PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
17 No. 1
of Universities to Provide Trained Botanists for
Undergraduate Education William L. Stern 2
Research Center Paul E. Nelson 3
News and Announcements
Summer Institute in Systematics 5
Lake Biological Station Program 5
Control Strategies for the Future 5
Mountain National Park Seminars 5
Symposium on Shrubs 5
of Oklahoma Biological Station Program 5
Edmonton Meeting 6
Seminar in Tropical Botany 6
of the Business Meeting, Botanical Society of America, Inc. 6
Society of America, Inc. Officers for 1971 7
George H. Conant, 1896-1970 10
in Plants H. J. Amott and F. G. E. Pautard 10
Myxomycetes G. W. Martin and C. J. Alexopoulos 10
Responsibilities of Universities to Provide Trained Botanists for Undergraduate
L. Stern Department of Botany
of Maryland, College Park
the University has the responsibility to provide trained botanists for undergraduate
education, is a valid assertion; first, because the potential in all terms
exists there, and second, because there is no other institution with the potential
to do the job. With this statement made, I could discharge myself from further
obligation to this symposium since in the past few years there has been a
plethora of symposia, discussions, workshops, questionnaires, and formal papers
on the general subject of educating botany teachers to educate and on the
more specific topic of how best this is to be accomplished. I do not want
to contribute further to the redundancy of effort, rather, to make a few observations
and to point out a neglected area of concern.
reviewing some of the recent literature resulting from attempts to improve
the training of botany graduate students to teach, and while examining early
issues of Plant Science Bulletin (e.g., Miller 1955; Cleland 1961), on the
one hand I was struck by the inventiveness and imagination of college teachers
in devising complicated methods to train graduate students to teach, and on
the other hand by the absence, or near absence, of suggestions about who,
specifically, will carry out these various training methods. At least in my
university, prime recognition in terms of monetary reward and prestige does
not go to teachers, rather, to those faculty with a demonstrated capacity
for research productivity. (I might say here that my department is not typical
in that we do recognize primary involvment in teaching as a worthwhile pursuit.)
It is fairly common knowledge that in too many universities, the promulgation
of research papers is the keystone of aca- demic advancement, not heavy involvement
in teaching programs.
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
ROBERT W. LONG, Editor
Life Science Bldg. 174
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida 33620
Harlan P. Banks, Cornell University
Sydney S. Greenfield, Rutgers University
Adolph Hecht, Washington State University
William L. Stern, University of Maryland
Erich Steiner, University of Michigan
December 1971 Volume 17
Changes of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
of America, Inc., Dr. Theodore Delevoryas, Department of Biology, Yale University,
New Haven, Connecticut.
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Let us return then to the several plans proposed to foster increased excellence
in college teachers and increased production of these excellent teachers: e.g.,
the Doctor of Arts degree, the Ph. D. in Science Teaching, Yale's Master of
Philosophy degree, intern-extern proposals, and so on. Some of these plans and
others have already been activated, but it is probably too soon to evaluate
their success and to iron out the wrinkles which will inevitably develop. In
all methods for training teachers, some person or persons, in each department
or institution, must assume a major responsibility to make the plans go and
to work out the operational kinks which develop. Someone must continue to apply
his energies and imagination; someone must dedicate himself whole-heartedly,
diligently, and probably full-time if he is to undertake the entire responsibility
for teacher training in a department. Who?
do not mean to imply a lack of capable persons, rather, a lack of understanding
or appreciation on the parts of some top university administrators of the
necessity to recognize that teaching teachers in deparments of botany in colleges
and universities is as worthwhile a pursuit as is research, and should be
rewarded commensurately. From my recent readings, it does seem to be true
that in some institutions this realization has dawned and that in others it
is dawning, albeit slowly. However, I submit that in too many institutions
the researcher still holds sway over the academic coffers, and the full-time
teacher is a begger rooting for the meager monetary rewards which dribble
from the edges of the purse.
meritorious the several plans for teaching teaching assistants to teach, none
will work well unless the teacher-trainer is recognized and rewarded for his
efforts, rather than penalized for them, as seems to be the case in so many
institutions of higher learning. This fact must be brought forcefully to the
attention of university administrators. Acceptance of this reality must progress
hand-in-hand, or even better, it must precede efforts to improve the training
of graduate teaching assistants in the pedagogical process. Botanists whose
talents and desires lead them to specialize in university teaching, and in
the associated activity of training neophyte botanists for teaching careers,
must not be badgered by the necessity to carry on a full-fledged research
program in order to achieve academic and monetary equality with researchers.
should be recognized, even though it is self-evident, that some botanists
can best exploit their talents by teaching and others can do so through research.
Some few can accomplish both and well. But, I am concerned here with the botanist
whose major assignment is to teach under-graduates and who also has, at the
same time, a primary responsibility for training teaching assistants in the
art of teaching and for planning, developing, and carrying out techniques
to do so. He is a valuable link in the educational process; he must be rewarded
financially and at the same time, he should enjoy professional and academic
prestige on a par with his research oriented colleagues. To do less, is to
jeopardize the future of the science itself, both for botanists and for non-botanists.
I had received a copy of Donald S. Dean's paper (1970), "In Search of a Way,"
I circulated my own questionnaire, partly in preparation for this Symposium.
*Paper presented as part of a symposium, "The development of balanced biology
programs in two-year colleges," co-sponsored by the AIRS Office of Biological
Education and the Teaching Section, Botanical Society of America, at the 21st
Annual AIBS Meeting, Indiana University, August 23-29, 1970.
were sent to colleges and universities where I had some personal acquaintanceship
with faculty members — this to assure a reasonably good response. I
think a summary of some of the responses are pertinent to this discussion.
There were only 10 questions, and of the 50 circulars sent, 35 were completed
a question designed to determine whether training of teaching assistants was
formal (that is, organized into regular classes or workshops) or informal
(discussions, apprenticeships, and individual criticism), I found that about
half the training was informal and the other half a combination of both formal
and informal training. By and large this training took place in the botany
departments themselves and there was no association with course work in colleges
of education. The training was usually carried out by botany faculty members
or by botany faculty and senior teaching assistants. In about one-fifth of
the cases, this training was a "one shot" effort. It was only carried on when
new teaching assistants first arrived at the university and it was not continued
into subsequent semesters. In well over half the cases, though, some kind
of training was said to be continuous throughout the career of the teaching
assistant. In a few instances, there was no training whatsoever given to teaching
assistants! In most cases, newly arrived teaching assistants were required
to present them-selves before a class during their first semester, sometimes
in association with an experienced teaching assistant or faculty member, and
asked to give an opinion about whether proper training and counseling in their
departments were being given in teaching methods, testing, and evaluation,
to help students in their work as graduate teaching assistants, about half
of the respondents replied affirmatively. How-ever, when asked this same question,
but with respect to training for a lifetime career of university or college
teaching, over 70 percent of the respondents answered negatively!
upon the responses to some of the questions, it would seem to me that efforts
must be made, at some point or points in the career of a graduate teaching
assistant, to present some organized instruction, including teaching techniques
(I do not necessarily mean formal classes or training in professional Education),
testing methods, and evaluation of test results and to continue this instruction
at least informally throughout the careers of teaching assistants. It would
also seem apparent, that new teaching assistants should be given at least
one semester of "on the job training" in association with a faculty member
or experienced teaching assistant before being "turned loose" on his own.
