2013 Triarch "Botanical Images"
Student Travel Award

The Botanical Society of America welcomes you to the eigth annual Triarch "Botanical Images" Student Travel Award entries. From the vibrant microscopy images to those depicting entire ecosystems, pictures are always an enticing way to learn and teach. We trust you will enjoy the results and in the process learn a bit more about plants!

» Submit Images for 2013 | View Past Award Recipients and Submissions

2013 Submissions for the Conant "Botanical Images" Student Travel Award
Autumn Amici, University of Hawaii Manoa - #29  |  Sarangi Athukorala, Univeristy of Manitoba - #68  |  Fabio Avila, Universidad Nacional de Colombia - #25, #71  |  Jeff Benca, University of California, Berkeley - #89  |  Jason Cantley, University of Hawaii at Manoa - #5, #10, #36  |  Dori Contreras, University of California-Berkeley - #90, #91  |  Adrian Dauphinee, Dalhousie University - #11  |  Gabriela Doria, Yale University - #92  |  Knox Flowers, University of Southern Mississippi - #53, #55  |  Benjamin Gahagen, Ohio University - #74, #76, #80  |  Elizabeth Georgian, University of Wisconsin-Madison - #1  |  Lauren Gonzalez, University of New Orleans - #31  |  Rachel Hackett, Central Michigan University - #33  |  Li-Fen Hung, National Taiwan University - #8, #9  |  Hillary Karbowski, Central Michigan University - #54  |  Ricardo Kriebel, The New York Botanical Garden - #30  |  Laura Lagomarsino, Harvard University - #18, #20, #22, #24, #26, #56  |  Shih-Hui Liu, Saint - #84  |  Kelly Matsunaga, Humboldt State University - #37  |  Meriel Melendrez, UC Berkeley - #23, #28  |  Lachezar Nikolov, Harvard University - #38, #41, #42, #43, #44, #45  |  Rhiannon Peery, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - #16, #21  |  Rebecca Penny, Indiana University - #35  |  Olofron Plume, Cornell Univeristy - #32, #85  |  Rebecca Povilus, Harvard University - #58, #60  |  talaya rachels, UH Manoa - #46, #47, #48, #50, #51, #52, #61  |  Angela Rein, Oklahoma State University - #4  |  Lee Ripma, San Diego State University - #83, #88  |  James Riser, Washington State University - #57, #62, #63, #66, #67, #69  |  Adam Schneider, University of California-Berkeley - #12, #13, #14, #17, #72, #73, #86, #87  |  Maria C Segovia-Salcedo, University of Florida - #27, #34  |  Glenn W.K. Shelton, Humboldt State University - #59  |  Erin Sigel, Duke University - #64, #65  |  Weston Testo, University of Vermont - #2, #6, #7  |  Simon Uribe-Convers, University of Idaho - #75, #77, #78, #79, #81, #82  |  Seana Walsh, University of Hawai'i at Manoa - #49  |  Katherine Waselkov, Washington University - #15  |  Tomáš Závada, University Of Massachusetts, Boston - #70

Submission #1
Title: Rhododendron kasoense near the Tibetan and Myanmar borders of China
Author: Elizabeth Georgian
Institution: University of Wisconsin-Madison
Department: Botany
Family: Ericaceae
Taxon: Rhododendron kasoense
Common Name:
Season/time of year: May 2011
Area: Bingzhongluo
State/Province: Yunnan Country: China
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Conditions: pouring rain and an elevation of about 3,500 m.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: A rare, yellow rhododendron of unknown conservation status.
Scientific Description/Explanation: I took this photograph on one of the last days of a collecting expedition along the Salween River and Dulong River in the Gaoligong Mountains which is a part of the Three Parallel Rivers Protected Area World Heritage Site. This area of China has incredible biodiversity, especially of rhododendron, as well as ethnic diversity, which makes this area a perfect location for studying the evolutionary relationships and ethnobotanical uses of rhododendron. Rhododendron kasoense is a rare species of rhododendron found only in the rough terrain of the Himalayas. Unfortunately, this area may be affected by increased tourism pressures and the impending construction of a series of dams on the Salween River in northwest Yunnan.

 

Submission #2
Title: Beauty on the roadsides: flower of Monochaetum vulcanicum
Author: Weston Testo
Institution: University of Vermont
Department: Plant Biology
Family: Melatomataceae
Taxon: Monochaetum vulcanicum
Common Name:
Season/time of year: December
Area: San Gerardo de Dota
State/Province: San Jose Country: Costa Rica
Longitude: 83°47´52.44´´ WLatitude: 9°35´00.23´´ N
Additional Information: This photograph was taken with a Canon EOS Rebel T1i with a 50mm lens and 32mm extension tube using an external flash. Settings were manually selected. Exposure time was 1/100 sec., ISO was 100, and aperture was set at f/14.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Flower of Monochaetum vulcanicum, a common roadside shrub from Costa Rica's Cordillera Talamancana
Scientific Description/Explanation: Monochaetum vulcanicum (Melastomataceae) is a common shrub frequently encountered along roadsides and other open areas in the mountains of central and southern Costa Rica. In many high elevation regions, the soft pink flowers and dark green foliage of this species cover eroded banks year-round. It is the most widespread of six endemic species of Monochaetum in Costa Rica. This photograph was taken on the side of a trail leading to the Savegre River near the town of San Gerardo de Dota, Cartago Province, Costa Rica.

 

Submission #4
Title: Ancient Seeds
Author: Angela Rein
Institution: Oklahoma State University
Department: Botany
Family: Cycadaceae
Taxon: Cycas revoluta
Common Name: Cycad
Season/time of year: Spring
Area: McAllen
State/Province: Texas Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Cycas is the only genus in the family Cycadaceae and has about 100 extant members. Here, a female Cycas revoluta cone and leaves are shown. Ovules, and eventually, seeds, are borne on modified leaves and lie naked without a fruit surrounding them.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Cycads are part of an ancient lineage that evolved approximately 300 million years ago; this species' relatives were among the first colonizers of land. As gymnosperms, their seeds lare naked within modified shoots near the top and center of the plant known as the megastrobilus. Here, each modified leaf of that shoot, a megasporophyll, produces ovules that are fertilized when pollen from a neighboring male plant lands on it. Cycads are found throughout subtropical and tropical regions and are commonly cultivated as landscape ornamentals.

 

Submission #5
Title: Endemic Hawaiian Nehe on windswept cliffs of Hanauma Bay
Author: Jason Cantley
Institution: University of Hawaii at Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Melanthera integrifolia
Common Name: Nehe
Season/time of year: Early Rain Season, Jan 2013
Area: Honolulu
State/Province: Hawaii Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: iPhone 4S

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: The yellow flowered endemic Hawaiian Nehe (Melanthera integrifolia) on windswept cliffs overlooking Hanauma Bay.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Pictured here, precariously growing on a windswept sea cliff over-looking Hanauma Bay on the island of O`ahu, is an individual of endemic yellow flowered Hawaiian Melanthera integrifolia. Hawaiians gave these charismatic flowers the name Nehe, although they are currently classified into two genera, Lipochaeta and Melanthera amounting to more than 15 species. Nehe species are commonly found in coastal and/or seasonally dry habitats throughout all Hawaiian Islands. During times of drought during the dry summer months, many Nehe appear to be lifeless twigs with shriveled leaves almost as if plant skeletons were simply draped over the hot Hawaiian lava rocks to die. But, after periods of intense rainfall, the seemingly lifeless Nehe flush new foliage and numerous yellow flowers that carpet the once parched Hawaiian coastline.

 

Submission #6
Title: A sight for sori
Author: Weston Testo
Institution: University of Vermont
Department: Plant Biology
Family: Ophioglossaceae
Taxon: Botrychium virginianum
Common Name: Rattlesnake Fern
Season/time of year: December
Area: San Gerardo de Dota
State/Province: San Jose Country: Costa Rica
Longitude: 83°47´52.44´´ WLatitude: 9°35´00.23´´ N
Additional Information: Canon EOS Rebel T1i, 50mm fixed lens with extension tubes, f/11, 1/60s exposure time, ISO-100.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Fertile spike (sporophore) of the rattlesnake fern
Scientific Description/Explanation: This photo shows the fertile spike of Botrychium virginianum, commonly known as the rattlesnake fern. Unlike most fern species, which bear their spores on the undersides of their leaves, all members of the Ophioglossaceae, which includes this species, possess a single leaf that is divided into sun-gathering (trophophore) and spore-bearing (sporophore) parts. A single fertile spike like the one pictured here can hold more than 30 million spores. The most widely distributed member of the Ophioglossaceae, Botrychium virginianum is found in temperate and cool tropical regions on all continents except Africa and Antarctica. This individual was found growing in population of more than 200 plants in a mountainside field in south-central Costa Rica.

 

Submission #7
Title: Lycophytes lengthwise: a look at early land plant morphology
Author: Weston Testo
Institution: University of Vermont
Department: Plant Biology
Family: Lycopodiaceae
Taxon: Phlegmariurus talamancanus
Common Name: Talamancan Firmoss
Season/time of year: January
Area: Cerro de la Muerte
State/Province: Dota Province Country: Costa Rica
Longitude: 83.7500°WLatitude: 9.6655°N
Additional Information: Canon EOS Rebel T1i, 50mm fixed lens with extension tubes, f/22, 1/200s exposure time, ISO-100

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: A longitudinal section of a fertile shoot of the endemic lycophyte Phlegmariurus talamancanus, showing the position of microphylls and sporangia.
Scientific Description/Explanation: From a morphological standpoint, the lycophytes are defined in part by the presence of microphylls (leaves supplied by a single vein) and sporangia positioned on the adaxial surface of leaf axes. This image shows both the phyllotaxy (pattern of leaf arrangement) of microphylls and the position of the sporangia (greenish globular structures) on the adaxial surface of the microphylls. Despite the vast morphological diversity present in the lycophytes, all taxa conform to this same basic body plan. This species is an endemic of paramo (tropical alpine grasslands) in the Sierra Talamancana mountains of south-central Costa Rica. It is locally abundant in wet peaty soil in the region.

 

Submission #8
Title: Lower epidermis of Codiaeum variegatum
Author: Li-Fen Hung
Institution: National Taiwan University
Department: Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Taxon: Codiaeum variegatum
Common Name: Croton
Season/time of year:
Area: Taipei
State/Province: Country: Taiwan
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: The lower epidermal tissue was cut from fresh croton leaf with a razor blade and observed under a Leica Diaplan Microscope in dark field. The picture was taken by a digital camera (Nikon D3) connecting to the microscope. The objective lens used is 20X and the white bar in the picture is 100 micrometer.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Kisses from croton
Scientific Description/Explanation: The picture shows the lower epidermis of croton (Codiaeum variegatum) in the surface view under dark field microscope without any staining. The type of stomatal configuration is paracytic, in which the stoma is accompanied on either side by one or more subsidiary cells parallel to the long axis of the guard cells. These subsidiary cells differ in size, shape, arrangement, and in color from the ordinary epidermal cells. Both the ordinary epidermal cells and subsidiary cells of croton may store anthocyanins. At first glance, you may see many kisses within a puzzle. In fact, each kiss is a pair of anthocyanin-containing subsidiary cells surrounding two guard cells. Both the ordinary epidermal cells and subsidiary cells of croton can store anthocyanins, but in this picture only subsidiary cells have anthocyanin.

 

Submission #9
Title: Paradermal section of Codiaeum variegatum leaf with subsidiary cells and spongy mesophyll
Author: Li-Fen Hung
Institution: National Taiwan University
Department: Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Taxon: Codiaeum variegatum
Common Name: Croton
Season/time of year:
Area: Taipei
State/Province: Country: Taiwan
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: The paradermal section containing lower epidermis and spongy mesophyll was cut from fresh croton leaf with a razor blade and observed under a Leica Diaplan Microscope in bright field. The picture was taken by a digital camera (Nikon D3) connecting to the microscope. The objective lens used is 20X and the white bar in the picture is 100 micrometer

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Red birds in the woods
Scientific Description/Explanation: This picture focuses on the red anthocyanin-containing subsidiary cells and green spongy mesophyll in paradermal section of abaxial side of a fresh croton (Codiaeum variegatum) leaf. The stomata type of croton is paracytic, in which two guard cells are surrounded by two (or sometimes three) parallel subsidiary cells. In some areas of lower epidermis, anthocyanins only appear in the subsidiary cells and this phenomenon makes these cardinal subsidiary cells the highlight of the picture. What do you seen?

 

Submission #10
Title: Black fruits of Kukaenene
Author: Jason Cantley
Institution: University of Hawaii at Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Rubiaceae
Taxon: Coprosma ernodeoides
Common Name: Kukaenene
Season/time of year: December
Area: Honolulu
State/Province: HI Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Terminal Black fruits of Kukaenene
Scientific Description/Explanation: Kukaenene, the common Hawaiian name of Coprosma ernodeoides, affectionately translates to "Nene poop" as the black fruits are said to resemble the fecal matter of the Hawaiian State bird, the Nene. Kukaenene grows only at high elevations of east Maui and the Big Islands of Hawaii and are a common food of the Nene. Plants are trailing shrubs and often involved in primary succession of recent lava flows within the Hawaiian archipelago.

 

Submission #11
Title: The Peculiar Lattice Pattern of Lace Plant Leaves
Author: Adrian Dauphinee
Institution: Dalhousie University
Department: Biology
Family: Aponogeton
Taxon: madagascariensis
Common Name: lace plant
Season/time of year:
Area: Halifax
State/Province: NS Country: Canada
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Photograph displaying the unique perforated leaf morphology of the lace plant
Scientific Description/Explanation: The lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis) is an aquatic monocot that lives in the river systems of Madagascar. The lace plant is the only species within its family to develop a perforated leaf morphology. The holes are created through a process known as developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD). This cellular death occurs between the longitudinal and transverse veins of the entire leaf during leaf development. The predictability of perforation formation in the lace plant, along with its thin and nearly-transparent leaves that are ideal for live cell imaging make it an excellent model for studying developmentally regulated PCD. Why do lace plants have this rare leaf morphology? The answer to this mystery remains elusive, although it has been hypothesized that it may have to do with drag reduction in torrent waters, camouflage, or a way to maximize exposure to light.

 

Submission #12
Title: Pollination in action
Author: Adam Schneider
Institution: University of California-Berkeley
Department: Integrative Biology
Family: Passifloraceae
Taxon: Passiflora foetida var. galapagoensis
Common Name: Galapagos Passionflower
Season/time of year: Summer (June)
Area: Charles Darwin Research Station, Puerto Ayora
State/Province: Galapagos Islands Country: Ecuador
Longitude: 0.741 SLatitude: 90.304 W
Additional Information: Olympus Stylus Tough 8010 camera.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: The endemic Galapagos carpenter bee (Xylocopus darwini) gets a back full of pollen as it visits a passionflower (Passiflora foetida var. galapagoensis).
Scientific Description/Explanation: This passionflower variety is endemic to the Galapagos and attracts pollinators through coloration and smell. The anthers on this species are well positioned so that when the pollinator (here an endemic carpenter bee Xylocopus darwini) lands on the flower, the pollen is released onto hairs on the head and thorax of the bee. When the bee flies to the next flower it may brush against one of three stigmas, pollinating another flower.

 

Submission #13
Title: The water lily Nymphaea odorata in northern Minnesota
Author: Adam Schneider
Institution: University of California-Berkeley
Department: Integrative Biology
Family: Nymphaeaceae
Taxon: Nymphaea odorata
Common Name: Fragrent water lily
Season/time of year: Summer (July)
Area: Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness
State/Province: Minnesota Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Olympus Stylus Tough 8010 camera.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: A white water lily in Minnesota's Boundary Water Canoe Area Wilderness shows nearly perfect symmetry
Scientific Description/Explanation: This species ranges naturally from central America to northern Canada, although has become invasive and weedy on the western coast of the United States. Leaves emerge directly from an underground rhizome. The petioles are long enough so that the leaf can sit on the surface of the water. The plants can grow in water up to eight feet. Each flower is open only 3-4 days, and closes at night. Once the flower is pollinated, the fruit develops under water.

 

Submission #14
Title: Midnight disguises
Author: Adam Schneider
Institution: University of California-Berkeley
Department: Integrative Biology
Family: Rosaceae
Taxon: Sorbus americana
Common Name: Mountain Ash
Season/time of year: Summer (July)
Area: Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness
State/Province: Minnesota Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Olympus Stylus Tough 8010 camera.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: The leaves are solid green, but in cool summer evenings, dew droplets make them appear variagated
Scientific Description/Explanation: Cool summer evenings in northeastern Minnesota frequently bring dew. This particular evening the dew droplets were so dense and locally distributed as to make the leaves on this plant look variegated.

 

Submission #15
Title: A tiny forest of Amaranthus sclerantoides on the beach at Punta Manzanillo, Isla Espanola, Galapagos
Author: Katherine Waselkov
Institution: Washington University
Department: Biology
Family: Amaranthaceae
Taxon: Amaranthus sclerantoides
Common Name:
Season/time of year: Dry season (March 2013)
Area: Punta Manzanillo, Espanola Island
State/Province: Galapagos Islands Country: Ecuador
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: A tiny forest of Amaranthus sclerantoides on the beach at Punta Manzanillo, Isla Espanola, Galapagos
Scientific Description/Explanation: These tiny plants (with the smallest individuals about the size of a thumbnail) are an example of phenotypic plasticity in the endemic Galapagos species Amaranthus sclerantoides. In dry or salt-stressed environments, such as this coral beach, these plants tend to strongly express betalain pigments, which gives the entire plant a dull orange, yellow, or pink color. A cluster of plants resembles seaweed washed up on the beach. Amaranthus sclerantoides also starts flowering at much smaller sizes in such exposed environments; here, it is growing with a single other tiny species (Mollugo cerviana), whereas at slightly higher elevation sites the plants can be surrounded by low vegetation and grow up to half a meter tall.

 

Submission #16
Title: Calypso
Author: Rhiannon Peery
Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Department: Plant Biology
Family: Orchidaceae
Taxon: Calypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes
Common Name: Eastern Fairy Slipper
Season/time of year: Summer
Area: Bonaparte Lake
State/Province: WA Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Daughter of a Titan
Scientific Description/Explanation: Calypso bulbosa is a small coniferous forest species of Orchidaceae. Within Washington state, where this image was taken, the flower is more rare and occurs only within three counties. This image was taken in northern Okanogan county near Bonaparte Lake where Pinus ponderosa is the dominant species.

 

Submission #17
Title:
Author: Adam Schneider
Institution: University of California, Berkeley
Department: Integrative Biology
Family: Fabaceae
Taxon: Vachellia rorundia
Common Name:
Season/time of year: Summer (August)
Area: Charles Darwin Research Station, Puerto Ayora
State/Province: Galapagos Islands Country: Ecuador
Longitude: 0.741 SLatitude: 90.304 W
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Thorns and dense mimosoid flower heads make an almost alien landscape when viewed close up
Scientific Description/Explanation: Vachellia is a genus closely related to Acacia (and had previously been lumped into a paraphyletic Acacia until 2005) found in the Americas and Africa. it is in the legume family, or Fabaceae, subfamily Mimosoideae as evidenced by its dense heads of reduced flowers. Each ball of yellow is an inflorescence made up of dozens of small flowers with long anthers.

 

Submission #18
Title: In Too Deep
Author: Laura Lagomarsino
Institution: Harvard University
Department: Organismic and Evolutionary Biology
Family: Cactaceae
Taxon: Stenocereus
Common Name:
Season/time of year:
Area: Palo Verde National Park
State/Province: Guanacaste Country: Costa Rica
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: It's your lucky night!
Scientific Description/Explanation: The bud of this night-blooming cactus was about to open up at the Palo Verde field station (owned by the Organization of Tropical Studies) in Costa Rica while I was taking a plant systematics class there in 2010. I stayed up into the early hours of the morning to try to capture a pollination event. Finally, around 2 am, this lovely hawkmoth found its dinner, and I got my shot!

 

Submission #20
Title:
Author: Laura Lagomarsino
Institution: Harvard University
Department: Organismic and Evolutionary Biology
Family: Blakea
Taxon: Melastomataceae sp.
Common Name:
Season/time of year: July 22, 2011
Area: Bajo de la Hondura
State/Province: San Jose Country: Costa Rica
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Taken with a Canon EOS Rebel T2i

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: A flash of pink in a sea of green.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Blakea is a particularly attractive genus of Melastomataceae that is native to the Neotropics. One of the genus' centers of diversity is the mountains of Panama and Costa Rica, where this picture was taken. Blakea flowers are visually stunning not only for their large, atypical stamens, but also for the impressive size of their flowers. This bloom is easily the size a human palm!

 

Submission #21
Title: Banksia for lunch
Author: Rhiannon Peery
Institution: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Department: Plant Biology
Family: Proteaceae
Taxon: Banksia spp
Common Name:
Season/time of year:
Area: Healesville Sanctuary
State/Province: Victoria Country: Australia
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Stingless bees dine on Banksia nectar
Scientific Description/Explanation: This mature Banksia spike on an ornamental shrub is serving up nectar as a reward for possible pollination. Banksia is an important genus in Australia and nearly all the species within the genus are endemic. The genus has a fascinating history in that English Botanists Joseph Banks collected the first specimens during a voyage with Captain Cook in the late 1700's.

 

Submission #22
Title: Miniature Beauty
Author: Laura Lagomarsino
Institution: Harvard University
Department: Organismic and Evolutionary Biology
Family: Campanulaceae
Taxon: Lysipomia laciniata
Common Name:
Season/time of year: December 2011
Area:
State/Province: La Paz Country: Bolivia
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: This minute member of the Campanulaceae grows above 3,500m in the puna habitat of the Andes.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Lyspomia (Campanulaceae) is a poorly understood, though species rich, genus endemic to the high Andes. They can be found above tree line in the chilly, oxygen-deprived, llama-laden puna and paramo habitats. The plants are small, frequently less than the size of a quarter in diameter (though this individual was relatively large at approximately 10 cm). The flower itself is about 3mm. Surprisingly, they are the sister to genus to a clade of cloud forest lianas, shrubs, and trees in the genera Centropogon, Siphocampylus and Burmeistera whose flowers are orders of magnitude larger!

 

Submission #23
Title: A very close look at a very tall tree
Author: Meriel Melendrez
Institution: UC Berkeley
Department: Integrative Biology
Family: Cupressaceae
Taxon: Sequoia sempervirens
Common Name: California Coastal Redwood
Season/time of year:
Area: Humbolt County
State/Province: California Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Leica DM2500 50X magnification: image consists of exactly 200 frames stacked and stitched into a high resolution panorama

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: California Coastal Redwood Cuticle, stained and magnified
Scientific Description/Explanation: This is not a flower petal. It is the waxy coating, or cuticle, of a California Coastal Redwood leaf. Both sides of the cuticle have been opened and flattened, like pages of a book, and stained pink to improve visibility. Even though the leaf is barely longer than 1cm, this panorama consists of exactly 200 photographs taken with a microscope at 50X magnification. Why go to such trouble photographing the skin of a leaf? The cuticle retains an imprint of all of the cells directly below it, so it keeps a convenient record of the leaf pores, or stomata. Stomata are the gateways of gas exchange—taking in CO2 for photosynthesis, and releasing water during transpiration—and can be important markers of how a leaf lives in its environment. Sequoia sempervirens is the tallest tree species in the world. It grows so tall that it inhabits a variety of microclimates, from damp and dark on the ground to dry and bright in the crown. Its leaves survive in a gradient of drought stress, and vary accordingly. This particular leaf grew 90.0m (295.3ft) above the ground. It belongs to a series of panoramas of leaves from seven different heights of the same tree, ranging from the lowest branches (15.0m or 49.2ft) to the tip-top branches (107.5m or 352.7ft). These high resolution images illustrate how the location, relative angles, and size of the stomata dramatically change with the height of the tree. They help us understand how Redwoods today grow so tall, and how tall they might have grown in their evolutionary past.

 

Submission #24
Title: Peek-a-boo
Author: Laura Lagomarsino
Institution: Harvard University
Department: Organismic and Evolutionary Biology
Family: Gentianaceae
Taxon: Gentiana sp.
Common Name: gentian
Season/time of year: December 2011
Area:
State/Province: Cochabamba Country: Bolivia
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: This Andean gentian was growing in a puna habitat outside of Cochabamba, Bolivia.
Scientific Description/Explanation: The Andean puna habitat is full of plants that are familiar to temperate botanists, including gentians, lupines, and members of the Rosaceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, and Campanulaceae families. This gentian was a particular delight to find growing amongst the dry grasses. It was so small and locally rare that if we hadn't been "botanizing", we would have missed it all together.

 

Submission #25
Title: Unexpected parasitic plant close to the city
Author: Fabio Avila
Institution: Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Department: Instituto de Ciencias Naturales
Family: Balanophoraceae
Taxon: Langsdorffia hypogaea
Common Name: Unknown
Season/time of year: May
Area: Bogota, D.C.
State/Province: Country: Colombia
Longitude: 74.0758° WLatitude: 4.5981° N
Additional Information: Canon PowerShot A410, f/2.8, Exp 1/25 sec., Focal lenght 5 mm, no flash, manual balance. Caught under the litterfall of one degraded and disturbed natural area close to Bogota DC, while colleagues were in field work about seed availability of invasive species Ulex europaeus. The red apparition on the floor shocked us at the point to stay without knowing if it was really a plant.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Basal blooming in Langsdorffia hypogaea (Balanophoraceae)
Scientific Description/Explanation: This uncommon and extraordinary plant species is the only one extant of the genus Langsdorffia in the Neotropics. The only other one lives in Madagascar. This plant is composed of an undivided root from where the bracts and inflorescence is developed. Although you are not going to find it everywhere of the Neotropical mountains, it has been collected from Mexico until the North of Bolivia. Indeed, some previous researchers had proposed some different names to this entity but actually is only one recognized.

 

Submission #26
Title: Marsh-side Lysimachia
Author: Laura Lagomarsino
Institution: Harvard University
Department: Organismic and Evolutionary Biology
Family: Primulaceae
Taxon: Lysimachia terrestris
Common Name: swamp candles
Season/time of year: July 2012
Area: Mt. Desert
State/Province: Maine Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Taken with a Canon EOS Rebel T2i.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: This water-loving species is one of the few New England natives that produces floral oils for their bee pollinators.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Plants in the genus Lysimachia are water-loving plants, such as this L. terrestris found growing at the edge of a marsh in northern Maine. Their floral biology is particularly interesting: in lieu of offering nectar, flowers offer oils to their bee pollinators. These oils are produced by trichomes on the petals that are just visible in the original of this image. Lysimachia is placed in the Primulaceae. I particularly like this photo because if you look carefully at the leaves and calyx, you can see the dark lines that are so characteristic of this family.

 

Submission #27
Title: Andean slipper flower
Author: Maria C Segovia-Salcedo
Institution: University of Florida
Department: FLMNH
Family: Calceolariaceae
Taxon: Calceolaria
Common Name: Slipper flower
Season/time of year: Summer
Area: National Park Cayambe Coca
State/Province: Pichincha Country: Ecuador
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: camera DMC-FZ8 Exposure 1/250 sec, above 3000 msnm

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Andean slipper flower
Scientific Description/Explanation: Calceolaria is a highly diversified Andean genus with at least 57 species in Ecuador. The distinctive floral trait of this genus is its inflated lower lip, where a patch of oil-secreting trichomes are located (the elaiophore). Calceolaria produces nonvolatile oils in its flowers to attract oil-collecting pollinators.

 

Submission #28
Title: Beautiful Strangler
Author: Meriel Melendrez
Institution: UC Berkeley
Department: Integrative Biology
Family: Moraceae
Taxon: Ficus tuerckheimii
Common Name: Strangler Fig
Season/time of year: November
Area: Monteverde
State/Province: Country: Costa Rica
Longitude: -84.81152Latitude: 10.30699
Additional Information: Image taken with a Canon Rebel T1i. This project was made especially memorable by a wicked case of amoebic dysentery.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: A strangler fig wrapping around its host.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Even amid the teeming tropical diversity of a Costa Rican cloud forest, the strangler fig (Ficus tuerckheimii) stands out as striking and strange. It has an exclusive partnership with its pollinator, in which a wasp species spends nearly its entire life cycle within the fig. This fruit grows so abundantly it merits the title “keystone species” for all of the animals it feeds. The animals disperse the seeds high in the canopy of another tree, and the strangler fig spends the next several hundred years slowly choking its host to death (as in the picture). The cycle begins again. Bizarre natural history aside, I became interested in where these trees grow. A local observation/legend purported that they tend to grow in clusters, so off I went with GPS and camera in hand. Several weeks and miles of transect later, I compared stranger fig occurrence to a random spatial distribution. The trees did not grow significantly clustered together within the Monteverde valley. However, I observed that they did not grow above 1750m in elevation, where the “Elfin Forest” began. High winds off the mountain crest may prevent germination of the figs, or even the arrival of their tiny pollinators. A different ficus species grew on the other side of the ridge. Furthermore, I noted many strangler figs standing in pastures, spared by the ranchers’ chainsaws for their filigree beauty and function of shading cows. If pastures reverted to secondary forests, as in the 1970s, the mature stranglers would stand out among the saplings and appear “clustered” to the casual observer.

 

Submission #29
Title: Beach morning glory on the sandy coast, Papua New Guinea
Author: Autumn Amici
Institution: University of Hawaii Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Convolvulaceae
Taxon: Ipomoea pes-caprae
Common Name: Beach Morning Glory
Season/time of year: June 2012
Area: Siboma Village
State/Province: Morobe Province Country: Papua New Guinea
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Canon PowerShot SxIS 30

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Burst of color in a sea of leaves
Scientific Description/Explanation: This beach morning glory (Ipomoea pes-caprae) is in the plant family Convolvulaceae. It is a flowering plant that grows on beaches and dunes along the coast. This plant is a creeping vine that is pantropical, or in tropical habitats across the globe. The deep purple color of the flower petals contrast the waxy green of the leaves.

 

Submission #30
Title: On the unusual floral ways of highland small flowered Melastomataceae as exemplified by Miconia arboricola
Author: Ricardo Kriebel
Institution: The New York Botanical Garden
Department: Science
Family: Melastomataceae
Taxon: Miconia arboricola
Common Name:
Season/time of year: January
Area: La Marta Wildlife refuge
State/Province: Cartago Country: Costa Rica
Longitude: -83.688833Latitude: 9.782056
Additional Information: The flower was collected in the field, brought to the lab where it was transferred to acetone via an ethanol-acetone series, and then dried by critical point, mounted on aluminum stubs with adhesive tabs, sputter coated with gold palladium, and examined and photographed in a Jeol JSM-5410 LV Scanning Electron Microscope.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Flower of Miconia arboricola (Melastomataceae: Miconieae) in late anthesis.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Among high elevation shrubs and trees of the family Melastomataceae in Central America and the Andes, a group comprised of species in Miconia section Cremanium tend to have small white flowers with broad anther pores. After observing these plants in their habitat it became apparent that the flowers in this example species Miconia arboricola start with the stamens erect and as time passes the stamens bend inward and fall on or near the stigma. This image was helpful to document the strong angle in the middle of the filaments that appears to allow for this to happen. In addition, the image documents the relatively short style and the broad anther pores. Most Melastomataceae have yellow anthers with small anther pores, exerted styles and are buzz pollinated. It is possible that species such as M. arboricola have evolved totally white flowers with shorter styles, filaments that bend inwards and broad anther pores to allow for self pollination, assuring seed production in the absence of bees. Indeed it is known that there are less bee species at high elevations and flies and butterflies have been observed visiting relatives of M. arboricola with very similar flowers. Short styles are not as uncommon as is thought in the Melastomataceae and in technical terms they represent the loss of herkogamy. Herkogamy is the separation of sexual parts (stamens and stigma) in space within flowers. As fascinating as this sounds, because styles are usually white and skinny they continue to be overlooked and thus herkogamy or its loss also continues to be overlooked. I hope that this image, which is the first to my knowledge of a Scanning Electron Micrograph of a whole flower in the family Melastomataceae, will call attention to a reality: plants have style!

 

Submission #31
Title: Dehiscent fruit of the Dutchman's Pipe (Aristolochia sp.)
Author: Lauren Gonzalez
Institution: University of New Orleans
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Taxon: Aristolochia sp.
Common Name: Dutchman's Pipe
Season/time of year: Summer/ Rainy Season
Area: Tirimbina Biological Reserve
State/Province: Sarapiqui Country: Costa Rica
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Rainy day with low light in densely canopied rainforest.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: The dehiscent fruit of a Dutchman's Pipe in a Costa Rican rainforest
Scientific Description/Explanation: Species of Aristolochia are known as the Dutchman's Pipe, or pipevine, for their flowers that resemble an old-time pipe. The inside of the flowers are covered in "hairs" that trap flies, which become covered in pollen. The hairs wither away and release the flies, ready to pollinate. The fruit of this labor is a dry dehiscent capsule filled with seeds.

 

Submission #32
Title: Castlepoint Daisy (Brachyglottis compacta)
Author: Olofron Plume
Institution: Cornell Univeristy
Department: Plant Biology
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Brachyglottis compacta (Kirk) B.Nord.
Common Name: Castlepoint daisy, Castlepoint groundsel
Season/time of year: early Autumn/March
Area: Castle Point, Wairarapa Coast
State/Province: Wellington Country: New Zealand
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Canon PowerShot SD600 Digital ELPH

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Castlepoint Daisy (Brachyglottis compacta)
Scientific Description/Explanation: Brachyglottis compacta (Kirk) B.Nord is endemic to (found only in) Castle Point, New Zealand (Southeastern North Island), where it occurs on limestone cliffs above the sea. The thick, white pubescence on inflorescence buds, pedicels, and leaves provides not only striking visual contrast but also, quite likely, protection from intense sunlight and desiccating sea winds. I visited this stand in March, just past peak flowering. Sunny capitula (each appearing to be single "daisy" flowers but which are actually compact heads of outer ray and inner disk florets) recede into the distance. In the foreground, an important feature of Asteraceae is visible: extruded from each disk floret is a tube of fused anthers surrounding the style, the bifurcate stigmatic lobes of which have emerged from the top of the anther tube and opened.

 

Submission #33
Title: Yellow coneflowers reach for the sky
Author: Rachel Hackett
Institution: Central Michigan University
Department: Biology Department
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: pinnata
Common Name: yellow coneflower
Season/time of year: Summer/July 2012
Area: Pearl King Oak Savanna, Madison County
State/Province: OH Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Kodak EasyShare M575 digital camera.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Yellow coneflowers (Ratbida pinnata) blooming in a remnant oak savanna in Madison County, Ohio, July 12, 2012.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Yellow coneflowers (Ratbida pinnata) are in the Asteraceae family with black-eyed Susans, daisies, sunflowers, and Chrysanthemums. Yellow coneflowers do not have only one flower per stem but a conglomerate of two types of flowers per stem: ray and disk flowers together forming a flowerhead. What we usually call petals on these daisy-like plants are each their own ray flower. In yellow coneflowers, these rays are bright yellow and drooping underneath a mountain or "sombrero" of disk flowers. Before the disk flowers bloom, the center of the flowerhead looks light green or grey. The brown and yellow disc flowers closest to the ray flowers ("petals") will open first. The disk flowers will eventually become the seeds, a highly sought after food source for birds.

 

Submission #34
Title: Drying under the sun
Author: Maria C Segovia-Salcedo
Institution: University of Florida
Department: FLMNH
Family: Oxalidaceae
Taxon: Oxalis
Common Name: wood sorrel
Season/time of year: Spring
Area: Gainesville, Cofrin Nature Park
State/Province: Fl Country: Alachua
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Camera DMC-FZ8 Exposure 1/500 sec

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Oxalis sp. after
Scientific Description/Explanation: Oxalis is a genus that occurs throughout most of the world, except for the polar areas. The 5-petaled flowers are cup-shaped and open only in sunshine. This picture was taken in one of the side trials of the Cofrin Nature Park. The area was once a horse pasture but has reverted to upland forest. Oxalis is a common plant beneath tall loblolly pines and water oaks, magnolias, and chestnut trees.

 

Submission #35
Title: Cryptic Female in the Piedmont Meadow-Rue
Author: Rebecca Penny
Institution: Indiana University
Department: Biology
Family: Ranunculaceae
Taxon: Thalictrum macrostylum
Common Name: Piedmont Meadow-Rue
Season/time of year: Summer (July)
Area: Moores Creek National Battlefield
State/Province: North Carolina Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: In Thalictrum macrostylum, female plants produce flowers with sterile male reproductive structures. While these structures may limit female reproduction, their benefit, if any, is not known.
Scientific Description/Explanation: In some dioecious flowering plants (those with separate male and female individuals), one sex produces sterile reproductive organs of the other sex. Such species are termed cryptically dioecious as the individuals function as males or females only, despite females appearing structurally hermaphroditic. Here, two flowers on a female Thalictrum macrostylum plant show that some flowers (right) have only female reproductive organs - pistils - while other flowers (center) produce both pistils clustered in the center of the flower and male reproductive organs - stamens - in the outer whorl. My research focuses on the consequences of producing these stamens, which contain sterile pollen, and suggests that sterile stamens do not benefit females in terms of pollen receipt or seed production.

 

Submission #36
Title: `ie`ie and solid orange nectar like reward
Author: Jason Cantley
Institution: University of Hawaii at Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Pandanaceae
Taxon: Freycinetia
Common Name: arborea
Season/time of year: December
Area: Honolulu
State/Province: HI Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: `ie`ie flowers and fleshy orange bracts composed of solid orange nectar like reward
Scientific Description/Explanation: `ie`ie, pronounced as if saying aloud the English letters [e a, e a], is an indigenous rainforest liana in the Hawaiian Islands and much of the South Pacific. When the dioecious plants become reproductive, bright fleshy orange bracts subtend the inflorescences. Interestingly, these orange bracts are composed of a sweet and nutritious (and quite tasty) reward that attracts both bird and bat pollinators. Sometimes humans do a little solid nectar robbing themselves for a little sugary energy while conducting field work!

 

Submission #37
Title: The Fragile Lionfruit
Author: Kelly Matsunaga
Institution: Humboldt State University
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Physaraceae
Taxon: Leocarpus fragilis
Common Name:
Season/time of year: December 2012
Area: Windy Hill Open Space Preserve
State/Province: California Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: The bright orange sporangia of Leocarpus fragilis growing on rock with moss.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Leocarpus fragilis (literally “fragile lion fruit”) belongs to the Myxomycota, a group of organisms known colloquially as “slide molds”. These organisms begin life as amoebae – single-celled organisms that move by extension and retraction of their cell membrane. Two amoebae may fuse like gametes and grow to produce a plasmodium - a large membrane-bound mass of cytoplasm that creeps across its substratum consuming unicellular organisms such as bacteria. Slime molds typically grow on moist organic materials such as decaying wood or forest litter. Although the individual shown in this image is growing on a somewhat atypical substratum, you can tell by the abundant moss and the glistening of the rock that its environment is actually quite wet! However, when food becomes scarce the plasmodium will produce numerous spore-bearing reproductive structures called sporangia. The sporangia of this Leocarpus fragilis start out as gooey pendant blobs that will eventually mature to release tiny spores. If these spores land in the right kind of environment, they will germinate into amoebae and start the process all over again.

 

Submission #38
Title: ‪Spring Awakening‬
Author: Lachezar Nikolov
Institution: Harvard University
Department: OEB
Family: Gentianaceae
Taxon: Gentiana verna
Common Name: Spring Gentian
Season/time of year: May
Area: St. Jakob
State/Province: Isenthal Country: Switzerland
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: As the snow recedes in the late spring in the Swiss Alps, the spring gentian (Gentiana verna) is not alone in its attempt to attract pollinators. Other early flowering species, like Primula farinosa, Soldanella alpina, Crocus vernus, and Pulsatilla vernalis, all compete for a bumblebee visit. To ensure pollination, alpine flowers maintain receptivity of their stigmas for a longer period of time and prolong flowering compared to their lower elevation counterparts. Moreover, bumblebees are more efficient pollinators than butterflies and beetles as they can carry more pollen; they are also less picky. Although not as pronounced as in other parts of the world, the dominant coloration in the Alps changes throughout the season, from blue through yellow (Taraxacum, Ranunculus, Caltha) to white (Anemone), and concludes with a mosaic of yellow and red. This interesting phenomenon may be linked to phenological changes in the pollinators’ preference or abundance.

 

Submission #41
Title: Wake up and smell the coffee
Author: Lachezar Nikolov
Institution: Harvard University
Department: OEB
Family: Celastraceae
Taxon: Parnassia palustris
Common Name: Grass of Parnassus
Season/time of year: August
Area: Central Balkan National Park
State/Province: Karlovo Country: Bulgaria
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: The flowers of the grass of Parnassus are protandrous – the stamens mature and dehisce before the stigma is receptive. Stamen maturation is not synchronous and individual stamens release their pollen sequentially, one after another, through a longitudinal slit above the closed stigmatic lobes. The female phase of the flower begins after the filaments of the stamens reflex back and the anthers abscise. Stamens alternate with branched staminodes; each branch terminates with globular, glistening pseudonectaries, which may function in attraction. The pseudonectaries are not secretory but nectariferous tissue is found at the bases of the staminodes. The phylogenetic placement of Parnassia in the pre-molecular era has been much debated; however, molecular evidence now shows that it sits comfortably within the bittersweet family (Celastraceae).

 

Submission #42
Title: Thunder Chaser
Author: Lachezar Nikolov
Institution: Harvard University
Department: OEB
Family: Crassulaceae
Taxon: Sempervivum erythraeum
Common Name: hen and chicks
Season/time of year: August
Area: Central Balkan National Park
State/Province: Karlovo Country: Bulgaria
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: This high attitude rosette plant is perennial and grows on stony substrates, slowly making its way, year after year, through the crevasses of the rock. Individual rosettes are monocarpic and die after flowering. Each rosette may also reproduce asexually, producing several offshoots and ultimately a colony with differently sized individual rosettes, which gives the plant its common name, “hen and chicks.” In contrast to the spring gentian (see above), which attracts thunderstorms if picked, at least in the German folklore, hen and chicks planted on the roof is believed to protect the house from lightning.

 

Submission #43
Title: Carousel
Author: Lachezar Nikolov
Institution: Harvard University
Department: OEB
Family: Cleomaceae
Taxon: Podandrogyne decipiens
Common Name:
Season/time of year: August
Area: Monteverde
State/Province: Puntarenas Country: Costa Rica
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: The plant hormone auxin is undoubtedly the master regulator of plant form. It is difficult to come up with a developmental process where auxin does not take part – it is involved in establishing the polarity of the early embryo, the activity and organization of the vascular cambium, the differentiation of the vasculature. Auxin is also involved in the initiation and positioning of the leaves and flowers on the shoot apical meristem. The exact position of leaves and flowers is determined by localized auxin maxima generated by a positive feedback loop between auxin itself and its transporter PIN1. If looked from above, these organs are arranged along imaginary spirals (called parastichies), extending outwards from the center in both clockwise and counterclockwise direction. The numbers of the clockwise and counterclockwise spirals always correspond to two consecutive numbers from a Fibonacci series – 8 and 13 in this Podandrogyne inflorescence. Fibonacci series have the extraordinary property where each term in the series is a sum of the previous two: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21… Successive fractions of adjacent numbers in the series (2/1, 3/2, 5/3, 8/5 ...) converge on the golden ratio (1.6180…). Interestingly, in this case consecutive flowers turn at an angle close to the golden angle (137° 30’ 28”), related to the golden ratio, forming a line shape called Fermat's spiral. This is not some crafty numerology but reflects the molecular mode of action of auxin that determines the most optimal arrangement of the flowers in the inflorescence.

 

Submission #44
Title: Hungry!
Author: Lachezar Nikolov
Institution: Harvard University
Department: OEB
Family: Zingiberaceae
Taxon: Etlingera hemisphaerica
Common Name: Helani Tulip Torch Ginger
Season/time of year: July
Area: Kebun Raya Bogor
State/Province: West Java Country: Indonesia
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: The globular inflorescence of Etlingera hemisphaerica, a relative of the ornamental torch ginger (E. elatior), arises from a subterranean rhizome and is elevated above ground by a strong stalk. It produces several hundred flowers, all tightly packed together, which open consecutively thus greatly extending the duration of flowering. Flowers have only one fertile stamen. The other stamens are greatly modified, fused together into a broad lip and resemble petals with their vibrant red color and yellow margin. The lip is sturdy and provides a landing platform for the insect pollinators of Etlingera – stingless bees in the genus Trigona. Fertile stamen reduction and elaboration of the floral display through participation of the petaloid staminodia is characteristic of the ginger order Zingiberales, a trend climaxing in the related families Cannaceae and Maranthaceae. There, only half a stamen is functional and the rest have taken up an attractive function.

 

Submission #45
Title: Glimmering lantern on the evening of Loy Krathong
Author: Lachezar Nikolov
Institution: Harvard University
Department: OEB
Family: Rafflesiaceae
Taxon: Sapria himalayana
Common Name: Hermit’s spittoon
Season/time of year: November
Area: Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep
State/Province: Chiang Mai Country: Thailand
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: Known as Hermit’s spittoon, this rare flower from the montane forests of continental South East Asia is a floral chamber. It acts by temporarily trapping its pollinators, different carrion fly species, to maximize the duration of their visit. Typical for the fly pollination syndrome, the flower mimics decomposing flesh on the forest floor, not only through the bright colors but also by producing a distinct odor of animal decay. Thermogenesis, which may help in dispersing the scent, has been detected in close relatives of Sapria. Although it takes months to mature, the flowers live no more than a week. Sapria flowers are unisexual and male and female flowers are necessary for seed production. This complication, coupled with the rarity of Rafflesiaceae and their parasitic lifestyle makes these remarkable plants especially vulnerable to extinction with habitat destruction.

 

Submission #46
Title: Caster Bean Fruit Face
Author: talaya rachels
Institution: UH Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Taxon: Ricinus communis
Common Name: Castor Bean
Season/time of year: Fall
Area: Manoa Valley
State/Province: HI Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Castor Bean Fruit
Scientific Description/Explanation: This is the fruit of a Castor Bean that I cut in half.

 

Submission #47
Title: Happy Face Oysters
Author: Talaya Rachels
Institution: UH Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Commelinaceae
Taxon: Tradescantia spathacea
Common Name: Purple Oyster Plant
Season/time of year: Spring
Area: Manoa Valley
State/Province: HI Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Smiling vascular bundles of Oyster Plant leaf
Scientific Description/Explanation: This is a cross section of an Oyster Plant leaf. Vascular bundles can be seen along the leaf and appear to be smiling.

 

Submission #48
Title: O'hia Gall Eyeball
Author: Talaya Rachels
Institution: UH Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Myrtaceae
Taxon: Metrosideros polymorpha
Common Name: O'hia
Season/time of year: Fall
Area: Wa'ahila Ridge
State/Province: HI Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Cross Section of an O'hia gall
Scientific Description/Explanation: This is a cross section of a psyllid induced gall on a Metrosideros polymorpha leaf. The leaf was stained with TBO to highlight the various tissue types.

 

Submission #49
Title: Wiliwili at Waikoloa: Remnants of the Hawaiian Dryland Forest
Author: Seana Walsh
Institution: University of Hawai'i at Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Fabaceae
Taxon: Erythrina sandwicensis
Common Name: wiliwili
Season/time of year: December 19, 2012
Area: Waikoloa
State/Province: Hawai'i Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: One of the few native Hawaiian deciduous trees, wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis Fabaceae) standing strong in the Waikoloa dry forest of Hawai’i Island.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis) is an endemic dry forest tree found on the leeward slopes of the main Hawaiian Islands. Wili means twisted in Hawaiian and is in reference to the twisting of the seed pods when they mature. The species has high reverence in the Hawaiian culture, mentioned quite frequently in traditional Hawaiian proverbs and songs. Flowers and bark are used medicinally. The light weight and beautifully colored wood is used to make surfboards, outriggers for canoes, and fish floats. Once very abundant, populations have dwindled due to habitat destruction and invasive weeds and animals. It was feared that the species’ fate was close to extinction when the Erythrina gall wasp was introduced and nearly wiped out those plants that remained. The recent, successful introduction of a biocontrol agent, a predatory wasp of the Erythrina gall wasp, has given these stately trees another chance. The tree pictured here was losing its leaves to conserve water during a long drought period. Majestic Hualālai volcano on Hawai’i Island is visible in the background.

 

Submission #50
Title: Thirsty Ant
Author: Talaya Rachels
Institution: UH Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Proteaceae
Taxon: Banksia sp.
Common Name: Banksia
Season/time of year: Fall
Area: Adelaide
State/Province: South Australia Country: Australia
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Ant at a floral nectary of Banksia sp.
Scientific Description/Explanation: This is an image of an ant visiting the floral nectary of a Banksia flower found in South Australia.

 

Submission #51
Title: Ruttya fruticosa
Author: Talaya Rachels
Institution: UH Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Acanthaceae
Taxon: Ruttya fruticosa
Common Name: Banksia
Season/time of year: Fall
Area: Manoa
State/Province: HI Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Ruttya fruticosa flower
Scientific Description/Explanation: Ruttya fruticosa flower under dissection microscope

 

Submission #52
Title: O'hia Lehua Bee
Author: Talaya Rachels
Institution: UH Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Myrtaceae
Taxon: Metrosideros polymorpha
Common Name: O'hia
Season/time of year: Fall
Area: Manoa
State/Province: HI Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Bee visiting O'hia Lehua
Scientific Description/Explanation: Image is of a bee visiting the floral nectaries of an O'hia blossom in the Manoa valley.

 

Submission #53
Title: Succulent Beauty
Author: Knox Flowers
Institution: University of Southern Mississippi
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Aizoaceae
Taxon: Sesuvium portulacastrum
Common Name: Shoreline purslane
Season/time of year: August 2011
Area: Near Heron Bay
State/Province: MS Country: USA
Longitude: 30°12'0.18"NLatitude: 89°26'57.49"W
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: A summer day on a shell midden pile outside Heron Bay next to Three Oaks Bayou, basking in the sunshine.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Once in the Family Sesuviaceae it has been combined with Mesembryanthemaceae and Tetragoniaceae to form the Family Aizoaceae. Sesuvium portulacastrum, a dicot, is a common coastal species able to tolerate brackish/salty environments. It is a succulent plant that grows prostrate on the ground.

 

Submission #54
Title: Feeding time with Drosera rotundifolia
Author: Hillary Karbowski
Institution: Central Michigan University
Department: Biology
Family: Droseraceae
Taxon: Drosera rotundifolia
Common Name: Round-leaved sundew
Season/time of year: Late spring
Area: Fay Lake Fen, Brooklyn
State/Province: Michigan Country: United States
Longitude: 84.16837Latitude: 42.12312
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: A photograph capturing the leaves of this Drosera rotundifolia closing upon an unsuspected insect.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Drosera rotundifolia is a threatened carnivorous plant that can be found in wetlands such as fens and are usually located on sphagnum hummocks. The bright red color and sticky secretions of the leaves attract insects for the D. rotundifolia to feed on and assist in digesting the insect once captured.

 

Submission #55
Title: Carnivorous Duo
Author: Knox Flowers
Institution: University of Southern Mississippi
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Sarraceniaceae
Taxon: Sarracenia alata
Common Name: Yellow pitcher plant
Season/time of year: July 2010
Area: Desoto National Forest
State/Province: MS Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: A pitcher plant bog tucked between two ridges deep within the Desoto National Forest.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Sarracenia alata, the yellow pitcher plant, are found within the Family Sarraceniaceae. These are carnivorous plants that use stiff hairs to trap their prey, mostly insects, that are lured by the sugary mix at the bottom of the tube. This plant is a bog endemic that occurs naturally in Longleaf Pine Savannas in the southeast that are maintained by fire.

 

Submission #56
Title: Bat Signal
Author: Laura Lagomarsino
Institution: Harvard University
Department: Organismic and Evolutionary Biology
Family: Campanulaceae
Taxon: Centropogon viriduliflorus
Common Name:
Season/time of year: December 2012
Area: Paucartambo
State/Province: Cusco Country: Peru
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Taken with a Canon EOS Rebel T2i in rainy, low-light conditions.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: It's a bird... it's a bat... wait, nope, that's just a hairy flower.
Scientific Description/Explanation: This species is part of a recent, rapdiation of lobelia relatives into the Andes. The genera Centropogon, Burmeistera, and Siphocamplyus, together a clade of 600 species, are conspicuous parts of cloud forests of the Andes in South America and of Central American mountains. Much of the speciation in the clade is likely explained by geologic events related to the uplift of the Andes, though it also appears that shifts between vertebrate pollinators are also an important factor in the diversification of this clade: many species, normally with red, pink or organe flowers, are pollinated by hummingbirds, while others, such as this Centropogon viriduliforus in the Peruvian Andes, are pollinated by bats. These species typically have larger, more robust flowers in hues of green and have a strong fetid odor. It is not too much of a stretch to suggest that this species has superficially converged on its pollinator; it's pubescent staminal tube appears almost mammalian, and the upward pointing stamens and downward pointing petal lobes are reminiscent of an animal in flight.

 

Submission #57
Title: Periploca angustifolia (Apocynaceae) flower showing details of the complicated gynostegium and corona.
Author: James Riser
Institution: Washington State University
Department: School of Biological Sciences
Family: Apocynaceae (Periplocoideae)
Taxon: Periploca angustifolia
Common Name: cornical
Season/time of year: December
Area: Sierra Cartagena
State/Province: Country: Spain
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: Cornical (Periploca angustifolia) is a mostly African shrub related to milkweeds that makes its northernmost occurrence in extreme southern Spain. As with most species in this group, the flowers possess complicated outgrowths (corona) related to the fused styles and anthers (gynostegium).

 

Submission #58
Title: Waterlily Embryo: Swimming in Sugars
Author: Rebecca Povilus
Institution: Harvard University
Department: Organismic and Evolutionary Biology
Family: Nymphaeaceae
Taxon: Nymphaea thermarum
Common Name:
Season/time of year:
Area:
State/Province: Country:
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Whole mount confocal microscopy

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: At the tip of this Nymphaea thermarum seed, a young embryo (the small pillar of cells just above the center of the image) is swaddled in endosperm (dark cells in the center). The rest of the seed is packed with starch crystals, seen here as teal blobs. A specialized region of endosperm, the bright mass just below the center of the image, is thought to play a role in channeling the stored sugars from the surrounding tissue to the hungry embryo in order to fuel its development. A bright halo of cells surrounds the seed; this layer will become part of the seed coat. These cells are starting to reinforce their cell walls with compounds that both auto-fluoresce (absorb and consequently emit specific wavelengths of light) and react with the fluorescent stain used on this seed. Different compounds absorb and emit different wavelengths of light. This phenomena results in the range of colors seen in this image, captured from a whole-mount seed with a confocal microscope.

 

Submission #59
Title: Watson’s spike-moss (Selaginella watsonii): strobili abound on Donner Pass summit, California
Author: Glenn W.K. Shelton
Institution: Humboldt State University
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Selaginellaceae (Phylum Lycopodiophyta)
Taxon: Selaginella watsonii
Common Name: Watson's spike-moss
Season/time of year: New Year, 2010
Area: Donner Pass summit, Nevada County
State/Province: California Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Watson’s spike-moss (Selaginella watsonii) is one of the many alpine plants inhabiting harsh environments in California’s Sierra Nevada.
Scientific Description/Explanation: The flora of California and the Pacific Northwest is well known for its richness of angiosperms, gymnosperms, ferns and bryophytes. Less attention however, is received by California’s 18 species of lycopsids, a group representing the sister lineage to all other living vascular plants. This attention deficit is surely due to their small size and general lack of showy features and economic value. The same cannot be said about their momentous and now extinct relatives from the Carboniferous (ca. 360-300 mya), the lepidodendralean trees which contributed significantly to today’s coal beds, fueling the Industrial Revolution. This photo of Selaginella watsonii (Watson’s spike-moss) was taken near the summit of Donner Pass, a high elevation pass (ca. 7100’ or 2165 m) in the northern Sierra Nevadas of California. An abundance of four-edged strobili (reproductive structures with sporangium-bearing leaves) approximately 3 cm long are seen jutting out from the vertical face of a granite boulder just above snow level. This species is only one in a plethora of plants with special adaptations for a chionophilous habit (meaning “snow-loving”), living under snow for part of the year. Although the economic value of extant lycopsids such as Selaginella watsonii is wanting, their unique anatomy and morphology make this group of plants a key player in understanding some of the evolutionary history and adaptations of vascular plants.

 

Submission #60
Title: Aquilegia floral bud
Author: Rebecca Povilus
Institution: Harvard University
Department: Organismic and Evolutionary Biology
Family: Ranunculaceae
Taxon: Aquilegia x caerulea origami
Common Name: columbine
Season/time of year:
Area:
State/Province: Country:
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Zeiss Discovery.V12 SteREO dissection microscope

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: More commonly known as columbine, Aquilegia as proven to be an informative system for studying the development and evolution of floral morphology. Even though this floral bud is barely 6 mm long, it already displays at the complex shape of a mature columbine flower. The showy sepals, just starting to blush with the red pigments that will turn this flower a bright crimson, subtend and cup the rest of the flower. The greenish petals are more unassuming at this stage, but you can see that they have started to form tubular nectar spurs - a hallmark of Aquilegia flowers. Nectar collects at the tips of these spurs, forcing hungry pollinators to root around deep in the flower while meanwhile collecting and spreading pollen. Interior to the petals, multiple whorls of anthers form orderly rows. Another structure characteristic of columbines, the papery stamenodia layer, surrounds long, slender carpels. The carpels contain the ovules, which upon fertilization will develop into seeds and give rise to the next generation.

 

Submission #61
Title: New Growth
Author: Talaya Rachels
Institution: UH Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Blechnaceae
Taxon: Sadleria
Common Name:
Season/time of year: March
Area: Alakai Swamp
State/Province: Kauaui Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Young frond of Sadleria fern
Scientific Description/Explanation: Young fronds in this genus are a deep red and turn green as they age. There are six species in this genus, all of which are endemic to Hawaii.

 

Submission #62
Title: Purple coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea) with bee (Melissodes bimaculata)
Author: James Riser
Institution: Washington State University
Department: School of Biological Sciences
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Echinaceae purpurea
Common Name: Purple coneflower
Season/time of year: July
Area: Bigelow Cemetary
State/Province: Ohio Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Purple coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea) with bee (Melissodes bimaculata)
Scientific Description/Explanation: A male Melissodes bimaculata bee visiting a purple coneflower (Echinaceae purpurea) at a relict prairie site in central Ohio.

 

Submission #63
Title: Orobanche uniflora flowers
Author: James Riser
Institution: Washington State University
Department: School of Biological Sciences
Family: Orobanchaceae
Taxon: Orobanche uniflora
Common Name: Broomrape
Season/time of year:
Area: Grande Ronde Canyon
State/Province: Washington Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Broomrape (Orobanche uniflora) flowers
Scientific Description/Explanation: Flowers of the parasitic broomrape (Orobanche uniflora) growing along the canyons of the Grande Ronde River in southern Washington.

 

Submission #64
Title: Pink Ginger
Author: Erin Sigel
Institution: Duke University
Department: Department of Biology
Family: Zingiberaceae
Taxon: Zingiber
Common Name:
Season/time of year: January
Area:
State/Province: Country: Costa Rica
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Nikon COOLPIX S3300, flash

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: Valued in many parts of the world for the zingy sweet flavor of its rhizome, ginger is equally appealing to the eye. What looks to be a single large pink flower is actually an inflorescence, a cluster of smaller flowers and colorful leaves, or bracts, along a central axis. This top-down photograph of a cultivated ginger reveals the individual flowers that compose the inflorescence. Yellow “horseshoes” mark the edges of staminodes, or petal-like appendages, belonging to each flower. The bracts, whose purpose is to augment the visual impact of the flowers, have the appearance of pink petals with white edges. Overall the effect is striking, creating an alluring beacon that attracts pollinators and photographs alike.

 

Submission #65
Title: Dragon Scales
Author: Erin Sigel
Institution: Duke University
Department: Department of Biology
Family: Polypodiaceae
Taxon: Polypodium calirhiza
Common Name: nested polypody
Season/time of year:
Area: Durham
State/Province: North Carolina Country: 27705
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: The photograph was taken with a Leica MZ 12.5 dissecting microscope and a Canon EOS Rebel XSi camera. The image was cropped and converted from RGB to 8-bit grayscale.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Rachis scales of Polypodium calirhiza taken from the herbarium voucher A. Smith 836 (JEPS). Scales were placed in a drop of soapy water on a slide and photographed at 50x magnification. The scale bar represents 100 μm.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Close examination often reveals enchanting surprises. Ferns, unlike many groups of seed-producing plants, lack large distinct morphological and floral characteristics that can be used to discriminate between closely related species. Small characteristics, like these minuscule single-cell thick scales on the underside of Polypodium calirhiza leaves, are often the most informative. The delightful dragon-like appearance of these scales with their angular tooth-like projections and long tail-like tips is the best character for distinguishing P. calirhiza, a hybrid species, from its similar-looking parents, P. californicum and P. glycyrrhiza. All three species grow together in coastal central California, requiring careful observation and magnification to make a correct identification. The scale bar represents 0.1 millimeter.

 

Submission #66
Title: Aloe vera stomatal complexes.
Author: James Riser
Institution: Washington State University
Department: School of Biological Sciences
Family: Xanthorrhoeaceae
Taxon: Aloe vera
Common Name: aloe
Season/time of year:
Area:
State/Province: Country:
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Two stomatal complexes are visible in this cross section of an Aloe vera leaf.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Two stomatal complexes are visible in this cross section of an Aloe vera leaf. The prominent stomatal ledges are visible on the the outer and inner edges of the guard cells. Additionally, the subsidiary cells form another large ledge above the epistomatal chamber.

 

Submission #67
Title: Apteranthes burchardii flowers
Author: James Riser
Institution: Washington State University
Department: School of Biological Sciences
Family: Apocynaceae
Taxon: Apteranthes burchardii
Common Name:
Season/time of year: December
Area: Desert Botanic Garden, Phoenix
State/Province: Arizona Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Apteranthes burchardii flowers
Scientific Description/Explanation: Apteranthes burchardii, along with its sister species A. munbyana, is one of the northernmost succulent members of the Dogbane Family. The native habitat of Apteranthes burchardii is the Canary Islands and nearby Morocco. The flowers attract carrion flies.

 

Submission #68
Title: A friendly conversation: hello green guy, want to be friends?
Author: Sarangi Athukorala
Institution: Univeristy of Manitoba
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Cladoniaceae
Taxon: Cladonia rangiferina, Asterochloris glomerata
Common Name: Reindeer lichen
Season/time of year:
Area: Winnipeg
State/Province: Manitoba Country: Canada
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Imaged using Hitachi TM 1000 Table Top SEM equipped with a backscatter detector and sample preparation was not involved gold plating.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: The fungal partner (Cladonia rangiferina) and the algal partner (Asterochloris glomerata) of the lichen Cladonia rangiferina are starting contacts at about 8 days after co-inoculation during the resynthesis of the lichen thallus under laboratory conditions.
Scientific Description/Explanation: A lichen is a mutualistic association between a fungus and an algae or / and cyanobacteria. An understanding of the factors behind the success of this association for the lichen genus Cladonia is important since they form the dominant vegetation in northern ecosystems and are the main winter diet for Caribou and Reindeer. To study the morphological development of association, the fungal partner (Cladonia rangiferina) and the algal partner (Asterochloris glomerata) from the lichen Cladonia ragiferina was isolated and re-combined on a culture medium in the laboratory. This photograph shows the initial contact between the fungal hyphae and an algal cell that was occurring at about 8 days after co-inoculation. Fungal hyphae grow around the algal cell and make connections through structures called “appresoria” seen on the photographs as a flatten structure of the fungal hyphae touching the algal cell. The communication occur between two partner at this stage determines the type of the interaction and success of the mutualistic association. Interesting cellular and molecular events are suggested to occur at this stage, eventhough the mechanisms are not yet fully understood.

 

Submission #69
Title: Leaves of Balsamorhiza hybrids
Author: James Riser
Institution: Washington State University
Department: School of Biological Sciences
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Balsamorhiza
Common Name:
Season/time of year: Spring
Area: Grande Ronde Canyon
State/Province: Oregon Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Leaves of Balsamorhiza hybrids
Scientific Description/Explanation: Where they co-occur, Balsamorhiza species may form hybrids. These leaves show the variation present in leaf form of Balsamorhiza hybrids. On the far left is a leaf of Balsamorhiza sagittata while the three leaves on the far right are from B. hookeri. In between are leaves from hybrid individuals.

 

Submission #70
Title: Landrace Endive
Author: Tomáš Závada
Institution: University Of Massachusetts, Boston
Department: Biology
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Cichorium endivia
Common Name: Endive
Season/time of year: June
Area: Tripolis, Peloponnes
State/Province: Country: Greece
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: NIKON E4800

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Endive (Cichorium endivia) inflorescence
Scientific Description/Explanation: Endive (Cichorium endivia) is a self-compatible leafy vegetable with the origin of domestication and cultivation in the Mediterranean. Modern endive cultivars have a very narrow genetic base and landrace endives, like this white flowering one from Greece, preserve a valuable pool of genetic diversity for endive breeding. Landrace populations are maintained by farmers and represent local agricultural and culinary heritage.

 

Submission #71
Title: Blooming in all directions
Author: Fabio Avila
Institution: Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Department: Instituto de Ciencias Naturales
Family: Rapateaceae
Taxon: Schoenocephalium teretifolium
Common Name: Unknown
Season/time of year: February
Area: Inirida
State/Province: Guainia Country: Colombia
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Sony Camera, 1/160 sec., 55 mm, ISO-200. You may purchase a bouquet of this species for about $5 - $10, accordingly with the number of inflorescences (between 15 and 30). Sale of only one or two is permitted at the airport of Inirida (Guainia) is the way to prevent the affectation of the population.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: A restricted species that has reached the western areas of the Guayana Shield of Colombia. This spectacular one grows along with Guacamaya superba close to several rocky outcrops and sandy savanas. The elongated peduncle of the inflorescence of about 1 m long gives the stylized aspect to the plant. Beauty and long blooming periods of this species has been fully appreciated in sightseeing and market. Indeed, local environmental authorities have proposed management strategies for giving sustainable use to this species.

 

Submission #72
Title: A bug's eye view.
Author: Adam Schneider
Institution: University of California, Berkeley
Department: Integrative Biology
Family: Lycopodiaceae
Taxon: Lycopodiella cernua
Common Name: Club Moss
Season/time of year: Summer (July)
Area: Cerro Crocker, Santa Cruz Island
State/Province: Galapagos Country: Ecuador
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Olympus Stylus Tough 8010 camera.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: From close to the ground, a field of Lycopodiella, although standing only inches tall, appears as a pine forest
Scientific Description/Explanation: Lycopodiella is not a flowering plant or a conifer. It is part of a group of early diverging vascular plants. This species has one of the widest distributions in the family. It is found throughout the tropics and subtropics, generally preferring boggy habitats. This particular specimen was growing on Cerro Crocker, the tallest point of Santa Cruz Island. The large extinct volcano intercepts moist air blowing off the Pacific, resulting in a very moist band between 500 and 1000 meters.

 

Submission #73
Title: A bug's eye view.
Author: Adam Schneider
Institution: University of California, Berkeley
Department: Integrative Biology
Family: Lycopodiaceae
Taxon: Lycopodiella cernua
Common Name: Club Moss
Season/time of year: Summer (July)
Area: Cerro Crocker, Santa Cruz Island
State/Province: Galapagos Country: Ecuador
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Olympus Stylus Tough 8010 camera.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: From close to the ground, a field of Lycopodiella, although standing only inches tall, appears as a pine forest
Scientific Description/Explanation: Lycopodiella is not a flowering plant or a conifer. It is part of a group of early diverging vascular plants. This species has one of the widest distributions in the family. It is found throughout the tropics and subtropics, generally preferring boggy habitats. This particular specimen was growing on Cerro Crocker, the tallest point of Santa Cruz Island. The large extinct volcano intercepts moist air blowing off the Pacific, resulting in a very moist band between 500 and 1000 meters.

 

Submission #74
Title: Bloodroot
Author: Benjamin Gahagen
Institution: Ohio University
Department: Environmental and Plant Biology
Family: Papaveraceae
Taxon: Sanguinaria canadensis
Common Name: Bloodroot
Season/time of year: Spring
Area: Harrisonburg
State/Province: Virginia Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Canon EOS DIGITAL REBEL XTi, 100mm Macro lens, f/6.3, ISO-100

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: Sanguinaria canadensis, commonly known as Bloodroot, is a member of the poppy family and has a rhizome that exudes a reddish-orange sap when cut (stems and leaves will also "bleed") - hence its name. Bloodroot is an early spring flower that will lose its showy white petals shortly after pollination. The sap is toxic and serves as an emetic if ingested or destroys skin cells if applied topically; both properties have been used medicinally by Native Americans.

 

Submission #75
Title: Bartsia camporum
Author: Simon Uribe-Convers
Institution: University of Idaho
Department: College of Natural Resources & Institute for Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Studies,
Family: Orobanchaceae
Taxon: Bartsia camporum
Common Name:
Season/time of year: June
Area: Cuzco
State/Province: Cuzco Country: Peru
Longitude: -71.70502778Latitude: -12.80066667
Additional Information: Camera: Canon 60 D, Lens: Tamoron 180 mm Macro

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Bartsia camporum
Scientific Description/Explanation: This species of Bartsia grows from southern Ecuador to souther Peru.

 

Submission #76
Title: White Lily
Author: Benjamin Gahagen
Institution: Ohio University
Department: Environmental and Plant Biology
Family: Nymphaeaceae
Taxon: Nymphaea
Common Name:
Season/time of year: Summer
Area:
State/Province: Missouri Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: Members of Nymphaea, the water lilies, are aquatic plants occurring in tropical and temperate freshwater ecosystems. Their leaves have adapted to float on the surface of the water with long petioles and air pockets in the leaves. Flowers are showy with multiple stamens and attract insect pollinators with sweet fragrance.

 

Submission #77
Title: Bartsia, section Laxae
Author: Simon Uribe-Convers
Institution: University of Idaho
Department: College of Natural Resources & Institute for Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Studies,
Family: Orobanchaceae
Taxon: Bartsia
Common Name:
Season/time of year: June
Area:
State/Province: Junin Country: Peru
Longitude: -75.09422222Latitude: -11.97902778
Additional Information: Camera: Canon 60 D, Lens: Tamoron 180 mm Macro

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Bartsia in section Laxae
Scientific Description/Explanation: This species of the South American clade of Bartsia is in section Laxae due to its reflexed calix lobes.

 

Submission #78
Title: A potentially new species of Bartsia
Author: Simon Uribe-Convers
Institution: University of Idaho
Department: College of Natural Resources & Institute for Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Studies,
Family: Orobanchaceae
Taxon: Bartsia
Common Name:
Season/time of year: July
Area: Boyaca
State/Province: Cundinamarca Country: Colombia
Longitude: -73.08772222Latitude: 5.927472222
Additional Information: Camera: Canon 60 D, Lens: Tamoron 180 mm Macro

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: This is potentially a new species of Bartsia growing in a Colombian Páramo.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Páramos are montane ecosystems in the Andes above tree line (3000 meters/9000 feet) where due to glacial cycles speciation has happened very quickly.

 

Submission #79
Title: Bartsia santolinifolia
Author: Simon Uribe-Convers
Institution: University of Idaho
Department: College of Natural Resources & Institute for Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Studies,
Family: Orobanchaceae
Taxon: Bartsia santolinifolia
Common Name:
Season/time of year: July
Area:
State/Province: Boyaca Country: Colombia
Longitude: -73.08413889Latitude: 5.916972222
Additional Information: Camera: Canon 60 D, Lens: Tamoron 180 mm Macro

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Bartsia santolinifolia
Scientific Description/Explanation: Bartsia santolinifolia is in section Orthocarpiflorae within the South American clade of Bartsia. This section is characterized for having glands on their leaves (which makes them very sticky!) and erect flowers.

 

Submission #80
Title: Dogwood
Author: Benjamin Gahagen
Institution: Ohio University
Department: Environmental and Plant Biology
Family: Cornaceae
Taxon: Cornus florida
Common Name: Dogwood
Season/time of year: Summer
Area: Harrisonburg
State/Province: Virginia Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: Cornus florida, the flowering dogwood, is the state tree of Virginia and is prized for its showy "flowers". The four large, showy, petal-like appendages are not petals at all, instead they are showy bracts - modified leaves. Just like petals, bracts are used as attractants for insect pollinators. The actual flowers of the flowering dogwood are located where the four bracts meet and are much less showy. The fruits of the dogwood are brightly colored drupes that are mainly dispersed by birds. The drupes are edible for some species and, for the edible species, are high in vitamin C.

 

Submission #81
Title: Bartsia quadriptych!
Author: Simon Uribe-Convers
Institution: University of Idaho
Department: College of Natural Resources & Institute for Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Studies,
Family: Orobanchaceae
Taxon: Various Bartsia especies
Common Name:
Season/time of year:
Area:
State/Province: Country:
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Camera: Canon 60 D, Lens: Tamoron 180 mm Macro

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Floral diversity of the South American clade of Bartsia
Scientific Description/Explanation: Bartsia has a variety of floral morphologies. It is hypothesized that these different shapes help with pollination, with long tubular flowers being pollinated by hummingbirds and flowers with a deflected (bend) lower lip by bees. The lower lip serves a landing places for bees.

 

Submission #82
Title: Bartsia fiebrigii
Author: Simon Uribe-Convers
Institution: University of Idaho
Department: College of Natural Resources & Institute for Bioinformatics and Evolutionary Studies,
Family: Orobanchaceae
Taxon: Bartsia fiebrigii
Common Name:
Season/time of year: March
Area: Sucre
State/Province: Chuquisaca Country: Bolivia
Longitude: -65.34408Latitude: -18.98429
Additional Information: Camera: Canon 60 D, Lens: Tamoron 180 mm Macro

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Bartsia fiebrigii
Scientific Description/Explanation: Bartsia fiebrigii is an annual species that grows in central Bolivia.

 

Submission #83
Title: Desert Gold (Geraea canescens) provides nectar for the western pigmy blue (Brephidium exilis)
Author: Lee Ripma
Institution: San Diego State University
Department: Biology
Family: (Asteraceae) Geraea
Taxon: canescens
Common Name: Desert Gold
Season/time of year: Spring/March
Area: Death Valley National Park, Inyo County
State/Province: CA Country: USA
Longitude: 36.493078Latitude: -116.871414
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Following winter rains, the valley floor in Death Valley National Park is blanketed by the annual Desert Gold (Geraea canescens). Here a western pigmy blue (Brephidium exilis) takes advantage of the nectaring opportunity.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Following winter rains, Death Valley is blanketed by the wildflower Desert Gold (Geraea canescens). This photo shows a western pigmy blue (Brephidium exilis) butterfly (the smallest butterfly in North America) nectaring on an individual disk flower. Flowers in the Asteraceae (sunflower) family have compound heads made up of many individual flowers; the outer “petals” are actually ray flowers which surround disk flowers. This photo shows the rotate corollas of the disk flowers with a characteristic two-branched style.

 

Submission #84
Title: Notorious beauty: Amur honeysuckle
Author: Shih-Hui Liu
Institution: Saint
Department: Biology
Family: Caprifoliaceae
Taxon: Lonicera
Common Name: Amur
Season/time of year: Spring
Area: Franklin
State/Province: Missouri Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: RICOH Caplio RR30

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Tones of Lonicera maackii pollens were ready to go in the warmest blooming season in 2012.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii, Caprifoliaceae), a noxious invasive bush from eastern Asia, has taken over native bush in many disturbed areas and at edge of forests in the US. It produces numerous flowers and pollens that outcompete native species for pollinators and other resources. Exposing to good smelling Amur honeysuckle pollen grains can cause pollinosis. In 2012 spring, the warmest spring on the record, the flowers of Amur honeysuckle were everywhere on the roadside and hard to be ignored. This photograph was taken at forest edge in Shaw Nature Reserve, Missouri. Their flowers looked so pretty, but it was not fun at all to stay with them too long.

 

Submission #85
Title: Okra in the Making
Author: Olofron Plume
Institution: Cornell University
Department: Plant Biology
Family: Malvaceae
Taxon: Abelmoschus esculentus Moench
Common Name: Okra
Season/time of year: Late Summer/August
Area: Ithaca
State/Province: NY Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Canon PowerShot SD600 Digital ELPH

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Pollen clings to the stigma of an okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) flower
Scientific Description/Explanation: Gazing into this newly-opened Abelmoschus esculentus flower, we witness the very beginnings of a new okra fruit (mmm...you either love it or you hate it). Pollen grains cling to the five stigmatic lobes which sit atop five stylar branches. Dense, stigmatic papillae give the stigmatic lobes their velvety appearance.

 

Submission #86
Title:
Author: Adam Schneider
Institution: University of California-Berkeley
Department: Integrative Biology
Family: Ranunculaceae
Taxon: Ranunculus sp.
Common Name: Buttercup
Season/time of year: Early April
Area: Pulgas Ridge, San Mateo County
State/Province: California Country: United States
Longitude: 122.35 WLatitude: 37.52 N
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: A field of buttercups (Ranunculus sp.) cover a California hillside after winter rains.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Early Spanish explorers wrote about hillsides full of wildflowers in California. It is still not uncommon to find bright patches of color throughout the spring. These flowers, called buttercups are part of the family Ranunculaceae, which can be identified by five unfused ovaries and numerous stamens. T

 

Submission #87
Title: Fractal flowers.
Author: Adam Schneider
Institution: University of California-Berkeley
Department: Integrative Biology
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Wyethia sp.
Common Name: Buttercup
Season/time of year: Early April
Area: Pulgas Ridge, San Mateo County
State/Province: California Country: United States
Longitude: 122.35 WLatitude: 37.52 N
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Is this Wyethia bloom one flower, or is it many? In fact, what appears to be a single flower is in fact many
Scientific Description/Explanation: The family Asteraceae (also called Compositae, the sunflower or daisy family) is known for its unique infloresence type. In fact, what appears to be a single flower is in fact a head of many flowers. Some plants, like this Wyethia have two types of flowers: disk florets which are in the center, and ray florets, which appear as "petals.

 

Submission #88
Title: A beautiful day to collect Oreocarya nubigena
Author: Lee Ripma
Institution: San Diego State University
Department: Biology
Family: (Boraginaceae) Oreocarya
Taxon: nubigena
Common Name: Sierra Cat’s Eye
Season/time of year: Summer/June
Area: Mammoth Lakes, Inyo County
State/Province: CA Country: 92103
Longitude: 37.41913Latitude: -118.75179
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Oreocarya nubigena grows only in the most scenic microhabitats
Scientific Description/Explanation: Oreocarya nubigena grows only in granite or igneous rocky areas of California’s high sierra. Oreocarya taxa appear morphologically similar to one another when flowers and vegetative characters are examined; consequently taxonomists have focused primarily on the variable characteristics of the fruits (“nutlets”) to differentiate genera and species. This photo shows the hirsute leaf vestiture shared among many members of the genus.

 

Submission #89
Title: Where Red Ferns Grow
Author: Jeff Benca
Institution: University of California, Berkeley
Department: Department of Integrative Biology
Family: Blechnaceae
Taxon: Sadleria cyatheoides
Common Name: Ama'u, Raspfern
Season/time of year: Summer
Area: Pihea trail, Alakai Swamp
State/Province: Kauai, HI Country: United States
Longitude: 22.138446,Latitude: -159.624932
Additional Information:

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Unfurling frond of Ama'u, (Sadleria cyatheoides,) found at the world's highest bog (the Alakai Swamp, Kauai).
Scientific Description/Explanation: Lacking garish flowers, ferns seldom gain the aesthetic notoriety of flowering plants. However, members of the Hawaiian endemic fern genus Sadleria (Ama'u) may counter this trend. The extreme colors displayed in this 3-foot frond of Sadleria cyatheoides result from the presence of pigments called anthocyanins, which function as a sunblock for the plant, absorbing harmful wavelengths of ultraviolet-B radiation. However, this brilliant show does not last long, limited to the tender stages of cell division as the frond unfurls. In this image, the display draws to a close, as the earliest portions of the frond to unfurl harden and flush chartreuse green. This trait equips Sadleria for colonizing open, UV-stressed environments such as recently hardened lava flows or upland tangle-fern prairies, like this one- fringing the world’s highest bog, the Alakai Swamp of Kauai.

 

Submission #90
Title: The flight of the milkweed (Matelea edwardsensis)
Author: Dori Contreras
Institution: University of California-Berkeley
Department: Integrative Biology
Family: Asclepiadaceae
Taxon: Matelea edwardsensis
Common Name: Plateau milkvine
Season/time of year: Winter
Area: San Marcos
State/Province: TX Country: USA
Longitude: 97°56′20″WLatitude: 29°52′46″N
Additional Information: Photographed with a Canon PowerShot SD630, f/2.8, ISO-84, no flash on auto.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Tufted seeds of the plateau milkvine (Matelea edwardsensis) disperse from their seed pod mid-December in central Texas.
Scientific Description/Explanation: The green flowers of the twining plateau milkvine (Matelea edwardsensis) are easy to miss amidst the backdrop of green that accompanies them during the central Texas spring. However, the tufted seeds of this Edwards Plateau endemic hardly go unnoticed as they dance around in the wind during winter, providing a welcomed reminder in a seemingly dormant landscape that some plants are only beginning the journey of their life. Matelea edwardsensis blooms from April to May, later forming seed pods that dry during the winter and open to release the seeds, which catch the wind a few at a time. The tufts of long silky hairs attached to the seeds enable them to travel long distances through their open woodland habitat. Here winter provides the perfect opportunity for wind dispersal, as these tufted seeds are able to travel rather unobstructed through the leafless landscape.

 

Submission #91
Title: Saguaro cactus exposed
Author: Dori Contreras
Institution: University of California-Berkeley
Department: Integrative Biology
Family: Cactaceae
Taxon: Carnegiea gigantea
Common Name: Saguaro
Season/time of year: Summer
Area: Phoenix
State/Province: Arizona Country: USA
Longitude: 112.04 WLatitude: 33.27 N
Additional Information: Photographed with a Samsumg SGH-I997 smartphone, f/2.6, ISO-39, no flash on auto. Picture was taken from an upward angle starting at a height of about 5’3’’.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: This large saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantean) has been damaged, exposing the structural layers that comprise the main column.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Description: The saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantean) is exclusive to the Sonoran desert (southern Arizona and Mexico) and has long been a symbol of the American southwest. These impressive columnar cacti are the largest in the United States, commonly reaching heights of over 12 meters. Saguaro cacti grow very slowly, taking up to 10 years to reach a height of several centimeters and about 65 years to develop their first ‘arm’. The large saguaro shown here was at least 85 years in age, although quite possibly much older. The thick epidermis and succulent cortex of this saguaro have been removed though damage, exposing the woody skeleton that support the massive column.

 

Submission #92
Title: Pollinating the Cretaceous
Author: Gabriela Doria
Institution: Yale University
Department: Forestry and Environmental Studies
Family: Unknown
Taxon: Elaterosporites protensus
Common Name: Elaterate
Season/time of year: Albian-Cenomanian, Cretaceous Period (112 to 93 million years ago)
Area: Contamana
State/Province: Loreto Country: Peru
Longitude: 7 11 SouthLatitude: 74 57 West
Additional Information: Rock samples are first dissolved with strong acids and sieved to isolate the organic component. I locate the pollen grains in the residue under the light microscope and manually pick them using a "pollen wand" (an eyelash glued to the tip of a needle glued to the tip of a stick). Individual pollen grains are mounted in stubs and sputter covered with gold/palladium or carbon before observation in the scanning electron microscope. Jeol XL30 Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope, accelerating voltage 10 kV.

Click Here for a Larger Version
Back to Image Index
Caption: Elaterate pollen grains from the Cretaceous of tropical South America. Left: proximal view, center: lateral view, right: distal view (scanning electron microphotograph, scale bar 20 micrometers).
Scientific Description/Explanation: Elaterates are pollen grains bearing tubular or flap-like projections in their outer walls. These bizarre forms thrived in the tropics of Africa and South America during the mid-Cretaceous (112 to 93 million years ago). In spite of their abundance in the fossil record, the botanical affinities of elaterates, their preferred habitats, the function of the projections in pollination, and the factors that drove them to the extinction in a globally warm world remain mysterious. The use of electron microscopy techniques allows detailed characterization important to elucidate the phylogenetic placement of elaterates and to infer aspects of the reproduction biology and ecology of the enigmatic plants that would shed such pollen.

 

Google
BSA Online Images

Back to the top

 PLANT SCIENCE BULLETIN  

» BOOKS NEEDING REVIEW
» ANNOUNCEMENTS

  BOTANY IN THE NEWS   

» The Erosion of Collections-Based Science: Alarming Trend or Coincidence?



Botanical Society Of America Inc


  BOTANY BLOGS   

» Uncommon Ground
» The Phytophactor
» Active Visual Learning
» Moss Plants and More
» No seeds, no fruits, no flowers: no problem.
» A Wandering Botanist
» Botany Professor

  IDEAS WORTH SPREADING (TED)   

» The hidden beauty of pollination
» The roots of plant intelligence
» Why we're storing billions of seeds
» Nalini Nadkarni on conserving the canopy
» Why can't we grow new energy?
» World's oldest living things

 FEATURED BSA RESOURCES

» BSA members' PLANT VIDEOS online
  

» Economic Botany - How We Value Plants....
» Crime Scene Botanicals - Forensic Botany

  STUDENTS' CORNER

» Why should you join the Society as a student?

» NEW MEMBERS - Connecting with the BSA

Careers in Botany

» POSITIONS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE
» Post a Position

» Some Careers Ideas
    • An Adventure - this is my job!
    • International Journey to a Botany Career
    • Botany as a career: Still having fun
» BOTANY - the students' perspective
    • Tanya, University of California
    • Patricia, University of Washington
    • Cheng-Chiang, Harvard University
    • Uromi, Yale University

     Botanical Society of America - find us on facebook       Botanical Society of America - find us on twitter
                        Botanical Society of America - find us on Flickr
Planting Science Project
Careers in Botany BSA Image Collection www.PlantingScience.org Classroom Plant Talking Points McIntosh Apple Development Project