naming, but like the rest of the book is marred
by just enough errors to make one feel that it is not dependable as a reference
work. On t. 196, for example, figures C and D seem to have been inter-changed.
Family and generic names are occasionally misspelled (e.g. Cordeline, p. 224;
Orch-ys, p. 225; Carpentaria, p. 2:32; Stransvaesia, p. 2:3:3; Thymelaceae,
p. 241; Melastromaceae, p. 242; Morris, p. 243; Arceutholobum, p. 243; Cr,yptstegia
and Calonycton, p. 246).
summary, there is much useful and interesting information here, but in a book
on terminology and nomenclature, especially one intended for an audience without
much background in such matters, more attention should have been paid to accuracy
M. C. and K. R. PORTER. Introduction to the Fine Structure of Plant Cells.
Springer-Verlag, New York Inc. 1970. 200 pp. $14.80.
a number of excellent atlases on animal cell ultrastructure have appeared.
no such text has appeared with regard to plant cell fine structure. Good electron
micrographs of plant cells are difficult to obtain. Investigators working
on plant cell fine structure have often pointed to the difficulty of fixative
and plastic penetration into the cell mass and the tonicity problems associated
with the plant cell vacuole.
gap in Botanical publications has finally been filled with the new text by
Myron C. Ledbetter and Keith
Porter. Their atlas contains a series of high quality electron micrographs
"representing a number of cell types from higher plants". The fixations, stainings
and embed-ding procedures have resulted in plant cell images of the highest
quality. The publisher, Springer-Verlag, has obviously taken great pains to
produce high quality electron micrographs. The crisp clarity of the resulting
micrographs is truly exceptional. With such electron micrographs, the student
of plant fine structure will have high quality prints with which to compare
cell types and specific cell structures are pictured in full page micrographs
and opposite these micrographs can be found a brief description of the cell
or organelle. The references given are basic and of recent origin which will
permit the reader to obtain more information on the structure, whether ultrastructural
and Porter's use of Arabidop.si.s thaliana L., a small Angiosperm, as subject
material for many of their electron micrographs is to be comended. Because
of the small size of the root, stem, and leaves, low magnification electron
micrographs can usually show an entire cross section of the organ. In one
micrograph, for example, the entire vascular system of the root can be seen
in fine structural detail.
uses for this text are numerous, especially as a reference for critical evaluation
of ones own micrographs of higher plant cells. The clearly written text accompanying
each micrograph should prove very useful as supplementary material in a plant
anatomy course. The micrographs of the endodermal cell and follow-up micrograph
of the Casparian strip region of that cell is but one example of such a use.
The text should also serve as a prime source in general botany lectures for
demonstration of plant cell structure. The instructor, using an opaque projector
will be able to demonstrate differences of cell types not only at the histological
level, but also at the ultrastructural level. This atlas of higher plant cell
structure should serve as a reference to the investigator. as a source of
micrographs for comparative purposes, and as a basic supplementary text in
general botany and plant anatomy courses. In all respects the quality of printing
and micrograph reproduction by the publisher strengthens the use of this book.
ARTHUR W. and PETER J. DAVIES. Control Mechanisms in Plant Development, Prentice-Hall,
Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1970. 184 pp. $6.95 (hard-cover), $3.95 (paper).
preface explains that this brief volume is intended for three different audiences:
the developmental botanists wishing to read the latest summation of work on
plant development; the developmental zoologist who has an interest in morphogenesis
of all organisms; and lastly the molecular biologists who, the authors feel,
have not founds plants to be objects worthy of their scientific interest.
After reading this book it is quite clear that anyone interested in developmental
biology would find this fascinating reading. The authors have purposely avoided
getting bogged down in detail and reference citations. They have kept the
discussions quite general and have presented a philosophical analysis of the
current state of knowledge of plant development.
contents include chapters on: Phytochrome and flowering; Ethylene; Auxin and
Tropisms; Gibberellins: Cytokinins; Abscisic acid, Formancy and Germination;
Reactions to injury; and Senescence and Abscission. Each of these topics is
very well written and the authors have included information of very recent
investigations (there are a number of citations from 1969 and also a few from
1970) therefore it should be some time before the information requires extensive
updating. This book should be an excellent source for lecture material at
both the introductory and advanced course level. P'or those interested in
a concise, recent and rather complete work on plant development, this book
is highly recommended.
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA,