PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
A Publication of the Botanical Society of America, Inc.
8 APRIL 1962 NUMBER 1
Sciences in the Land Grant System of the United States'
century is a short span in the history of a nation. Nevertheless, the past
hundred years encompass the major period in the development of education and
research in the United States and their application to the advancement of
the nation and the enlightenment of the people. It was during this important
era that we came of age and gained stature among the community of nations.
concepts and principles set forth by the founding fathers, including public
support for universal education, formed the firm foundation for this century
of building. The national enactment which led to the establishment of Land-Grant
colleges and universities in 1862, and the continued increase in public support
of education and research, furnished the trained builders, ample materials,
and the reinforcements for the structure of the nation. State and federal
tax-supported universities and experiment stations—first founded in
the United States—were a major medium through which cooperation between
education and research advanced aggressively over the past century. The working
philosophy of joint attack by scientists, educators and administrators to
the solution of national problems evolved over these years. Many of the leaders
involved in this cooperative endeavor were closely associated with the Land-Grant
system, especially in the agricultural and engineering sciences. This hundred
years also saw the birth and development of modern plant science in this country,
fostered in large part by the associated state and federal supported institutions.
the rapidly expanding frontier of the latter half of the nineteenth century,
our forefathers' greatest concern was with subsistence. The plant science
which followed them West was largely concerned with the systematic study of
plants collected during the exploration of North America. This involved not
only our own taxonomists, but those of other countries who came to learn the
plants of the newly opened colossus that was North America. The great names
included E. J. Palmer, Asa Gray, George Engelmann, John Torrey, E. L. Greene
and Sereno Watson, all of whom maintained professional ties with colleagues
in Europe. In the early days of the past century, most of the plants collected
on the frontier were sent to Eastern centers for study, but gradu-
Paper commemorating the Centennial, 1862-1962, of the Land-Grant Colleges
and State Universities. The tragic death of Professor Dickson in the Philippines
on February 28, 1962, prevented his final revision of this paper. The editor
has therefore made some changes in the text, but has tried to avoid any changes
of meaning. ally, as the frontier was tamed and funds were made available
for the establishment of Western educational institutions, more and more of
these studies were performed in situ. The great taxonomic tradition that is
associated with the University of Nebraska and C. E. Bessey, and with W. J.
Beal at Michigan Agricultural College, are examples of the kind of botanical
work which came to be centered in Western, Land-Grant institutions. The pioneering
studies of T. J. Burrill on bacterial diseases of plants at the University
of Illinois is another excellent example of early plant science at a tax-supported
these Western Land-Grant colleges grew, their scope of education and research
in plant science widened, the latter often under the impetus of their associated
agricultural branches. Accelerated exploration and settlement brought increased
demands on agriculture with coincident new problems to be called to the attention
of the plant scientists. New studies were initiated : basic at first to supply
new information, applied later on when the new data were brought to bear on
the resolution of agricultural questions. The growth of botanical science
in the United States paralleled that in Europe, and progressed from studies
mostly concerned with plant systematics to include studies in function, form,
and variability in plants.
on indigenous crop plants paralleled the introduction and use of Old World
crops during the second half of the ninteenth century. Although agriculture
evolved and expanded rapidly prior to the Civil War, growth intensified subsequently
for reasons mentioned above, and the in-creased use of mechanized farming
methods. The period immediately following the Civil War saw rapid dissipation
of our natural resources including prairie and forest soils; grasslands and
timberlands were recklessly misused. New practical demands were placed upon
the plant sciences and related biological disciplines. A need was felt for
unity in policy and concerted national effort leading to the solution of these
regional problems. These factors, and the demand for technically trained personnel
to cope with the agricultural agonies brought on by the rush westward, were
perhaps important motivating forces behind the Morrill Land-Grant Act.
the latter half of the nineteenth century, the United States was dominantly
rural and regional in philosophy. Universities and colleges newly established
under state constitutions were struggling to meet the problems involved in
PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN
WILLIAM L. STERN, Editor
25, D. C.
P. BANKS Cornell University
NORMAN H. BOKE University of Oklahoma
S. GREENFIELD Rutgers University
QUARTERMAN Vanderbilt University
ERICH STEINER University of Michigan
1962 VOLUME 8
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SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION should be typewritten, double-spaced, and sent in
duplicate to the Editor. Copy should follow the style of recent issues of
of the press of academic and civic commitments, coupled with a major share
of the responsibility in a new building program at Rutgers University, Editor
Sydney S. Greenfield has asked to be relieved of his duties in conjunction
with the Bulletin. Nevertheless, Dr. Greenfield is still vitally interested
in our publication and requested to be placed on the Editorial Board. It is
with pleasure that I extend to him the sincere thanks of the Board and the
membership of the Botanical Society of America for his sincere and conscientious
good work over the years in which he acted as editor.
education. Rural leaders were clamoring for assistance for agriculture, and
college administrators were be-ginning to recognize the place of the university
in supplying this assistance. In their third annual report of 185o, the Board
of Regents of the University of Wisconsin included the following statement:
Science, like all other sciences, can only be acquired by study and research.
The discipline of the school is essential to its acquistion. Without it, the
farming processes fall to the low level of routine and drudgery. With it,
agriculture rises to the dignity of a profession, and indicates its undoubted
claim to stand not only in the front rank of the experimental arts, but side
by side with the learned professions in interest and honor as well as in profit."
vision and courage were expressed by other educational governing boards of
this period. Because of the utter dependence of agriculture on plant science,
these publicly supported institutions became centers for training personnel
in this discipline. From simple beginnings, the plant sciences in the Land-Grant
colleges expanded into several fields in the early part of the twentieth century
to include morphology, physiology, genetics, plant pathology, and microbiology,
and the allied agricultural pursuits of horticulture, forestry, agronomy,
and soil science. Outstanding departments of botanical sciences came to be
associated with Land-Grant colleges and universities.
investigations in genetics led to improvements in crop plants and supplied
information utilized in breeding plants for resistance to disease. Studies
in mineral nutrition of crop plants prompted the improvement of chemical fertilizers.
Research on plant auxins and the effect of day length on flowering responses
have had important practical applications in floriculture. Improvement in
cattle feeds has resulted from investigations on the nutritive value of plants
and plant products. Pure studies on the biochemical activities of microorganisms
have had profound effects on industries dependent upon the fermentive activities
of fungi and bacteria. Whole new series of therapeutically beneficial products
have come from research on soil microorganisms. These are but a few of the
major lines of research progress enumerated merely to illustrate the influence
of plant science activities at Land-Grant institutions upon the lives of our
citizens. To go into detail on any one of these would be quite beyond the
scope of this brief paper.
in plant science and its present welfare do not justify complacency. The current
status of pure and applied botany merit critical analysis, and coordinated,
constructive study in planning for the future. General education in plant
science below the graduate level was sorely neglected in Land-Grant and private
educational institutions during this century of research progress. Biologists
recently have faced this educational deficiency, cooperatively defined a new
dynamic curriculum of important subject matter, and tested its validity through
experimental use in representative high schools. Similar studies are in progress
for use in the elementary schools, and also in universities and colleges.
is felt that plant scientists early dissipated their effectiveness, directive
influence, and economy, by fragmentation in-to independent societies based
on specialized disciplines and their application. Cooperation and coordination,
without regimentation, are essential to wise decisions. Recent at-tempts to
unite plant science groups indicate that further ground may be lost before
this need is fully realized. The glaring weakness in plant science illustrated
during the past century is lack of cohesion and its unfortunate, direct effect
which diminished its rightful role in helping guide national policies and
publicly sponsored research in the plant sciences in the United States is
in danger of curtailment in funds, both in the basic and applied phases. The
presence of food and fiber surpluses owing to the unique application of science
to produce high yields, complicated by political and economic manipulation,
along with the inability of urban industry to employ all of the superfluous
farm workers, are the combined forces that jeopardize the continued, generous
support of the Land-Grant system. Basic knowledge—the spring from which
all practical advancement flows— must accumulate slowly, well in advance
of anticipated use. A solid front of plant scientists, well unified in purpose,
is needed to bring to the attention of legislators the urgent need for continued
support of plant science in Land-Grant institutions to provide for a continued
flow of basic information.
in the plant sciences presents a complexity of unknowns to challenge the best
minds in the century ahead. Basic concepts are unfolding that demand cooperative
by men of many disciplines. Each must be free to explore to full capacity
in his field of choice. Yet, each must coordinate his findings with those
obtained from al-lied investigations to provide sound conclusions, and to
pre-sent comprehensive interpretations of procedures and results. Cooperative
educational and research endeavor evolved under the Land-Grant system during
the past century. Further expansion and perfection of such cooperation, and
its application to the solution of the numerous, complex basic and applied
problems, will be essential in the future. Continuance of this kind of cooperative
education and research will doubtlessly remain the forte of the Land-Grant
college during the next century.
and Teaching in Pakistan
the past summer it was my good fortune to teach a summer course in botany
at Dacca University in East Pakistan. The course was part of a program modeled
after the U. S. National Science Foundation Summer Institutes and was arranged
by the Pakistan Government and the Asia Foundation. Fourteen such institutes
in a variety of fields have been held during the past two summers. In each
case the courses were taught by a group of three persons—two Pakistani
professors and a foreign professor. Though it was not prearranged, we three
in botany complemented one another—cytologist, geneticist, and morphogeneticist.
The Asia Foundation, which arranged for the presence of the foreign professors,
also generously supplied current text and reference books that were invaluable
in the work of the summer. The general purpose of the institute was to bring
a selected group of Pakistani participants into contact with newer botanical
developments and techniques, and to improve their potential as teachers of
group, composed of teachers from colleges and universities from both wings
of Pakistan, was enthusiastic, hard-working, and eager to learn. All had earned
M. Sc. degrees in Pakistani or Indian universities and most held teaching
positions in colleges which correspond roughly to junior colleges in the United
States (see scheme). Two were demonstrators (the lowest academic rank) from
two of the Pakistani universities. Their ages ranged from 25–35. We
found their knowledge of the descriptive and classical aspects of botany was
in general very well developed and reflected their prior training and experience.
They did not, however, have a working knowledge of more recent information,
particularly in plant physiology and biochemistry, genetics, experimental
taxonomy, and morphogenesis. We therefore endeavored to present certain rudiments
of these fields during the eight-week course.
are, according to our rough estimate, about loo professional botanists at
work in Pakistan, mostly with M. Sc.
owe my sincere thanks to Prof. A. S. Islam of Sind University, Hyderabad,
Pakistan, for suggestions and helpful reading of this paper. degrees. Several
have had master's or doctorate training in British, German, or American universities,
and increasing numbers are coming to the United States for graduate work.
Pakistani School System
School and Lower Secondary School
for average students
for brighter students
three subjects plus
one major and two
B.A. or B.Sc. degree
B.A. or B.Sc. degree
to M.A. or M.Sc.
to M.A. or M.Sc.
mark: 50 per cent through 59 per cent
division: 6o per cent through 74 per cent
division: 75 per cent or over
large portion of this group teaches botany in colleges or universities, and
the remaining few botanists are engaged in the agricultural research institutions.
We also estimated that the six Pakistani universities have each produced a
minimum of 20–30 M. Sc. graduates in botany in the past five years.
It would seem obvious that most of these students do not enter the conventional
professional fields open to botanists after graduation, but must find a livelihood
in some other area where jobs are more plentiful. One, for example, is now
a high official in the police department of the city of Dacca. I also heard
of Ph.D.'s with foreign training leaving Pakistan for lack of suitable appointments
in the scientific field.
M. Sc. degree is roughly equivalent to the B. Sc. in the United States, and
a special paper or thesis based on re-search is required. Their M. Sc. degree
represents perhaps more extensive, but not necessarily more advanced, training
in the major field, and results from earlier specialization without the breadth
of knowldge generally required of liberal arts and science students in this
as a subject introductory to botany or zoology, is unknown at the college
or university level. General concepts integrating the two disciplines, especially
at a cellular level, are nearly unknown. The over-all background of M. Sc.
students is poor or completely lacking in organic or biochemistry, I found,
and this creates a considerable barrier to the appreciation of a modern approach
to the life sciences. At the same time the more enthusiastic teachers and
students are aware of their deficiency and are eager to bridge the gap. Students
are particularly desirous of completing their education by obtaining a graduate
degree in the United States. I should be pleased to provide names and recommendations,
if anyone has positions available that could be filled by worthy candidates
in taxonomy, genetics, or physiology.
syllabus system is followed in the colleges and universities. The syllabi
are composed by a committee at the
under the chairmanship of the professor of the department. A few department
heads from colleges subordinate to the university are also represented on
the committee. As might be expected, the syllabi reflect the interests and
training of the members of the committee and may not indicate a modern approach
to botanical science.
Dacca University there were few currently published books available in the
library; journals were there, however, in fair supply. The book supply program
of the Asia Foundation (see October, 1961, Plant Science Bulletin) is of untold
value in the academic life of Pakistan as well as of other Eastern countries,
especially for the smaller schools, as our participants were eager to attest.
which follow the syllabi closely are con-ducted once a year by the departmental
examiner appointed by the university authorities. Until last year, the college
teachers, and even the university teachers, had little or no say in the rating
of their own students, except for laboratory examinations—the practicals.
As new procedure, teachers are now allowed some 25 per cent of the total rating
of their students; the other 75 per cent is still within the province of the
university. Teachers in the colleges must now hold a mini-mum of five examinations
in their subjects in an academic year, and grades allotted in these exams
constitute the 25 per cent of the total markings. Also, a student is required
to pass separately in the college examinations held by the teacher and the
written examination held by the university. If the Education Commission finds
that this system operates successfully, the teachers will be given a 5o per
cent responsibility in rating of the students.
result from distinct lack of modern equipment and shortage of properly arranged
laboratory space. This would seem to me as important, or more so, than any
lack of know-how on the part of professional staffs. Micro-scopes and electronic
equipment, glassware, etc., are so ex-pensive and difficult to obtain, and
require a variety of government import permits. This problem is compounded
by the ravages of a humid tropical climate. Maintenance and storage facilities
are poor or non-existent, and equipment may lie idle for months or longer
for lack of some simple part, deteriorating all the while. The situation is
not helped by the system of laboratory assistance in use: many servants, called
bearers, each with his own small responsibility, which may or may not be carried
out when most necessary.
is unfortunate that there is so little inter-departmental interest in the
matter of equipment and supplies. With cooperation between chemistry and botany,
for instance, a university might at least manage a single air-conditioned
laboratory where essential research equipment might be properly cared for
and used to advantage by all concerned. Grant administrators will eventually
have to recognize air-conditioning as a laboratory prerequisite in the tropics,
especially for maintenance of equipment.
spirit is deficient in the colleges and universities. A teacher may never
in his entire career have the opportunity to advance to a professorship, or
even become a reader (Ranks are demonstrator, lecturer, reader, professor.)
Pro- motion depends upon seniority rather than ability. Further, following
the European or English system, there is only one professor in each department—the
chairman. The prospect of years in the same rank, and at low pay with no advancement
of responsibility, is in itself not conducive to high morale among the members
of a teaching staff. Teaching loads are generally high and may even run over
20 class hours a week. Employees of the various government colleges have a
further difficulty if they wish to study abroad for a higher degree. Leaves-of-absence
are not easily obtained, and unless the teacher is confirmed by government
administrators (equivalent to our tenure), he must resign his position in
order to go abroad for higher studies. There is no guarantee that as good
a position will be available upon his return to Pakistan.
the gradual expansion of the whole educational system, the possibilities for
teachers should vastly improve. There is still little or no money or facilities
for educating the great mass of people. However, over the coming ten years
education will eventually become compulsory, and general literacy will slowly
be achieved. At present teachers are treated by high officials as though they
were objects of pity, and there is no particular esteem for them in public
opinion. Much greater prestige, income, and influence are enjoyed by men in
the higher government positions that approximate the level of college or university
faculties in the academic field. I was asked on several occasions about the
relative status of teachers and government employees in the United States
and how teachers' salaries compared with those in civil service. Being a teacher
in Pakistan requires a high degree of dedication, since it is so slow and
difficult for one to improve his lot.
to a number of research institutes set up by the Pakistan Government were
possible during my stay in East Pakistan. The role of the botanist is impressive
in each of these places. The Tea Research Institute in Srimangal is faced
with problems of seed selection, the analysis of soils of potential tea growing
areas (3 per cent expansion per year required of estate owners by government
decree), and trials of new shade plants and tea varieties. Also of special
interest are studies of a parasitic alga, Cephaleuros, which grows one year
and fruits the next, destroying the bark and stems of the tea shrubs. The
Tea Research Institute is considering the possibilities of establishing other
crops, such as vanilla and coffee, under estate conditions.
Jute Research Institute near Dacca is involved in fertilizer studies, seed
storage problems, trials to produce new varieties by irradiation and various
hybridizations, and at-tempts to control and describe a number of diseases
and in-sects. The isolation of special strains of retting bacteria has caused
significant improvements in the preparation of jute fiber. This has been of
great value in the recovery of fiber from the bases of the stalks—a
tough area usually producing a product of poor quality. The selected strains
of bacteria not only ret the fiber so it is usable, but also bleach it so
that quality is comparable to, or better than, some higher grades of jute.
Rice Research Institute near Dacca, which is also concerned with fiber crops,
particularly cotton and ramie, is promoting a program of improving the local
cultural practices. The tropical varieties of rice that can be grown in Pakistan
do not produce as well as temperate strains. Since this is offset only in
part by improved farming, there is an at-tempt, by hybridizing and backcrossing,
to improve the yields of various rice varieties during the seasons—particularly
Aman rice, the short-day winter rice which comprises one of the two main crops.
The institute is also trying to consolidate numerous varieties, to discard
poorer types, and to develop strains for deep water, and varieties that will
grow in brackish water near the tidal estuaries. It is quite fascinating to
see rice that will grow in 15–17 feet of water.
was once famous for exceedingly skillful weavers who could weave cotton into
extremely light and fine cloth. It was called "Dacca muslin" and was so delicate
that a piece measuring one by ten yards weighed only about three ounces. One
could read newsprint through five thicknesses of the cloth. Unfortunately,
the cotton they used has now been lost to culture for many years. An attempt
is being made genetically to reconstruct an equivalent cotton variety.
Agricultural Fruit Farm has a variety of projects, mostly the introduction
and trials of new cultivars of pine-apples, mangoes, sesame, peanuts, and
other fruit, oil, and seed plants. The native types are often definitely inferior,
and farmers have never before had the opportunity to in-crease production
by the use of superior varieties. The same situation exists in types of vegetables
available. As a single example, a virus-resistant variety of okra would provide
a significant improvement in this popular vegetable.
Forest Research Institute in Chittagong is faced with a number of problems
from plywood construction to re-forestation. The staff would even like to
find a use for the ubiquitous, obnoxious, yet beautiful water hyacinth in
the manufacture of pressed wood. Paramount is the need for an up-to-date descriptive
flora and a key to the microscopic anatomy of woods of various shrubs and
trees. Botanists in East Pakistan must still generally refer to Sir Joseph
Hooker's Flora of British India, published in 18941 The opportunities for
classic descriptive taxonomy alone are amazing. There are virgin forest areas
in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox's Bazar, and elsewhere, that have hardly been
explored. A major project is the mapping by air of all forest areas and the
estimation of timber resources. Many forests are hardly accessible except
by water and with the expenditure of great effort. The building of the large
dam at Kaptai on the Karnafuli River will back up an enormous lake and pro-duce
some 400 miles of rivers and streams that will enable a tremendous forest
area to be broached for the first time for commercial purposes.
is generally a drive to exploit all natural resources for cash return and
improvement of the economy. A botanist can only hope that some of this land
will be set aside to re-main in virgin condition for parks and study before
it is too late, and that sound conservational practices can be adopted right
from the beginning. On a trip up the Karnafuli we were impressed by the amount
of wastes already being dumped into the water by the new paper mill that depends
upon the bamboo groves and forests of that area. There was talk of digging
up Pakistan's unique coral island of St. Martin in the Bay of Bengal to supply
limestone needed in cement manufacturing, but fortunately it is not very accessible
to the mainland.
other institutes were approved by the government only during the past summer.
One will be devoted to the search for and cultivation of medicinal and drug
plants. The other will be responsible for the development of a coconut industry.
future for Pakistani botanists looks promising over the long view. With a
population of 40 million in East Pakistan and 50 million in the West Wing,
the role that the present loo professional botanists could eventually play
in the educational life and agricultural economy of the country is practically
Barro Colorado Island,
Canal Zone Biological Area
Agricultural Experiment Station
Canal Zone Biological Area is a unique tropical station which combines ready
access to a protected, relatively untouched forest with nearby laboratory
facilities and library resources. The area is located on Barro Colorado, a
small mountain top turned island, created when the Rio Chagres was dammed
to form Gatun Lake during the construction of the Panama Canal. It is three
miles across and has a land surface of nearly 4,000 acres. Owing to the many
ravines and small valleys which dissected the mountain top, the island has
over 25 miles of intricate coast line most of which is approachable by land
Barro Colorado is as thoroughly known as any area of comparable size in tropical
America. Since 1920, many botanists have visited the conservancy, and their
plant specimens have formed the bases for a number of publications describing
the plants of the island. The salubrious climate of the central isthmian region
is conducive to the growth of an abundant vegetation and complex flora, with
many more species represented than in any region of like size in continental
United States. In contrast to the situation in many temperate forests, no
pure stands of trees occur on Barro Colorado, and one acre may support as
many as eighty species of woody plants. In Standley's Flora of Barro Colorado
Island, Panama (1933), about moo species of flowering plants, 90 different
ferns and fern allies, and 175 lower forms of plants have been recorded. Even
so, it is reasonable to assume that the island will yet yield further new
species of plants, since recent collections by the author have turned up several
interesting plant species, little known previously.
in 1918, considered the valley of the Chagres to be one of the few regions
in the Canal Zone that then still contained virgin timber. Recent evaluations
by visiting botanists estimate that half the forest is in the mature state,
and that the remainder is second growth about 6o years of age. Nevertheless,
even to the casual visitor, it is evident that the vegetation of the island
has been little disturbed for many years. This is indicated by the numerous,
small forest-loving species of palms and tree ferns that abound, and which
are unable to adapt themselves to the upset conditions following recent cultivation.
Furthermore, the great size of some of the trees would seem to indicate a
prolonged period of growth with little influence by man. Lastly, the area
has been protected since 1923 when the Governor of the Canal Zone designated
it as a preserve. By Act of Congress, the Canal Zone Biological Area was established
in 1946 as a bureau of the Government under the administrative aegis of the
forest vegetation of much of the Isthmus of Panama is not tropical rain forest
in the technical sense because there is a dry season during the winter months
when the rainfall may be only 10 to 15 inches. Some parts of Panama, especially
in the central provinces of Code and Veraguas, comprise degraded savanna land
characterized by hard packed, unfertile soils which support drought-resistant
grasses and scrubby shrubs (Matthews and Guzman, 1958). In other regions,
however, the remainder of the year is exceedingly wet, and rainfall may be
in excess of loo inches in the western mountains and along the Pacific coast
of the Darien near Colombia. Since the temperature throughout lowland Panama
is generally moderate to high, the available moisture be-comes a most important
factor in determining vegetation. Furthermore, the total amount of annual
precipitation is probably of less importance to the vegetation than its seasonal
distribution. One result of this seasonal distribution of rain-fall is that
areas of Panama which might support a true tropical rain forest (other conditions
being conducive) produce other forms of vegetation depending upon elevation,
soil quality and physical condition, proximity to the sea, and so forth. Thus,
on Barro Colorado Island, the vegetation might be classified as semi-evergreen
monsoon forest. In such a forest formation, the taller trees lose their leaves
during the dry season and they are generally of lower stature than trees in
the true, evergreen rain forest. Also, there are fewer of the abundant woody
epiphytes and parasites which characterize the rain forest.
to Cain and Castro (1950) tropical forests can usually be divided into four
layers, and Pittier (1918) many years ago used this same classification in
his discussions of the forests of Panama. Although these four layers do not
exist in all tropical forests, they are of sufficiently widespread occurrence
to justify this scheme of description. The first, or highest layer, consists
of emergent trees. These are scattered throughout the forest and have most
or all of their crowns exposed above the main, closed canopy. On Barro Colorado
emergent trees are conspicuous and can be seen clearly when approaching the
island by boat. Cavanillesia platanifolia,
quinatum (Bombacaceae), and species of Ficus (Moraceae) are the more common
second layer of the typical, four stratum, tropical forest is represented
by the uppermost closed story, or main canopy. On the island, there are numerous
species in this layer, with no one comprising more than 10 to 15 per cent
of the total stand. Generally, these trees are slender with columnar trunks
that seldom branch until reaching the region of the relatively small crown.
third woody layer is composed of so-called under-growth trees and tall shrubs
which usually do not exceed a height of 40 feet. The stem diameter of these
plants is mostly less than four inches, and for the greater part, this layer
is dominated by many species of the ubiquitous Rubiaceae and Piperaceae with
a broad sampling of plants belonging to a wide variety of other families.
fourth layer comprises small shrubs and seedlings and seldom reaches more
than five feet in height. In the heavily shaded areas this layer may be almost
non-existent. Though the upper two tree layers on Barro Colorado exhibit an
important deciduous element, the lower levels are completely evergreen. Apparently
these smaller plants are less affected by the seasonal drought conditions
than are the upper level plants.
herbaceous plants occur under the woody layers. These usually grow where the
canopy allows the penetration of small shafts of sunlight. Also, man-made
clearings and wind-throws open the canopy so these plants can survive. Many
broad-leaved heliconias (Musaceae) with brightly colored, floriferous bracts
are found in such clearings. In wet areas of the forest floor there are dense
thickets of Aechmea magdalenae, a plant related to the pineapple, supporting
thick, spinescent leaves four to five feet long.
their classification of forest layers in the tropics, Cain and Castro have
also set forth other elements of the vegetation. These they grouped into climbing
plants and epiphytes. The climbing plants, or lianas, are a very conspicuous
part of the vegetation of Barro Colorado Island. Many of the longer vines
reach high into the upper canopy and clamber over the emergent trees. Consequently,
a tree which may appear at first sight to bear highly colored flowers may
only support a blooming liana in its branches. Many kinds of epiphytes (and
parasites) are also common. These plants which grow on the trunks and branches
of trees exist with-out any direct attachment to the soil. They require only
support from their host and usually are specially modified in some way to
obtain needed moisture and nutrients. The vascular epiphytes are a characteristic
feature of the vegetation of Barro Colorado and include several plant families.
Orchids are by far the most showy of the epiphytes, but the bromeliads with
brightly colored bracts also provide splashes of color high in the trees.
substantial acquaintance with tropical plant families can be rapidly secured
(and in comparative physical comfort) by botanists from the temperate zone
during a several-week visit to Barro Colorado. The herbarium is newly renovated
and contains an excellent sampling of the plants growing in
forest and along the shores. A completely new insight will be gained, for,
instead of finding representatives of familiar temperate plant families, whole
new vistas will be unfolded by association with plants of Flacourtiaceae,
Melastomaceae, Piperaceae, and Lecythidaceae, rather than Fagaceae, Ericaceae,
Pinaceae, and Ranunculaceae. Of special interest will be the occurrence of
woody plant families known almost exclusively as herbs in temperate regions.
Instead of Houstonia and Galium, Rubiaceae will mean Faramea, Genipa, and
Alseis. Instead of the slender members of Poa and Danthonia, Gramineae will
mean bamboos with arborescent culms and tough, twining, stems forming impenetrable
thickets. Common in open clearings on the island are Compositae which become
robust, woody shrubs. Violets will no longer be only of the shrinking kind,
for Rinorea is a small tree which is a common component of the third layer
of the forest. (Further, specific information on Canal Zone vegetation can
be found in Johnston, 1956.)
providing an easily acquired familiarity with a tropical American vegetation
and flora, opportunities for re-search in plant taxonomy, ecology, and physiology
also exist on Barro Colorado. This is especially true of cytotaxonomic investigations,
a field of study only barely touched in the tropics. Series of flower bud
fixations can easily be acquired over a several-week visit to insure obtaining
the desired states of meiosis so necessary for studying chromosome morphology
and for securing accurate chromosome counts. With laboratory and library near
at hand, the plant physiologist will find new and exciting avenues for research,
for most physiological investigations have previously been centered in the
temperate zone and are based largely on non-tropical plants. The chance to
combine controlled field studies with laboratory research on tropical plants
will pro-vide challenging spheres of activity in plant physiology. Be-cause
Barro Colorado is a protected area, the plant ecologist can set up field plots
and observational sites which will re-main undisturbed, and to which he can
return for data-taking season after season.
unusual plants are found on Barro Colorado Island. Among these is the strangler
fig, represented by Ficus costaricana, which starts life first as a small
epiphyte and continues to grow as such until the roots reach the ground. Once
secure in the soil, the plant grows rapidly and entwining roots produce many
lateral branches which encircle the host in a deadly embrace. Later, the dead
host decays leaving as its specter the gray-barked fig now standing on its
own spidery "legs."
or myrmecophytes, always provide an interesting, if not painful, experience
to botanists trained in the temperate zone. Much has been written about the
associations between plants and ants, and one recalls the painstaking observations
of Irving W. Bailey and William Morton Wheeler, some of which were made on
Barro Colorado. The bullhorn acacia is a low, unobtrusive shrub which might
go completely unobserved were it not for the viscious-looking, red-brown thorns
which do indeed appear to be miniature bull's horns. But, it is not really
the tips of these thorns that produce all the pain, for they can be avoided;
rather, it is the tiny ants which dwell in these taurine outgrowths. The slightest
movement of the plant excites hordes of angry ants which surge forth through
pores near the tips of the thorns to inflict the unwary with injections of
formic acid. Each set or thorns houses a separate colony of ants which feeds
on the sweet secretions produced by unfolding young leaves. Other plants such
as Cecropia (Moraceae), a soft-stemmed tree, and Triplaris (Polygonaceae),
a slender tree with hard, dark wood, also host ant colonies, but in the central
cavity of their stems. The ants associated with these genera of plants also
may inflict painful irritations to the botanically unsuspecting.
relief is needed from ant-bites, sunburn or more serious discomforts, first-aid
is available at the station head-quarters situated in a large clearing on
the north side of the island. Here there are several cabins and a large dormitory
for lodging, electric lights, fans, a central dining room, showers, and other
conveniences. Although many investigations require no laboratory other than
a roof, or equipment other than a notebook, there is a large, new, air-conditioned
laboratory building for indoor work. In this same building also are housed
a 3,000 volume library which subscribes to a dozen botanical journals, the
small but comprehensive herbarium, laboratory supply room, dry storage rooms,
and ample working space. Glassware, preservatives, mounting sheets, and other
supplies can be purchased from the stock-room. Limited equipment, such as
plant presses, compound and dissecting microscope, binoculars and spotting
'scope, 4 X 5-inch camera and tripod, calipers, ladders, ropes, jungle hammocks,
tools, and dugouts, may be borrowed. In addition, wood, wire, glassware, and
materials for improvising equipment are available. Other supplies may be purchased
on the mainland.
accredited to the Canal Zone Biological Area may also carry on investigations
on the mainland in an area recently made available for the use of the bureau.
Ecologically this terrain is a complete contrast to the island and field studies
of an entirely different nature may be made there. The island may also be
used as a headquarters for scientists who wish to conduct investigations in
seeking further information about the Area should write to: Dr. Leonard Carmichael,
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, Washington 25, D. C.
S. A., AND G. M. DE O. CASTRO. 1959. Manual of vegetation analysis. Harper
,Sc Brothers. New York.
I. M. 1956. Vegetation sections in C. R. McCullough, Terrain study of the
Panama Canal Zone with specific reference to the Ft. Sherman area and vicinity.
Department of Engineering Research. N. C. State College, Raleigh.
E. D., AND L. E. GuaroAN. 1958. Los suelos y la agricutura de los llanos de
Cock'. Servicio Interamericano de Cooperacidn Agricola en Panama, Panama.
H. 1918. Our present knowledge of the forest formations of Panama. Jour. Forestry
P. C. 1933. The flora of Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Contr. Arnold Arboretum
studies in general botany. WILLIAM M. CARLTON. Illus. The Ronald Press Company,
New York. $4.50.
is not clear whether this manual is meant for a semester course in general
botany or for a year course. From the author's remarks in the preface it is
assumed that there is probably meant to be considerable leeway in the type
of course for which the manual is intended, depending upon geographic location,
length of the course, number of class meetings per week, and, perhaps, even
the selection of text-book.
manual is an exceptionally complete one, covering the structure and physiology
of higher plants, genetics, and a rather thorough survey of the plant kingdom.
Considering the size and scope of the manual, one cannot help being impressed
with the efforts of Professor Carlton in assembling and presenting such a
mass of material. Certainly, one who has been exposed to a general botany
course in which all of the exercises are covered would have an enviable background
in the plant sciences.
have managed to creep in, however, a number of errors of fact (e.g., Spirogyra
is not considered to be a colonial organism by most botanists) ; misleading
diagrams (e. g., the transverse section of the aerial stem of Psilotum is
one very near the tip of the plant and not quite representative of the "typical"
sections available from most biological supply houses) ; awkward grammatical
constructions (e. g., "The tangential section is cut lengthwise the stem ...")
; misleading statements (e. g., "Note the apparent lack of intercellular spaces
[in the palisade layer of the leaf]"); and poorly reproduced photomicrographs.
It is hoped that these inconsistencies will be corrected in subsequent editions.
criticism of a number of current manuals, not aimed at this one in particular,
involves the relative "permanence" of these printed books which cannot be
revised constantly. It is becoming increasingly difficult to teach a general
course because of the rapidly changing emphasis in botany, and one must always
strive to make the laboratory material as interesting, significant, meaningful
to the student, and up-to-date as possible. Furthermore, there are no two
schools which conduct laboratories in an identical fashion. Only by building
a laboratory around the situation in which the botany instructor finds himself
can he devise an "ideal" manual for his course. Thus, I feel it is really
impossible to utilize effectively a manual assembled for conditions at one
institution at another. True, most authors allow for variations based on local
conditions, but a good manual should be tightly knit, with no superfluous
material, and molded around only one course at one place—a course which
has been evolving for some time. The manual should be revised every year or,
better still, after every time the course is given. Admittedly, it is much
easier to use a published manual, but the easiest way is not necessarily the
best way pedagogically.
criticism of this manual, and a host of others, is based on the fact that
the same type of material keeps appearing in them—it is simply reshuffled
or described in a slightly different way. We are in need of a bright, new,
fresh approach. I do not mean that we should automatically eliminate old material
simply because it is old. Its value should be seriously analyzed, and if it
is found to contribute toward sound botanical knowledge it should be retained.
I do question, however, the actual value of keying out fruit types, or of
testing for various kinds of foods in different plant parts. The time is ripe
for someone to think of presenting really new and significant material, not
simply new ways of saying the same old things.—THEODORE DELEVORYAS,
University of Illinois.
Geere Dickson was born February 7, 1891, at Yakima, Washington. He was married
to Leah Dodds in 1915 to whom four children were born. He received his B.
S. degree from Washington State College in 1915, and in 1916 enrolled at the
University of Wisconsin where he received the Ph. D. degree in 1920. While
still a graduate student, he was appointed an Agent of the U. S. Department
of Agriculture, an appointment he kept until his retirement in 1961. Immediately
upon receipt of the Ph. D., Dickson joined the staff of the Department of
Plant Pathology at the University of Wisconsin and was promoted to a full
professorship in 1926. His areas of research specialization were in diseases
of cereal and forage crops, breeding for disease resistance, disease physiology,
and pathogen genetics, fields in which he published many technical papers
and two texts. Few per-sons in plant pathology have been privileged to influence
as many young men in their profession as did J. G. Dickson. Students from
all over the world came to study in his laboratories, and he guided 65 through
their doctorate training. Many former students occupy key posts of responsibility
in research institutions and in industry.
University of Wisconsin is known for its interdepartmental cooperative research
spirit, and J. G. Dickson did much to forge this concept. His broad biological
interest and innate spirit of cooperation dictated that this be so. His re-search
and graduate training programs were closely cooperative with the Departments
of Agronomy, Bacteriology, Biochemistry, Botany, and Genetics. Likewise, he
was an integral part of a cooperative program with the U. S. Department of
Agriculture throughout his professional career. He maintained cooperative
relations with former students or colleagues in every area where mutual problems
has also received much from Dickson's professional contributions. He initiated
research an barley quality in the United States at the University of Wisconsin
in 1934 at the request of industry. Under his guidance this research has expanded
over the years, and in 1949, the Federal Barley and Malt Laboratory was constructed
in Madison, Wisconsin. He advised industry in the organization of the Malt
Research Institute in 1939 and the Malting Barley Improve-
Association in 1945, both of which have been important in barley research
G. Dickson's classrooms have covered the world. In the past to years, at an
age when most people reduce their scope of activities, he extended his teaching,
research, and service to agriculture to far-flung areas of the world. In Canada,
Latin America, Alaska, the Philippines, India, and Europe, his name is known
and respected for his knowledge and interest in international agricultural
problems, and for his willingness to make himself a part of them. He was possessed
with incredible energy and motivation and, even though retired, he died on
February 28, 1962 with his hands firmly on the reins of a full program at
his home base, as well as in the world at large.
professional services were not restricted to plant pathology. After serving
as President of the American Phytopathological Society in 1953, he began a
long tenure of service to the American Institute of Biological Sciences. From
1954–1957 he served as Representative of the A. P. S. to the Council
of the A. I. B. S. These were very critical years in the development of A.
I. B. S., and Dickson became one of its chief spokesman. Following this period,
he served as President of A. I. B. S. and was elected to an unprecedented
second term. During his tenure as president, he travelled widely in the interest
of A. I. B. S. and its expanding program.—GLENN S. POUND, The University
Lester W. Sharp of the Department of Botany, Cornell University died on July
17, 1961, in Nuevo, California after a long illness. Professor Sharp received
his B. S. from Alma College in 1908. He studied for two years at The Johns
Hopkins University, and then transferred to the University of Chicago where
he received his Ph. D. in 1912. For postdoctoral work he was associated with
Gregoire at The University of Louvain. Subsequently his entire teaching career
was spent at Cornell from which post he retired as Professor Emeritus of Botany
Sharp organized one of the first courses in cytology to be offered in an American
university. The polish, depth, and clarity of his lectures are reflected in
his two textbooks Introduction to cytology and Fundamentals of cytology both
of which have been widely used in this country and abroad. The former was
translated into a German edition and the latter into a Spanish edition.
Sharp was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, and the Gamma Alpha Graduate
Scientific Fraternity. He was Vice-President of the American Society of Naturalists
in 1924, Secretary of the Program Committee of the International Botanical
Congress in Ithaca, 1926, Vice-President of the Botanical Society of America
in 1929 and President in 1930. He served on the Editorial Boards of The American
Journal of Botany, Stain Technology and The Botanical Re-view. He was awarded
an honorary D. Sc. by Alma College in 1930 and by the University of Louvain
in Belgium in 1957. In 1958 he was awarded a Certificate of Merit, the highest
award of the Botanical Society of America.
Sharp's pioneering work in cytogenetics early attracted the interest of outstanding
students in botany and genetics, and his students or associates included McClintock,
Beadle, Rhoades, Creighton, and Randolph. In addition to being an outstanding
teacher, Sharp was a warm and sincere counsellor and friend. He was able completely
to lay aside his academic cloak on suitable occasion and become immersed in
his hobbies of music and photography. Widely known and respected as the author
of numerous meritorious papers in scientific journals, Sharp's wit as well
as writing ability were also superbly displayed by two presentations in a
lighter vein. One was his retiring address as President of the Botanical Society.
This bit, entitled "A nuclear century," was published in Scientific Monthly
34: 322–329. 1932, and contains a lively poetic review of studies on
the nucleus. The other, a complete hoax, was a seminar presentation with a
graduate student, Cuthbert Fraser, of Eoornis Pterovelox Gobiensis, a most
unusual bird from the Gobi Desert. The hoax was subsequently printed in a
form resembling a doctoral dissertation. It is still available from James
P. Heath, Department of Natural Science, San Jose State College, California.
Sharp will live long in the memories of those who were fortunate enough to
have been associated with him. He aptly portrayed the astute scientist of
his time.—HARLAN P. BANKS, Cornell University.
MACOMBER CUTTER, JR.
Victor M. Cutter, Jr., 45, Head of the Department of Biology at The Woman's
College of the University of North Carolina, died on February 26, 1962 in
Greensboro. Born in Quiriqua, Guatemala of American parents, Dr. Cut-ter received
his A. B. degree from Dartmouth College in 1938, and his doctorate from Cornell
University in 1941. He came to the Woman's College in 1952 as Professor of
Biology and Head of the Department. Previously he had been Associate Professor
of Microbiology at Yale University, Instructor of Botany at Cornell University,
and Lecturer in Botany at the University of Minnesota.
Cutter's special interest was in the cytology, genetics, physiology and taxonomy
of the fungi. He held successive grants from the National Science Foundation
for research on the genetics of fungi, and other grants from the American
Cancer Society. Alone, and in collaboration with others, he published a number
of research papers in his field. He was a member of Sigma Xi and Phi Kappa
Phi, and the Botanical Society of America, Mycological Society of America,
Torrey Botanical Club, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Association
of Southeastern Biologists, and New Hampshire, New York and North Carolina
Academies of Science.
NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION announces that the
closing date for receipt of basic research proposals in the life sciences
is May 15, 1962. Proposals received prior
that date will be reviewed at the summer meeting of the Foundation's advisory
panels and disposition will be made approximately four months following the
closing date. Proposals received after the May 15, 1962 deadline will be re-viewed
following the fall closing date of September 15, 1962. Inquiries should be
addressed to the Biological and Medical Sciences Division, National Science
Foundation, Washing-ton 25, D. C.
annual meeting of the MIDWESTERN SECTION OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLANT
PHYSIOLOGISTS will be held
12–13 at the New Life Sciences Building, Marquette University, Milwaukee,
Wisconsin. For further information contact Walter G. Rosen, Department of
Biology, Marquette University, Milwaukee 3, Wisconsin.
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLANT TAXONOMISTS announces
the officers of the Society for 1962 are: Arthur Cronquist, President; Mildred
E. Mathias, Chairman of the Council; Lawrence Heckard, Secretary; and Richard
Pohl, Treasurer. The publication of a membership list was authorized by the
council and it has been distributed to the membership. Extra copies may be
obtained from the Secretary. The council elected to "Retired Membership" status,
Professor Sara Bache-Wiig, Dr. Walter C. Muenscher and Mrs. Ruth Ashton Nelson.
The Society has again set up a committee to assist in the review and evaluation
of the A. I. B. S. Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Program. The Cooley
award for the best taxonomic paper presented at the annual meeting of the
Society went to Dr. Wallace R. Ernst for his paper, "On the family status
of the Fumariaceae."
GERTRUDE S. BURLINGHAM SCHOLARSHIP IN MYCOLOGY
advanced predoctoral study at The New York Botanical Garden will be available
for the summer of 1962. The stipend is $800. Work under this appointment may
begin any time after June i and should continue for approximately 3 months.
Graduate students in mycology whose research program might require the use
of the herbarium, laboratory, and library of the Garden, are especially urged
to apply for this scholarship. Field work can be combined with studies at
the Garden. The scholarship is under the supervision of Dr. Clark T. Rogerson,
Mycologist and Curator of Cryptogamic Botany. Nominations or applications
should be sent before April 15 to the Director, The New York Botanical Garden,
Bronx Park, New York 58, New York.
MOUNTAIN LAKE BIOLOGICAL STATION has available
the National Science Foundation, three types of awards for summer research
and study: 1) Postdoctorate for research —stipend $900, 2) Predoctorate
for supervised research—stipend $400, and 3) Postgraduate for training
in field biology —$300. Preference is given for studies concerned with
the biota of the region. Application blanks for these awards may be secured
from Dr. James L. Riopel, Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville.
Department of Botany of The University of Tennessee and the Naturalist Service
of the Great Smokies will
the TWELFTH ANNUAL WILDFLOWER PILGRIMAGE.
will be held in the Smokies on April 26–27 and will consist of the usual
guided botanical hikes and motorcades as
as bird walks. Persons interested in taking part in this event may write to
Dr. A. J. Sharp, Department of Botany, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville,
EFFECT OF NICKEL ON PLANTS, ICB-41, a bibliographic
on the subject, is available free on request. This publication, compiled by
Patricia J. Sazegar, contains 178 references and abstracts of literature published
during the period 1893 to early 1961 on the influence of nickel on plants
other than bacteria and fungi. It can be obtained by writing to the Industrial
Chemicals Section, The International Nickel Company, Inc., 67 Wall Street,
New York 5, New York.
Torrey Botanical Club announces the availability of papers presented as part
of a special SYMPOSIUM ON FUNDAMENTAL DEVELOPMENT IN PLANT GROWTH in conjunction
the A. A. A. S. meetings held in New York on December 27, 1960. These papers
have been published in numbers 4 and 5 of volume 88, 1961, of the Bulletin
of the Torrey Botanical Club as follows: volume 88, number 4 contains "Changing
concepts of photosynthesis," Daniel I. Arnon. The remaining papers all appear
in number 5: "Fundamental developments in the field of plant growth regulators,"
John W. Mitchell; "Alteration of plant growth by chemicals," N. E. Tolbert;
"Antimetabolites and plant growth," Thomas H. Jukes; "Test-tube studies on
flowering: Experiments with the Lemnaceae," William S. Hillman; "Photo-periodic
control of flowering," H. A. Borthwick; "Plant-animals as experimental tools
for growth studies," S. H. Hutner; "Recent progress and the goals of plant
tissue culture," Walter Tulecke.
copies of these numbers are available singly for $1.50, or both for $2.75.
Orders should be placed with Howard W. Swift, Manager of Publications, The
Torrey Botanical Club, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York
58, New York.
Development Section of the Botanical Society of
will hold a SYMPOSIUM ON THE TEACHING OF PLANT DEVELOPMENT at the annual meeting
of the American Institute of Biological Sciences in Corvallis, Oregon in August.
The symposium is being co-sponsored by the Teaching Section of the Botanical
Society and the National Association of Biology Teachers. Topics to be discussed
will include seed germination, the bean hypocotyl, leaf discs, induced differentiation,
root growth and development, foliar sprays and growth regulation, light and
hormones in development, growth of pollen, and tissue and organ culture.
appointment of DR. EDWARD F. ANDERSON to the Whitman College (Walla Walla,
Washington) faculty for the fall of 1962 has recently been announced. Dr.
Anderson, a graduate of Pomona College and the Claremont Graduate School,
will be Assistant Professor of Biology specializing in botany. Presently,
he is on the faculty of the Department of Botany at Pomona College. Dr. Anderson
has recently received a Huntington grant-in-aid to study the taxonomy of desert
has recently been received from the veteran Illinois botanist, Dr. V. H. Chase
of Peoria Heights, Illinois, that
aunt MRS. AGNES CHASE, now retired from the Smithsonian Institution has been
unanimously elected to a fellow-ship in the Linnean Society of London, which
was founded about 1788 by James Edward Smith, a young man who had purchased
the collections of Linnaeus. During the past 15o years there have been elected
about 4000 Fellows. The list includes the names of the majority of notable
students of the natural sciences, particularly botanists and zoologists as
well as many eminent physicians, surgeons and explorers.
Chase was born in Illinois in 1869. She is one of the world's leading authorities
on the Gramineae, the large and complex family of grasses. For most of her
92 years, Mrs. Chase has lead the quite life of a scholar at the Smithsonian
Institution studying those plants of the greatest importance to mankind, the
grasses. She has worked not only in this country but also in Brazil, Venezuela,
and Europe. In addition to her own work, she has stimulated many young botanists
to high endeavor and success. Her studies have great value not only for pure
science but also for applications in agronomy, genetics, ecology, forestry,
range management and soil conservation. She was awarded the honorary degree
of Doctor of Science by the University of Illinois on June
SHERWIN CARLQUIST has recently received a grant from the National Science
Foundation which will enable him to pursue his studies on the genus Scaevola
(Goodeniaceae). Because this genus is most wide-spread in Pacific regions,
Dr. Carlquist expects to depart in June and spend most of his forthcoming
sabbatical year surveying the plants of this genus on the islands of the Pacific
Ocean. Dr. Carlquist is Associate Professor of Botany in the Claremont Graduate
School, and a staff member of the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden in Claremont,
WILLIAM R. EvITT, Research Associate at Jersey Production Research Co., Tulsa,
Oklahoma, has been appointed Professor of Geology at Stanford University beginning
September 1962. There he will begin a program of graduate instruction and
research in palynology to include studies in the pollens of the Cretaceous
GEORGE SErrERFIELD of the National Research Council, Canada, will take up
a position as Associate Professor in the Biology Department of Carleton University
in Ottawa. This change will be effective in July.
V. RAGHAVAN has moved from Princeton University to the Harvard Biological
Laboratories in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He will work with Professor John
G. Torrey on cultural and biochemical studies on immature plant embryos.
Honorable Terry Sanford, Governor of North Carolina has written to say that
two of our members, DR. JOHN N. COUCH and DR. WALTON C. GREGORY, have been
placed on the Scientific Advisory Committee of the State of North Carolina
to act as representatives for botany.
DAVID W. BIERHORST of the Cornell University Department of Botany left for
Fiji and New Caledonia early this year. His trip is being supported by a grant
from the National Science Foundation and his objective is to collect specimens
of angiosperms for the continuation of studies on the comparative anatomy
of primary xylem.
WILSON N. STEWART, Chairman of the Department of Botany, University of Illinois,
will be on leave-of-absence during the first semester of the 1962-1963 academic
year to assist A. I. B. S. with the Yellow Version of the Biological Sciences
Curriculum Study. He will be located at the American Museum of Natural History
in New York City which will supply office and library facilities. Dr. Stewart
will be the only botanist serving with five zoologists.
this month, DR. JOHN J. WURDACK of the U. S. National Herbarium, Smithsonian
Institution, will depart for a 6-8-month botanical collecting expedition to
Peru. His main objective will be exploration in the Departamento Amazonas,
a botanically unknown region mostly high in the Andes. This work is being
carried out partially under the auspices of the National Science Foundation
and with the collaboration of the Museo de Historia Natural in Lima.
ROBERT F. THORNE has accepted a position as Taxonomist and Curator of the
Herbarium with the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden. He will also receive the
honorary title of Professor of Botany in the Claremont Graduate School. Dr.
Thorne is presently Curator of Vascular Plants at the State University of
Iowa in Iowa City.
Sepetmber 1, 1962, DR. PETER H. RAVEN, currently on the staff of the Rancho
Santa Ana Botanic Garden, will take up a position at Stanford University.
He will be associated with the Dudley Herbarium as Assistant Professor of
National Science Foundation has appointed DR. WALTER H. HODGE Program Director
for Systematic Biology in the Division of Biological and Medical Sciences.
Before coming to the Foundation, Dr. Hodge was Head of the Department of Education
and Research of the Longwood Gar-dens, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. At that
time, he also served as special consultant to N. S. F. for tropical biology.
DAVID D. KECK, formerly Program Director for Systematic Biology, has been
made Deputy Assistant Director of the Division of Biological and Medical Sciences
of the National Science Foundation. Before his tenure with N. S. F., Dr. Keck
was Head Curator of the Herbarium at the New York Botanical Garden and Assistant
in the fall semester of 1962, DR. THEODORE DELEVORYAS, Associate Professor
of Botany at the University of Illinois, will assume a position at Yale University.
His duties will be divided between the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History
and the biology department. This History arrangement has been made to facilitate
his continuing studies on the famous collection of Wieland cycadeoid fossils
which is maintained in the Museum.