PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
17 No. 2
and Culture of Plant Protoplasts I. K. Vasil and Vimhi Vasil. 14
Doctor of Arts in Botany 16
News and Announcements
International Congress of Systematic and
Evolutionary Biology 17
Taxonomy and Phytogeography of Higher Plants in
Relation to Evolution 17
Rockwell Oberly Memorial Award 17
Biology on Nantucket Island—Massachusetts 17
Journal of Botany Reprint Policy 18
Announce Meeting 18
Second National Biological Congress 18
of Montana Biological Station Program 19
John Walton, 1895-1971 19
Agriculture J. Janick, R. W. Schery, F. W. Woods, and V. W. Ruttan 19
Transport of Plant Hormones Y. Vardar 20
in Plant Physiology W. S. Hillman 20
Isolation and Culture of Plant Protoplasts
K. Vasil and Vimta Vasil
Departments of Botany, and Agronomy
Florida, Gainesville, Florida
recent years techniques have been developed to isolate viable plant protoplasts
in large numbers from higher plant cells by removing the cell wall with the
help of enzymes. It has thus become possible to do a variety of experiments
and manipulations with the plant protoplast which had so far been out of reach
of botanists. The knowledge gained from the work on plant protoplasts during
the last few years is of far-reaching theoretical and practical importance.
It is the purpose of this article to bring this information and the possible
future uses of isolated and viable plant protoplasts to the attention of a
wide spectrum of botanists in the hope that the techniques of the isolation
and culture of plant protoplasts can be used to probe various aspects of growth
and differentiation in plants.
cell wall around the plant protoplast is required not only for the proper
physiological functioning of the plant cell system, but also for providing
the necessary mechanical strength to plants which normally lack skeletal structure
and organization. In addition, the wall of plant cells is of considerable
historical, cultural and economic importance to man in the form of cotton,
flax, or jute and other vegetable fibers, in the manufacture of finer grades
of paper, as source of timber, lumber, etc. The presence of a rigid cell wall
is, however, of considerable disadvantage to those interested in conducting
a variety of experiments involving plant, cells and tissues for studies on
nucleo-cytoplasmic interaction, the role of the nucleus and or the cytoplasm
in controlling various phases of differentiation and growth, somatic hybridization,
and in many areas of plant physiology, plant pathology, morphogenesis and
cells, which lack a cell wall. have been used extensively with remarkable
success for studies involving nuclear transplants and cell fusion (Ephrussi
& Weiss, 1965; Harris, 1970; Harris et of., 1966: Ebert & Sussex,
1970). Also, bacterial (Weibull. 1958) and fungal (Bachmann & Bonner,
1959) protoplasts have proved to be of unique value in morphological, biochemical
and genetic studies microorganisms. Another plant used widely for similar
studies, thanks to the classic studies of Hammer-ling and later of Bracket,
is the unicellular alga Acetabularia, which can be grown easily in the laboratory,
has a vulnerable nucleus located in one corner of the highly differentiated
and large cell, and has an exceptionally good ability for regeneration after
Mechanical methods such as microdissection. stripcutting and partial homogenization
have been used from the end of the 19th century to obtain a few viable protoplasts
from higher plant tissues. These protoplasts can be maintained in salt solutions
for several days. In 1960. Cocking at the University of Nottingham. developed
a technique for the isolation of very large numbers of plant protoplasts.
This method involved the enzvmic degradation of the cell wall by cellulase
from M yrotlreciunr cerrucaria. Similar forms of cellulase have since been
used to isolate protoplasts from root, cotyledon, leaf. coleoptile, fruit
and other tissues of plants (Cocking, 1960; Gregory & Cocking, 1961 1965;
Ruesink & Thimann, 1965, 1966). Others have used pectinase followed by
eelhrlase, a mixture of pectinase and cellulase (from Triehoderma virile),
or partially purified enzymes, with improved results (Takebe et al., 1968;
Schenk & Hildebrandt, 1969; Kao et al., 1970; Nagata & Takebe, 1970;
Power & Cocking, 1970). Mixtures of pectinase and cellulase separate cells
and degrade their cell walls simultaneously and thus can be used for obtaining
very large quantities of intact and viable protoplasts.
of Auxins. Isolated plant protoplasts provide a valuable system for studying
the effect of auxins on growth and metabolism in the absence of any interfering
cell wall effects. Protoplasts grown in culture and exposed to physiologically
active concentrations of auxins like IAA and 2,4-D, often show increased vacuolation
and eyclosis, rapid water uptake, and progressive rates of bursting. No such
response is seen in cultures of protoplasts in media containing IAA together
with the anti-auxin transcinnamic acid, indicating that these responses are
induced specifically 1w the auxin. The rapid and dramatic bursting effect
of IAA and 2,4-D on plants protoplasts points to an auxin-induced change in
the permeability of the protoplast membrane system. It has also been shown
that isolated protoplasts show a positive response to growth substances like
IAA (and ultimately burst) while isolated vacuoles from similar protoplasts
do not show any such response (Gregory & Cocking, 1966). The site of action
of IAA for such a response is the plasmalemma, where the auxin facilitates
an increased uptake of solutes which is followed by an osmotic water uptake
resulting in bursting, as the restraining influence of the cell wall is absent
in this case. Such effects of auxins on membrane permeability probably play
an important role in the rapid elongation of the cell wall (Power & Cocking,
1970; van Steveninck, 1965) and may also affect the pattern of protein and
nucleic acid synthesis (Davis et al., 1968).
The occurrence of pinocytosis in plant cells has been suggested by many authors
to explain the up-take and transport of various substances, including virus
particles. A direct and substantive proof of pinocytotic
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
ROBERT W. LONG, Editor
Life Science Bldg. 174
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33620
Harlan P. Banks, Cornell University
Sydney S. Greenfield, Rutgers University
Adolph Hecht, Washington State University
William L. Stern, University of Maryland
Erich Steiner, University of Michigan
December 1971 Volume 17
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc., Dr. Theodore Delevoryas, Department of Biology, Yale University,
New Haven, Connecticut.
Subscriptions for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical
Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a year. Send orders with
checks payable to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Treasurer.
Material submitted for publication should be type-written double-spaced,
and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent
issues of the Bulletin.
Microfilms of Plant Science Bulletin are available from University
Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106.
The Plant Science Bulletin is published quarterly at the University of South
Florida 33620. Application to mail at second class postage rates is pending
at Tampa, Florida.
of polystrene latex particles (Mayo & Cocking, 1969). ferritin and tobacco
mosaic virus particles (Power
1970; Cocking, 1966, 1970; Aoki & Takebc, 1969; Takebe & Otsuki,
1969) has been provided by using isolated plant protoplasts. It has also
been shown by similar experiments using the differential staining effects
of phosphotungstic acid on the plasma membrane that certain regions of
the plasmalemma which take up the stain have a distinct and different
chemical composition than the unstained areas of the plasmalemma, and
all other organelle membranes including the tonoplast (Mayo & Cocking,
1969). The presence of vesicles in the cytoplasm with comparable staining
reaction suggests that these vesicles have arisen by infoldings of the
plasmalemma, and the detection of exogenously supplied ferritin in such
vesicles establishes that these are pinocytotic vesicles. Isolated plant
protoplasts have to be maintained in suitable but complex nutrient media
often containing as much as 20n sucrose. In view of the fact that pinocytosis
can be induced or inhibited liv a variety of substances, it is not vet
clear whether the extent of pinocytosis observed in isolated protoplasts
is close to or greatly in excess of that in the normal plant cell.
Wall Regeneration in Protoplasts. Regeneration of cell walls by isolated protoplasts
of fungi (Bachmann & Bonner. 1959). yeasts (Necas. 1965). and higher plant
cells ( Nagata & Takebe, 1970; Pojnar et al., 1967; Mishra
1969) has been demonstrated, and the importance of such systems for studying
the mechanism and chomistry of cell wall deposition is quite obvious.
(1969) have shown with the help of electron microscopic and x-ray diffraction
studies that the newly-formed cell wall around isolated tomato-fruit portoplasts
is not a typical plant cell wall and the origin and composition of its
various layers are not vet known.
wall regeneration occurs soon after the protoplasts are removed from the pectinase-ccllulase
solution and seems to depend on the presence of the nucleus, as enucleate
sub-protoplasts fail to regenerate a cell wall. Re-generation usually results
in the formation of single spherical cells but cell aggregates can be obtained
if protoplasts are kept in contact with each other during cell wall re-generation
(Pojnar & Cocking, 1968).
Dicision in Reconstituted Protopla.sts. One (if the difficulties often encountered
in the culture of plant protoplasts has been the apparent inability of the
protoplasts to undergo mitotic divisions. One to two nuclear divisions have
been observed in protoplasts of Haplopappus grracilis Ericksson & (onasson,
1969). Recently. Nagata & Takebe (1970) and Tao et al. (1970) were not
only able to re-generate cell walls in protoplasts obtained from tobacco leaf
mesophvll cells and soybean cells in suspension culture. but were also able
to induce repeated mitotic divisions in the newly reconstituted cells resulting
in the formation of groups of eight or more cells. Isolated moss protoplasts
readily regenerate cell wall in culture. and then form protonemata and whole
plants (Binding, 19661.
of Isolated Protoplasts. One of the most important and far-reaching aspects
of the development of precise techniques to isolate and successfully culture
plant protoplasts is the fact that isolated protoplasts fuse to form he tend<arvous
under suitable emu-lit-ions (Power et al.. 1970: Cocking. 1971). 'Washing
the protoplasts with (1.25M sodium nitrate seems to induce fusion, probably
by affecting the electrical and physiological properties of the plasmalemma.
