PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
8 JUNE 1962 NUMBER 2
Hunt Botanical Library
H. M. LAWRENCE
October 10, 1961, Carnegie Institute of Technology formally opened to scholars
and the public the Rachel McMasters Miller Hunt Botanical Library, situated
on the fifth (and top) floor of the new Hunt Library building. The building
and all the accommodations for the botanical library are the gift of Mr. and
Mrs. Roy A. Hunt, of Pittsburgh.
Hunt's collection of botanical books, of botanical prints and paintings, and
of portraits and autograph letters of botanists, are well known to connoisseurs
of botanical literature. The number of botanical bibliophiles who visited
and consulted the collections when at Mr. and Mrs. Hunt's residence in Pittsburgh
is considerable. This collection, believed to have been the largest private
one of its kind, had its beginnings more than 6o years ago when Mrs. Hunt
was a young girl in her teens. From that time on she has been a devoted and
meticulous collector of works in the fields of botany, early agriculture,
horticulture, and kindred subjects. At the time her library was transferred
last July to its new quarters the collection numbered about 8,000 volumes
plus nearly 2,000 watercolors of botanical portraits and as many botanical
value and botanical significance of the holdings in this library rest very
largely in works published prior to 1850. Its holdings are excellent in the
subject areas of the herbals, the sumptuous color plate works, the 16th–18th
century works in agriculture, and in medical botany. The holdings relate primarily
to the fields of systematic botany and horticulture. Floristic works that
are illustrated are generally to be found regardless of date of publication,
but those of the late 19th and 20th century that are not illustrated have
only recently begun to be added. In general, for works of the mid-18th century
onward Mrs. Hunt was guided considerably by the quality and presence of illustrations
when adding titles to her collection. This means that the costly classical
works now so difficult to obtain are invariably present. Inasmuch as it was
a collection of fine and beautiful books it is understandable that very few
periodicals were added.
the time Mr. and Mrs. Hunt agreed to give the Hunt Library building, which
serves as the general library for the entire university, it was agreed in
principle that the Hunt Botanical Library would be endowed to a degree that
will maintain its normal operation, and that its special research projects
and associated publishing activities would be financed by The Hunt Foundation.
The program for the Hunt Botanical Library benefits from the counsel and guidance
of an Advisory Committee that meets at the library twice annually. This committee
is composed of the directors of The Hunt Foundation, plus six botanists. Currently
the botanical members are Mr. John S. L. Gilmour, Dr. Mildred E. Mathias,
Dr. Rogers McVaugh, Dr. Harold W. Rickett, Dr. Reed Rollins, and Dr. Frans
has been the objective of Mr. and Mrs. Hunt and their four sons, who collectively
compose The Hunt Foundation, that this library should embark on a research
program centered on studies of botanical and horticultural literature. The
establishment of a program to meet these objectives means that this library
will become, in effect, an inter-national center for bibliographical studies
of the literature in these fields. A rather considerable acquisition program
is now in progress to meet the requirements of existing re-search projects.
At the same time, there is no thought or intention of endeavoring to build
up this library to a point where it would compete in size or magnitude with
any of the half-dozen or more largest botanical libraries in this country.
the research program is five-fold: (1) completion of the Catalogue of Botanical
Books in the Library of Rachel McMasters Miller Hunt, (2) activation of the
Hunt Facsimile Series, (3) establishment of the Hunt Monograph Series, (4)
activation of a project whose objective is to pro-duce a comprehensive and
analytical catalogue of all of the works in systematic botany and allied subjects
published during the period 1735–1850, a work to occupy several volumes
and to be known as Bibliographia Huntiana, and (5) publication of a yearbook
to serve as a medium for studies by the staff and scholars elsewhere in the
area of botanical bibliography and to be known as Huntia.
Catalogue of the Hunt Botanical Library was begun in 1953. Volume I, accounting
for holdings published from the beginning of printing to 1700, was published
in 1958. Volume II, accounting for holdings of the 18th century, was published
in 1961. Volume III is now in progress and will probably account for holdings
published up to 183o, with Volume IV being the final volume of the main series
and accounting for holdings for the period 1831–1850. There will be
two Supplement volumes to account for acquisitions received since the original
volumes were published and for works either omitted from the original volumes
or merely listed by short title. It is expected that the complete Catalogue
will be published by 1970. This Catalogue has been published privately by
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
WILLIAM L. STERN, Editor
25, D. C.
P. BANKS Cornell University
NORMAN H. BOKE University of Oklahoma
S. GREENFIELD Rutgers University
QUARTERMAN Vanderbilt University
ERICH STEINER University of Michigan
JUNE 1962 VOLUME 8
OF ADDRESS: Notify the Treasurer of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.,
Dr. A. J. Sharp, Department of Botany, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
for libraries and persons not members of the Botanical Society of America
are obtainable at the rate of $2.00 a year. Send orders with checks payable
to "Botanical Society of America, Inc." to the Business Manager, Dr. Lawrence
J. Crockett, Department of Biology, The City College, Convent Avenue and 139th
Street, New York 31, New York.
SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION should be typewritten, double-spaced, and sent in
duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of
Foundation in a limited edition of 500 copies of the regular edition and 250
copies of a deluxe ediiton (on hand-made paper). The distribution pattern
for it was determined in 1957, and in general copies have been provided all
of the leading botanical and bibliographical centers of the world. The work
is not for sale.
Hunt Facsimile Series is designed to account for occasional facsimile productions
as selected by the Advisory Committee. The first will be L'Heritier de Brutelle's
Sertum Anglicum (1788), a rare work illustrated by Redoutc and by Sowerby,
and accounting for many new genera and species. When selecting titles to be
included in this Series, the Advisory Committee is guided by picking works
that are not likely to be reproduced by commercial firms, by selecting works
that are illustrated either in black and white or in color, and works that
will have general botanical interest or horticultural interest, as well as
utility to the taxonomist. Through partial subsidization by the Hunt Botanical
Library it will be possible to bring the works out at cost or below cost,
so that they may be available to the working botanist who has need for them.
Each work brought out in this series will be accompanied by scholarly introductions
designed to account for the biographical back-ground of the persons who wrote
and illustrated the work, for the bibliography of the original work and its
production, for an analysis of the illustrations and the modern nomenclatural
equivalents for the plants concerned, and to provide a general study of the
work itself in the light of modern knowledge of its subject matter. In the
Serum Anglicum, for example, the original work consists of about 40 pages
of text and 35 pages of plates. The facsimile edition will reproduce these
with new introductions, an English translation, and indices; this new material
to occupy in excess of 150 additional pages. The work will be made available
through the International Association of Plant Taxonomy to its membership
at a substantially reduced price, and at list price subsequently from the
British firm of Wheldon and Wesley, and from the Hunt Botanical Library. The
work is expected to be published in December 1962 with pre-publication notices
made available in October.
Hunt Monograph Series will provide, for the most part, for the publication
of new works. The volume scheduled for production in 1963 will contain three
studies of Michel Adanson, famed for his Families des Plantcs (1763), followed
by a second work on the same subject in 1964. Also scheduled for 1964 is the
publication of Part II of E. L. Greene's Landmarks of Botanical History, the
manuscript of which has been turned over to the Hunt Botanical Library by
Notre Dame University. At the same time, the publication of this work will
be accompanied by the reproduction of Part I of the same title, together with
a biographical account of the author and an appraisal of his taxonomic contributions.
The two parts, and the introduction, will be published in a single volume.
project to produce a bibliographia botanica, in effect a new Pritzel for the
period 1735-1850, and to he known as Bibliographia Huntiana, will be treated
later in a separate announcement. Work on the project is in progress and it
is estimated that a minimum of six-eight years will be required to assemble
the raw material.
the yearbook of this library, will serve as a publication medium for research
studies of the library staff, and its pages will be open to bibliographic
contributions in the fields of botany and horticulture by scholars elsewhere.
The first issue is scheduled for production in October 1963. The qualities
of typographical design, printing, and illustration reflected in the Hunt
Catalogue are expected to be maintained in this yearbook. It will be available
by exchange and by subscription.
addition to these formal projects the Hunt Botanical Library is developing
Mrs. Hunt's collection of portraits of botanists. The original collection
is very largely one of botanists of the mid-19th century and earlier, and
is represented by steel engravings, woodcuts, and similar forms of reproduction.
To complement this, the library is currently initiating a program whereby
it will serve as a central repository for photographic likenesses of botanists
of the world. The collection of botanical paintings is likewise largely the
work of artists of the mid-19th century and earlier. In developing this collection,
it was Mrs. Hunt's objective to have at least one original of every botanical
artist whose work was represented in the books of the library. Currently the
library is building the collection of contemporary botanical art and illustration.
The collection of autograph letters of botanists numbers more than r,000 representing
more than boo botanists. The earliest is a letter by Tournefort and few have
been added originating later than 1900. The library continues to develop this
collection and is always interested in obtaining letters of botanists or collections
of same. Manuscripts written by botanists also comprise a part of this library.
Recently the library was fortunate to acquire many of the manuscripts and
letters of the late Agnes Arber. Several collections of
significance have also come to hand. Additions of this nature are always welcome.
facilities of the library are open to all botanists who can use them. The
library does have a policy of not lending any of its books. This is essential
to assure one that the books are always available to staff members and to
visiting scholars. The library is normally open Monday through Friday and
visitors are welcome.
from the Missouri
the last years there has been a very decided revival of interest in botanical
gardens in America as evidenced by the creation of so many new ones all over
the country. The reason for this revival of interest lies partly in the fact
that the whole idea of the university-connected botanical garden as a repository
of plant species has been replaced by the concept of a functional botanical
garden. This type of garden combines the park aspects of the park with the
botanical aspects of good collections of living plants, research facilities,
and research projects connected with horticulturally important materials,
and proper education programs for children and adults. Whereas most of these
functional botanical gardens are created independently of universities, in
most cases they have ties with institutions of higher learning. The first
and best example of such a functional botanical garden connected with a university
is that of the Missouri Botanical Garden, or Shaw's Garden, where Henry Shaw,
its founder, also created the Henry Shaw School of Botany at Washington University
and established a close connection between these two institutions.
the course of the last decennia the income from the endowment which Henry
Shaw left to the Missouri Botanical Garden could not keep up with the increasing
costs of maintaining such a garden, and at first it was tried to keep expenditures
within the limits of the endowment income. When it became obvious that this
resulted in deterioration of the once so beautiful Garden, the Trustees adopted
a new policy, namely, that of temporary deficit budgeting. It was believed
that if only the Garden could be brought into a physically attractive condition
and would again provide inspiration and beauty to the visitors, then contributions
from the visiting public and from the community could be obtained. With the
exception of research projects financed by the National Science Foundation,
the Missouri Botanical Garden has never received support from tax money, and
as long as it remains a private institution it cannot receive any state or
city funds for its operation.
accompanying graph is very instructive. It shows the actual budget for the
Garden and all its activities, and the costs are broken down as endowment
income, operational income, and deficit. The deficit could be assumed because
of accumulated surpluses of earlier years and the operational income refers
to income from admission to the new green- house (Climatron), from a membership
organization (The Friends of the Garden), and from fund drives and other similar
activities by many supporting organizations. The remarkable fact about this
graph is that the operational income is each year augmented with the amount
of the deficit in the previous year. Therefore this deficit budgeting was
adopted not just to close financial gaps, but it was rather incentive money
used in the amelioration of Garden and public facilities. This resulted in
an unprecedented increase in the attendance by the public and this in turn
%vas the basis for an increase in our operational income.
persons who believe that such an increase in public interest can only come
by cheapening the type of displays and by catering to the lower instincts
of the public, such as the television interest seems to have done with the
greatly increased crime and fight programs, it should be stated here that
our educational work has been increased and deepened, that more and more educational
exhibits accompany the popular flower shows, and that our newest green-house,
the Climatron, is used in part for research purposes. I am thoroughly convinced
that the public is interested in any type of scientific information which
can he given to them and they enjoy being considered as grown-ups. Yet our
new educational exhibits find perhaps even more appreciation in the eyes of
children than grown-ups.
I took the position of Director at the Missouri Botanical Garden, the greenhouses
were in very poor condition and the only practical solution to their improvement
was to tear them down. This either could be done without re-building them
or new greenhouses had to replace the old ones. It was fortunate that the
critical point in the condition of the greenhouses was just reached while
improvements and completely new developments had occurred in the general field
of greenhouse construction and operation. Therefore, instead of building a
conventional greenhouse in place of the first houses to be torn down, a completely
air-conditioned greenhouse was designed.
using air-conditioning it is not necessary to shade the greenhouse at all
so that full advantage can be taken of the sun's rays at any time of the year.
Even in the middle of summer the greenhouse does not get too warm so that
sensitive plants such as tree ferns do not need shade. A new principle in
air-conditioning is utilized in that instead of trying to maintain an even
temperature throughout the greenhouse we have aimed at producing a temperature
gradient. In this way the optimal growing conditions for a number of different
plants can be produced. By having two different air-conditioning systems,
one operating during day and the other during night, we are able to produce
gradients in day and in night temperatures independent of each other. Since
the greenhouse is a large geodesic dome with a diameter of 175 feet, we have
approximately four different sectors in the building. In the southeast sector
both day and night temperatures are high. In the northwestern section both
day and night temperatures are lower, corresponding with a tropical mountain
climate. In the south-western section the days are relatively cool and the
nights warm, comparable to an oceanic climate, and in the north-eastern sector
the days are warm and nights are cool, comparable to a dry tropical climate.
plants in the greenhouse are arranged as much as possible according to their
country of origin and according to ecological principles. The southeastern
sector, with the lowland tropical climate, has been planted mainly with materials
coming from the Amazonian region. In this planting also, ecological factors
have been taken into consideration, inasmuch as the first trees planted belong
to the fast-growing secondary forest, such as Cecropia, Ochroina, and Triplaris.
In their shade the slow-growing trees of the primary forest have been planted
in addition to the vegetation normally found in the undergrowth of the rain
emphasis is laid on producing the optimal growing conditions for epiphytes,
and especially for orchids, to enable us to grow our large orchid species
collection to perfection. Whereas part of this collection is planted in pots,
a considerable number are placed on artificial trees consisting of galvanized
steel tubing covered with osmunda fiber. As much as possible, the orchids
from a geographic and climatic region are placed together on a single artificial
tree, and those trees are placed in those sections of the Climatron which
correspond most with the specific climate of the region of origin. During
the first year and a half of operation, growth in the Climatron has been excellent
and in the near future we hope to have good collections of not only orchids,
gesneriads, bromeliads, and other epiphytes, but also of biologically interesting
plants. I would like to urge everyone who has some interesting plants to let
us have some of their living material to try out in the Climatron.
the Climatron only represents the different tropical climates, we are now
planning to construct green- houses in which other climates can be reproduced,
again using the newest information about greenhouse air-conditioning. I believe
that a group of such greenhouses, containing a significant collection of plants
in ecological and geographic groupings, will be a great stimulus for the development
of botany, and for arousing an interest in plants among children and students.
In this way, the botanical garden can play a very significant role in the
development of botany in the future.
Symposium on the
Methodology of Plant
symposium was arranged by Dr. F. E. Eckardt and was held under the presidency
of Professor L. Emberger, Director of the Botanical Institute of the University
of Montpellier on April 7 to 12. The symposium was sponsored by the International
Union of Biological Sciences and by UNESCO which provided interpreters and
head phones for simultaneous interpretation. It met in the new and attractive
building which houses the Botanical Institute. The Institute is located at
one end of the Botanical Garden which has been in existence since the 16th
century. Many well-known botanists worked at this garden, including Bauhin,
Rauwolf, two de Jussieus, and A. P. de Candolle.
symposium was planned to deal principally with methods useful for studying
plants and plant habitats in arid and semiarid conditions, but most of the
material presented was equally applicable to plants in moist habitats. It
attracted much more attention than had been anticipated with the result that
about 6o papers were crowded into four days and many others were declined
for lack of time. Because of the large number of papers the time allowed for
presentation was only 20 minutes, with an additional to minutes for discussion.
In many instances discussion had to be terminated just as it was becoming
interesting. Nevertheless, the meeting was quite successful because several
approaches were presented to each of the principal problems. Furthermore,
the participants extended their acquaintanceships among other workers and
carried on a lively exchange of ideas at coffee breaks and outside of the
regular sessions. Perhaps the symposium did not solve as many problems as
some of the participants may have hoped or expected, but it certainly resulted
in a much better understanding of the nature of many of the problems discussed.
program was divided into three sections, dealing with measurement of environmental
factors, of processes of plants, and of processes of plant communities.
section on environmental factors included papers on measurement of radiation,
wind, humidity, potential and actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and
precipitation. It is impossible to mention all of the papers. Measurement
radiation and the radiation balance near the surface of the earth was discussed
by several workers. Apparently sufficiently precise estimates can be made
by several methods to calculate water loss and potential dry matter production
fairly accurately. Considerable attention was given to estimation of potential
evapotranspiration from meteorological data. Van Bavel described a lysimeter
which permits unusually accurate measurements on a 3000 Kg. soil block. Stanhill
stated that potential evapotranspiraion can best be estimated from measurements
of evaporation from a standard class A evaporation pan. He suggested that
more research should be done on the environmental and physiological factors
which reduce actual rates of evapotranspiration below potential rates. The
writer agrees that this will be very productive. Swinbank claimed that potential
evapotranspiration is a useless term because it cannot be defined precisely,
but Slatyer defended its usefulness as a reference. Taylor presented a mathematical
treatment of movement of soil moisture and Schein discussed the measurement
of dew. Rainfall interception was discussed by Slavik and by Slatyer.
noticeable problem is the variety of terminologies used by various meteorologists
and soil scientists. The variety of their terminologies seems to exceed that
of plant physiologists for diffusion pressure deficit or water potential.
Some attempts were made to establish the synonymy of some of the terms used,
but it obviously will be many years before a reasonably uniform terminology
will be accepted.
section on study of plant processes included measurements of transpiration,
plant water stress, stomatal behavior, carbon dioxide uptake, and drought
resistance. The apparatus for measuring transpiration and photosynthesis ranged
from small cuvettes for individual leaves to large plastic enclosures for
one or several plants. Most investigators use infra red gas analyzers for
measurement of CO2, but Slavik and Catsky described a relatively simple colorimetric
device for field use. Alvim described a new and simple type of porotneter
for use in the field to facilitate measurement of stomatal aperture as an
indication of water stress. Oppenheimer discussed measurement of stomatal
aperture in conifers by modified infiltration techniques.
people discussed measurement of water potential (DPD) and relative turgidity
or water saturation deficit. Water potential can be measured with satisfactory
precision by vapor equilibration, electric hygrometers, and the Schardakow
method, at least in the lower range of water stress. Improvements in the leaf
disk method of measuring relative turgidity were described by Catsky and Slatyer,
and Kramer suggested that entire leaves have advantages over leaf disks for
measurement of relative turgidity or water saturation deficit.
section on plant communities dealt chiefly with estimation of evapotranspiration
from plant cover and measurements by use of lysimeters. Dry matter production
in different parts of the world was discussed by Lieth and dry matter production
of a forest was described by Woodwell.
addition to the four clays of scientific sessions there was an afternoon trip
to a nearby agricultural experiment farm where research on a variety of crops
is carried on. There also was a Sunday bus trip through the Rhone delta and
into Provence which gave a good idea of the agriculture and vegetation of
the region. A large reclamation and irrigation project is under way to provide
enough water to divert large areas of land from grapes to other crops. This
includes a pumping station near St. Gilles which elevates water from the Rhone
River to a canal in which it can be distributed to areas which cannot be reached
by gravity flow. This trip also included visits to such historic places as
Arles, Les Baux, the ruins of a Roman town near St. Remy, Avignon, Pont du
Gard, and Nimes. The remains of Roman works in Arles and Nimes and the Pont
du Gard are impressive reminders of the time when Rome ruled this area and
Nimes was an important city of the Roman Empire.
zoo persons from about 20 countries were registered and many other unregistered
persons attended. This provided a wonderful opportunity to make or renew acquaintanceships
with workers from all over the world. In fact this opportunity to meet and
talk with workers from other countries probably is more important than the
content of the formal sessions.
writer feels that the ideal arrangement for meetings of this type would be
to circulate the papers in advance. The author could then give a short summary
of his important points, followed by two or three persons designated to discuss
them. Most of the time could then be devoted to discussion which usually is
the most profitable and stimulating part of the meeting.
we should close this review with a word of warning. Pleasant and profitable
as they are, we may be having too many international conferences. This was
the third international conference attended by the writer since September
r, and a fourth is scheduled for next August in Australia which will include
several persons who were at Montpellier. Valuable as they are, too many meetings
can become a hindrance rather than a stimulus to the research of the participants.
The writer hopes that after the next conference he can settle down in his
laboratory for a few months to digest the new ideas and attempt to apply some
of them to his research.
Proposal to Modify the Organization of the Physiological Section of the Botanical
Society of America 1
many years past the Physiological Section of the Botanical Society of America
has joined with the American Society of Plant Physiologists as co-sponsor
of the sessions for contributed papers in plant physiology at the annual American
Institute of Biological Sciences meetings which both societies attend. Numerically,
the papers submitted from the Physiological Section have contributed a very
prepared by John G. Torrey, Chairman; Carlos Miller, Vice Chairman; and Peter
M. Ray, Secretary; Physiological Section, Botanical Society of America.
of the total number; frequently, such papers could have been submitted through
either channel since individual memberships overlap considerably.
convenience and coherence in program planning, a working arrangement was evolved
over the years whereby titles and abstracts of papers contributed by members
of the Physiological Section were brought together by the Secretary of the
Section, and then were sent to the Secretary of the A. S. P. P. whose responsibility
it was, together with the local campus representative, to schedule all physiological
papers and to arrange abstracts for publishing. The success of these sessions
for contributed papers attests to the wisdom of such co-sponsorship by the
Physiological Section. How-ever, the existing mechanism is cumbersome and
inefficient, leading to duplication of effort, overlap of responsibility and
co-sponsorship of sessions for contributed papers is the major activity of
the Section and has been for the past five years or more. Another, lesser,
activity is an annual business meeting at which, each year, new officers are
elected, whose functions are, I) to act as middle-men for contributed papers
as described above, and 2) to arrange to meet the next year to perpetuate
the past two years, the duly elected officers of the Physiological Section
have discussed at length the proper role of the Section in representing the
field of plant physiology within the Botanical Society of America and the
present position of the Section in relation to the American Society of Plant
Physiologists. The matter has had continuing discussion at the business meetings
for at least the past five years.
August 1961, at the A. I. B. S. meetings at Purdue University, the Section
met to formulate a plan of action. During the discussion, it was recognized
that there exist potential specialized areas in which the Section might serve
if sufficient enthusiasm and interest could be aroused; it was likewise recognized
that other existing agencies could equally well or better serve in these ways
if efforts were channelled into them. It was clear that the organized strength
of plant physiologists resides in the established American Society of Plant
Physiologists and that the latter Society had been acting, in fact, as the
organized body of physiologists for both Societies for a number of years.
There was general agreement, however, that the physiologists should continue
to maintain an appropriately strong position in the Botanical Society of America,
to advise and consult in the affairs of the Society and its Journal, and to
help in its future development, for the good of the Society as well as that
of individual physiologists. Exploration was made of the possible mechanisms
whereby the goals could be achieved of strengthening the procedures for planning
the sessions for contributed papers, eliminating duplication of effort, and
yet- retaining an active voice of physiologists in the Botanical Society.
A proposal for the modification of the organization of the Physiological Section
of the Botanical Society of America was debated and then adopted at the business
meeting of August 1961 with the provision that, after appropriate publicity
had been given the proposal, final action on the reorganization would be taken
at the business meeting of the Section at the annual A. I. B. S. meeting in
institution of any new organization clearly depended upon initial acceptance
of the proposal by the Council of the Botanical Society of America and the
Executive Committee of the American Society of Plant Physiologists, and then
by the membership of the Physiological Section.
November 1961, the proposal for reorganization of the Physiological Section
was sent to all members of the Council of the Botanical Society of America
and to the Executive Committee of the American Society of Plant Physiologists.
The proposal has received careful, thoughtful consideration by these groups.
Through a series of revisions of the original proposal, agreement has been
reached by these two groups as to a sound and working arrangement. This proposal
as agreed upon by the executive boards of the two societies is reproduced
below. The proposal will be submitted to the membership of the Physiological
Section at its annual business meeting at the time of the A. I. B. S. meetings
in Corvallis, Oregon in August 1962, and if approved, will be placed in effect
as soon thereafter as feasible.
proposed modification in the organization of the Physiological Section has
the following important advantages: I) it establishes a strong liason agent
acting for the physiologists between the American Society of Plant Physiologists
and the Botanical Society of America. The appointment for three years assures
a coherent and sustained representation. 2) it accommodates all plant physiologists
who wish to present papers at the national meetings. It does this without
duplication of effort, overlap of responsibility, or conflict of interests.
3) it retains within the framework of the Botanical Society of America a place
for interested plant physiologists and in fact strengthens the voice of plant
physiologists within the Botanical Society of America by unifying and increasing
following proposal to modify the organization of the Physiological Section
of the Botanical Society of America has been agreed upon by the executive
boards of the two societies concerned and will be voted upon by the member-ship
of the Section in August 1962 at Corvallis, Oregon.
Physiological Section of the Botanical Society of America has gradually
become in function only a minor adjunct to the American Society of Plant
Physiologists, and this position is unlikely to change;
situation causes unnecessary duplication of effort, and difficulty on
the part of the elected officers of the Section and of the A. S. P. P.;
is desirable that some active representation of plant physiologists be
retained within the Botanical Society, as an indication of the Society's
interest in plant physiology and as a means by which plant physiologists
can have a voice in the Botanical Society Council,
THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED TI-IAT,
The Physiological Section be retained in title and that members of the Society
continue to designate their
in plant physiology by electing membership in the Physiological Section in
the present manner.
election of officers of the Physiological Section be discontinued.
Executive Committee of the American Society of Plant Physiologists appoint
to the Council of the Botanical Society of America for a term of three
years a Physiological Representative from among the membership of the
A. S. P. P. The Representative designated must be a member of the Botanical
Society of America and will be a member of the Physiological Section.
Secretary of the American Society of Plant Physiologists be designated
to receive directly titles and abstracts of papers from physiologists
of the Botanical Society of America for inclusion in programs of contributed
papers sponsored by the A. S. P. P., and that publication of such abstracts
be handled together with other abstracts published by the A. S. P. P.
The balance in the section treasury be donated to the American Society of
Plant Physiologists to defray future costs of printing abstracts contributed
by physiologists of the B. S. A.
The Secretary of the A. S. P. P. send a copy of the abstracts of papers in
the plant physiology meetings to any member physiologist of the B. S. A. who
sends the Secretary the current year's charge for abstracts.
taxonomy, methods and principles. Lyman Benson. i–ix + 494 pp. 1962.
The .Ronald Press Company, New
the preface of his earlier textbook, Plant Classification, published five
years ago, Dr. Benson remarked that two taxonomic books on vascular plants
are needed—an elementary textbook, and an advanced textbook. Plant Classification
was designed for a college course without pre-requisite. The present volume,
Plant Taxonomy, Methods and Principles, is the advanced textbook of which
the author spoke and was "primarily written as a textbook for students who
have already acquired some familiarity with plant classification."
major point which the author makes early in the book is that the goal of taxonomic
botany is organization, and that in order best to achieve this goal the taxonomist
is concerned with the following pursuits: (i) exploration for data, (2) classification,
(3) choice of names, (4) description and documentation, and (5) treatises
and monographs. Each of these serves as a heading for one of the five separate
parts of this book, in itself well organized and written.
for Data is the largest part of the book and covers more pages than all of
the other parts combined. The following- enumeration of the individual chapters
in Part I illustrates the author's wise contention that the taxonomist should
not restrict himself only to certain disciplines in approaching a problem,
but should utilize data available from every pertinent field: Herbarium Studies;
Field Observations; Data from Microscopic Morphology;
from Paleobotany and Their Interrelationship with Biogeography; Data from
Chemistry, Plant Physiology, and Ecology; Data from Cytogenetics; and Synthesis
of Data. Numerous examples from current research are presented in each chapter,
more to introduce the student to different kinds of approaches to various
problems than to explain in detail any of these separately. Although this
may stimulate the student to pursue the subject on his own, some explanations
seem too shortened and simplified to give him even a good starting point.
This applies especially to the section on chemistry in one chapter, in which
discussion of plant serology fails even to mention such key words as "antigen"
and "antibody" in explaining the reaction. A more recent application of biochemistry
to taxonomy has been the use of paper chromatography. It is regrettable that
this interesting phase was not discussed in the text rather than treated only
as a reference in the bibliography.
of the finest parts of the whole book is Choice of Names. Following a concise
explanation of popular and scientific names, and the International Code of
Botanical Nomenclature, there is a chapter on the application of the Code
which presents a number of nomenclatural problems. These will provide good
practice for those who are being introduced to taxonomic nomenclature for
the first time. Unlike Dr. Harold St. John, in his book Nomenclature of Plants,
the present author gives answers to the problems which he presents.
chapters which constitute the final part of the book, Treatises and Monographs,
cover important aspects often omitted from textbooks, e. g., the visiting
of herbaria, and the borrowing, returning, and handling of specimens. In the
last chapter the author discusses many of the phases involved in writing the
results of research and preparing the manuscript for publication.
dubious value to the book as a whole is the concentrated selection of examples
from the Ranunculaceae and Cactaceae which, of course, are specialties of
the author. The examples are good ones and are authoritative, to be sure,
but a much wider variety of families would certainly be more appealing and
less monotonous to the beginning taxonomy student.
criticisms which I have offered are minor, however, in comparison with the
over-all quality and value of this book. It is excellently written and profusely
illustrated and fills a gap between the elementary botany textbook and taxonomic
work geared more to the professional level. It should find wide acceptance
by taxonomy students and teachers alike.—THozrAs R. SoDERSTROni, Smithsonian
NATIONAL BOTANIC GARDENS OF SOUTH AFRICA Will
its Golden Jubilee next year, and the staff is desirous of welcoming distinguished
botanists to take part in the celebrations to be held in September and October
1963. The highlight of the proceedings will feature a
tour to last about three weeks which will take visitors through all the main
vegetation types of South Africa. The tour will be preceded by a week of lectures,
discussions and symposia on botanical and allied subjects. Interested persons
should address the Director, National Botanic Gardens of South Africa, Kirstenbosch,
Newlands, C. P., South Africa.
DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY at YALE UNIVERSITY an-
the following additions to its staff: Theodore Delevoryas, formerly of the
University of Illinois, as Associate Professor (Paleobotany); Bruce C. Carlton,
formerly of Stanford University, as Assistant Professor (Biochemical Genetics)
; James Cronshaw, formerly of the C. S. I. R. 0., Australia, as Assistant
Professor (Electron Microscopy); G. Benjamin Bouck, formerly of Harvard University,
as Instructor (Electron Microscopy) ; Beatrice M. Sweeney, formerly of Scripps
Institute, La Jolla, California, as Lecturer (Algal Physiology).
HUNT BOTANICAL LIBRARY is planning to expand its collection of about 400 engraved
likenesses of persons who have contributed to the science and literature of
agriculture, botany, materia medica, and horticulture. The present collection
is one of the larger assemblages of its kind in America; a number of those
in Europe are far more complete than any of those in this country.
purpose of maintaining a comprehensive collection of portraits is to round
out the documentation on the individuals concerned. Such a collection becomes
a research tool for the historian and a source of data for biographers and
bibliographers. Although the present collection is largely of 16th through
mid-19th century people, present plans call for adding portraits of the 19th
and zoth century. All botanists and horticulturists are urged to contribute
or loan photographs of themselves for inclusion in the collection. Persons
having collections of photographs of botanists and horticulturists, or who
know of the existence of such collections, are invited to write to the Director,
Hunt Botanical Library, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh 13, Pennsylvania.
has been announced by Professor Harold Bold, Chair-
that ASSISTANT PROFESSORS R. L. AIRTH and R. E. ALSTON of the Department of
Botany, University of Texas, have been recently promoted to Associate Professorships.
ceremonies during May, DR. WILLIAM H. WESTON, JR. was awarded the Outstanding
Civilian Service Medal by the Department of the Army at the Quartermaster
Research and Engineering Center, Natick, Massachusetts. The medal and citation,
presented on behalf of the Secretary of Defense, reflect an appreciation of
Dr. Weston's contributions to the research planning and achievements of the
Quartermaster Corps over the past zo years. Dr. Weston is Emeritus Professor
of Botany at Harvard University.
WILLIAM W. SCOTT, Associate Professor of Botany at Virginia Polytechnic Institute,
was honored at the fortieth annual meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science
with the receipt of an award for meritorious and original research in competition
for the J. Shelton Horsley Award. Dr.
paper, A monograph of the genus Aphanomyces,
one of over two hundred presented at this year's meeting.
September 1, DR. JoHN E. EBINGER, presently with the Connecticut Agricultural
Experiment Station in New Haven, will take up the position of Assistant Professor
of Botany at Roanoke College. His duties will include teaching in general
botany, plant taxonomy and ecology, and acting as curator of the herbarium.
CONSTANTINE J. ALEXOPOULOS has resigned as Pro-
and Head of the Department of Botany, State University of Iowa, effective
June 1962, to become Professor of Botany at the University of Texas. PROFESSOR
ROBERT L. HULBARY will take over the chairmanship of the Iowa Department of
Botany in September.
GEORGE W. GILLETT has received a Fulbright award for research and teaching
in evolution and plant taxonomy at the University of Turku, Finland, during
the academic year of 1962-1963. In September 1963, he will join the faculty
of the Department of Botany at the University of Hawaii where he has accepted
an Associate Professorship. His work at Hawaii will include the development
of an herbarium and the responsibility for the program in plant taxonomy and
biosystematics. Currently he is Assistant Professor of Botany at Michigan
ARTHUR L. COHEN, Professor of Biology, Oglethorpe University, Atlanta, Georgia,
will take up a position in the Department of Botany of Washington State University
beginning in July. His chief occupations at Washington will be to set up an
electron microscope laboratory, to consult and advise on the use of the instruments,
and to develop a course in electron microscopy. Dr. Cohen expects to continue
his own research on morphogenesis in the myxomycetes and later to direct graduate
VERNON I. CHEADLE, for the past year Acting Vice Chancellor and Professor
of Botany at the Davis Campus of the University of California, became Chancellor
(chief administrative officer) of the Santa Barbara Campus on July I, 1962.
He hopes to have a little time for research and, accordingly, will take all
his collections to Santa Barbara.
STEVE J. GRILLOS, formerly botanist in the Department of Biological Sciences
at the University of the Pacific, has recently been appointed Associate Professor
of Biology at the newly established Alameda County State College in Hayward,
California. The botany program is just being developed and Professor Grillos
has the major responsibility of organizing the project. A department to encompass
this program has not yet been established but besides teaching curricula,
plans for a plant collection are also under way.
AND MRS. JOHN H. MILLER are leaving the Department of Botany at Yale University.
As of July I their new address will be, Department of Bacteriology and Botany,
Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York.
SYDNEY S. GREENFIELD, Chairman of the Department of Botany at Rutgers Newark
College of Arts and Sciences, has been elected Chairman of the Faculty of
Botany of Rutgers—The State University, for the term 1962-1964.