Various other means have been set forth for carrying out these and other facets
of training in recent papers by Potter (1970), Univ. of New Mexico, Dean (1970),
AIBS, Somers (1970), Univ. of Delaware, Koen (1970), Univ. of Michigan and
by others. Most of these plans remain to be tested.
associations with "Education courses" are anathema to many botanists, and
as one of them recently put it to me—" `Methodology' and `Professional
Education' have damn near ruined American education, I deplore the current
attempts to formalize, along `Professional Education' lines, the individual
training of prospective college teachers! Those so trained (or worried about
getting such training) are invariably second rate people"—I would not
be above incorporating into botany departments a "professional" course aimed
at instruction in teaching methods and including techniques of testing and
evaluation of tests. I should say, parenthetically, that in my reading of
committee and symposium reports on the training of college teachers of botany,
I saw no outstanding effort to "subvert" college botany teaching by relegating
such instruction to colleges producing degrees in Education. Let my correspondent
continue to remain vigilant, nevertheless!
of the several plans, simple and elaborate, forwarded to improve the quality
of teaching in college botany and to improve the quality of college botany
teachers, I would still assert vigorously that a close personal association
between superior faculty teachers and teaching assistants is the sine qua
non of effective teacher training. It is doubtful if worthwhile results in
teacher training in botany at the college level could result without a deep
mutual concern between the participants in the process. Donald Dean stated
this well when he wrote that there is no special technique for teacher training,
rather a method which, " . . . brings together a concerned mentor and a concerned
student ... " is really at the base of the process. This is certainly not
a new concept; rather, it is time-honored, simple, eminently workable, and
deserves to be restated again and again. It is only within the con-fines of
the University where mentor and student can achieve this desirable relationship
and it is the responsibility of the University to enable that achievement
to take place, and moreover, to provide a stimulating and encouraging atmosphere
for the development of teachers in botany and for the teaching of botany.
R. E. 1961. Supply and demand in relation to the Ph. D. Plant Sci. Bull. 7(1):
1 - 3.
D. S. 1970. In search of a way. Durham, New Hampshire Conference on Preservice
Preparation of College Biology Teachers. CUEBS. pp. 12.
F. M. 1970. On becoming a college teacher. Durham, New Hampshire Conference
on Preservice Preparation of College Biology Teachers. GUEBS. pp. 7.
R. H. 1955. The organization of general botany courses in the United States
and Canada. Plant Sci. Bull. 1(3): 1-4.
L. D. 1970. A model program for the orientation of new teaching assistants.
Working Group B. Berkeley Conference on Preservice Preparation of College
Biology Teachers. CUEBS Memo. No. 70-11: 43 - 46.
G. F. 1970. Making a teaching experience a learning experience. Working Group
A. Durham, New Hampshire Conference on Preservice Preparation of College Biology
Teachers. CUEBS. pp. 2.
of Plant Pathology
Pennsylvania State University, University Park
many years plant pathologists have been concerned about species of Fusarium
because they are among the most important and widespread pathogens of food
crops in the world. The genus Fusarium warrants a concentrated research effort
in view of the major problems posed by this group of plant pathogens to modern
agriculture. Since Fusarium spp. are involved in several major disease problems,
it is necessary to devote considerable research effort to their study. By
action of Dr. R. E. Larson, Dean of the
versions of the discussions by Dean, Koen, Potter, and Somers have recently
been incorporated in the publication: Preservice preparation of college biology
teachers: A search for a better way, by Donald S. Dean, and published by the
Commission on Undergraduate Education in the Biological Sciences, Publication
No. 24, November 1970, 122 pp. The booklet is available, free-of-charge, from
the Commission of 3900 Wisconsin Avenue, N. W., Washington, D. C. 20016.
of Agriculture, the Fusarium Research Center has been established in the Department
of Plant Pathology to deal with state, national and international problems
posed by Fusarium spp. The Center is under the direction of Dr. Paul E. Nelson,
Professor of Plant Pathology and Dr. T. A. Toussoun, Adjunct Associate Professor
of Plant Pathology and President, Institute for Fungus Research.
Drs. Toussoun and Nelson received their advanced degrees from the Department
of Plant Pathology, University of California, Berkeley, long known for its
research on Fusarium. Dr. Toussoun continued on the staff at Berkeley, working
with Dr. W. C. Snyder on a variety of problems dealing with Fusarium, until
1968 when he founded the Institute for Fungus Research in San Francisco. His
major research interests are in Fusarium biology, the ecology of soil inhabiting
fungi and the relationships of soil environment to fungus root diseases. He
has published numerous papers on these subjects and is a member of the International
Executive Committee on Fusarium Research Workers. Dr. Nelson went to Cornell
University, after graduation, to work on diseases of ornamental plants and
in particular the vascular wilts caused by fusaria. In 1965 he joined the
Department of Plant Pathology, The Pennsylvania State University to continue
work on diseases of ornamental plants. He has in addition, initiated work
on Fusarium diseases of corn and turf grasses. His major research interests
are the epidemiology of Fusarium diseases and the pathological anatomy of
Fusarium infected plants. Recently Toussoun and Nelson co-authored "A pictorial
guide to the identification of Fusarium species" and are currently working
on a monograph of Fusarium roseum.
present the Center serves as a resource nucleus of fusaria by providing the
expertise in their identification and methods of culture. Current projects
in the Center are listed below.
nomenclature, and physiological specialization in Fusarium roseum. This
is a continuation of earlier work of T. A. Toussoun and P. E. Nelson.
and control of Fusarium stem rot of carnation in cooperation with Dr.
R. K. Horst, Cornell University.
and epidemiology of corn stalk rot in cooperation with Drs. J. E. Ayers
and R. R. Nelson, The Pennsylvania State University.
epidemiology and control of Fusarium
of turf grasses in cooperation with Dr. H.
Jr., The Pennsylvania State University.
of Fusarium roseum in cooperation with
R. K. Horst, Cornel University and Dr. L. W.
University of Melbourne, Australia.
the laboratories of the Center a collection of more than 2600 cultures of
Fusarium species from the United States and the world is maintained. The major
portion of this collection is presently composed of more than 1500 isolates
of F. roseum since this is one of the main areas of interest at present. In
addition, sizeable collections of F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. moniliforme,
F. tricinctum, and other species are maintained and are constantly being added
to. The Center is willing to provide cultures for other workers interested
in fusaria and will also provide the identification of Fusarium cultures for
major purpose of the Center is to initiate cooperative research projects on
fusaria with other interested workers and to work cooperatively with other
centers of research on Fusarium throughout the world. In the near future both
the facilities and services of the Center will be expanded to provide opportunity
for post-doctoral scholars and re-searchers from other parts of the world
who may be interested in working at the Center on problems of special interest
to them. We invite your comments and inquiries concerning the Center and its
all goes well for your new editor, the Plant Science Bulletin will reach its
second decade of publication during his tenure of office. The Bulletin has
evolved during these past 15 years from a simple 4 page newsletter into a
12 page multipurpose quarterly publication, and issues now include a useful
series of major papers and reports, in addition to news, announcements, obituaries,
and book reviews. The late Dr. Harry J. Fuller edited the first number in
January, 1955 and he included in his Editorial Platform 10 convictions held
by Botanical Society members regarding the purposes of the Bulletin. The first
of these is the Bulletin should perform a unifying function among plant scientists,
although precisely how this way to be done was not explained. The Bulletin's
other functions, such as publication of articles of general interest to plant
scientists, personalia, "recent advances" papers, requests for research materials,
articles on botanical teaching, and fellowship notices generally have been
carried forward over the years.
Fuller identified 4 major problems that faced botanists in those days that
may cause the more cynical among us to conclude that `le plus ca change, le
plus c'est la mēme chose'. First, he noted that biology courses and biology
departments generally have a detrimental effect on the teaching and practice
of the plant sciences. The second problem, related to the first, was the apathy
and antagonism that some botanists had toward participation in general biology
programs. The third problem was the acceptance of mediocre students by some
graduate schools, and the fourth was the lack of communication concerning
changing conditions and educational problems among botanists.
examination of the contents of early numbers of the Bulletin reveals articles
on biology vs. botany departments, botany course content, causes of dwindling
enrollments in traditional botany courses, the role of research in botanical
teaching, how to stimulate interest among undergraduates, among others that
may have been more helpful to plant scientists at large. Recent articles have
dealt with biology vs. botany departments, causes of dwindling enrollments,
etc. etc. It would seem that some of our earlier problems are no nearer solution
than when the Bulletin began its work.
is now before the Council of the Botanical Society a proposal to consider
promoting the formation of a federation of all the plant sciences in order
to help foster the good health of our science. The union would include applied
as well as basic branches of botany. Although such an organization may duplicate
to some extent the functions of the American Institute of Bioligical Sciences,
nevertheless it could aid in performing a unifying function among plant scientists
in the same way that AIBS does for biologists. The two organizations could
be mutually supportive and not necessarily competitive. It's worth considering
if this would help us make progress in solving some of our perennial problems
in the plant sciences.
will quickly note that a few changes have been made in the format of the Bulletin.
A brief table of con-tents now appears on the front, and we are now mailing
"flat" as a "self-mailer" using cover stock for the outside pages. The editor
will be interested in learning from the
if they approve or not of these changes, and he is particularly interested
to know if the Bulletin is delivered in a damaged condition.
the general invitation is still in force to all members of the Society to
submit articles, news items, notices, announcements, and other materials to
the Editor for consideration for publication in the Bulletin. He will try
to get them in print as soon as possible.
Summer Institute in Systematics
1971 Summer Institute in Systematics, "Origin and Measurement of Diversity,"
is being organized by the Smithsonian Institution. The site is the National
Museum of Natural History and the dates are June 20- July 9, 1971, inclusive.
previous Institutes, this one will be more subject-oriented, the speakers
emphasizing two primary areas: (1) mechanisms by which organismal diversity
is attained, and (2) assessment of diversity by a variety of techniques. Mornings
will be devoted to these presentations and to discussions; afternoons will
be left open to allow participants to use the National Collections for their
individual research projects, which they are encouraged to discuss in special
Institute is limited to 25 participants who will be given air fare and per
diem while in Washington. About 10 of them will be doctoral candidates in
their last year or two as students; the remaining 15 selections will be from
among applicants who have received doctoral degrees within about the past
may be obtained by sending your name and address to: Dr. R. S. Cowan, Office
of Systematics, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D. C. 20560.
Lake Biological Station Program
University of Virginia announces that eight graduate courses emphasizing field
biology will be given at the Mountain Lake Biological Station this summer.
A limited number of National Science Foundation scholarships are available
for research and study: (1) Pre-doctorate for supervised research, stipend
$500; and (2) Post-graduate for training in field biology, stipend $400. Preference
is given for studies concerned with the biota of the region. Application blanks
for these awards may be secured from the Director, Mountain Lake Biological
Station, Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia
22903 and must be submitted before May 1, 1971.
special interest to plant scientists are: First Term—June 16 through
July 21; Plant Ecology: Dr. Gary L. Miller, Eisenhower College. Second Term
— July 23 through August 26; Plant Biosystematics: Dr. C. Ritchie Bell,
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Control Strategies for the Future
on Pest Control Strategies for the Future will be held 14-16 April 1971, Auditorium,
National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.
C. 20418. For information write: Agricultural Board, Division of Biology and
Mountain National Park Seminars
tenth season of the Rocky Mountain National Park Seminars will begin on June
28, 1971. Courses of study offered include Mountain Geology (2 sessions),
Mountain Ecology, Alpine Ecology, Bird Ecology, Animal Ecology, Plant Identification,
and Conservation Ecology Workshop. The workshop will be held August 2 through
August 14 and will conclude the 1971 session.
will be Dr. Richard G. Beidleman, professor of biology and department chairman
at Colorado College, Colorado Springs; Dr. William G. Gambill, Jr., Director,
Denver Botanic Gardens, Denver, Colorado; Dr. Spenser W. Havlick, assistant
professor of resource planning and conservation at University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor; Dr. Robert B. Johnson, professor of geology and depai tinent chairman
at Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Dr. John W. Marr, professor of
biology at University of Colorado, Boulder; Dr. James A. Swan, lecturer in
resource planning and conservation at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Dr.
Gustav A. Swanson, Head of the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology
at Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Dr. Joseph L. Weitz, professor
of geology at Colorado State University, Fort Collins; and Dr. Beatrice E.
Willard, ecologist and President of Thorne Ecological Foundation, Boulder,
seminars are held in Rocky Mountain National Park, and consist primarily of
field trips in the Park — an area "designed" for the study of ecology.
Laboratory work and lectures are also included. Accommodations are available
in Estes Park; Rocky Mountain National Park has several campgrounds. It is
possible to receive credit for the seminars from the University of Colorado
Extension Division if desired. Anyone wishing further information is asked
to write Tom C. Thomas, Executive Secretary, Rocky Mountain Nature Association,
Estes Park, Colorado 80517.
Symposium on Shrubs
International Symposium on Useful Shrubs of the world's dry lands will be
held on the campus of Utah State University at Logan, Utah, July 12-17, 1971.
The purpose of this symposium will be to bring together interested people
from all parts of the world for a thorough review of what is presently known
about shrubs. Invited speakers representing every significant dry land region
on earth will treat the following major divisions of the subject in depth:
Continental aspects of shrub distribution, utilization and potentials; Present
and possible uses of shrubs; Genetic potential: Synecology; Physiology of
shrubs; Nutritive quality; Regeneration; The future of shrubs in arid lands.
proceedings of the Symposium will be published. Interested persons should
write for future information or to make reservations to: Dr. C. M. McKell,
Head, Dept. of Range Science, College of Natural Resources, Utah State University,
Logan, Utah 84321, U. S. A.
of Oklahoma Biological Station Program
1971 Summer Session at the University of Oklahoma Biological Station at Lake
Texoma will be from June 5 until July 31. The available courses will include:
Animal Behavior - Dr. Charles Carpenter, University of Oklahoma; Natural History
of the Vertebrates - Dr. Ho-ward McCarley, Austin College; Host Parasite Relations
- Dr. Horace Bailey, Colorado State University, Reproduc-
Biology of the Flowering Plants - Dr. James Estes, University of Oklahoma;
Microbial Ecology - Dr. John Lancaster, University of Oklahoma. In addition
to the above courses and independent research projects for pre-college, undergraduate,
and postdoctoral students, the Biological Station will also conduct a summer
institute in Systems Ecology. This institute will be available for college
teachers to learn and participate in the systems analysis of an aquatic ecosystem.
The Institute will be directed by Dr. Paul Risser, Oklahoma University, and
the Systems Analysis will be conducted by Dr. Bernard Patten, University of
Georgia. Other instructors who will participate in the Systems Ecology Institute
are: Dr. Clark Hubbes, University of Texas, Dr. Loran Hill, University of
Oklahoma, Dr. Andrew Robertson, University of Oklahoma, Dr. Carl Prophet,
Emporia State College and Dr. Bennett Clark, University of Oklahoma. The Institute
will also include a series of seminar speakers: Dr. Frank Blair, University
of Texas, Dr. Eugene Odum, University of Georgia, Mr. Sam Bledsoe, Colorado
State University, Dr. Amos Eddy, University of Oklahoma, and Dr. Orie Loucks,
University of Wisconsin.
information and application forms for all the Biological Station programs
may be obtained by writing: Dr. Paul G. Risser, Department of Botany and Micro-biology,
770 Van Vleet Oval, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma 73069.
summary of the sessions planned for the Edmonton meeting, June 20-24, 1971,
co-sponsored by the Canadian Botanical Association and A.I.B.S. at the University
of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, has been prepared by the Program Director Dr.
S. N. Postlethwait of Purdue University. Advance registration forms and housing
information were sent to all members along with the last issue of the BULLETIN.
Botanical Society Council meetings will be held on Sunday, June 20 beginning
at 9:00 A.M. The Plenary Session will be Monday morning, June 21, with the
theme Our Northern Plants: Their Importance in the World's Resources. In the
afternoon symposia have been arranged for the ecology section and for the
history of botany sections. Contributed papers sessions for the various sections
begin on Monday afternoon. The ecology section and general section will hold
breakfasts on Tuesday morning, June 22, and the pteridological and phytochemical
sections will have symposia. Contributed paper sessions will be held for phycology,
ecology, paleobotany, general, developmental, and systematic sections. In
the afternoon symposia have been arranged for the physiology-developmental
sections on flowering, and for the phycology ecstion on northern algae. Contributed
sessions are scheduled for the systematic, paleobotanical, ecology, phycology
and teaching sections. On Tuesday evening the banquets for the American Society
of Plant Taxonomists and Phycological Society will be held.
symposium on aspects of northern botany and one on meristems is planned for
Wednesday morning, June 23, and contributed paper sessions are scheduled for
the phytochemical, paleobotany, developmental, and systematic sections. In
the afternoon symposia will be held in the phytochemical, general, and microbiological
sections, as well as the continuation of the morning symposia. A social hour
will be followed by the banquet for all botanists in the evening.
on undergraduate botany teaching, systematics, and fern taxonomy are planned
for Thursday morning, June 24, and contributed paper sessions in phycology,
physiology, phytochemical, general, and developmental sections are scheduled.
Symposia for the afternoon include one on controlled environment, on microbiology,
on fungi, as well as continuation of the morning symposia. Contributed papers
in physiology, phytochemistry, and phycology are also scheduled for the afternoon.
trips are available before, during, and after the meeting to a variety of
areas of botanical interest.
Seminar in Tropical Botany
University of Miami with the cooperation of Fair-child Tropical Garden and
the U. S. Plant Introduction Station will offer an Advanced Seminar in Tropical
Botany June 14-July 30, 1971. The faculty will be Dr. William L. Stem (morphology
and anatomy), Dr. George H. M. Lawrence (taxonomy), Dr. Howard J. Teas (physiology),
and Dr. Wallace E. Manis (plant propagation).
semester hours of credit may be obtained from the University of Miami and
participant support is avail-able from the National Science Foundation.
application forms write to: Dr. Howard J. Teas, coordinator, Advanced Seminar
in Tropical Botany, Biology Department, P. O. Box 9118, Coral Gables, Florida.
of the Business Meeting,
Botanical Society of America
University, Bloomington, Indiana
Lincoln Constance called the meeting to order at 1:05 PM in Room 100 of
the Psychology Building. The 37 members present at the beginning of the
meeting constituted a quorum.
Minutes of the Business Meeting of 1969 as published in the Plant Science
Bulletin were approved.
the absence of the Chairman of the Election Committee, Dr. Leonard Machlis,
the Secretary presented the names of the newly elected officers for 1971:
Richard C. Starr, Indiana University
President: Charles Heimsch, Miami University, Ohio Member of the Editorial
Board: Ernest A. Ball, University of California, Irvine
Treasurer, Secretary, and Program Director all continue in their respective
offices for 1971.
Secretary reported briefly that the 1969-1970 Year-book had been compiled
directly from the mailing list and had saved the Society considerable
money in publication costs, but because of many complaints, the Council
had decided to return to the 1967-1968 format for the 1971-1972 Yearbook.
also reported that the Council had decided that the GUIDE TO GRADUATE STUDY
IN PLANT SCIENCES 1968 should be reissued with up-to-date information, the
new edition to be ready by the fall of 1971. All departments included in the
present GUIDE would be contacted, but anyone in, or knowing of, departments
not included but which should be added to the new GUIDE should give the name
of the department and administrative officer to the Secretary.
President presented the recommendations of the Committee on Corresponding
Members. Dr. Knut Faegri, Chairman of the Institute of Systematic Botany
at the University of Bergen, Norway, and Professor Emeritus Bruno Huber
of the University of Munich, Germany were proposed for membership and
were unanimously elected. This raises the total number of living corresponding
members to 47, the limit being 50 as determined by the By-Laws.
Norman Boke, new Editor of the American Journal of Botany, reported briefly
on the current status of the Journal. The changeover in editorship had
gone smoothly, and the
issue was already in press. When voluntary page charges had been instituted
a few years ago, the page number limitation had been dropped. Dr. Boke reported
that some problems had been encountered relative to this and that the Editorial
Board was meeting to see if they could set some sort of reasonable guidelines
for him to follow in setting limits if the author was unable to meet page
charges and in regulating the proportion of a paper which might be in the
form of tables or illustrations. A question concerning the quality of half-tone
reproduction in the Journal was raised from the floor. Drs. Boke and Crockett
replied to this: the paper and engraver are essentially the best available;
the unsatisfactory quality in some numbers of the Journal arises in the printing
process. Strong complaints improve the quality for an issue or two, but it
then slips back. Dr. Crockett will again explore the possibility of changing
printers, but there are not many who will take on a job the size of this one
and also supply the other services that the Society gets from Monumental Printing
Lawrence Crockett presented the report and proposed budget of the Business
Manager of the American Journal of Botany. He pointed out that there had
been a considerable drop in income from page charges as a result of the
decrease in grants funded by the federal government, but that, as yet,
the Journal was in no financial difficulties. He further pointed out that,
since the time of introduction of the voluntary page charges reprints
have been supplied free to all authors. If income from page charges drops
too far, this practice, particularly with respect to authors not meeting
page charges, will have to be discontinued, but this is not yet necessary.
Treasurer, Dr. Delevoryas, reported that the Internal Revenue Service will
probably be reviewing the status of the Society at some date in the near future.
It seems highly probable that income from advertisements and institutional
subscriptions to the Journal may well be subject to income tax. If and when
this occurs, it will have a strong effect on Journal finances as tax levels
Theodore Delevoryas presented the Treasurer's report and proposed budget.
This report will be published in the forth-coming Yearbook. He explained
briefly that the increase in the funds for Secretary's expenses for this
year over the budgeted figure resulted from the printing of 5000 more
copies of the career booklet "Botany as a Prof ession"; similar increase
in funds for Treasurer's expenses over the budgeted figure resulted from
the computerization of all Society records. The computerization allows
prompt retrieval of all sorts of information not easily available prior
to this time, immediate address changes, etc. A question was raised from
the floor relative to amounts of Society funds invested in savings accounts,
and in checking accounts. No funds are at presented invested and, in accordance
with earlier Society decisions, will not be, but Dr. Crockett said that
he would probably be transferring part of the reserve funds to savings
certificates which would obtain a higher interest rate. Dr. Delevoryas
pointed out that the figure in his report for the checking account was
much higher than what was in it at the present time because it reflected
the total at the time dues had been received and did not show the amount
that had been dispersed since that maximum level.
both the Society and Journal appeared to be in healthy financial condition,
it was moved, seconded, and passed unanimously that the dues for 1971
remain at the present level: Regular - $10, Family - $12, Student - $6,
Retired sub-scribing - $5, Life - $250.
Adolph Hecht, retiring Editor of the Plant Science Bulletin, reported
that a Committee appointed by President Constance and chaired by Dr. William
Stern had selected Dr. Robert W. Long as the new Editor and that he had
agreed to serve in this capacity. Dr. Hecht made a request for news items
and lead articles for the Bulletin.
Constance's expression of the appreciation of the Society for Dr. Hecht's
excellent editorship was received with applause.
Samuel Postlethwait, Program Director, reported that the Society will
meet at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada from June 20-24, 1971,
at meetings under the joint sponsorship of the Canadian Botanical Association
and AIBS. Registration forms for these meetings will be published in the
American Journal of Botany and Plant Science Bulletin in addition to BioScience.
Dr. Postlethwait pointed out that be-cause these meetings are earlier
than usual, the Call for Papers and deadlines for titles, abstracts, and
registration will all come correspondingly earlier in the year. Close
cooperation between our Society Sections and their counterparts in the
Canadian Botanical Association is being strongly encouraged and planned
for to prevent duplication of effort and conflicts in programming.
question was raised from the floor about the possibility of elimination of
abstract publication. Dr. Postlethwait answered that this question had been
discussed by the Council and that for the present abstracts would continue
to be published in a supplement of the American Journal of Botany. He presented
a plea that all those submitting abstracts should check and carefully follow
the format of abstracts in this year's Journal supplement to reduce the amount
of work required in publishing the abstracts.
O'Kelley of the University of Alabama inquired about a request he had
made to the Society through the President about sponsorship of a short
course. President Constance replied that this request had been turned
over to the Society's Committee on Education for action.
Sydney Greenfield stated that he and a number of other botanists were
concerned about the relationship of the Botanical Society to other plant
science societies, including such organizations as those of the phytopathologists,
horticulturists, agronomists, etc., and moved that the officers of the
Society constitute themselves a committee to investigate the feasibiliy
of forming a federation of all plant science societies and report to the
Council on their findings. The motion was seconded and passed unanimously.
Andrew Torres moved the following resolution:
Botanical Society wishes to express its gratitude to the administrative officers
of Indiana University, to the staff of the American Institute of Biological
Sciences and its local representative, Dr. L. S. McClung, and to our local
representative, Dr. Paul G. Mahlberg, for their work in planning for the excel-lent
arrangements and facilities provided for the 1970 meetings." The resolution
was seconded and passed unanimously.
meeting was adjourned at 1:55 PM.
F. Palser, Secretary
SOCIETY OF AMERICA, INC.
OFFICERS FOR 1971
C. Starr Department of Botany Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana 47401
Heimsch Department of Botany Miami University
F. Palser (1970-1974)
of Botany Rutgers University New Brunswick,
of Biology Yale University
Haven, Connecticut 06520
DIRECTOR: *Samuel N. Postlethwait (1970-1972)
of Biological Sciences
University Lafayette, Indiana 47907
C. Bold Department of Botany University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712
P. Banks (1970-1972)
of Biological Sciences
Plant Science Building Cornell University
New York 14850
of Organismic Biology
of California Irvine, California 92664
OF BOTANY: Department of Plant Sciences
of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma 73069
W. Long PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN: (1971-1975)
of Botany and
of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33620
MANAGER, 'Lawrence J. Crockett
OF BOTANY University of the City of New York
York, New York 10031
OFFICERS AND COUNCIL MEMBERS
PRESIDENT, 1970: 'Lincoln Constance Department of Botany
University of California Berkeley, California 94704
PRESIDENT, 1969: 'Harlan P. Banks Division of Biological
Plant Science Building Cornell University
New York 14850
PRESIDENT, 1968: *Arthur W. Galston Department of Biology
Haven, Connecticut 06520
(1968-1971) : °Ian M. Sussex
of Biology Yale University
Haven, Connecticut 06520
(1968-1971) : Richard M. Klein
Vermont 05401 Secretary (1971-1973 ) : Don E. Fosket
Labs, 16 Divinity Ave. Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts
Representative to AJB Knut J. Norstog
Board (1971-1973) : Department of Biological Sciences
Illinois University DeKalb, Illinois 60115
(1971) : Charles H. Uhl Division of Biological Sciences
Science Building Cornell University
New York 14850
(1971) : Donald R. Kaplan Department of Botany University
of California Berkeley, California 94720
: Department of Biological Sciences
Circle, Box 4348 Chicago, Illinois 60680
to AJB Ray F. Evert
Board (1969-1971) : Department of Biology University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin 53706
(1971-1972) : Emanuel D. Rudolph Dept. of Botany and
Pathology Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210
(1971-1972) : Jerry W. Stannard Department of History University
of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas 66044
(1971-1973) : °Ronald L. Stuckey Department of Biology
Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43210
(1971) : jack D. Rogers
(1971) : George C. Carroll Department of Biology University
of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403
(1970-1972) : John E. Peterson Department of Botany University
of Missouri Columbia, Missouri 65201
to the Council *Annette Hervey (1970-1972) : New York Botanical
Garden Bronx, New York 10458
to the AJB Clark T. Rogerson
Board (1970-1972) : New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New
(1970) : Charles N. Miller, Jr. Department of Botany University of Montana
Missoula, Montana 59801
: Department of Botany University of Minnesota Minneapolis,
(1970-1971) : 'Philip W. Cook Department of Botany University
of Vermont Burlintgon, Vermont 05401
to AJB George F. Papenfuss
Board (indefinite) : Department of Botany University of California Berkeley,
Director (1971); Harold C. Bold Department of Botany University
of Texas Austin, Texas 78712
( ]971-1973): °Graeme P. Berlyn School of Forestry Yale University
Board (indefinite) : Arthur W. Galston Department of Biology
(1971) : 'Joseph Arditti
of Organismic Biology
of California Irvine, California 92664 Vice-Chairman (1971): Bert
of Biology Reed College
of Botany and Bacteriology
of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33620
to AJB Tom J. Mabry
Board (1971-1972): Department of Botany University of Texas
Austin, Texas 78712
(1971) : John T. Mickel
York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458
(1971) : "Richard A. White Department of Botany Duke University
North Carolina 27706
(1970-1971) : 'John II. Beaman
of Botany and Plant Pathology
State University East Lansing, Michigan 48823
marked with an ( °) are members of the Council. The Council also includes
the officers of the Society except those elected to the Editorial Committee.
(1968-1971) : Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. The Herbaria,
Divinity Avenue Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts
to AJB Donald A. Levin
Board (1970-1972) : Department of Biology Yale University
Haven, Connecticut 06520
(1971) : O. J. Eigsti
of Biology Chicago State College 6800 South Stewart Chicago, Illinois 60621
(1971) : Sanford S. Tepfer Department of Biology University
of Oregon Eugene, Oregon 97403
(1971-1973): °Elwood B. Ehrle AIBS Office of Biol. Education
Mass. Ave., N. W. Washington, D. C. 20036
AJB Robert W. Hoshaw
Board (1969-1973) : Botanical Labs Agricultural Sciences
of Arizona Tucson, Arizona 85721
SECTION: Chairman (1971):
1969-1971) : Department of Botany Drew University
New Jersey 07940
(1971) : C. H. Miller
of Biological Sciences
of California Santa Barbara, California 93106
(1971) : II. Wedherg
of Botany San Diego State College San Diego, California
of Organismic Biology
of California Irvine, California 92664
Council Representative: Harry D. Thiers Department of Biology San Francisco
State College San Francisco, California
(1969-1971) : Robert W. Long
of Botany and Bacteriology
of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33620
: Department of Biology Randolph-Macon Woman's College
George H. Conant, 1896 - 1970
H. Conant was born at Ripon, Wisconsin, on June 6, 1896. His boyhood interests
included anything associated with nature, and he developed a special interest
in plants and plant microtechnique while attending the Ripon Public Schools.
Much of his time was spent identifying and learning about the flora of the
Ripon area. He attended Ripon College where he worked as a teaching assistant
in botany and did his early work in the making of prepared slides. The years
1918-19 were spent as a field clerk in the U. S. Army during World War I,
but he returned to Ripon College where he received his bachelor's degree in
graduate work earned him a master's degree from the University of Wisconsin
in 1923. While working on this degree he had the opportunity to try and to
perfect many slide-making techniques. He was observed in this work by Dr.
Gilbert Smith who suggested a career in commercial microtechnique. The years
1924-26 were spent as director of the microscope slide department of General
Biological Supply House in Chicago.
then returned to Madison where he earned his Ph.D. in plant pathology in 1926,
His formal education completed, he took a position as assistant professor
of botany at the University of Pennsylvania from 1927 to 1929. During those
years he continued making slides for use in his classes. Recognizing the need
for a source of consistently good prepared botany slides for higher education,
he left teaching and returned to his home town where he founded Triarch Botanical
had a shaky beginning during the depression, but as the economy stabilized,
sales increased. By the 1940's Dr. Conant had perfected his now famous quadruple
staining technique, and the demand for his slides had grown to the point where
he found it necessary to give up the preserved plant part of the business.
In 1951 a zoology slide department was added under the guidance of Dr. Carl
W. Hagquist, and the name of the firm was changed to Triarch Products.
Conant was forced into retirement in 1955 by Parkinson's disease. His son,
Paul L. Conant, took over full management of the business in 1959, but Dr.
Conant continued to aid the business with his counsel. The business grew rapidly
with the increase in student enrollment and government aid to education during
the late 1950's and early 1960's. In 1961 the business was incorporated, and
in 1965 a new 12,000 square foot brick laboratory was constructed. In December,
1966, Dr. Conant's physical condition became such that he was hospitalized,
and he remained hospitalized until his death on May 15, 1970.
Conan't life was one of service. He served his community as a member of the
Congregational church, the Ripon School Board, the American Legion, and at
different times both Rotary and Kiwanis. He founded Triarch as a service to
biologists, and was a member of the American Association for the Advancement
of Science, the American Phytopathological Society, the Mycological Society
of America, the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, the Botanical Society
of America, the American Institute of Biological Sciences, the Biological
Stain Commission, the Torrey Botanical Club, the Wisconsin Academy of Arts,
Letters, and Sciences, and the Society of the Sigma Xi.
is in memory of George H. Conant that Triarch continues to serve the biological
James Canright, the chairman of the Arizona State University Department of
Botany and Microbiology, has been named visiting professor of botany at National
Taiwan University in Taipei. He will conduct collaborative research on the
palynology of some lower Miocene lignites in Taipei County.
ASU professor, whose six-month stay will extend from Feb. 1 through Aug. 31,
is one of several visiting researchers engaged in the U. S.-China Cooperative
effort, funded by the National Science Foundation and the Republic of China,
is directed at spurring co-operation between scientists, engineers, scholars,
and re-search institutes in the two countries.
Stefan Surzycki joined the faculty of the Department of Botany, University
of Iowa, in September. Dr. Surzychi was formerly a research associate and
Cabot Fellow in the biological laboratories of Harvard University. He will
teach in the Life Science course and in the inter-departmental Genetics Program
at The University of Iowa. Dr. Surzychi is interested in genetics at the molecular
level and works primarily with genetic factors in chloroplasts and mitochondria
in the cells of Chlamydomonas.
H. T. and F. G. E. PAUTARD. Calcification in
p. 375-446. In Biological Calcification: Cellular
Molecular Aspects, H. Schraer, editor. Appleton-
New York, New York, 1970. $24.00. Drs. Arnott and Pautard have made a very
useful contribution toward a better understanding of the role of calcium in
plant metabolism and physiology for those not working in the field. The authors
point out that calcium plays three general roles in plants. These are metabolic,
structural (cell wall), and as crystalline deposits. The suggest that crystalline
deposits may be a form of stored calcium and not just waste products. Many
of these de-posits are in the vacuole and there is increasing evidence that
the vacuole plays a vital role in cell metabolism. The main thrust of their
presentation (30 pp.) concerns the location, function. and ultrastructure
of calcium oxalate in plant cells. Calcium carbonate receives less attention
(17 rm.), and lack of information necessitates only brief mention of other
forms of calcium in plant cells. Serious attention is paid to information
about crystal formation as related to environmental and ontogenetic factors.
Results of several techniques, from polarizing microscopy to X-ray diffraction,
are presented and well illustrated as points about crystal genesis and structure
are made. Most of the electron micrographs have not been published before
and very elegantly show crystals of several types of plant cells. In summary,
this article is a welcome addition to present knowledge of plant cell structure
and function because this material is new and well presented.
G. W. and C. T. ALEXOPOULOS. The Myxo-
Illustrated by Ruth McVaugh Allen. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City. 1969.
ix + 561 pp. $30.00.
late G. N. Lewis—whose valence dots have sprinkled the formulae of covalent
compounds for over a half century—once defined physical chemistry as
the study of all things which are interesting. This brash statement exposes
a gap in the great chemist's knowledge, for he obviously did not know the
Myxomycetes. Lewis may be posthumously excused, for until after World War
II, neither did most other scientists including biologists. Their acquaintance
was limited to the textbook illustrations and sad little pickled or dry specimens
of Stemonitis which were passed on through successive years of freshman botany
classes. But now the Myxomycetes have become important research objects for
all fields of biology ranging from physical chemistry of protoplasm (earliest)
to genetics (latest). As more and more species are brought under cultivation
and experimental control, the Myxomycetes need an authoritative modern and
comprehensive treatmnt, and they have received it in The Myxomycetes by G.
W. Martin and C. J. Alexopoulos.
complete monograph published on the very last day of 1969 and according to
the publisher's announcement, "including all species described up to 1967,"
actually had its beginnings in 1892-93 when Thomas Huston Mc-Bride published
his "Myxomycetes of Eastern Iowa" and his "Nicaraguan Myxomycetes" in volume
2 of the Bulletin of the Laboratory of Natural History of Iowa. By 1899 these
two little monographs had expanded into the first edition of North American
Slime-Moulds (Macmillan) and the author's surname had expanded from McBride
to Macbride. In 1922 a revised and enlarged edition appeared. In 1934 Macbride
was joined by G. W. Martin as authors of Macbride and Martin The Myxomycetes
which had as subtitle: "A descriptive list of the known species with special
reference to those occurring in North America." Macbride did not live to see
the publication of The Myxomycetes. In 1949 Martin against narrowed the field
to North America with his "Myxomycetes" as part of North American Flora.
formal monograph treatment—without illustrations, introduction, or descriptive
material other than taxonomic—was a departure from the tradition. The
present volume has returned to the expansive introduction and worldwide treatment
and thus may be considered the direct descendant of the 1934 Macbride and
Martin Myxomycetes. Besides an unknown and overlapping Iowan continuity of
78 years in the authorship, there is also a continuity of expression, for
Macbride in 1892 (describing Micheli's  contribution to the understanding
of the group) states: "But Micheli's light was too strong for his generation.
As Fries one hundred years later quaintly says: `immortalis Micheli tam claram
Iucem accendit. . .' " ("Myxomycetes of Eastern Iowa," p. 106). In 1969 Martin
and Alexopoulous quaintly say "But Micheli's light was too strong for his
generation. As Fries, writing a century later, says `immortalis Micheli. .
.' " (p. 17).
this is a work of immense scholarship, to be compared only with Lister's Monograph
of the Mycetozoa which went through three editions from 1894 to 1925. As Lister's
work grew out of the collection in the British Museum, The Myxomycetes in
its several generations grew out of the collection of the University of Iowa.
Like any such large undertaking, The Myxomycetes has its good points and its
introduction distils into twenty-seven pages the essentials of the morphology,
life cycles, cytology, physiology, and natural history of the Myxomycetes.
It is a condensed version of Gray and Alexopoulos Biology of the Myxomycetes
(Ronald Press, 1968) ; but while being condensed, it is by no means dehydrated
and it makes easy and informative reading. The bibliography of the introduction
is carefully selected with a nice balance between importance and inclusiveness.
important part of the introduction deals in detail with the collection, notation,
and preservation of specimens. The preparation of specimens is a simple matter,
requiring neither particular skill nor experience. But preparatory savoir
faire seems to be occasionally lacking among botanists. I have seen herbarium
specimens of fructifications which have been pressed in envelopes with the
aesthetic and informational content about equivalent to that of a collection
of pressed birds' eggs.
the introduction, the authors show an astute regard for difficulties in identifying
these highly variable forms by discussing the variations which may be encountered.
Anyone intending to classify Myxomycetes should read Section VII of the Introduction,
"Use of the Keys" (p. 20).
would seem then that the naive scholar inspired by the potentialities of Myxomycetes
could go panting from the introduction to the taxonomic description in order
to relate the specimen in hand to its countrepart in the book. Unfortunately,
this is not the case, for the relaxed style of the introduction gives way
to a formal treatment in the keys and descriptions of the higher taxa. Like
a law tome, the initial keys and descriptions presuppose an extensive knowledge
of the discipline and its vocabulary before they can be used. An intermediate
volume is necessary for the Myxomycetes (1969) such as the Myxomycetes (1934),
the Lister (1925) volume mentioned previously, or the late Robert Hagelstein's
Mycetozoa of North America (1944, published by the author). The neonatal myxomycetologist
will not be helped with a key character which separates half the five hundred
species of endosporous Myxomycetes from the other half by: "lime, when present,
secreted in characteristic fashion" (p. 37). However, once past the key to
the orders of the subclass Myxogastromycetidae (formerly the Endosporeae or
Myxogastres) on page 37, the further search is relatively smooth. Dictydine
granules are given as a key character for families of the other Liceales (p.
38), but are undefined until the last family, the Cribariaceae, is reached
major taxonomic treatment follows that of Martin's arrangement in North American
Flora; the light-spored group (Liceales, Echinosteliales, Trichiales) preceding
the dark-spored Stemonitales and Physarales. This is the re-verse of the arrangement
followed in the other works previously mentioned. There seems to be no pressing
reason for preferring one arrangement over the other, nor is one given.
descriptions of species and genera are detailed, careful, and clear with annotations
which should resolve many doubts in the user's mind, or, of equal importance
legitimize them. The authors are scrupulous in explaining why they chose to
make certain recombinations. Frequently these are corrections of names which
violate the Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, but sometimes they express the
opinion of the monographers. On the whole, the treatment is judiciously conservative.
However, Hymenobolinva, Orcadella, and Kleistoholus are engulfed by Licea
(as in Martin's 1944 treatment). The tropical genus of the Myxomycetes, Alwisia,
is merged with the pan-climatic Tubifera. The authors' reasoning is usually
based on practical points; that certain genera were too hastily erected for
the material at hand, or supposedly salient differentiating characters are
variable and untrustworthy.
there are a few startling changes of address for old friends; Hemitrichia
vesparium has moved from Hemitrichia to Metatrichia. The formerly monotypic
Reticularia has become quite crowded, with R. lycoperdon now sharing the genus
with six other species including the former Enteridium rozeanum and E. olivaceum.
The genus Enteridium has vanished, being merged with Reticularia (with E.
yabeanum going to Lindbladia). The Physaraceae have been untouched; the doubtful
genus, Trichamphora, recognized in the 1934 Myxomycetes was already merged
with Physarum in Martin's monograph.
everyone is sure he can make a better arrangement than that in the monograph
he is consulting, I must register my distaste for an alphabetical listing
of species within the genus. It is easier to determine specimens when descriptions
follow the order of the key. Thus, diagnosis of an array of species differing
in minute de-tails are grouped together for instant comparison. In the horrendous
genus Physarum, it would be nice to have the description of P. lateritium
close to that of P. rubiginosum so that the nitty capillitium of the one may
be distinguished from the gritty capillitium of the other. Instead, they are
separated by 22 pages and 31 specific descriptions.
illustrations are in colored plates at the end of the book, and while at first
blush they seem to have a certain pastel Kate Greenaway charm, closer examination
often shows that there is little detail to be closer examined. Colors are
often not even approximations, such as the pink peridium of an indisputably
ripe Reticularia lycoperdon whose mature fructifications are silvery or leather
brown (Plate III). Attempts to render the delicate iridescence of the peridia
of some species are unfortunate. The authors state that Lister's illustrations
"have never been surpassed in comprehensiveness and in general ac-curacy"
(p. 19) and they are not contradicted. Myxomycete iconography, at least for
monographs written in English, has never received the loving attention paid
to depicting the higher fungi or vascular plants. The litho-graphs of Massee's
Monograph of the Myxogastres (1892) convey a Victorian stateliness, and his
illustration of Cribraria intricata, rendered in bronze, could dignify the
portals of a chancellory. Perhaps the best and most at-tractive illustrations
are William Crowder's beautiful paintings (Marvels of Mycetozoa, Natl. Geogr.
Mag. 49: 421-
index is to genera and species only, higher taxa and all other matters being
excluded. Perhaps the authors thought that most other subjects could be easily
searched in the first three dozen pages and they may be right. The volume
could have been helped by a glossary.
taxonomic section has a separate and very comprehensive bibliography of an
estimated six hundred selected references besides the complete documentation
for each species. This thoughtful separation of taxonomic and general literature
lists increases the value of The Myxomycetes which is already the major reference
for all aspects of these fascinating organisms. The usefulness of the book
is further enhanced by an appendix of doubtful or excluded genera which as
the authors state "will, when added to the names included in the index, perhaps
help to prevent the reuse of these names for new species, thus creating unnecessary
homonyms, without adequate investigation of their availability" (p. 409).
Names published too late to be included in the body of the mono-graph are
also listed, which in a sense brings the modernity of the book up to 1968.
reviewers are denied the undergraduate privilege of venting their spleen on
a dean, and they must work out their frustrations by examining the surface
flaws of a monument with a dissecting microscope. The Myxomycetes of Martin
and Alexopoulos is a monument and in its essential parts, the cataloging of
the known Myxomycetes of the world in critical, comprehensive, and lucid detail,
it is unsurpassed and may be for a long time unsurpassable. Typography and
the attractive blue and tan binding with gold lettering are a credit to the
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA,