2012 Triarch "Botanical Images"
Student Travel Award

The Botanical Society of America welcomes you to the seventh annual Triarch "Botanical Images" Student Travel Award entries. From the vibrant microscopy images to those depicting entire ecosystems, pictures are always an enticing way to learn and teach. We trust you will enjoy the results and in the process learn a bit more about plants!

» Submit Images for 2012 | View Past Award Recipients and Submissions

2012 Submissions for the Conant "Botanical Images" Student Travel Award
Jacolyn Bailey, University of Maine - #1  |  Allison Bronson, Humboldt State University - #9  |  Joseph Charboneau, University of Wyoming - #53, #54  |  Dorothy Cheruiyot, Auburn University - #23  |  Andrew Crowl, University of Florida - #13, #14, #15, #16  |  Adrian Dauphinee, Dalhousie University - #32  |  Mauricio Diazgranados, Saint Louis University - Missouri Botanical Garden - #18  |  David Duarte, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona - #5, #30  |  Sean Gershaneck, University of Hawai'i at Manoa - #19, #22  |  brandi griffin, Valdosta State University - #34  |  Matthew Johnson, Duke University - #3  |  Caprice Lee, University of California, Davis - #52  |  Chia-Hua Lin, The Ohio State University - #24, #43, #44, #46  |  Christina Lord, Dalhousie University - #7, #8  |  Dustin Mayfield, University of Missouri-Columbia - #2  |  Jordan Metzgar, University of Alaska Fairbanks - #25, #26, #27, #28, #29, #31, #40, #41, #42  |  Matt Ogburn, Brown University - #60  |  Zoe Panchen, Carleton University - #10, #11, #12  |  Meagan Rathjen, University of Hawaii at Manoa - #55  |  Ratnaprabha Ratnaprabha, Texas A&M University - #20, #21  |  Angela Rein, Oklahoma State University - #4  |  Whitney Reyes, University o Hawaii at Manoa - #56, #57, #58  |  Jon Richey, Texas State University-San Marcos - #17  |  James Riser, Washington State University - #35, #36, #37, #38, #39, #51  |  Sean Ryan, San Diego State University - #59  |  Maria Segovia-Salcedo, University of Florida - #6  |  Glenn Shelton, Humboldt State Univeristy - #33  |  Derek Shiels, Central Michigan University - #48  |  Sunita Yadav, University - #45, #47, #49, #50

Submission #1
Title: a bog beauty
Author: Jacolyn Bailey
Institution: University of Maine
Department: Wildlife Ecology
Family: Sarraceniaceae
Taxon: Sarracenia purpurea
Common Name: Pitcher Plant
Season/time of year: Summer/Fall 2011
Area: Lovell
State/Province: Maine Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: Pitcher plants in flower.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea) are carnivorous and capture prey when organisms, such as insects, fall into the "pitcher" filled with rainwater. Enzymes break down these unlucky organisms and the plant absorbs the nutrients.

 

Submission #2
Title: Stomatal patterning in Zea mays abaxial epidermis
Author: Dustin Mayfield
Institution: University of Missouri-Columbia
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Poaceae
Taxon: Zea mays
Common Name: Corn
Season/time of year: June
Area: Northern Missouri/Kirksville/Truman State University
State/Province: Missouri Country: USA
Longitude: N/aLatitude: N/A
Additional Information: The most interesting information about the photo is how simple it is obtained. Abaxial sides of leaves are pressed into clear nail polish on slides for approximately 25 seconds before being peeled away, leaving these detailed impressions for viewing with basic bright field light microscopy.

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Caption: Two week old B73 Zea mays abaxial epidermal impression with bright field light microscopy
Scientific Description/Explanation: Corn, or maize, needs to maintain water stores during hot summers while accumulating carbon dioxide from the air. Shown here are important sites of gas and water exchange known as stomata located on the underside epidermis of a corn leaf. Specifically, this patterning of cells is normal for two week old leaves of B73, the inbred corn line chosen in the public maize genome sequencing project. The regulation of the opening and closing of these pores continues to be an important area of research in regard to many areas within botany and agronomy.

 

Submission #3
Title: "True Selfing" in Sphagnum
Author: Matthew Johnson
Institution: Duke University
Department: Biology
Family: Sphagnaceae
Taxon: Sphagnum fimbriatum
Common Name:
Season/time of year: Summer
Area: Fairbanks
State/Province: AK Country: USA
Longitude: -147.826Latitude: 68.869
Additional Information: Canon PowerShot A590

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Caption: A tiny forest of sporophytes rise above a hummock of Sphagnum fimbriatum in a fen near the University of Alaska- Fairbanks.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Sphagnum peatmosses have gametophyte dominant life cycles, meaning that the perennial green plants in bogs and fens are haploid. Sphagnum fimbriatum is one of several Sphagnum species that possess bisexual gametophytes-- they can produce both egg and sperm by mitosis. Should an egg be fertilized by a sperm from the same plant, the resulting sporophytes are completely homozygous, a level of inbreeding impossible in seed plants. Genetic analysis of the sporophytes seen here indicates a very high percentage of selfed sporophytes, meaning the 150,000 spores that were released from each capsule shown are genetically identical clones. Sphagnum fimbriatum may risk this level of inbreeding because spore production in Sphagnum is very important for establishment of new populations.

 

Submission #4
Title: Good morning, pollinators!
Author: Angela Rein
Institution: Oklahoma State University
Department: Botany
Family: Apocynaceae
Taxon: Asclepias syriaca
Common Name: Common milkweed
Season/time of year: Summer
Area: Madison
State/Province: Wistonsin Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: Common milkweed flowers are all ready for pollinators to visit as the last flowers open.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Milkweed flowers are lovely to look at, but can be confusing due to the fact that they have extra parts that most other flowering plants don't have. Here, you can see several features. First, there are five green petals on each flower that are reflexed, or bent back away from the hoods and the corona. The hoods are the five light pink tubular structures above the petals that hold nectar for pollinators and make the flowers "showy". The corona, or the round fleshy stalk-like part in the center, is made up of fused male and female sexual parts. Inside, there are tiny sacs of pollen, or pollinia, that must be removed by pollinators while they are feeding on nectar. Once the pollen is removed, it must inserted back into the guide rail of the flowers (shown as a slit between the hoods) for pollination to occur successfully. This sounds pretty complicated, but it must be worth it because common milkweeds are successful plants! They are distributed across most of the northern and eastern parts of the United States and Canada. Once the flowers are pollinated, fruits form and seeds develop. Milkweeds produce fruits called follicles that open when they are dry to release hundreds of seeds.

 

Submission #5
Title: The Perfect Crystal
Author: David Duarte
Institution: California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Malvaceae
Taxon: Tilia americana
Common Name: Basswood
Season/time of year:
Area: Pomona
State/Province: California Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Leica DM4000 B Microscope with image analysis software, 1000X magnification.

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Caption: Cuboidal crystals in a Tilia root cross section.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Crystals are common in the tissues of many plants, and the shape of these crystals can vary depending on the tissue or organ they are found in. Prismatic crystals have been fond in leaves of Tilia and this image shows the presence cuboidal type crystals within cells in the secondary phloem of this Tilia root. The near perfect edges and four sides of the largest crystal makes it stand out among other crystals. These crystals are most likely composed of calcium oxalate (CaOx, common crystal in the plant kingdom), and are created for many reason some of which include anti-herbivory, storage of calcium (Ca), or for homeostasis.

 

Submission #6
Title: Paper Tree Bark (Polylepis incana)
Author: Maria Segovia-Salcedo
Institution: University of Florida
Department: Biology-FLMNH
Family: Rosaceae
Taxon: Polylepis incana
Common Name: paper tree-quenhoa
Season/time of year: November
Area: Illinizas Ecological Reserve
State/Province: Pichincha-Cotopaxi Country: Ecuador
Longitude: S 00 ̊36' 35'Latitude: W 78 ̊40' 40.6''
Additional Information: Camera PANASONIC DMC-FZ8 f/stop f/4 Exposure time 1/40 sec ISO speed ISO-100, Exposure bias 6 mm Max aperture 3 Metering mode Pattern, Flash mode flash 35 mm focal length 37

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Caption: Papery bark of Polylepis incana, a vulnerable species from the Ecuadorian Highlands (4124 msnm).
Scientific Description/Explanation: The Andean genus Polylepis (Rosaceae) have unique ecological and physiological characteristics that allow them to survive in harsh environments -the P?ramo and Puna Ecosystems-. Polylepis forests play a fundamental role in the hydrological equilibrium of the highlands protecting water sources. In addition, these forests create refuges to endemic flora and fauna from the high Andes. During the last centuries, Polylepis forests have to face many threats related to anthropogenic disturbance. Agriculture, cattle and cities boundaries had expanded provoking an alarming rate of slash and burn of the Andean forests. Polylepis are highly susceptible to fire due to papery bark. One of the consequences of this cultural tradition is a patchy distribution of many Polylepis species, where isolation and small population size can affect their evolutionary success in a long term. Nowadays, Polylepis forests are considered as one of the most threatened forest ecosystems in world.

 

Submission #7
Title: Perfectly Pink Perforations
Author: Christina Lord
Institution: Dalhousie University
Department: Biology
Family: Aponogetonaceae
Taxon: Aponogeton madagascariensis
Common Name: Lace Plant
Season/time of year:
Area: Halifax
State/Province: Nova Scotia Country: Canada
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: This image was captured using differential interference contrast (DIC) optics on a Nikon Eclipse 90i compound microscope (Nikon Canada, Mississauga, ON, Canada) using a digital camera (DXM 1200c) and NIS-Elements AR Version 3.0 software.

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Caption: Death becomes the lace plant
Scientific Description/Explanation: Programmed cell death (PCD) is the regulated death of cells within an organism and is an indispensable feature of plant growth and development. The lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis) is an aquatic monocot that forms perforations in its? leaves through developmental PCD. PCD begins in young adult leaves (shown here) between longitudinal and transverse veins in spaces known as areoles and progresses outward, stopping four to five cells from the vasculature; these leaves are markedly pink/red in color due to the pigment anthocyanin. Due to the predictability of perforation formation, the thin nature of the leaf, and a perfected method for sterile culture, the lace plant offers an ideal system in which to study PCD in vivo.

 

Submission #8
Title: A window into death
Author: Christina Lord
Institution: Dalhousie
Department: Biology
Family: Aponogetonaceae
Taxon: Aponogeton madagascariensis
Common Name: Lace Plant
Season/time of year:
Area: Halifax
State/Province: Nova Scotia Country: Canada
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: This image was captured using differential interference contrast (DIC) optics on a Nikon Eclipse 90i compound microscope (Nikon Canada, Mississauga, ON, Canada) using a digital camera (DXM 1200c) and NIS-Elements AR Version 3.0 software.

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Caption: A window into death
Scientific Description/Explanation: Programmed cell death (PCD) is the regulated death of cells within an organism and is an essential feature of plant growth and development. The lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis) is an aquatic monocot native to the river systems of Madagascar that forms perforations in its’ leaves through developmental PCD. PCD begins in the center of longitudinal and transverse veins in spaces known as areoles, which are generally square in shape, and progresses outward, stopping four to five cells from the vasculature. What can be seen within this image is a portion of the left side of an areole, spanning into the center of the perforation. This image clearly depicts the dramatic gradient of PCD, which is present within one individual areole. The cells to the far left are non-PCD of control cells, and will never undergo PCD; these cells are markedly pink in color due to the pigment anthocyanin found within their vacuoles. The next layer of cells in are cells in the early stages of PCD, note they have lost their anthocyanin pigmentation and are markedly green in color due to chlorophyll containing chloroplasts. The cells to the far right are cells in the late stages of PCD; these cells have begun to die and breakaway to form the perforation. Note the disappearance of the cell walls within these cells as well as the condensed nuclei, both common characteristics of plant PCD. This cell death will continue until a full perforation is formed, at which time only the control cells will remain; as well, the layer of cells that surrounds the border of the perforation, which were once mesophyll in nature, will transdifferentiate to become epidermal cells.

 

Submission #9
Title: Darlingtonia californica Fen
Author: Allison Bronson
Institution: Humboldt State University
Department: Department of Biological Sciences
Family: Sarraceniaceae
Taxon: Darlingtonia californica
Common Name: California pitcher plant
Season/time of year: Spring
Area: Gasquet
State/Province: California Country: United States
Longitude: 123° 58′ 10″ Latitude: 41° 50′ 43″ N
Additional Information: Taken with a cell phone camera, as my regular camera had recently given in to extreme use in the botany lab. Rainy, misty conditions made it a slippery trip up the trail to explore the serpentine fens. Flowering Darlingtonias were present in the fen, but those cell phone camera photos were poor quality, unfortunately.

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Caption: Taken with my cell phone camera (as this scene was unexpected), a fen of Darlingtonia californica is seen stretching as far as the eye can see.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Darlingtonia californica, the California pitcher plant, is native to Northern California and Oregon. It grows in running water or boggy areas, often in serpentine soil. It is often called the cobra lily, because of its tubular, pitcher-forming leaves' resemblance to a rearing cobra. Because it grows in soil with poor nutrient content, this pitcher plant traps insects in its modified leaves in order to utilize their nitrogen content. The plant regulates the water level in its pitcher by pumping water in or out through the root system. Its roots also enable the plant to regenerate after a fire. Its pollination biology is not well known, but flies may be attracted to the flower's relatively nasty smell. This image shows cobra lilies stretching into the background, growing extremely densely in a spring-fed creek on serpentine near Gasquet, California. Three color varieties exist (red, green, and bicolor) and these are of the red-green bicolor variety which, for wild plants, means they grow in intense sunlight.

 

Submission #10
Title: From bud to flower to fruit
Author: Zoe Panchen
Institution: Carleton University
Department: Department of Biology
Family: Ericaceae
Taxon: Rhododendron periclymenoides
Common Name: Pinkster azalea
Season/time of year: April
Area: Crow's Nest Preserve, Chester County, Greater Philadelphia area
State/Province: Pennsylvania Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: See AJB article at http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/abstract/ajb.1100198v1 for more details on a phenology climate change study in Greater Philadelphia area.

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Caption: The weekly progression of a pinkster azalea flower (Rhododendron periclymenoides) from 16th April to 7th May 2010.
Scientific Description/Explanation: The short time period that a pinkster azalea (Rhododendron periclymenoides (Michx.) Shinners) is in flower, presents an opportunity for scientists to study the impact of climate change on phenology (the seasonal events of plants such as flowering time). Herbarium specimens, botanists’ field notes, naturalists’ diaries and dated photographic images can all provide historic information on flowering time in years past which can then be compared with the climate in years past.

 

Submission #11
Title: Pink lady-slipper orchid emerging in spring
Author: Zoe Panchen
Institution: Carleton University
Department: Department of Biology
Family: Orchidaceae
Taxon: Cypripedium acuale
Common Name: Pink lady-slipper orchid
Season/time of year: April
Area: Chester County, Greater Philadelphia area
State/Province: Pennsylvania Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: Pink lady-slipper orchid (Cypripedium acuale) emerging in the woodlands of Pennsylvania.
Scientific Description/Explanation: The pink lady-slipper (Cypripedium acuale Aiton) is a spring flowering orchid native to north-eastern North America. Browsing deer have destroyed much of the understory in Pennsylvania woodlands. This pink lady-slipper was found in woodland close to a cliff edge, perhaps dissuading the deer from coming too close to eat this rare orchid.

 

Submission #12
Title: Ice-plant
Author: Zoe Panchen
Institution: Carleton University
Department: Department of Biology
Family: Aizoaceae
Taxon: Delosperma sp.
Common Name: Ice-plant
Season/time of year: March
Area: Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix
State/Province: Arizona Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: Honey bee visiting an ice-plant (Delosperma sp.).
Scientific Description/Explanation: The ice-plant (Delosperma sp.) is a member of the Mesembryanthemum family (Aizoaceae), a succulent plant native to South Africa. These bright flowered, trailing plants are popular with gardeners, adding colour to rock gardens and perennial borders.

 

Submission #13
Title: The Carnivorous Sarracenia flava
Author: Andrew Crowl
Institution: University of Florida
Department: Museum of Natural History
Family: Sarraceniaceae
Taxon: Sarracenia flava
Common Name: trumpet-leaf pitcher plant or yellow pitcher plant
Season/time of year: April
Area: Apalachicola
State/Province: Florida Country:
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: This carnivorous pitcher plant (Sarracenia flava) grows in nutrient-poor, swampy areas of the Florida panhandle. The section between the hood and ‘mouth’ of the pitcher is a dark red color, attracting insects such as this fly. Unsuspecting insects are guided down into the tube (a modified leaf) by downward-facing hairs and a waxy, slippery coating. They are then digested, providing the plant with essential nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus.

 

Submission #14
Title: Bumblebee on Cirsium horridulum (Purple Thistle)
Author: Andrew Crowl
Institution: University of Florida
Department: Museum of Natural History
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Cirsium horridulum
Common Name: Purple Thistle, Yellow Thistle
Season/time of year:
Area: Gainesville
State/Province: Florida Country:
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: Cirsium horridulum (Purple Thistle) is a common feature in the pine flatwoods of the Southeastern United States. Acting as a larval host plant for a number of butterfly species, the purple flowering heads of this thistle also provide nectar for butterflies, beetles, and bees, including this Common Eastern Bumblebee (Bombus impatiens). In return, the Bumblebee will act as a pollinator, carrying pollen between numerous individuals.

 

Submission #15
Title: Campanula pinatzii
Author: Andrew Crowl
Institution: University of Florida
Department: Museum of Natural History
Family: Campanulaceae
Taxon: Campanula pinatzii
Common Name: bellflower
Season/time of year: June
Area: Kasos
State/Province: Country: Greece
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: This narrow-endemic annual species is found only on the islands of Karpathos and Kasos in the Eastern Mediterranean. Using a bellows lens to zoom in reveals the densely hispid nature of this rare plant, a trait that has evolved in response to intense herbivory. Recent molecular work has suggested that this species was once more widespread but is likely on its way to extinction in the absence of conservation efforts.

 

Submission #16
Title: Cocos nucifera (coconut) dispersal in action
Author: Andrew Crowl
Institution: University of Florida
Department: Museum of Natural History
Family: Arecaceae
Taxon: Cocos nucifera
Common Name: coconut
Season/time of year: winter
Area: Luquillo
State/Province: Country: Puerto Rico
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation: Cocos nucifera is the only species in the Cocos genus (Arecaceae: palm family). It is a primarily coastal species found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Coconut palms are widely cultivated and play an important agricultural and cultural role in many tropical countries, providing food, fiber, wood, oil, and many other resources. This photograph was taken on the northern coast of Puerto Rico where an annual festival is held to celebrate this important plant. Water and gravity are the only natural forms of dispersal for Cocos nucifera. The fruit (a fibrous drupe) is buoyant and contains a seed that can survive in salt water for months at a time. This allows the seeds to travel tremendous distances before being washed up on shore by waves and germinating.

 

Submission #17
Title: Big Bend Beauty
Author: Jon Richey
Institution: Texas State University-San Marcos
Department: Department of Biology
Family: Sapindaceae
Taxon: Acer grandidentatum
Common Name: Bigtooth Maple
Season/time of year: October
Area: Big Bend National Park
State/Province: Texas Country: United States of America
Longitude: 29NLatitude: 103W
Additional Information:

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Caption: A splash of color in the high desert.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Normally, there would be nothing interesting about a bigtooth maple (Acer grandidentatum) in full fall color. However, the location of this tree is what makes it interesting. The bigtooth maple is native to the western interior of North America, existing in isolated populations from Montana to Mexico. In Texas, this tree is relatively rare. In the center of Big Bend National Park, surrounded by the Chihuahuan Desert, stand the Chisos Mountains, which contains one of only a few isolated populations of bigtooth maples in Texas. This splash of fall color is a beautiful respite from the uniformly brown enviroment of the Chihuahuan Desert, though one has to hike to an elevation of 7,000 ft to see it.

 

Submission #18
Title: A Lantern Banksia illuminating the Blue Mountains (Australia)
Author: Mauricio Diazgranados
Institution: Saint Louis University - Missouri Botanical Garden
Department: Biology
Family: Proteaceae
Taxon: Banksia ericifolia L.f.
Common Name: Lantern Banksia or Heath-leaved Banksia
Season/time of year: Winter/July
Area: Blue Mountains
State/Province: New South Wales Country: Australia
Longitude: 150.323381Latitude: -33.754763
Additional Information: Camera Canon PowerShot G9, focal length 9.0 mm, aperture f/2.8, subject distance 0.1 m, exposure in auto, 7/20/11, 3:30 PM

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Caption: A Lantern Banksia illuminating the Blue Mountains (Australia), in a cold and foggy winter hiking
Scientific Description/Explanation: With bright reds, oranges and yellows the inflorescence of the Lantern Banksias (Banksia ericifolia L.f., Proteaceae) are like candles in the dark-bluish forest of the giant Australian Eucalyptus. But there is a reason for such extravagant display: hundreds of flowers are loaded with abundant sweet nectar. The nectariferous visitors and pollinators include marsupials, rodents, bats, possums, stingless bees and dozens of different birds. After pollination, seeds are going to be kept in the cones for years until fire kills the parent and germination is triggered. This species can be found on elevated sandstone soils in the Blue Mountains and other formations of New South Wales. There are circa 170 species of Banksias in Australia, and a number of them are rare and endangered. The indigenous people suck the nectar from the flower spikes, and make a sweet drink soaking the flowers in water. The bark of these trees is also a reliable source of insect larvae as supplementary food.

 

Submission #19
Title: 'Ōhi'a Lehua at Akanikōlea
Author: Sean Gershaneck
Institution: University of Hawai'i at Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Myrtaceae
Taxon: Metrosideros polymorpha var. incana
Common Name: 'Ōhi'a Lehua
Season/time of year: Spring 2012
Area: Kilauea
State/Province: Hawai'i Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: 'Ōhi'a Lehua at Akanikōlea (Steaming Bluffs), Kilauea volcano in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park
Scientific Description/Explanation: 'Ōhi'a Lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) is Hawai'i's most common native tree with a distribution ranging from coastal forests to the treeline on some of the world's tallest mountains as well as bogs, swamps and deserts. It is also among the first plants to colonize newly cooled lava flows and is well adapted to the volcanic environment. As the scientific name of this endemic species suggests, it is highly variable in growth habit, leaf morphology and flower color and is currently divided into 8 varieties. 'Ōhi'a Lehua is a keystone species in many Hawaiian ecosystems where its flowers provide an important source of food for endangered Hawaiian forest birds and its leaves a surface on which the fungus necessary to endangered Hawaiian tree snails can thrive. 'Ōhi'a Lehua is furthermore of great importance within Hawaiian culture with ethnobotanical associations including medicine, music, ornamentation, dye, woodwork, and religion. Biogeographical information regarding the species is recorded in chants, proverbs and stories. The flowers are considered sacred to the volcano goddess Pele who resides in Halema'uma'u crater within Kilauea- the world's most active volcano. It is on the edge of Kīlauea caldera at Akanikōlea (Steaming Bluff) that this photo of a flowering 'Ōhi'a Lehua shrouded in steam was taken. These steam vents were formed when Kilauea caldera collapsed in the 15th century, an event recorded in Hawaiian oral tradition through the Epic of Hi'iakaikapoliopele. Further recorded are the accompanying lava flows which inundated the neighboring district of Puna including vivid accounts of the destruction of Puna's 'Ōhi'a Lehua forests. This particular specimen of pubescent M. polymorpha var. incana was growing in one of the cracks within close proximity to a steam vent. The ability of the 'Ōhi'a Lehua to survive and thrive within such close proximity to high heat, acid rain and acid soil is an indicator of this species' high adaption to the volcanic environment. Many of the surrounding 'Ōhi'a Lehua were shedding their small light weight seeds, a factor which allowed its ancestor to become one of the few plants that colonized the islands by means of air dispersal. Akanikōlea according to Hawaiian tradition is believed to be the site of an epic battle between Pele and a demigod associated with the forest, Kamapua'a. An interpretation of the battle is that it is a metaphor for the cycles and struggles of growth and destruction to be found within this area as volcanic action destroys forest but provides a clean palette on which plants can grow. Indeed, this cycle of creation and destruction continues in the form of these seeds, some of which may be carried far away to colonize the a barren landscape.

 

Submission #20
Title: Rice/Paddy inflorescence
Author: Ratnaprabha Ratnaprabha
Institution: Texas A&M University
Department: Molecular & Enviromental Plant Sciences
Family: Graminae/ Poaceae
Taxon: O. sativa
Common Name: Rice/Paddy
Season/time of year: Spring
Area: Beaumont
State/Province: Texas Country: US
Longitude: 30?04′48″N Latitude: 94?07′36″W
Additional Information: Nikon D3000, f/8, Exposure time 1/160sec, ISO-100, Focal length 55mm

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Caption: Rice/Paddy florets in full bloom
Scientific Description/Explanation: Rice/Paddy inflorescence bears upto 100 florets/spikelets. Each floret/spikelet hosts both male (anthers) and female (pistil) organs resulting in self-pollination governed by wind.

 

Submission #21
Title: Rice/Paddy inflorescences (panicles)
Author: Ratnaprabha Ratnaprabha
Institution: Texas A&M University
Department: Molecular & Enviromental Plant Sciences
Family: Graminae/ Poaceae
Taxon: O. sativa
Common Name: Rice/Paddy
Season/time of year: Spring
Area: Beaumont
State/Province: Texas Country: US
Longitude: 30?04′48″N Latitude: 94?07′36″W
Additional Information: Nikon D3000, f/8, exposure time 1/100 sec, ISO-100, focal length 55mm

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Caption: Rice/Paddy inflorescences (panicles) in full bloom
Scientific Description/Explanation: Rice/Paddy inflorescences are called panicles which bears upto 100 florets called spikelets. The bloom starts at the tip of the inflorescence proceeding downwards and are visibly marked by anthers protuding out of each spikelet. Rice is largely self-pollinated and anthers shed pollen on the pistill of the same floret.

 

Submission #22
Title: Ka'ena
Author: Sean Gershaneck
Institution: University of Hawai'i at Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Malvaceae, Poaceae , Boraginaceae, Goodeniaceae
Taxon: Sida fallax, Sporobolus virginicus, Heliotropium anomalum var. argenteum, Scaevola sericea
Common Name: 'Ilima, 'Aki'aki, Hinahina kū kahakai, Naupaka kahakai
Season/time of year:
Area: Ka'ena, O'ahu
State/Province: Hawai'i Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
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Caption: 'Ilima, 'Aki'aki, Hinahina ku kahakai, and Naupaka kahakai at Ka'ena, O'ahu
Scientific Description/Explanation: This photo was taken at Ka'ena State Park located at the westernmost most tip of the island of O'ahu in the Hawaiian Islands. The park is one of the last places on O'ahu where one can see a dominantly native coastal ecosystem. The flora found at this location is most likely representative of what would have been found in littoral zones on the island of O'ahu before Western contact about 200 years ago. Ka'ena is a place steeped in cultural and biological significance- it is a wahi pana (place of importance) in Hawaiian culture and it is believed to be here that the spirits of the dead leap off into the next world. It also serves as a beacon of hope for the restoration of Hawaiian coastal ecosystems. The yellow flower belongs to a low growing form of the indigenous 'ilima (Sida fallax) called 'ilima papa. Belonging to the Malvaceae, the bright golden flowers of this species are prized for lei (garlands) and utilized as a medicine. The plant with gray succulent-like rosettes is the endemic Hinahina kū kahakai (Heliotropium anomalum var. argenteum), a plant in the Boraginaceae used in medicine and whose fragrant white flowers are also used for the making of lei. "Hinahina" in Hawaian language is a reference to the silvery color of the leaves while "kahakai" refers to the more coastal distribution of this species. The grass is the 'aki'aki (Sporobolus virginicus) belonging to the Poaceae, a coastal species that was utilized for medicine. Off in the distance near the crashing waves are several indigenous naupaka kahakai (Scaevola sericea) of the Goodeniaceae, a species utilized for food, medicine and lei. Contemporary usage also includes the utilization of the leaves to defog snorkeling masks. Like with Hinahina kū kahakai, the kahakai refers to a more coastal distribution.

 

Submission #23
Title: Citronelle Pond
Author: Dorothy Cheruiyot
Institution: Auburn University
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Nymphaea odorata, Taxodium distichum
Taxon:
Common Name:
Season/time of year: April, 2010
Area: Citronelle
State/Province: Alabama Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
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Caption: A botanical retreat.
Scientific Description/Explanation: This is a breathtaking swamp found Citronelle, Al. The swamp covered with Nymphaea odorata between the Cypress trees. Also in this swamp are Taxodium distichum, Ilex myrtifolia and the carnivorous plant Utricularia radiata. The water can be waist high (depending on height) during the rainy season and knee high during the dry season.

 

Submission #24
Title: Bumble bee on Dicentra canadensis
Author: Chia-Hua Lin
Institution: The Ohio State University
Department: Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology
Family: Fumariaceae
Taxon: Dicentra canadensis
Common Name: Squirrel corn
Season/time of year: Early spring
Area: Newark, Licking County
State/Province: Ohio Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
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Caption: A bumble bee queen visiting flowers of Dicentra canadensis for nectar
Scientific Description/Explanation: The squirrel corn (Dicentra canadensis) is a spring ephemeral wildflower in the eastern deciduous forests of North America. This plant is primarily pollinated by long-tonged bumble bee queens (most commonly Bombus bimaculatus and B. impatiens in central Ohio) that forage and provision young broods in early spring. In this picture, the bee extends her proboscis as she is ready to probe the flower for nectar.

 

Submission #25
Title: Parsley fern flourishing in the frigid North
Author: Jordan Metzgar
Institution: University of Alaska Fairbanks
Department: Biology and Wildlife
Family: Pteridaceae
Taxon: Cryptogramma acrostichoides
Common Name: parsley fern
Season/time of year: summer/June
Area: Turnagain Arm near town of Hope
State/Province: Alaska Country: USA
Longitude: W 149? 42' 08.7"Latitude: N 60? 57' 01.0"
Additional Information: Canon Rebel 6.2MP

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Caption: A parsley fern nestled among rocks with unfurling fertile fronds.
Scientific Description/Explanation: A parsley fern is a small species of fern found in high-alpine and boreal habitats. Restricted to cold areas including glacial margins, they are excellent an excellent indicator of warming climates and their changing distributions can be used to model climate change impacts during previous climatic fluctuations and during present day global warming. Like other ferns, they reproduce via tiny, wind-dispersed spores and their new leaves are called fiddleheads due to the resemblance to the the head of a violin. Here, this parsley fern has unfurling fiddleheads that will become fertile fronds.

 

Submission #26
Title: Sun soaked anemone flowers
Author: Jordan Metzgar
Institution: University of Alaska Fairbanks
Department: Biology and Wildlife
Family: Ranunculaceae
Taxon: Anemone narcissiflora
Common Name: Narcissus-flowered anemone
Season/time of year: summer/June
Area: Round Island
State/Province: Alaska Country: USA
Longitude: 159? 58?WLatitude: 58? 37?N
Additional Information: Canon Rebel 6.2MP.

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Caption: Flowers of the narcissus-flowered anemone bask on a sunny day in the Bering Sea.
Scientific Description/Explanation: This Anemone narcissiflora plant is in full bloom on Round Island, a walrus sanctuary in the Bering Sea off the Alaskan coast. Sunny weather is rare in this part of the world and the blooming season is short. This individual is taking advantage of a rare calm, sunny day to attract pollinators and set seed before the harsh winter begins.

 

Submission #27
Title: Bitterroot blooming in a barren world
Author: Jordan Metzgar
Institution: University of Alaska Fairbanks
Department: Biology and Wildlife
Family: Portulacaceae
Taxon: Lewisia rediviva
Common Name: bitterroot
Season/time of year: summer/June
Area: Helena
State/Province: Montana Country: USA
Longitude: 112?1′WLatitude: 46?35′N
Additional Information: Canon Rebel 6.2MP.

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Caption: This bitterroot plant is in full bloom in the harsh, rocky soil near Helena, Montana.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Bitterroot (Lewisia rediviva) was collected during the Lewis and Clark expedition by Meriwether Lewis and the genus was later named after Lewis. This striking flower is in the Portulaceae, and like many other members of the family has fleshy leaves that help to increase survival in dry conditions. This is a useful quality for bitterroot as it is found on dry, rocky areas in the western USA. It is also the state flower of Montana.

 

Submission #28
Title: Broad-petalled gentian flower
Author: Jordan Metzgar
Institution: University of Alaska Fairbanks
Department: Biology and Wildlife
Family: Gentianaceae
Taxon: Gentiana platypetala
Common Name: broad-petalled gentian
Season/time of year: summer/July
Area: Bird Ridge, Turnagain Arm
State/Province: Alaska Country: USA
Longitude: W 149? 28'Latitude: N 60? 58'
Additional Information: Canon Rebel 6.2MP.

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Caption: Broad-petalled gentian (Gentiana platypetala) flowering in Alaska's alpine tundra.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Gentians are showy-flowered plants commonly found in alpine areas around the world. Like most species in North America, the broad-petalled gentian has blue flowers. This species is restricted to Alaska and British Columbia and this image is from an alpine meadow on a steep mountainside overlooking the Pacific Ocean near Anchorage, Alaska.

 

Submission #29
Title: Interrupted fern leaflets and sporangia
Author: Jordan Metzgar
Institution: University of Alaska Fairbanks
Department: Biology and Wildlife
Family: Osmundaceae
Taxon: Osmunda
Common Name: claytoniana
Season/time of year: spring/May
Area: Black Ash Swamp, near Wellsboro
State/Province: Pennsylvania Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Canon Rebel 6.2MP.

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Caption: The interrupted fern (Osmunda claytoniana) is fertile and producing spores in the spring.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Found in wetlands in the eastern USA, the interrupted fern (Osmunda claytoniana) is a sign of spring as its leaves emerge and spores are produced. Like other ferns, it reproduces using minute, wind-dispersed spores that are produced by the hundreds in each of the bulb-shaped sporangia. This species produces green spores, that must land and germinate within weeks.

 

Submission #30
Title: Fibers and ray parenchyma in walnut wood
Author: David Duarte
Institution: California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Juglandaceae
Taxon: Juglans californica
Common Name: Southern California Black Walnut
Season/time of year:
Area: Pomona
State/Province: CA Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: 20 micron thick section, stained with toluidine blue, Leica DM4000B microscope with image analysis software, polarized light, 1000X total magnification

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Caption: Section of walnut wood containing fiber cells and ray cells, stained with toluidine blue, and observed under polarized light.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Southern California black walnut is one of the dominant trees in California woodlands, who's habitat is under threat from climate and human impacts. In this picture are fiber cells, and ray parenchyma cells. The ray cells unlike the fibers are living (internal organelles are visible in the ray cells in the center of the picture), and can function in either storage or lateral water transport through the xylem. Fibers on either side of the ray cells have thick lignified cell walls that give wood it's great mechanical strength and flexibility. Understanding how internal wood anatomy responds to external environmental stimuli is important in ecological management of not just California black walnuts but of walnuts and trees worldwide.

 

Submission #31
Title: Elegant Indian paintbrush with rain drops
Author: Jordan Metzgar
Institution: University of Alaska Fairbanks
Department: Biology and Wildlife
Family: Orobanchaceae
Taxon: Castilleja elegans
Common Name: elegant Indian paintbrush
Season/time of year: summer/July
Area: tundra near Laurentiya
State/Province: Chukotka Country: Russia
Longitude: E 172? 2'Latitude: N 65? 47'
Additional Information: Canon Rebel 6.2MP.

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Caption: Elegant Indian paintbrush in bloom on a rainy day in the Russian tundra.
Scientific Description/Explanation: This elegant Indian paintbrush (Castilleja elegans) was blooming on a cold, rainy day in the tundra in Chukotka, Russia. Castilleja species are hemiparasites and parasitize the roots of neighboring plants. The elegant Indian paintbrush has an amphiberingian distribution, meaning that it is found on both sides of the Bering Strait.

 

Submission #32
Title: Unravelling the early development of the lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis)
Author: Adrian Dauphinee
Institution: Dalhousie University
Department: Biology
Family: Aponogetonaceae
Taxon: Aponogeton madagascariensis
Common Name: Lace Plant
Season/time of year:
Area:
State/Province: Country:
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Lace plants were propagated via a sterile tissue culturing technique, fixed, dissected and prepared for microscopy work in the Programmed Cell Death (PCD) Laboratory of Dr. Arunika Gunawardena at Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada. The Micrograph was captured using a scanning electron microscope in the Morphospace Laboratory of Dr. Christian Lacroix at the University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada.

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Caption: Scanning electron micrograph of the lace plant shoot apex.
Scientific Description/Explanation: This image reveals the shoot apex of the lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis). This fixed specimen has a basal width of approximately 500 μM and was carefully dissected by hand, using ultra-fine forceps and a dissecting microscope. The micrograph was taken at high magnification on a scanning electron microscope, and the structures found were given false colors using Adobe Photoshop. Note that young leaf, or flower structures are most predominantly shown here and that the larger structures are more advanced in age. The dark blue area in the center contains the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is a cluster of cells that divide continuously throughout the life cycle and gives rise to the leaves and flowers of the lace plant.

 

Submission #33
Title: A charismatic salt rush inflorescence
Author: Glenn Shelton
Institution: Humboldt State Univeristy
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Juncaceae
Taxon: Juncus breweri
Common Name: salt rush
Season/time of year: Spring
Area: Eureka
State/Province: CA Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Olympus Stylus Verve

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Caption: Elaborate stigma architecture of the wind-pollinated salt rush, Juncus breweri.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Rushes and other grass-like plants are frequently overlooked amidst a landscape of showy entomophilous (insect-pollinated) flowers. However, up close their inflorescences can be far from drab. The flowers of this coastal Juncus species, J. breweri (salt-rush) possess elaborate stigmas bearing vivid pink lobes, looking very much like ornamented pink corkscrews. Like many other flowering plants, rushes are anemophilous (wind pollinated). Anemophilous flowers tend to lack showy sepals and petals like those of their insect-pollinated relatives and instead opt for large exerted anthers and stigmas, and small pollen grains that are easily carried by the wind. The helical stigma lobes of these salt-rush flowers likely provide optimal surface area for pollen receipt.

 

Submission #34
Title: Hellaborious!
Author: brandi griffin
Institution: Valdosta State University
Department: Biology
Family: Ranunculaceae
Taxon: Helleborus argutifolius
Common Name: Lentel Rose/ Corsican hellebore
Season/time of year: late winter
Area: Valdosta
State/Province: Georgia Country: usa
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: This photo was taken with the cheapest digital camera on the market in South Georgia circa 2008.

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Caption: Helleborus argutifolius nectaries
Scientific Description/Explanation: These flowers have five sepals that look like traditional petals surrounding a circle of cup-shaped nectaries. These nectaries are actual petals modified to hold nectar increasing the appeal to its pollinator. The sepals (petal imitators in this case) remain on the plant for much longer than petals would. There has even been studies that say this particular modification aids the plant in seed production.

 

Submission #35
Title: Carrion flower mandala
Author: James Riser
Institution: Washington State University
Department: School of Biological Sciences
Family: Apocynaceae
Taxon: Orbea (Stapelia) variegata
Common Name: Carrion flower
Season/time of year: 17 October 2008
Area: The Gaiser Conservatory, Manito Park, Spokane
State/Province: Washington Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
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Caption: Carrion flower (Orbea variegata) uses its distinctive markings and dead-animal odor to attract carrion-seeking flies to pollinate it.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Often identified by its older name, Stapelia variegata, Orbea variegata is probably the most commonly cultivated succulent stapeliad. There is tremendous variability from one clone to the next, which has led to huge number of scientific names for this species. The complex flowers of the stapeliads have evolved to be pollinated by carrion-seeking flies and often produce a foul scent to attract these flies.

 

Submission #36
Title: Gynostegial offering
Author: James Riser
Institution: Washington State University
Department: School of Biological Sciences
Family: Apocynaceae
Taxon: Asclepias asperula
Common Name: Antelope horns
Season/time of year: May 2011
Area: Black Mesa, north of Kenton
State/Province: Oklahoma Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: Antelope horns (Asclepias asperula) is a common milkweed found throughout much of the western US.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Antelope horns (Asclepias asperula) is a common milkweed found throughout much of the western US. The complex milkweed flowers include an elaboration of the anthers termed a corona; this is the purple hoods or ?antelope horns? in Asclepias asperula. Antelope horns are an important source of nectar for numerous insects in the arid areas where they grow. Milkweeds are the obligate host species for monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) larvae. The growing larvae will often consume entire plants of antelope horns.

 

Submission #37
Title: Purple oasis
Author: James Riser
Institution: Washington State University
Department: School of Biological Sciences
Family: Liliaceae
Taxon: Calochortus flexuosus
Common Name: Bent-stem mariposa lily
Season/time of year: 27 May 2011
Area: White River Valley, Lincoln County
State/Province: Nevada Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: The bent-stem mariposa lily (Calochortus flexuosus) is found in arid areas in several western US states.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Mariposa lilies are one of the showiest wildflowers of the western US. Bent-stem mariposa lily (Calochortus flexuosus) provides a splash of purple in the seas of grey-green sagebrush where it is often found. The colorful nectar glands at the base of each petal attract an assortment of insects.

 

Submission #38
Title: With teeth
Author: James Riser
Institution: Washington State University
Department: School of Biological Sciences
Family: Asparagaceae
Taxon: Agave wacomahui
Common Name:
Season/time of year: Aug 1998
Area: Sonora/Chihuahua border, Sierra Madre Occidental
State/Province: Country: Mexico
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: A forest-dwelling species of agave from northern Sonora, near the Chihuahua border, Mexico.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Agave is a large genus of succulent plants found throughout the southern US south into northern South America. Most Americans are familiar with agave in the form of its distilled spirits, tequila. The marginal teeth on the edge of each leaf leave an impression in the leaves beneath them as the spread outward. Agave wacomahui is a forest-dwelling species of the northern Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico.

 

Submission #39
Title: Catching some rays
Author: James Riser
Institution: Washington State University
Department: School of Biological Sciences
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Wyethia scabra
Common Name: Rough mulesears
Season/time of year: 24 May 2011
Area: Garfield County
State/Province: Utah Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: Rough mulesears (Wyethia scabra) is a common yellow composite flower of the sandy deserts of southern Utah.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Large yellow flowers face the last of the fading sunlight. Rough mulesears (Wyethia scabra) is a common wildflower of sandy areas of southern Utah. The clumps of stems often trap blowing sand and form small stabilized areas that provide habitat for burrowing animals.

 

Submission #40
Title: Shooting stars in bloom
Author: Jordan Metzgar
Institution: University of Alaska Fairbanks
Department: Biology and Wildlife
Family: Primulaceae
Taxon: Dodecatheon sp.
Common Name: shooting stars
Season/time of year: spring/May
Area: Yellowstone National Park
State/Province: Wyoming Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Canon Rebel 6.2MP.

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Caption: A shooting star plant (Dodecatheon sp.) in bloom near Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Shooting stars (Dodecatheon) are a popular ornamental genus with distinctive, showy flowers that are bee-pollinated. This wild plant was blooming near the Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park, an important reminder that plants are one of the most beautiful elements of our world.

 

Submission #41
Title: Calypso orchids in bloom
Author: Jordan Metzgar
Institution: University of Alaska Fairbanks
Department: Biology and Wildlife
Family: Orchidaceae
Taxon: Calypso bulbosa
Common Name: fairyslipper orchids
Season/time of year: spring/June
Area: Banff National Park
State/Province: Alberta Country: Canada
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information: Canon Rebel 6.2MP.

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Caption: A trio of fairyslipper orchids (Calypso bulbosa) blooming in a boreal forest in Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Fairyslipper or calypso orchids (Calypso bulbosa) are small, brightly colored flowers found in northern North America. Like many other orchids, their colorful, three dimensional flowers are adapted for specialized pollination strategies. Calypso orchids use deceptive pollination, with the anther-like yellow hairs on the flower's lip tricking bees into visiting the flower for a nectar reward. No such reward exists though and the bee is an unwitting and unsatisfied partner in pollinating calypso plants.

 

Submission #42
Title: Wet willow flowers
Author: Jordan Metzgar
Institution: University of Alaska Fairbanks
Department: Biology and Wildlife
Family: Salicaceae
Taxon: Salix arctica
Common Name: arctic willow
Season/time of year: spring/June
Area: Thompson Pass near Valdez
State/Province: Alaska Country: USA
Longitude: W 145? 41'Latitude: N 61? 07'
Additional Information: Canon Rebel 6.2MP.

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Caption: A tiny arctic willow (Salix arctica) in bloom during a frigid rainstorm near Valdez, Alaska.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Willows are extremely abundant and diverse in northern areas such as Alaska. There are dozens of species found in Alaska, including many diminutive species that are only a few inches tall. The arctic willow (Salix arctica) is one of the dwarf species and is found in alpine and arctic tundra. This plant is in full bloom in early June, when snow storms and freezing temperatures are still very possible. All of the flowers on this plant are female, as the arctic willow is dioecious. This means that some plants only have female flowers while other individuals only have male flowers. Dioecy is a common plant breeding system and all willow species are dioecious.

 

Submission #43
Title: Dicentra pollen carryover experiment
Author: Chia-Hua Lin
Institution: The Ohio State University
Department: Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology
Family: Fumariaceae
Taxon: Dicentra canadensis
Common Name: Squirrel Corn
Season/time of year: Spring
Area: Newark
State/Province: Ohio Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: Dicentra pollen carryover experiment
Scientific Description/Explanation: Dicentra canadensis is a woodland herb pollinated by bumble bees. This photo was taken during an experiment designed to study the movement of D. canadensis pollen carried by its pollinators. We dyed pollen grains of a "donor" flower with fuchsine before offering the flower to a foraging bee. We then examined for dyed pollen grains in flowers subsequently visited by the bee and estimate the number of plants receiving pollen from the donor flower in a foraging bout. In this photo, a bee pries open petals of D. canadensis in order to reach the nectary located in the spur and exposes the stigma and pollen grains (dyed red) of the flower.

 

Submission #44
Title: Sweet nectar of the common burdock
Author: Chia-Hua Lin
Institution: The Ohio State University
Department: Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Arctium minus
Common Name: Common Burdock
Season/time of year: Summer
Area: Gibraltar Island, Lake Erie
State/Province: Ohio Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
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Caption: A bumble bee feeding on burdock flowers after a summer storm.
Scientific Description/Explanation: The common burdock originated in Europe and can now be found in most parts of the US. It is often seen in open areas such as roadsides, stream banks or abandoned farmlands.

 

Submission #45
Title: Sky sculpture
Author: Sunita Yadav
Institution: University
Department: Biological
Family: Combretaceae
Taxon: Terminalia
Common Name: Tropical
Season/time of year: February
Area: Honolulu
State/Province: HI Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: tree sculpture
Scientific Description/Explanation: The Terminalia catappa is one of the exceptional trees at the Honolulu Botanic Gardens on Oahu. Exceptional trees must meet certain criteria such as age, cultural significance, size or rarity among other measure.

 

Submission #46
Title: Harbinger of spring
Author: Chia-Hua Lin
Institution: The Ohio State University
Department: Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology
Family: Apiaceae
Taxon: Erigenia bulbosa
Common Name: harbinger of spring
Season/time of year: Spring
Area: Sharon Woods Metro Park near Columbus
State/Province: Ohio Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
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Caption: Harbinger of Spring
Scientific Description/Explanation: Harbinger of Spring, also known as "Pepper and Salt" is one of the first flowers to bloom in the eastern deciduous forests of North America. The tiny flowers are visited by a variety of small bees and flies in early spring.

 

Submission #47
Title: The butterfly and the weed
Author: Sunita Yadav
Institution: University of Cincinnati
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Cirsium vulgare
Common Name: Common thistle
Season/time of year: August 2012
Area: Cedar Falls
State/Province: Iowa Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: Black beauty
Scientific Description/Explanation: Black swallowtail on thistle (Cirsium vulgare) next to corn field in Iowa.

 

Submission #48
Title: Hidden: biodiversity of ephemeral wetlands
Author: Derek Shiels
Institution: Central Michigan University
Department: Biology
Family: Cyperaceae
Taxon: Eleocharis flavescens
Common Name: spike-rush
Season/time of year: August
Area: Cass County
State/Province: Michigan Country:
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: Seasonal wetlands are ephemeral and the species that inhabit them can be just as elusive. Many species go unnoticed; whether they are dependent on specific hydrological conditions like this spike-rush, or are rare and camouflaged like the hidden Blanchard Cricket Frog.
Scientific Description/Explanation: The camouflaged Blanchard Cricket Frog (Acris crepitans blanchardi) in the foreground parallels the hidden and elusive nature of the plants found in this wetland. The photo was taken at a coastal plain marsh in southeast Michigan. Seasonal wetlands such as the coastal plain marsh are rich with rare and unique flora and fauna. This particular wetland had many fabulous sedges: Fimbrystylis autumnalis, Fuirena pumila, Rhynchospora macrostachya, Rynchospora scirpoides, Schoenoplectus acutus, Cyperus species and several Eleocharis species including the tentatively ID?d E. flavescens in the photo.

 

Submission #49
Title: Kangaroo's Paw
Author: Sunita Yadav
Institution: University of Cincinnati
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Haemodoraceae
Taxon: Anigozanthos rufus
Common Name: Red Kangaroo's Paw
Season/time of year: February 2012
Area: Kula
State/Province: HI Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: Kangaroo's Paw
Scientific Description/Explanation: The species Anigozanthos rufus (Red Kangaroo?s Paw) is endemic to Western Australia and is noted for it?s unique 6-claw structure, hence the common name Kangaroo?s paw. The flowers are bird-pollinated. There are only 11 species in the genus Anigozanthos.

 

Submission #50
Title: Cool me
Author: Sunita Yadav
Institution: University of Cincinnati
Department: Biological Sciences
Family: Poaceae
Taxon: Dactyloctenium aegyptium
Common Name: Beach wiregrass
Season/time of year: February 2012
Area: Makapu Point Lighthouse
State/Province: HI Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
Additional Information:

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Caption: Just hanging out
Scientific Description/Explanation: Beach wiregrass (Dactyloctenium aegyptium) is native to Africa. This specimen was on Oahu at Makapu Point Lighthouse.

 

Submission #51
Title: Nectar junkie?
Author: James Riser
Institution: Washington State University
Department: School of Biological Sciences
Family: Apocynaceae
Taxon: Asclepias ruthiae
Common Name: Ruth's milkweed
Season/time of year: 23 May 2011
Area: San Rafael Swell
State/Province: Utah Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
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Caption: An ant sips water from a recently rained on Ruth?s milkweed (Asclepias ruthiae) in southern Utah.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Ruth?s milkweed (Asclepias ruthiae) is a diminutive desert milkweed from southern-central Utah and extreme northern Arizona. This species is one of four closely related milkweed species that emerge and flower in the early spring. By June, when other milkweed species are just getting going, they have gone to seed. Often, Ruth?s milkweed is one of the few plants blooming in its habitat, thereby providing a much needed nectar source for insects.

 

Submission #52
Title: Vanilla planifolia Female Reproductive Structures
Author: Caprice Lee
Institution: University of California, Davis
Department: Plant Biology
Family:
Taxon: Vanilla planifolia
Common Name: Vanilla
Season/time of year:
Area: Davis,
State/Province: California Country: USA
Longitude: Latitude:
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Caption: Image of Vanilla planifolia female reproductive structures; stained with Aniline Blue Black at 10x magnification.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Vanilla planifolia has extraordinary reproductive biology. In most of flowering plants, the ovules are mature and the egg cells are ready to be fertilized at anthesis. In contrast, ovule development in Vanilla planifolia is triggered by pollination. Here, Vanilla placenta, funiculi, developing ovule-seeds and mature seeds can be seen in this 250 micron section. Not all seeds are present. Light seed near bottom reveals the developing inner and outer integument.

 

Submission #53
Title: Flowers (plural)
Author: Joseph Charboneau
Institution: University of Wyoming
Department: Department of Botany
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Balsamorhiza sagittata
Common Name: arrowleaf balsamroot
Season/time of year: Early Summer
Area: Little Rocky Mountains
State/Province: Montana Country: USA
Longitude: 108.6318° WLatitude: 47.8993° N
Additional Information: Canon PowerShot A590IS

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Caption: Inflorescence of Balsamorhiza sagittata.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Balsamorhiza sagittata is a showy species of forests, meadows, and other habitats in western North America. Like other members of the Asteraceae or composite family, it has an inflorescence (a cluster of flowers) that looks like a single large flower. Each head, as the inflorescence is often called in this family, is made up of two types of flowers, both of which are readily visible in this photograph. Ray flowers on the perimeter of the head have elongated petals, while disc flowers in the center of the head have reduced petals.

 

Submission #54
Title: Good Things Come in Threes
Author: Joseph Charboneau
Institution: University of Wyoming
Department: Department of Botany
Family: Cactaceae
Taxon: Coryphantha vivipara
Common Name: pincushion cactus
Season/time of year: Summer
Area: Phillips County
State/Province: Montana Country: USA
Longitude: 108.2047° WLatitude: 47.8103° N
Additional Information: Canon PowerShot A590IS

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Caption: Coryphantha vivipara in flower.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Coryphantha vivipara can be found from the northern Great Plains to the desert Southwest of North America. Like most cacti, it is adapted to dry environments; spines protect its fleshy, photosynthetic stems that store water and nutrients. With enough stored water and nutrients, the pincushion cactus produces these brilliantly colored flowers, sometimes even three at a time.

 

Submission #55
Title: Lipstick Tree, Bixa orellana
Author: Meagan Rathjen
Institution: University of Hawaii at Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Bixaceae
Taxon: Bixa orellana
Common Name: Lipstick Plant, Annatto, 'alaea (Hawaiian)
Season/time of year: Fall 2011
Area: Foster Botanical Garden, Honoulu
State/Province: Hawaii Country: United States
Longitude: Latitude:
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Caption: Dehiscent, two-valved fruit exposing small, red, fleshy seeds.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Bixa orellana is a shrub ranging from 3 to 10 meters tall with pink or white flowers and is native to tropical regions of the Americas. Bixin, or annatto, is the carotenoid pigment derived from the seeds that can be used as medicinal paste, food coloring, fabric dye, and body paint. Each fruit contains around 50 seeds.

 

Submission #56
Title: Petting Bees on A'ali'i (Dodonaea viscosa)
Author: Whitney Reyes
Institution: University o Hawaii at Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Sapindaceae
Taxon: Dodonaea viscosa
Common Name: A'ali'i
Season/time of year: Spring
Area: Honolulu
State/Province: Hawaii Country: United States of America
Longitude: Latitude:
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Caption: Botanical Society of America Student Chapter at the University of Hawaii at Manoa first hike of the semester.
Scientific Description/Explanation: When bees are pollinating this species, they are so involved in the task that one can actually touch them without disturbing them at all.

 

Submission #57
Title:
Author: Whitney Reyes
Institution: University of Hawaii at Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Amanitaceae
Taxon: A. muscaria var. formosa
Common Name: fly agaric
Season/time of year: Fall
Area: Molokai
State/Province: Hawaii Country: United
Longitude: Latitude:
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Caption: Muscaria formosa found near the Molokai bog in Hawaii.
Scientific Description/Explanation: This species is often mistaken for the psychedelic one, which it is not, and is not commonly seen in Hawaii. Its beautiful colors make it one of the more beautiful members of fungi which produce fruiting bodies.

 

Submission #58
Title: Hawaiian Tree Fern, Sadleria cyantheoides on the island of Molokai.
Author: Whitney Reyes
Institution: University of Hawaii at Manoa
Department: Botany
Family: Blechnaceae
Taxon: Sadleria cyantheoides
Common Name: Amaumau Fern, 'Ama'uma'u
Season/time of year: Fall
Area: Molokai
State/Province: Hawaii Country: United States of America
Longitude: Latitude:
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Caption: The beautiful new fronds on the Amaumau fern, which in Hawaiian means pigs back, in reference the rough texture when one runs their hands along the midrib of the fern frond.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Sadleria cyantheoides (Amaumau) is a quite amazing Hawaiian tree fern, which exhibits red and orange colors in new frond growth to protect the newly developing cells from UV damage.

 

Submission #59
Title: Chocolate Lily and Dung Fly
Author: Sean Ryan
Institution: San Diego State University
Department: Biology
Family: Liliaceae
Taxon: Fritillaria biflora var. biflora
Common Name: Chocolate Lily
Season/time of year: February 27th
Area: San Luis Obispo
State/Province: CA Country: USA
Longitude: -120.710580Latitude: 35.265370
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Caption: Dung fly gets caught with it's hand in the cookie jar, or it's legs caught in the Chocolate Lily
Scientific Description/Explanation: Potential pollinators of Fritillaria are often difficult to catch in the act, since the flowers are mature for a few days to a week so at most. This Dung-fly (Scathophaga sp.) seems to have enjoyed it's time in the perianth of the Chocolate Lily (Fritillaria biflora), which doesn't exhibit any human-discernible scent or abundant nectar, but may provide nutritious pollen to would-be pollinators as a reward for their services.

 

Submission #60
Title: Thriving in one of the driest spots on earth
Author: Matt Ogburn
Institution: Brown University
Department: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Family: Montiaceae
Taxon: Cistanthe salsoloides
Common Name: NA
Season/time of year: October 2010
Area: Calama
State/Province: Antofagasta Region Country: Chile
Longitude: W 69.20114Latitude: S 22.72091
Additional Information: Nikon D40, 55 mm lens

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Caption: Cistanthe salsoloides (Montiaceae) growing in the Atacama desert southwest of Calama, Chile.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Cistanthe salsoloides, a bizarre succulent shrub growing in the Atacama desert near Calama, Chile. The Atacama is one of the driest places on earth, and this image captures how stark this environment truly is, with only a few shrubs of C. salsoloides and almost no other plant life to be seen in the area. The fat, water-storing leaves help C. salsoloides survive extended periods without precipitation. This plant is a representative of the family Montiaceae, which occupies an impressive range of challenging habitats throughout its distribution along the American cordillera, eastern North America, and the southern Indian Ocean. In addition to the extreme desert shown here, Montiaceae can be found in high alpine zones, shallow-soiled glades, and subantarctic islands. Unsurprisingly for a group found in so many different environments, Montiaceae are also highly variable in size and shape, as well as other distinctive and functionally important characteristics such as leaf and root succulence.

 

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