The presence of an inactivated virus is not required for bringing about the
fusion of plant protoplasts although that is a pre-requisite for obtaining
fusion of animal cells. The first sign of impending fusion between protoplasts
is the formation of extremely fine tubular outgrowths from the surface of
the plasmalemma; similar outgrowths are formed during cell wall regeneration
by protoplasts (Cocking, 1968). Interspecific heterokarvons also have been
obtained from the fusion of maize and oat protoplasts (Power et al., 1970).
It appears that fusion of protoplasts from any two plants can be achieved
as long as the protoplasts are healthy, nucleate, and meet certain requirements
in terms of the distribution and arrangement of cytoplasm within the plasmalemma.
No cell wall regeneration or nuclear division has been reported in fused protoplasts
of inter- or intra-specific origin. Regeneration of a cell wall around the
heterokarvon and fusion of nuclei within the heterokarvon during simultaneous
mitotic divisions would give rise to a true hybrid plant cell. Such a cell
could then be grown by known techniques to obtain callus and then a whole
plant (V. Vasil & IfiIdebrandt, 1965a, in 1967; I. K. Vasil & Hildebrandt,
I966a, b): these plants in most cases will be allotetraploids. Somatic hybridization
between species which can not be mated by conventional methods may thus be
achieved through fusion of plant protoplasts. However. it is perhaps too speculative
at this time to claim that somatic hybrids can he obtained by this technique
from widely separated families or groups of plants.
of the important applications of the technique of isolation and culture of
plant protoplasts could be the possibility of making inter- and intra-specific
nuclear or cell organelle (plastids. mitochondria. dictvosomes, ribosome.
etc.) transplants for understanding problems of the control of growth. differentiation
S.. and Takebe, 1. 1969. Infection of tobacco mesaphyil protoplasts by toh;cco
mosaic ribonucleic. acid. Virology 39:439-448.
B. J., & Bonner, D. M. 1959. Protoplasts from Neurospora crasa. 1. Bact.
H. 1966. Regeneration nod Verschmclzung nacktcr
Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 55:305. Cocking. E. C. 1960. A method for the isolation
and vacuoles. Nature 187:927-929.
E. C. 1966. An electron microscopic study of the initial stages of infection
of isolated tomato fruit protoplasts by tobacco mosaic virus. Planta 68:206-214.
E. C. 1968. The action of 3-indoleacetic acid on
protoplasts. In "Biochemistry and Physiology of
Growth Substances." F. \i'fightman & G. Setterfield
Runge Press, Ottawa.
E. C. 1970. Virus uptake, cell wall regeneration, and virus multiplication
in isolated plant protoplasts. Int. Rev. Cytol. 28:89-124.
E. C. 1971. Fusion of isolated protoplasts: a first step towards the somatic
hybridization of plants. In Proc. IInd Int. Conf. Plant Tissue Culture. C.N.R.S.,
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B., & Weiss. M. C. 1965. Interspecific hybridization
of somatic cells. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 53:1040-1042,
T., & ]onasson, K. 1969. Nuclear division in isolated protoplasts from
cells of higher plants grown in vitro. Planta 89:85-89.
D. NV., & Cocking, E. C. 1963. The use of polygalacturonase for the isolation
of plant protoplasts and vacuoles. Biocheun. J. 88:40.
D. W., & Cocking, E. C. 1965. The large-scale isolation of protoplasts
from immature tomato fruits. J. Cell Biol. 24:143-146.
D. 'W., & Cocking, E. C. 1966. Studies on isolated protoplasts and vacuoles.
II. The action of growth sub-stances. J. Exp. Bot. 17:68-77.
II. 1970. Cell Fusion. Harvard Univ. Press. Cam-bridge, Mass.
H., Watkins, J. F., Ford, C. E., & Schoefl, G. I. 1966. Artificial heterokarvons
of animal cells from different species. J. Cell Sci. 1:1-30.
K. N., Keller, W. A., & Miller, R. A. 1970. Cell division in newly formed
cells from protoplasts of soybean. Exp. Cell Res. 62:338-340.
M. A., & Cocking, E. C. 1969. Detection of pinocvtic activity using selective
staining with phosphotnngstic acid. Protoplasma 68:231-236.
A. K.. & Colvin, J. R. 1969. The formulation of wall-like envelopes by
isolated tomato-fruit protoplasts. Protoplasma 67:295-305.
T., & Takebe, I. 1970. Cell wall regeneration and cell division in isolated
tobacco mesophyll protoplasts. Planta 92:301-308.
O. 1965. The mechanism of regeneration of yeast protoplasts. II. Formation
of the cell wall de noro. Folia Biol. (Prague) 11:97-102.
E., & Cocking, E. C. 1968. Formation of cell aggregates by regenerating
isolated tomato-fruit protoplasts. Nature 218:289.
E., Willison, J.H.M., & Cocking, E. C. 1967. Cell-wall regeneration by
isolated tomato-fruit protoplasts. Protoplasma 64:460-480.
J. B., & Cocking, E. C. 1970. Isolation of leaf protoplasts: macromolecule
uptake and growth substance response. J. Exp. Bot. 21:64-70.
J. B., Cummins, S. E., & Cocking, E. C. 1970. Fusion of isolated plant
protoplasts. Nature 225:1016-10]8.
A. W., & Thimann, K. V. 196.5. Protoplasts from the Arena coleoptile.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 54:56-64.
A. W., & Thimann, K. V. 1966. Protoplasts: preparation from higher plants.
R. U., & Hildebrandt, A. C. 1969. Production of protoplasts from plant
cells in liquid culture using purified commercial cellulascs. Crop. Sci. 9:629-631.
I., Otsuki, Y., & Aoki, S. 1968. Isolation of tobacco mesophvll cells
in intact and active state. Plant & Cell Physiol. 9:115-124.
Steveninck. 1965. Effect of indolyl-3-acetic acid on the permeability of membranes
in storage tissue. Nature 205:83-84.
I., and Otsuki, T. 1969. Infection of tobacco mesopyll protoplasts by tobacco
mosaic vines. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 64:84:3-848.
I. K., & Hildebrandt, A. C. 1966a. Variations of morphogenetic behaviour
in plant tissue cultures. I. Cichorium endicia. Amer. J. Bot. 53:860-869.
I. K., & Hildebrandt, A. C. 1966b. Variations of morphogcnetic behaviour
in plant tissue cultures. II. Petro-.selinum hortense. Amer. J. Bot. 53:869-874.
V., & Hildebrandt, A. C. 1965a. Growth and tissue formation from single,
isolated tobacco cells in microculture. Science 147:1454-1455.
V., & Hildebrandt, A. C. 1965b. Differentiation of tobacco plants from
single, isolated cells in microcultures. Science 150:889-892.
V., & Hildebrandt, A. C. 1967. Further studies on the growth and differentiation
of single, isolated cells of tobacco in vitro. Planta 75:139-151.
C. 1958. Bacterial protoplasts. Ann. Rev. Micro-biol. 12:1-26.
Doctor of Arts in Botany
increasing emphasis being placed upon ecology, environmental pollution, and
the conservation of natural and human resources, many institutions are restructuring
their biological programs to prepare students for active and productive careers
in these fields. The Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, California has
recently approved a new Doctor of Arts degree program in the Biological Sciences,
with emphasis on Botany. The Doctor of Arts program is presented as a way
of better training botanists for participation in biology programs in state,
liberal arts, and community colleges. The program would be tailored to the
needs and interests of the individual student and would be formulated to give
him a broadly based background in the biological and environmental sciences
with major emphasis on plant science.
Ph.D. program would remain what it has been, a program for research oriented
students who will most likely find employment in universities where emphasis
is shared between teaching and research.
the limits of the faculty's ability, the two programs would remain equal as
to qualifications for entrance, the quality of performance required of the
student. The Doc-tor of Arts would not be considered a second-rate Ph.D. or
a substitute for the Ph.D. The two would be considered equal but with different
academic requirements for admission to the Doctor of Arts program will be
the same as for admission to the Ph.D. program. Students holding an M.S. degree
from an acceptable institution would be allowed to transfer up to 24 units
of class work. The decision on the suitability of the courses for transfer
and the number of units allowed will be made by the faculty.
recent years the graduate student population in botany has varied from 7 to
11. It is not anticipated that this number will be greatly increased in the
foreseeable future. If a Doctor of Arts program is given it is expected that
there will be no more than one of two students en-rolled in it at any one
time and that the total number of students in botany will be no more than
it would be with-out the program.
is not anticipated that there will be any difficulty in recruiting students
and already there are two who have indicated that they would like to enroll
this coming fall if such a program is available. One has a M.S. and since
1967 has been an instructor in biology at Youngstown State University, Ohio.
The other will receive his B.A. this June from the University of Maryland
and has indicated an interest in preparing for college teaching. One advanced
and one beginning student would give a desirable spread at the beginning of
students in botany who hold graduate trainee-ships now enroll for two classes
each semester from the botany curriculum. In addition, they enroll for independent
research, tutorial reading, master's thesis or doctoral study (as appropriate).
Students in the Doctor of Arts program would also enroll for two classes from
the botanical curriculum and in addition would elect one course each semester
from the zoological and microbiological curricula. Some time during their
program they would also enroll for two courses in Education. The first year
would involve 24 units of class work and seminars; the second year would involve
24 units of class work and seminars. The third year would be a teaching internship,
also for 24 units.
qualifving examination shall be taken not later than the end of the second
year of study.
Programs: During the first two summers, field experience would be gained by
enrolling for studies at one or more biological stations or laboratories.
The choice of the station, or laboratory, would depend upon the student's
interests and needs. Examples of acceptable institutions are: Santa Catalina
Marine Biological Laboratory, Hopkins Marine Station, University of Michigan
Biological Station, the Smithsonian Institution Biological Station, Barro
Colorado Island. Canal Zone or biological program. Office of Tropical Studies,
San Jose, Costa Rica.
foreign language is required and in addition one of the following: a second
foreign language; a suitable course in statistics or computer science; or
Advanced Techniques in Botanical Research.
candidate for the Doctor of Arts degree would be required to present a review
paper on some suitable subject. The subject and scope of the paper to be approved
by a faculty committee in consultation with the student.
editor is pleased to report that former editor Dr. Harry J. Fuller is very
much alive and presently is residing at The Americana Nursing Center in Urbana,
Illinois. Sincere apologies are extended to both Dr. Fuller and to his friends
for referring to the "late" Dr. Fuller in the last issue of PSB.
to the new format has been very good, and apparently the BULLETIN is reaching
the membership in good condition despite being mailed "flat". Suggestions
that will result in an improved PSB are always welcome, as well as contributed
papers. news_ announcements, and the like.
International Congress of Systematic and Evoluntionary Biology
Society of Systematic Zoology and the International Association for Plant
Taxonomy have joined forces to develop this first opportunity for botanical%zoological
inter-action at the international level. The University of Colorado (Boulder,
Colorado) has extended a gracious invitation to meet on that campus August
4-11, 1973. The diversity of ecological situations in the surrounding country-side
makes this one of the most attractive sites in North America, both aesthetically
and scientifically. The presence of experienced, enthusiastic biologists on
that campus also provides an indispensable ingredient for the success of this
plans at this point encompass interdisciplinary symposia and contributed paper
sessions. The botanists will not convene a nomenclatural section but a zoological
one on this subiect is anticipated. In the next few months the outline of
the program and other activities will begin to take form. All suggestions
will be gratefully received. carefully considered, and as many adopted as
practical or feasible. Correspondence may he addressed to the Secretarv: Dr.
James L. Reveal. Department of Botany, Universitv of Maryland. College Park.
and Phytogeography of Higher Plants in Relation to Evolution
conference has been organized by Professor D. H. Valentine on behalf of the
Linnean Society of London, the Botanical Society of the British Isles and
I. O. P. B. It will be held at the Botany Department, University of Manchester,
England on 9th-11th September, 1971. The programme will be grouped into sections
covering the following topics:—I. Floristic elements. 2. Major geographical
disjunctions in relation to evolution and migration—(a) Vicarious species;
(b) Migration. 3. Endemism—(a) Evolution of island floras; (b) Special
topics. 4. Geographical evolution in general of special interest. Among those
from whom provisional acceptances to speak have been received are:—Prof.
J. Kornas (Krakow), Prof. H. Ilara (Tokyo), Prof. 7'. W. Bocher (Copenhagen),
Dr. D. M. Moore and Dr. D. Bramwell (Reading), Dr. D. F. Cutler (Kew), Prof.
O. T. Solbrig (Harvard), Dr. W. Grouter (Geneva), Prof. H. Lewis (Los Angeles,
California), Plot. C. Favarger (Neuchatel), Prof. C. van Steenis (Leiden),
Dr. N. Jardine and Dr. S. M. Walters (Cambridge), Dr. A. Strid (Lund), Dr.
H. G. Baker (Berkeley, California) and Professor A. R. Clapham, F.R.S.
will he a field excursion on Sunday, 12th September 1971. The Local Secretary
is Dr. C. A. Stace, Botany Department, The University, Manchester M 13 9PL,
England, from whom further particulars may be obtained.
Rockwell Oberly Memorial Award
biennial award has been established, to be given in odd-numbered years. and
consisting of a citation and a cash award from the income of the Oberly Memorial
Fund. It is to be administered by the Agricultural and Biological Sciences
Subsection, Subject Specialists Section, Association of Colleges and Research
Libraries of the American Library Association.
award will be made to the American citizen who compiles the best bibliography
in the field of agriculture or in one of the related sciences in the two-year
period preceding the year in which the award is made. The fund was established
by colleagues in memory of Eunice Rock-well Oberly. Additional information
regarding this award can be obtained from Mr. Fleming Bennett, University
of Florida Libraries, Gainesville, Fla. 32601.
Biology on Nantucket Island - Massachusetts
Biology Department of the University of Massachusetts - Boston will offer
a course in field biology at its research facility on Nantucket Island from
July 25 through September 1 this summer. The course is designed for advanced
undergraduates and offers six credits. Each student is required to conceive
of, carry out and write un an original research project in field biology.
A number of habitats allowing, study of both plants and animals are available
at or near the Research Center. These include salt marsh and estuarine areas,
shallow coastal waters, sand dune. moorland and upland scrub. Limited living
facilities are available at modest cost. Students desiring more detailed information
concerning admission and con-duct of the course should contact Wesleu N. Tiff
netl Jr., Biologv Department. University of Massachusetts—Boston, 100
Arlington St., Boston, Mass. 02116.
Journal of Botany Reprint Policy
to increasing costs and decreasing revenues, Dr. Lawrence J. Crockett, Business
Manager, American Journal of Botany, regrets to announce that the very liberal
rule that everybody who publishes in the journal receives the first 100 reprints
free must be changed. Beginning with the August issue, only those who are
paying the voluntary page charge will get the reprints free.
members of the Society will understand why this change is necessary. Our membership
dues are very low in comparison to other similar scientific societies. It
has been possible for a member who published two articles in one year to get
back as much as S30.00 on his $10.00 membership fee. While finances were rosy,
this could be tolerated. but with science and economics being what they are
today, the Society can no longer grant this gift.
American Society of Agronomy and its two sister societies, Crop Science Society
of America and Soil Science Society of America, have announced preliminary
plans for their 1971 annual meeting to be held in New York City, August 15-20.
Theme of this year's meeting is "Agronomy and Environmental Quality." This
meeting has the potential of being the greatest agronomic gathering in the
the special symposia that are planned, the Societies will have the opportunity
of speaking to scientists in related disciplines, the layman public and the
press about the position of the agronomic sciences on the environmental issues
of today. Some of the symposia to be held are: Breeding Crops for Resistance
to Insects; Fate and Economic Impact of Herbicides in the Environment; and
Sediments and Water Quality.
Norman E. Borlaug, who has been called the father of the green revolution
for his invaluable work in developing high-yield wheat strains, is to be the
guest of honor and featured speaker at a combined session of the Crop Science
Society of America and Soil Science Society of America. This session will
he held at 8:00 p.m., Monday. August 16, as a feature event of the annual
meeting of the American Society of Agronom and these two societies.
Borlaug's topic will be "Potentials and Limitations of Improving Crop Varieties
to Meet World Food Needs." He has devoted his talents and energies toward
improving and expanding crop yields and duality since 1944 and feels the greatest
problem mankind must solve is development of ways and means of feeding the
expanding world population.
of his untiring efforts for humanity, Dr. Borlaug has been awarded the Nobel
Prize for Peace. Of this, Dr. Borlaug, has said. "It is not my prize, but
a prize for agriculture."
Second National Biological Congress
Second National Biological Congress will be held in one of the most delightful
spots in the United States. Miami Beach. It begins on 23 October and continues
through 26 October 1971. There will he 3 days of symposia, partly on very
general topics and partly on more specific problems. There will also he social
events, a few major speeches, and biological field trips.
theme is "Man and Environment II," and will focus specifically on: What are
the problems posed by our environment? What success have we had so far in
dealing with them? and What is the outlook?
morning programs will center on three practical aspects of the work of biologists
in relation to the environment:
by Athelstan Spilhaus
of Developing the New World
& the Planning of Future Cities
by Keith Hay
in an Urban Society
by Edward J. Ryder
Aspects of Human Population Control To be announced
Its Control & Future Dangers
by Alexander Hollaender
by Robert Whittaker and Gene Likens Our Mobile Earth
by William Benson
Trends in Epidemic Diseases
by Marshall Laird
Trends in our Environment
by Thomas F. Malone
AS PROBLEM SOLVERS Problems of Sewage
by Gilbert Levin
Modification: Ecological Opportunities and Environmental Problems
by Charles Cooper & Frank Eden (Cosponsored by the American Meteorological
Society) The International Biological Program
by \V. Frank Blair
of Approaching World Protein Food Problems organized by Aaron \I. Altschul
Present. and Future of the Everglades
by Howard Teas
New Knowledge of Auto-Immunity
program will also include a special symposium to celebrate the Bicentenary
of the Discocery of Photosynthesis. and the Atwater Memorial Lecture Award,
presented to a leading scientist who will speak on problems of nutrition and
the world's food supply.
afternoon programs are being planned by the biological societies. At this
time. these include American Society of Biological Chemists, American Society
for Horticultural Science. American Society of Parasitologists, American Society
of Zoologists, Society of Invertebrate Pathology. Society for the Study of
Evolution, The Nature Conservancy. National Wildlife Federation, The Wildlife
Society, The Teratology Society. American Society for Experimental Pathology,
and Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Mane of these
societies will have joint programs.
last day of the Congress has been set aside for biological field trips. South
Florida is an extremely interesting area biologically. and the weather in
October is ideal. Visits will include Everglades National Park. Fair-child
Tropical Garden, Plant Introduction Station, Pigeon Key Marine Station, Scaquarium.
and the Lerner Marine Laboratory at Bimini.
further information about the Congress, and for registration and housing arrangements.
Society members should write to the National Biological Congress, American
Institute of Biological Sciences, :3900 Wisconsin Ave.. N. W., Washington,
D. C. 20016.
of Montana Biological Station Program
Biological Station, a unit of the Summer Session of the University of Montana,
has announced its program for 1971. The Station, located at Yellow Bav, Flathead
Lake, Bigfork, Montana will offer six courses in botanical science during
the summer session June 27-August 21. Systematic Botny, Phycology, Morphology,
Problems in Taxonomy. Mycology, and General Ecology will be given together
with selected courses in Zoology. The faculty will be Drs. John Tibbs. Director.
Arden Gaofine, Gerald \V. Prescott. B. L. Turner, Robert L. Fisher, Edward
E. C. Clebsch, Orson K. Miller, Benjamin A. Foote, and James J. O'Toole. Persons
interested in the program, or in opportunities for study and research at the
Station should write to Dr. Tibbs, Biological Station, University of Montana,
Missoula. Montana 59801, or care of the summer mailing address University
of Montana Biological Station, Bigfork. Montana 5991 I.
John Walton, 1895-1971
Walton, rcgius professor of botany at the University of Glasgow from 1930
until 1962, died on February 13th in Dundee, Scotland.
Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and a Corresponding Member of the
Botanical Society of America, Professor Walton was internationally famous
for his studies of Paleozoic plants. His influence has been felt, knowingly
or unknowingly, by every paleobotanist who ever made a cellulose acetate peel
or a transfer preparation of a fossil specimen because he originated both
of these basic and indispensihle techniques. Indeed, progress in the field
of paleobotanv has been so greatly facilitated by their universal application
that, without any discredit to his mans' important botanical contributions.
they can be considered Professor Walton's most significant contributions to
Walton was horn in London, and educated at Edinburgh and Cambridge. In 1921
he was botanist with the first Oxford expedition to Spitzbergen. Following
his retirement he was given the honorary appointment. Dean of Faculties, by
the University of Glasgow. Ile received Doctor of Science degrees from Cambridge
and Manchester, honorary Doctor of Science degrees from Montpellier and Lille,
and an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from McMaster.
addition to his interests in morphology and paleobotany he had a deep concern
for nature and its conservation. This interest, which persisted throughout
his life-time, is reflected in certain positions he held. He was President
of the Glasgow Tree Lover's Association and the Scottish Youth Hostels Association,
a forestry commissioner. and a member of the Scottish Committee of the Nature
interests also encompassed the fine arts, and he served as honorary curator
of the University of Glasgow's art collections.
Walton visited North America on several occasions, and will be remembered
personally by his many American and Canadian friends amongst whom arc several
who studied under him as exchange students or post-doctoral fellows.
Anton Lang, director of the AEC Plant Research Station at Michigan State University,
has been appointed chairman of the NAS/NRC group studying the effects and
dangers of herbicides and defoliation in Vietnam.
Barbara McClintock, Carnegie Institution of Washington, was among the recipients
of the 1970 National Medal of Science. the highest award of the federal government
for distinguished achievement in science, mathematics, and engineering. She
was recognized for her re-search in establishing the relations between inherited
character of plants.
Colorado botanists have received a National Science Foundation grant to conduct
a study of the growth and development of plants common to the Rocky Mountain
tundra regions of Boulder county and to various arctic regions of the world.
Dr. Erik K. Ronde, University of Colorado, and Mrs. Maxine Foreman, Denver
Community College. will conduct the studies at the University, and at the
Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research Station during the 1971-72 year. Plants
will be grown at the expermiental gardens ranging in altitude from 5500 feet
at Boulder to 12.300 feet at Niwot Range, and comparisons will be made with
results from other tundra sites, such as those in Russia, Norway and Alaska.
The research is part of the .5-year, 60-nation International Biological Program
Arthur II. Westing, Department of Biology, Wind-ham College, Putney. Vermont
05346, is conducting re-search on the ecological impact of bomb craters. He
would he interested in corresponding with anyone who has any information on
the literature of this subject.
j., It. W. Scrur:ay, F. W. Woos, and V. W. RUT-
Plant Agriculture. Readings from Scientific
W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco,
246 pp., illus. $10.00 (paperbound $4.95). This is an interesting and useful
book. Although it consists of twenty-five separate articles that appeared
in Scientific American between 1950 and 1969, the book has logical coherence
due to intelligent selection and arrangement. The articles are grouped into
five sections: 1. Agricultural Beginnings (old and new world). 2. Plant Growth
and Development (photosynthesis, control of growth, flowering, fruiting).
3. Plant Environment (light, soil, water and climate), 4. Production Technology
(desert reclamation, hybrid crops, fertilizers, pesticides. harvesting and
processing) and 5. Food Needs and Potentials (various aspects of world food
and population problems). Each section is preceded by a coordinating introduction.
Biographical notes on the authors, bibliographies for each article and general
index are included at the end of the hook.
articles are all written by experts in the several fields. They are highly
informative, profusely and beautifully illustrated, and in a clear, concise
and interesting manner give the results of scientific research in the broad
range of areas discussed. Of course, reprinting articles as they were originally
published over a span of years leaves some of them not entirely up to date,
but this is not a serious handicap, The interested student can be encouraged
to pursue recent work in any area that stimulates his interest.
book contains some of the most fascinating aspects of botany and agriculture
and demonstrates the vital importance of plants and plant studies to human
life and civilization. It should be useful as collateral reading in general
biology and botany courses as well as in courses in economic botany and others
dealing with resources and population problems. High school and college teachers
of biology would profit by reading this book. It should help them and their
students to realize that plants, plant science and technology are as interesting
and important as any-thing man studies, and are, moreover, the most "relevant"
studies of our time. This is an attractive, interesting and convenient compilation.
It deserves to be widely read.
Y. (Editor). The Transport of Plant Hormones. North-Holland Publishing Company,
Amsterdam. 1968. 457 pages. $23.00, from john Wiley & Sons, New York.
book, a proceedings of the NATO Ege University Summer Institute held in Izmir,
Turkey in 1967, consists of 25 papers presented by a fairly impressive array
of authorities. The subject matter dealt with is for the most part auxin transport
and its effects on correlation phenomena.
W. S. (Compiler). Papers in Plant Physiology. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Inc., N. I. 1970. 591 pp. S6.95.
who intends to use this collection should read the preface; it is well written
and informative. Students in particular should be referred to the note on
reading scientific papers. The objective of the collection is to assemble
under one cover a few of the recent, most readable and most interesting scientific
research papers which reflect the breadth of plant physiology and illustrate
some of the current trends in the field. No particular effort
been made to include classical papers rather those which are especially well
written and fairly brief. Indeed, as the compiler points out, inclusion of
a paper "does not necessarily imply that it is highly original or fundamental
in its area" and "an equally appropriate collection could be made without
including any of the papers chosen". It does not seem appropriate to consider
merits and demerits of individual papers in this review: most of the papers
selected with a couple of possible exceptions are of high scientific quality.
The compiler himself notes that inclusion in this volume is neither a guarantee
of quality nor any assurance the work will stand the test of time.
intended use of this collection, especially for teaching purposes, is less
clear. Presumably, the collection would be used by undergraduate students
or even beginning graduate students in order to make it easier for the student
(or the teacher) to find some good research papers. I certainly favor the
idea of having undergraduate students (even first-or second-year students
who are interested) read a few original research papers. These can convey
the excitement of science and a feeling for the process of scientific inquiry;
however, this collection isn't necessary to achieve that goal.
think it would be very difficult for a student to set each report into the
broader perspective and see its contribution to the development of its special
area. Thus, it would be very helpful for the sutdent to have some sort of
introduction to each of the six sections. The compiler recognizes this shortcoming
and concludes, probably correctly, that it would be impossible to produce
these summaries in a brief form. If the collection had focused on six important
lines of investigation. rather than trying to span the entirety of plant physiology,
it might have been possible to provide a brief summary-overview for each section.
Concentration on a couple of important themes would also have enabled even
the uninitiated reader to observe and understand the evolution of some important
conclnsion, the job done by this collection could he achieved more economically
and perhaps more effectively by a list of suggested readings at the end of
each chapter in a plant physiology text (this reinforced by the instructor's
encouragement to read some original papers). This would have the advantage
that the text itself would help the student to see Lou each research report
contributed to the development of the field.
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA,