PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
1967 Volume Thirteen Number Three
Studies of Soil Algae1
University of Texas
it has been known for more than 200 years that algae occur on soil, it was
only with the work of Esmarch (1911), Bristol (1920), Bristol-Roach (1926),
Peterson (1935), and others that we became aware of their wide-spread occurrence
and diversity at various depths and in all kinds of soils. Bristol-Roach's
work gave us some clues regarding the facultative heterotrophic nutrition
of certain soil algae, and Peterson's work will always remain a classic example
of a comprehensive biological analysis of algae in a given soil site.
are, of course, many contributions in the literature to the subject of soil
algae, but only two additional ones are especially relevant to the immediate
discussion. In 1955, Starr published a summary of his studies on certain chlorococcacean
algae summarizing the criteria which he found to be both useful and valid
in classifying such organisms which are so numerous in the soil. In the intervening
years, the generic and specific attributes he suggested have proved to be
reliable, and they have been extended and augmented, as have his methods of
study, to other groups of algae. Because we phycologists are so often called
upon to defend the humanistic values, if any, in our work, I would cite among
other examples, the important role of blue-green algae of soil in nitrogen
fixation and our own (McElhenney, Bold, Brown, and Mc-Govern, 1963) evidence
that algae from soils may be important in causing certain allergies; continuing
work in the interim has supported the early evidence in this connection, and
plans to produce algal proteins for assaying presumed algal allergenic reactions
and desensitizing sub-stances from these proteins are soon to be implemented.
of Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta, Chrysophyta, and Rhodophyta have
been found in soils, and, not unexpectedly, many representatives of these
have been recovered by sampling dustladen air (Brown, Larson, and Bold, 1964).
methods of study of soil algae must, of necessity, be those of the microbiologist.
Aliquots of soil samples are introduced into various enrichment and selective
media and illuminated. After a suitable interval, the flora which
1Abstract of the address of the Retiring
President of the Botanical Society of America, presented at the Society's annual
banquet, August 30, 1967, at College Station, Texas.
can be studied in a mixed state microscopically, and certain preliminary data
can be recorded from such mixed cultures. However, for adequate morphological,
physiological, and taxonomic study, it is necessary, as in bacteriology, to
isolate the organisms into unialgal and, ultimately, into the axenic state.
This is accomplished by the usual microbiological methods of dilution, plating-out,
streaking, and spraying, the last, a method used most frequently in our laboratory.
In certain instances, direct isolation of the individual cells from a suspension
of the mixture will alone guarantee that all representatives from a soil sample
have been taken into culture.
discussion emphasizes largely the unicellular green algae including members
of the Chlorococcaceae and Chlorosphaeraceae, although cursory reference is
made to representatives of other groups.
respect to morphological criteria at the generic level, those of Starr (1955),
namely, chloroplast form, presence or absence of a pyrenoid, and behavior
of the zoospore at quiescence continue to be reliable attributes. At the specific
level, cell form, cell size, position of the cellular organelles, and details
of zoospore organization are of significance and useful taxonomically.
so many of the green algae encountered in the soil are spherical or ovoidal
and members of large chlorococcacean or chlorosphaeracean genera, we have
been at-tempting in our laboratory to broaden the spectrum of criteria useful
(and hopefully also phylogenetically significant) in the classification of
the soil algae. These additional criteria may be grouped together as 'supplementary
attributes." In obtaining and summarizing the supplementary attributes, it
is very important to grow the organisms under standard conditions and, insofar
as possible, in defined media so that the data will be reproducible in the
laboratories of other investigators. Using such standard conditions, it has
been found that the following are useful supplementary attributes: (1). macroscopic
appearance (color and texture) of the colonies at differing ages;
(smooth, rough, glomerulare, etc.) of the colony (at magnifications of
14 X) and its texture;
of the plant mass or colonies upon aging; (4) color of the cells and degree
of thickening of the cell walls during the stationary phase of growth;
(5) accumulation of such storage products as oil and/or starch; (6) comparative
morphology of the cellular organelles as revealed by electron-microscopic
studies; (7) response of the organisms to various carbon and nitrogen
sources at varying
in light and darkness under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions; (8) presence
of extracellular enzymes including amylase and certain proteolytic enzymes;
(9) differential response of various organisms to "stress conditions" induced
by such agents as crystal violet, copper sulfate, and a wide spectrum of antibiotics;
(10) evidence from serological studies. Data from the last-cited suggest that
our natural classification may, in fact, approach the phylogenetic.
summary, the student of soil algae must be micro-biological in outlook and
in method, while, at the same time, working within the framework of classical
B. M. 1920. On the algal-flora of some desiccated English soils. Ann. Bot.
B. M. 1926. On the relation of certain soil algae
some soluble carbon compounds. Ann. Bot. 40: 149.
Brown, R. M., Jr., D. A. Larson, and H. C. Bold. 1964. Airborne
their abundance and heterogeneity. Science 143: 583. Esmarch, F. 1911. Beitrag
zur Cyanophyceenflora unserer Kolo-
Jahrb. d. Hamb. Wiss. Anst. 28: 3 Beiheft.
T. R.. H. C. Bold, R. M. Brown, Jr., and J. P. Mc-Govern. 1963. Algae, a cause
of inhalant allergy in children. Ann. Allergy. 20.
J. B. 1935. Studies on the biology and taxonomy of soil algae. Dansk Bot.
R. C. 1955. A comparative study of Chlorococcum Meneghini and ocher spherical,
zoospore-producing genera of the Chlorococcales. Indiana Univ. Science Series
errors in the "Tachyplant" article that appeared in the last issue have been
called to our attention. On page 2 under the column "Characteristics" the
headings "Flower" and "Seed" were transposed; in the last entry on this same
page two names were incorrectly spelled: "Hunter's" should have been "Hutner's"
and "Hellman" should have been "Hillman." If any additional corrections are
brought to our attention they will be noted in subsequent issues.
of Botany, Washington State University
P. Banks, Cornell University
H. Boke, University of Oklahoma
S. Greenfield, Rutgers University
L. Stern, University of Maryland
Steiner, University of Michigan
1967 Volume Thirteen
of Address: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society
America, Inc., Dr. Harlan P. Banks, Department of Botany,
University, Ithaca, New York 14850.
for libraries and persons not members of the Bo-
Society of America are obtainable at the rate of $4.00 a
orders with checks payable to "Botanical Society of
Inc." to the Treasurer.
submitted for publication should be typewritten, double-
and sent in duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow
style of recent issues of the Bulletin.
Congress Commemorative Stamps
committee has been established, with Dr. William L. Stern of the University
of Maryland as chairman, to persuade the United Stares Post Office Department
to issue a series of commemorative stamps in recognition of the XI"' International
Botanical Congress, which is scheduled to be held in Seattle, Washington,
in August, 1969.
the Xtu' International Botanical Congress, held in Edinburgh, Scotland, in
1964, four commemorative flower stamps were issued by the British Government.
These stamps and their First-day Covers were among the more festive features
of this last Congress, and will long be re-membered by botanical philatelists
and the many others who appreciated these outstanding mementoes of their visit
present committee is proposing that the Post Office Department authorize one
commemorative sheet of 50 stamps in vertical position, with a different design
for each horizontal row; five stamp designs on the one sheet. This will permit
the production of a stamp bearing a plant motif chosen as typical for each
quadrant of the country, plus a fifth depicting the Seal of the Congress.
The production in the United States of a multi-design sheet is not novel,
for the sheet of U.S. Christmas stamps for 1965 presented four different subjects
on as many stamps.
subjects co represent the four sections have been chosen by ballot, and reflect
the careful judgment of per-sons in each area that are knowledgeable of the
flora concerned. Designs for the proposed stamps are as follows:
United States—the Showy Ladyslipper (Cypripediunt reginae), a well-known
Orchid, native of woodland bogs.
United States—the Franklinia Tree (Franklinia alatamaha), discovered
by Bartram in western Georgia, named for Benjamin Franklin, and although now
lost as a member of our native flora is widely cultivated for its showy flowers.
United States—the Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menzsesii), perhaps the best-known
and most important timber tree in America, and while not important for its
flowers, is distinguished by its unusual cones.
United States—the Ocotillo, known also as Coach-Whip and Vine-Cactus
(Fouquieria splendens), a showy desert shrub with scarlet flowers borne in
Stern and his committee recognize that alternate choices for the proposed
stamps could as logically be chosen, but they hope that all concerned will
unite in sup-port of the decisions that have been made. He is most anxious
to receive testimonial letters from individuals and societies for inclusion
among the documents which will constitute his committee's proposal to the
Post Office Department. PIease send your letters of support to: Dr. William
L. Stern, Chairman, Commemorative Stamp Committee, XI IBC, Department of Botany,
University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742.
of the American Journal of Botany Drastically Reduced
reviewing and projecting the affairs of the American Journal of Botany for
the annual meeting, it seems desirable to summarize pertinent facts for the
members who did not attend. At the 1966 annual meeting the Council of the
Society authorized preparation of two "double" issues of the Journal in addition
to the 10-page increase per issue already projected in order to reduce the
backlog of papers. This action was effective in that the backlog was reduced
from 12 months or more to 9 months. The November-December (1967) issue sent
to the printer in August contains some papers received during March, 1967.
Projecting further, all manuscripts on hand as of mid-August, including those
revised, those in revision, and those in process and review, can be included
in or before the issue of next April. Thus the backlog will have been reduced
to 8 months by that time. It may subsequently be possible to reduce publication
time even more.
present (mid-August) completed copy is at hand for only one and one-half issues
in 1968. In order to maintain the Journal at its present size a continuous
supply of acceptable manuscripts is necessary. If there have been inclinations
to send manuscripts to other journals because of shorter publication time,
it is hoped that this matter will be reconsidered. It is clear that the requirement
for continued support of the Journal by the membership should not be overlooked.—Charles
Heimsch, Editor-in-chief, American Journal of Botany.
Quality Paper for Halftones in American Journal of Botany
the meetings at Texas A&M University, the Editorial Committee of the American
Journal of Botany considered certain needs of the Journal and its publication.
The need for improved quality control in printing, particularly for illustrations,
was recognized, and the desirability of appropriate representations to the
printer for the remaining issues of the current volume was emphasized. As
a major step toward further improvement, it was decided to utilize on a trial
basis paper of maximum quality for improved half-tone reproduction for the
first half of the next volume.
was also given to a suggestion that the policy of the Journal be modified
to provide for the handling of short articles that could be printed with a
mini-mum of publication time. In view of the fact that numerous other possibilities
for the prompt publication of short articles already exist and the need for
additional opportunity in the American Journal of Botany is not clear, it
was the consensus that more information should be obtained before considering
the matter further.—Charles Heimsch, Editor-in-chief, American Journal
W. Wardlaw Elected to Corresponding Membership
Wardlaw was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1901 and took the B.Sc. degree with
honors in botany, chemistry, and geology. His Ph.D. and D.Sc. degrees are
He studied especially mycology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology
in London and taught courses in mycology at the University of Glasgow.
1928 Dr. Wardlaw accepted an appointment as plant pathologist at the Imperial
College of Tropical Agri-culture in Trinidad where he remained for 12 years,
be-coming officer-in-charge of the Research Station. The Macmillan Company
published one of his major works, Diseases of the Banana, during that period,
and Dr. Ward-law continues to serve as a consultant in diseases of tropical
1940 Dr. Wardlaw was appointed to the Barker Chair of Cryptogamic Botany at
the University of Manchester where he continued during 18 years to carry on
researches and to publish 84 research papers and 3 books in experimental morphology.
In 1958 Dr. Wardlaw accepted the George Harrison Chair of Botany at the University
of Manchester where he continued research and published a major work, Organization
and Evolution in Plants. He retired from the chair in 1966.
Wardlaw is an Honorary Foreign Member of the American Academy of Arts and
Sciences, an Honorary Foreign Associate of the Royal Academy of Belgium, and
an Honorary Foreign Correspondent of the Academic d'Agriculture of France.
He was Prather Lecturer at Harvard University in 1951, and also undertook
an extensive lecture tour of Academic Year Instinues in universities in the
United States in 1964, under the auspices of the National Science Foundation.
In 1959 McGill University conferred on him the honorary degree of D.Sc. during
the International Botanical Congress held in Montreal.
Wardlaw is author or co-author of some 212 scientific publications to date,
exclusive of reviews. His principal books are Diseases of the Banana (Macmillan,
London. 1935), Morphogenesis in Plants (Methuen, Lon-don. 1952), Phylogeny
and Morphogenesis (Macmillan, London. 1952), Embryogenesis in Plants (Methuen,
Lon-don. 1955) , Banana Diseases (Longmans, London. 1961), and Organization
and Evolution in Plants (Longmans, Lon-don. 1965). He was recently honored
on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday and subsequent retirement by the
publication of a Festschrift volume with international authorship. This volume
(Trends in Plant Morphogenesis, Longmans, London. 1966) contains a complete
list of his publications.
Oceanographic Expedition 17 will start 3 January 1968 from Monterey and terminate
at Guayaquil, Ecuador, on 24 March. During this period, the R/V TE VEGA will
concentrate on the biological oceanography of the Galapagos Islands and surrounding
waters, and will provide the first part of a comparative study of seasonal
fluctuations in selected organisms and processes. A productivity/nutrient
survey of the Cromwell Undercurrent to the west of the Galapagos and a survey
of upwelling in the lee of Isla Isabella will be concurrently conducted. Applications
for this Expedition will be accepted until 15 October 1967, and advance inquiries
are encouraged. Applicants may be of either sex, must be research-oriented
students or "young professionals" in biology, and should be in good academic
standing and excellent physical and emotional health. The Expedition represents
an intensive 15-unit graduate-level course in Biological Oceanography given
at sea by a faculty of three. Ten NSF awards covering room and board, transportation
to and from the research vessel; and full tuition are available. Contact Dr.
M. Gilmartin, Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, California 93950, for
for Tropical Biology
annual meeting and council meeting of The Association for Tropical Biology,
Inc., was held in Caracas, Venezuela, June 5-6. Officers for 1967-68 are:
President, Dr. A. C. Smith, University of Hawaii; President-elect, Dr. Abraham
Willink, Instituto Miguel Lillo, Tucuman, Argentina; Executive Director, Dr.
T. R. Soderstrom, Smithsonian Institution; and Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. W.
Donald Duckworth, Smithsonian Institution. Newly elected councilors are: Dr.
F. D. de Auila Pires, Brazil; Dr. Eft-aim Hernandez X., Mexico; and Dr. Leandro
principal item on the agenda was a discussion of the status of ATB-sponsored
symposia to be held in the future. The first symposium on the Biota of the
Amazon Basin, held in Belem, Brazil, in June 1966, was a resounding success,
and the first two volumes of the proceedings of that meeting are nearing publication.
When completed the proceedings will consist of approximately 2,750 pages in
seven volumes. Currently in the planning stages are symposia in Hawaii in
1968, Colombia in 1969, and tropical Asia and Africa at later dates.
information may be obtained from the Executive Director, Dr. Thomas R. Soderstrom,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560, USA.
For Second Edition of
To Graduate Study in Botany
"Guide to Graduate Study in Botany for the United States" was published by
the Botanical Society of America in 1966. This publication provides prospective
graduate students with information on graduate education in the plant sciences
which is unobtainable in any other publication. In addition to the names and
addresses of institutions offering the Ph.D. degree, the size of the faculty
and the graduate student enrollment in each department, and the fields of
specialization represented in the department, there is an alphabetical listing
of botanical faculty giving each member's rank, date of birth, academic degrees,
and special-ties, and most importantly a listing of up to five Ph.D. theses
or published papers resulting from Ph.D. theses done under his direction during
the past 10 years. Copies of the present Guide are available from' the Office
of the Secretary at a cost of $3.00 each.
Office of the Secretary of the Botanical Society of America is now in the
process of up-dating this Guide for re-issue in 1968. An effort will be made
to include all those departments of Botany, Biology, Plant Pathology, Plant
Sciences, etc. that offer the Ph.D. degree in the plant sciences. Those departments
which were in the first edi-
will be contacted soon but those institutions which have recently begun to
offer the Ph.D. degree and therefore were not included should contact the
Secretary of the Society for further information. There is no charge for inclusion
in the Guide. Requests for information should be addressed to Dr. Richard
C. Starr, Secretary, Botanical Society of America, Department of Botany, Indiana
University, Bloomington, Indiana, 47401.
Presented at Annual Dinner for All Botanists
award for meritorious work in the study of the algae was presented to Dr.
Joyce Lewin, Department of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle,
Washington, for her work on the physiology and nutrition of diatoms.
Henry Allan Gleason Award of the New York Botanical Garden
award is presented annually to the author of an outstanding recent publication
in Botany—usually plant taxonomy, phytogeography or ecology. The 1967
Award was presented to Dr. Sherwin Carlquist, of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic
Garden, by virtue of his book, Island Life, published late in 1965. In this
book Dr. Carlquist has provided a perceptive and beautifully written interpretative
synthesis of our modern knowledge and ideas about the factors governing the
distribution and the evolution of both plants and animals on oceanic islands,
and of the significance of islands to general evolutionary theory. Scientifically
accurate, this work is written in language that will appeal to both amateurs
and professionals—in fact, to everyone who has an interest in nature.
York Botanical Garden Award
for outstanding contributions to the fundamental aspects of Botany. This award
was presented to Dr. Stanley P. Burg, University of Miami, Miami, Florida,
for his work on the role of ethylene in relation to auxin on plant development.
George R. Cooley Award for the best paper presented at the annual meeting
of the ASPT was awarded to Dianne Fahselt, Department of Botany, University
of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, for her paper entitled "Chromatographic
comparison of anthocyanins in Dicenatra species and hybrids." Dr. Fahselt's
paper was based upon work done at Washington Stare University.
principal award which the Botanical Society of America gives was initiated
in 1956 on the occasion of our 50th Anniversary. At that time awards were
made to 50 American botanists whose research and teaching have made outstanding
contributions to botanical knowledge.
1956, on the occasion of each annual meeting, Certificates of Merit have been
presented to other outstanding botanists.
following are the recipients of the 1967 Merit Awards:
Constantine J. Alexopoulos, mycologist, authoritative writer in general mycology,
an outstanding teacher; his research in diverse groups of fungi has greatly
expanded our knowledge of these important plants.
William M. Hiesey, ecological physiologist, imaginative experimenter, a pioneer
in elucidating the genecological nature of species; he has done much to encourage
and help students in all areas of plant science.
of the Business Meeting, Botanical Society of America
A and M University, College Station, Texas,
August 28, 1967
Ralph Emerson called the meeting to order at 11 a.m. in the Ballroom of
the Student Memorial Center. The number of members present at the beginning
of the meeting was 66 and thus constituted a quorum.
Minutes of the Business Meeting of 1966 as published in the Plant Science
Bulletin were approved.
Secretary, R. C. Starr, presented the election results. These were as
Arthur W. Galston. President
Harlan P. Banks. Vice-President
Theodore Delevoryas, Treasurer
Leonard Machlis, Member of the Editorial Board of the AJB
Secretary read the amendments which had been circulated to the membership
at the time of the Call for Papers in January. These amendments are as
II, Section 1.
is proposed to delete the "and" after Sustaining members, inserting a comma
in its place and to add (after Sustaining members) : and (g) student members."
to add to Section 1:
Student members. Any student actively interested in botanical work may apply
for student membership in the Society by filing with the Treasurer an application
in writing together with payment of dues for one year. Student membership
may not be held by one individual for more than four years.
proposed changes are suggested to recognize in the By-laws the category of
student membership and to fix the duration of such membership.)
111, Section 1.
is proposed to add a sentence at the end of Section 1 to read: "Newly elected
officers, except the Treasurer shall begin their terms on January 1 each year;
the Treasurer's term shall end on October 31 and the newly elected treasurer
shall take office on November 1."
proposed addition is suggested for the purpose of de-fining the period during
which officers serve and to effect transfer of the treasureship at a more
appropriate time of year.)
amendment was voted on separately, and both were passed.
Secretary presented the report of the Committee on Corresponding Members.
Professor C. W. Wardlaw of the Uni versity of Manchester was presented
as the single candidate for this year. The Secretary read a short biography
of Professor Wardlaw after which it was approved unanimously that he should
become a Corresponding Member.
Lawrence J. Crockett. Business Manager of the Americna Journal of Botany,
gave a short report indicating that the American. Journal of Botany was
in excellent financial condition.
Harlan P. Banks presented the Treasurer's report. It was proposed and
passed that the dues to the Society remain at the same rates as were current
in 1966. It should be noted that the Treasurer's reports and the Business
Manager's reports for 1965 and 1966 are given in full in the Yearbook
of the Society for 1967-68.
Treasurer reported on the current membership as follows:
addition of a new Sustaining Member through the efforts of Dr. Lawrence Crockett,
Business Manager of the Journal, was reported. This new Sustaining Member
is The John Wiley Publishers.
Dr. Charles Heimsch, Editor of the American Journal of Botany. reported on
the activities of the Editorial Office. He pointed out that the office was
now up-to-date with manuscripts that were in proper form for publication in
the Journal and that at present one could expect approximately an 8-month
lapse between the time of submission of the paper and its publication. During
the past spring the failure of the Journal ro come out as scheduled was not
due to the Editorial Office but to difficulties with the printer. These difficulties
have been now remedied and it is hoped that we will not experience them again.
Those present at the meeting were advised that the Editor and the Business
Manager were investigating the possibilities of improving illustrations through
the use of a more expensive paper and en-graving.
Various items which had been considered at the meeting of the Council on Sunday
were presented by the President for the information of the membership.
Yearbook for 1967-68 has been compiled in the office of the Secretary
and the membership should find it at their homes on their return from
booklet "Careers in Botany" is being re-issued as a result of the work
of Dr. Robert Page. The most attractive booklet, in color, will be ready
for distribution from the office of the Secretary within the month. As
in the past, one to three copies of the booklet will be available without
charge. Multiple copies will cost twenty-five cents each.
"Guide to Graduate Study in Botany" will be up-dated and re-issued by
the Secretary's office in 1968.
present President announced a special meeting concerning the Physiological
Section to be held on Tuesday at 8:00 p.m. in the Ballroom. Those interested
in the Physiological Section and its relation to the Botanical Society
and the American Society of Plant Physiologists were encouraged to attend
was announced that the Botanical Society of America would meet with the
AIBS at Columbus, Ohio, in 1968. In 1969 the Botanical Society would hold
only a Business Meeting and a Council Meeting at the time of the International
Botanical Congress in Seattle. No paper reading sessions would be scheduled,
but the membership was encouraged to participate in the Inter-national
Emerson announced that the National Committee for the International Botanical
Congress had approached the Botanical Society, along with other plant
societies, with the request for financial support of the Botanical Congress.
President Emerson was happy to announce that the Council of the Society
had approved the sum of S10,000 to be given to the National Committee
of the International Botanical Congress.
Dr. A. J. Sharp presented a resolution which was passed with. unanimous approval.
Botanical Society of America is grateful to the administrative offices of
the Texas A and M University, to the staff of the American Institute of Biological
Sciences and to its local representative, Dr. Meta S. Brown. for the arrangements
and facilities provided for the 1967 meeting."
motion duly seconded and approved, the meeting adjourned at 11:55 a.m.
M. Klein, Alfred H. Caspary Curator of Plant Physiology at the New York Botanical
Garden, has accepted a position as Professor of Botany in the Department of
Botany, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt. 05401.
Tarson Klein, Assistant Professor of Biology at Hunter College of the City
University of New York, has accepted a position as Associate Professor of
Biology in the Department of Biology, St. Michael's College, Winooski, V t.
Olaf I. Ronning of the botanical department of the Trondheim Museum, Norway,
has been named Visiting Professor of Natural History and Curator of Botany
in the University of Colorado Museum for next year. He will be in charge of
the botany section of the University Museum while the curator, Dr. William
A. Weber, does research in Australia on a faculty fellowship. Ronning studied
at the University of Bergen, and he received a doctorate from the University
of Oslo, Norway. He specializes in the study of arctic and alpine vegetation
and plants, and he will study these subjects in the Rocky Mountains while
E. Loomis was evacuated from the Sudan as a result of the Middle East fighting,
and has returned to Iowa State University at Ames. He had completed one year
of a two-year assignment as Visiting Professor of Botany in Khartoum University.
Erwin. The Physiological Clock. Revised Second Edition. Springer-Verlag, New
York Inc., 1967. 167 pages, 126 figures. $3.00.
first in a soft-cover inter-science series, this book represents an up-to-date
survey of experimental findings in the field of circadian rhythms, and successful
synthesis of data to point up the unifying principles in this other-wise diffuse
chapters of the first edition, concerning the effects of chemical factors
and the role of different cellular components, have been combined into one
chapter entitled "At-tempts towards a Biochemical and Biophysical Analysis."
Otherwise, the organization of material remains the same.
author's statement that recent technological advances have made possible many
new developments in this field is supported by the addition of 9 new figures
and 197 new titles to the references at the ends of the chapters.
Philip L., and Dorothy S. Ditrmer. Environmental Biology. Federation of American
Societies for Experimental Biology, Bethesda, Md., 1966. 694 pp. $15.00.
newest addition to the series of Biological Handbooks offers a welcome supplementation
to the earlier members of the series. Although there is some overlap of the
new handbook with Chapter XI (Environment and Survival) of the "Biological
Data Book," these handbooks are other-wise quite different in emphasis and
subject matter. Topics in the "Biological Data Book" are approached from the
viewpoint of processes and characteristics of organisms.
"Environmental Biology" (with the necessary exception of portions of Chapter
X, Biological Rhythms), they are treated from the standpoint of external factors,
including some having direct implications for aerospace.
Biology" includes much information not heretofore available in handbook form.
The subtopics are sufficiently heterogeneous that the data will also be valuable
to many scientists outside of the strictly biological fields. The two appendixes
listing scientific and common names (cross-indexed) of both animals and plants
should be especially useful to the nonspecialist. As with the "Biology Data
Book" the highly abridged index in "Environmental Biology" must be used in
conjunction with the table of contents. However, it is reasonably easy to
locate any included topic. H, B. Brewer
Nikolayevich Sukachev 1880-1967
Academician V. N. Sukachev, born on June 7, 1880, died on February 9, 1967.
He was the patriarch of all Russian botanists and foresters. He was well known
not only as an outstanding researcher but also as a philosopher who tried
to elucidate the operation of nature in understandable terms.
started to publish his scientific ideas in 1898, when he entered the St. Petersburg
Forest Institute. Several hundred of his publications have since appeared
not only in Russian but also in many other languages. He grew under the influence
of such scientific personalities as G. F. Morozov (ecologist), V. V. Dokuchayev,
K. K. Gedroitz (soil scientists), V. J. Taliev, S. I. Korzhinskiy, and N.
I. Kuznetzov (botanists).
was one of the first to organize station studies on the ecology and biology
of plants. In 1915 he published "Introduction to a Study of Plant Associations,"
which later underwent three new editions under the title "Plant Associations."
was the early chief organizer of the Forest Institute of the Academy of Sciences,
reorganized in 1943 and now called the S. M. Kirov Forest Engineering Academy.
In this institute in 1919 he laid the foundations of dendrology. This activity
lead him into his "Dendrology and Principles of Geobotany" (1934), a book
of bibliographic rarity now, which is a profound examination of the theoretical
and practical problems of forest study. His plant associations, called also
forest types or phytocoenoses, were later holocoenotically amplified as "Sukachevian"
biogeocoenoses since 1942 ("An Idea of the Development in Phytocoenology").
His biogeocoenosis is a fundamental ecosystematic unit, basic for the whole
hierarchy applied in synsystematics of synecology.
1964 with his cooperators Sukachev published "Fundamentals of Forest Biogeocoenology"
(Nauka, Academy of Sciences of the USSR), a book that will be translated into
many languages. It is and will be a definite milestone in ecology.
1914 he published "Bogs, Their Formation, Development and Properties." This
approach led him to a study (1936) "The Evolution of Vegetation in the USSR
during the Pleistocene Period," by which he demonstrated that he was one of
the first in the USSR to employ pollen analysis
paleographic reconstructions of forests. Later he be-came chairman of the
Quaternary Committee in the USSR.
a plant taxonomist he specialized mainly on the taxonomy of woody plants such
as Salix, Betula, and Larix; however, as a good Russian ecologist he knew
the whole Russian flora well.
a forestry leader he also became known for his successful protective afforestation
in the semidesert region near the Caspian Sea where forest vegetation would
have seemed unable to survive severe natural conditions. In this connection
he became more and more deeply involved in the study of soils as one of the
principal determining factors in the growth of forest vegetation. With soil
science he was in daily contact since his early days in scientific work. Thus
already in 1916 he published a critical paper The theory of the sod process
of V. R. Villiams (Williams)," which was, many years afterwards, used against
him by the dogmatic followers of this controversial Soviet soil scientist.
Another deviation from the so-called orthodox dialectic materialism was seen
in the fact that Sukachev applied biotic factors for his biogeocoenotic approach.
Fortunately, however, Sukachev survived in all these attacks as President
of the Forest Institute in the USSR and remained in this position as tire-less
inspirer of new ideas and scientific quests.
1920 he was elected a Corresponding Member and in 1943 an Academician of the
USSR Academy of Sciences. He became honorary head of the All-Union Botanical
Society and President of the Moscow Society of Naturalists. He obtained many
medals for his scientific work. Twice he was leader of the Russian Delegations,
at the International Botanical Congress held in Sweden and at the International
Congress of Foresters held in India.
more than 66 years he has been in the forefront of science and has devoted
all of his knowledge to the development of various branches of biological
and environmental sciences. He has written scientific articles and textbooks
from which many generations have learned and are continuing to learn. Sukachev
was an excellent researcher and teacher and above all a person with rare charm,
tact, simplicity, and kindness.
of British Columbia
Society of America, Inc. Officers for 1968
Arthur Galston, Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
Harlan P. Banks, 214 Plant Science
Bldg., Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850
Richard C. Starr (1965-69), Department of Botany, Indiana University, Bloomington,
Theodore Delevoryas (1968-72), Department of Biology, Yale University, New
Haven, Connecticut 06520
DIRECTOR: C. Ritchie Bell (1967-69), Department of Botany, University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514
COMMITTEE: Anton Lang (1966-68), Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State
University,' East Lansing, Michigan 48823
Stern (1967-69), Department of Botany, University of Maryland, College Park,
Machlis (1968-70), Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley,
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY: Charles Heimsch, Department of Botany, Miami University,
Oxford, Ohio 45056
PLANT SCIENCES BULLETIN: Adolph Hecht, Department of Botany, Washington State
University, Pullman, Washington 99163
MANAGER, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF BOTANY: Lawrence J. Crockett, The City College,
University of the City of New York, Convent Avenue and 139th Street, New York,
New York 10031
Officers and Council Members
PRESIDENT, 1967: *Ralph Emerson, Department of Botany, University of California,
Berkeley, California 94720
PRESIDENT, 1966: *Harold C. Bold, Department of Botany, The University of
Texas, Austin, Texas 78712
PRESIDENT, 1965: *Aaron J. Sharp, Department of Botany, University of Tennessee,
Knoxville, Tennessee 37916
(1966-68): *Walter R. Tulecke, Department of Biology, Antioch College, Yellow
Springs, Ohio 45387
(1966-68) : Watson M. Laetsch, Department of Botany, University of California,
Berkeley, California 94720
(1966-69) : William T. Jackson, Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth
College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755
(1968) : Maynard Moseley, Department of Biological Sciences, University of
California, Santa Barbara, California 93106
(1968) : Richard Eyde, Division of
persons so marked with an (' ) are members of the Council. The Council also
includes the Officers of the Society except those elected co the Editorial
Anatomy, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C. 20560
(1966-69) : *David Bierhorst, 228 Plant Science Bldg., Cornell University,
Ithaca, New York 14850
(1968) : Joseph Ewan, Department of Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans,
(1968) : Edmund Berkeley, Department of Biology, University of North Carolina,
Greensboro, North Carolina 27412
(1966-69): *Jerry W. Stannard, Department of History, University of Colorado,
Boulder, Colorado 80302
(1968) : O. R. Collins, Department of Biology, Wayne State University, Detroit,
(1968) : Vernon Ahmadjian, Department of Biology, Clark University, Worcester,
(1966-69) : Dorothy Fennell, 12301 Park-lawn Drive, American Type Culture
Collection, Rockville, Maryland 20852
to the Council (1966-69) : *A. W. Barksdale, The New York Botanical Garden,
Bronx Park, New York 10458
(1968) : Charles B. Beck, Department of Botany, University of Michigan, Ann
Arbor, Michigan 48104
(1966-68) : *Donald A. Eggert, Department of Botany, University of Iowa, Iowa
City, Iowa 52240
(1968) : *Philip Cook, Department of Botany, University of Vermont, Burlington,
Chairman (1967-68) : *Tom J. Mabry, Department of Botany, The University of
Texas, Austin, Texas 78712
(1968) : *Roy L. Taylor, Plant Research Institute, Canada Department of Agriculture,
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
(1968) : Lorin I. Nevling, Jr., Gray Herbarium, 22 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge,
(1968) : L. Wallace Miller, Division of Natural Sciences, Chico State College,
Chico, California 95926
(1968) : J. Louis Martens, Department of Biology, Illinois State University,
Normal, Illinois 61761
(1968) : *Irving W. Knobloch, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Michigan
State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823
(1968) : *Arthur Langford, Department of Biology, Bishop's University, Lennoxville,
(1966-68) : Robert K. Zuck, Department of Botany, Drew University, Madison,
New Jersey 07940
(1968) : Robert Ornduff, Department of Botany, University of California, Berkeley,
(1968) : Arthur Holmgren, Department of Botany, Utah State University, Logan,
(1966-69) : *Watson M. Laetsch, Department of Botany, University of California,
Berke-ley, California 94720
(1967-68) : William J. Koch, Department of Botany, University of North Carolina,
Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514
(1967-70) : *Dorothy L. Crandall, Department of Biology, Randolph-Macon Women's
College, Lynchburg, Virginia 24504