2008 Triarch (Conant) "Botanical Images"
Student Travel Award

The Botanical Society of America welcomes you to the third annual Conant "Botanical Images" Student Travel Award. From the vibrant microscopy images to those depicting entire ecosystems, pictures are always an enticing way to learn and teach. We trust you will enjoy the results and in the process learn a bit more about plants!

» View Past Award Recipients and Submissions

2008 Submissions for the Conant "Botanical Images" Student Travel Award
#1 - J. Christopher Havran, Ohio University | #2, #3 #39, #40, #41 - Kaan Hurkan, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart Universitesi | #4, #5, #6, #7 - Shao Qing, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science | #8 - Sarah Braly, University of North Carolina Wilmington | #9 - Roxi Steele, University of Texas Austin | #10 - James Sowerwine, University of Alaska Anchorage | #11 - Nadia Paola Flores Saldaa, University of Puerto Rico - Ro Piedras Campus | #12 - Kurt Neubig, University of Florida | #13, #14 - Gerardo Arceo Gomez, Instituto de Ecologia, A.C. | #15 - Naomi Fraga, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden | #16, #17, #36 - Tanja Schuster, Wake Forest University | #18, #19, #37, #38 - Pu Huang, Washington University in St Louis | #20, #21, #22 - Melanie Schori, Ohio University | #23 - Pei-Luen Lu, University of Hawaii at Manoa | #24 - Patrick Alexander, New Mexico State University | #25, #26 - Emily Butler, University of Wisconsin-Madison | #27, #28, #29, #30 - Mauricio Diazgranados, Saint Louis University | #31 - Philip Gonsiska, University of Wisconsin-Madison | #32, #33 - Nicole Hughes, Wake Forest University | #34 - Gulshan Chaudhary, Dayalbagh Educational Institute | #35 - Mike Silveira, San Diego State University | #42, #43 - Nathan Jud, Ohio University | #44, #51 - Alana Oldham, Humboldt State University | #45 - Jay Bolin, Old Dominion University | #46 - Thomas Klepach, University of Notre Dame | #47, #48 - Rachel Prunier, University of Connecticut | #49, #50 - Mackenzie Taylor, University of Tennessee | #52 - Taina Price, Washington University in Saint Louis | #53 - MatthewValente, University of Tennessee | #54 - Nicholas Tippery, University of Connecticut | #55, #56 - Ryan Rapp, Iowa State University | #57 - Alejandra Vasco, New York Botanical Garden | #58 - Natalia Ivalu Cacho, University of Wisconsin-Madison | #59 - John Schenk, | #60 - Nicholas Stanich, Ohio University | #61 - Christian Torres-Santana, University of Hawaii at Manoa | #62 - Amanda Treher, Delaware State University | #63 - Juan Leandro García Massini, Southern Methodist University | #64 - Jake Corman, University of Colorado at Boulder | #65 - Shannon Straub, Cornell University | #66, #67, #68 - Susannah Fulton, Miami University

Submission #1
Title: Viola robusta Hbd.
Author: J. Christopher Havran
Institution: Ohio University
Department: Environmental and Plant Biology, Laboratory of Vascular Plant Systematics and Evolution
Family: Violaceae
Taxon: Viola robusta
Season/time of year: July 26, 2006 (summer)
Area: Kamakou Preserve (TNC), Island of Moloka'i
State/Province: Hawai'i     Country: USA
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Caption: Viola robusta Hbd. (Violaceae): a woody species of Hawaiian violet restricted to the high-elevation cloud forests of Moloka'i.
Scientific Description/Explanation: The Hawaiian violets are monophyletic lineage of angiosperms that have undergone a putative adaptive radiation throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Species in similar habitat types (cloud forest, high-elevation bog, and mesic streambank) exhibit remarkable parallelisms in leaf morphology and growth form. Viola robusta was formerly classified as a subspecies of Viola chamissoniana, a dry cliff violet restricted to O'ahu. Recent molecular systematic investigations of the Hawaiian violet lineage suggests that Viola robusta is not a subspecies of Viola chamissoniana.

 

Submission #2
Title: Blue
Author: Kaan Hurkan
Institution: Canakkale Onsekiz Mart Universitesi, Fen - Edebiyat Fakultesi, Biyoloji Bolumu, Terzioglu Kampusu
Department: Biology
Topic/Discipline: Botany
Family: Hyacinthaceae
Taxon: Ornithogalum narbonense
Common Name: White star, Ak yildiz
Season/time of year: 08/05/2007 Spring
Area: Canakkale Onsekiz Mart Universitu Terzioglu Campus Area
State/Province: Merkez    Country: Turkey
Additional Information: Longitude: 26.425338, Latitude: 40.111147

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Caption: Natuaral Blue
Scientific Description/Explanation: There is a Polyommatus icarus on Ornithogalum flowers. This image took 7 May 2007 in University campus area. My equipment: Nikon D40 D-SLR camera, 18-55mm Lens. There is no photoshop or other imaging software edit. Only crop.

 

Submission #3
Title: Love in Spring
Author: Kaan Hurkan
Institution: Canakkale Onsekiz Mart Universitesi, Fen - Edebiyat Fakultesi, Biyoloji Bolumu, Terzioglu Kampusu
Department: Biology
Topic/Discipline: Botany
Family: Fabaceae
Taxon: Trifolium
Common Name: Clover
Season/time of year: 08/05/2007 Spring
Area: Canakkale Onsekiz Mart Universitu Terzioglu Campus Area
State/Province: Merkez    Country: Turkey
Additional Information: Longitude: 26.425338, Latitude: 40.111147

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Caption: Polyommatus icarus couple and Clover flower.
Scientific Description/Explanation: There are Polyommatus icarus couple and Clover, common named Trifolium flower.

 

Submission #4
Title: Silent Beauty
Author: Shao Qing
Institution: Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science
Department: Herbarium(PE)
Topic/Discipline: Botany
Family: Ranuculaceae
Taxon: Aquilegia vulgaris L.
Common Name: Columbine, Xuejianchou, Loudoucai
Season/time of year: 03/05/2006
Area: Beijing Botanic Garden
State/Province: Beijing    Country: China
Additional Information: The very instresting thing of this flower is the architecture, most Chinese think it seems like a funnels and call its a nick name by shape.

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Caption: A baby pink flower bloomed in a silent corner.
Scientific Description/Explanation: The plant is commonly distributed in north China and the blooming season is around early summer, and it's different flower architecture makes it very different with others in the garden.

 

Submission #5
Title: Pink in Green
Author: Shao Qing
Institution: Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science
Department: Herbarium(PE)
Topic/Discipline: Botany
Family: Theaceae
Taxon: Camellia japonic L.
Common Name: Common Camllia
Season/time of year:18/11/2007
Area: Green house of Beijing Botanic Garden
State/Province: Beijing    Country: China
Additional Information: It's very interesting that this flower's blooming season is in the end of the year, in north China when it's snowing outside and it's blooming in the greenhouse.

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Caption: Natural pink in earlier morning.
Scientific Description/Explanation: This nice and beautiful camellia was very popular for most Chinese due to a famous chinese sowordsmen film. Also the camellia is famous and popular for it's nice flower and smell and its different blooming season around the new year.

 

Submission #6
Title: Pink
Author: Shao Qing
Institution: Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science
Department: Herbarium(PE)
Topic/Discipline: Botany
Family: Nymphaeaceae
Taxon: Nymphaea tetragona
Common Name: Pygmy Waterlily
Season/time of year: 04/11/2007
Area: Green house of Beijing Botanic Garden
State/Province: Beijing    Country: China

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Caption: Natural Pink.
Scientific Description/Explanation: This glamorous waterlily catched most our interesting during it's blooming in cold winter when it's snowing outside in North China.

 

Submission #7
Title: White Crane
Author: Shao Qing
Institution: Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science
Department: Herbarium(PE)
Topic/Discipline: Botany
Family: Araceae
Taxon: Spathiphyllum kochii
Common Name: Peace lily
Season/time of year: 18/11/2007
Area: Beijing Botanic Garden
State/Province: Beijing    Country: China
Additional Information: The nice smell of the flower.

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Caption: Peace lily
Scientific Description/Explanation: This beautiful flower was treated as a white crane to most Chinese, and its snow white spathe give people the feeling of elegant and refined.

 

Submission #8
Title: Field of sea oats
Author: Sarah Katharine Braly
Institution: University of North Carolina Wilmington
Department: Marine Science
Topic/Discipline: Barrier Island ecology
Family: Poaceae
Taxon: Uniola paniculata L.
Common Name: Sea oats
Season/time of year: July 2007, Summer
Area: Hammocks Beach State Park
State/Province: North Carolina    Country: USA

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Caption: Dense stand of Sea oats, Uniola paniculata in Hammocks Beach State Park, NC
Scientific Description/Explanation: Sea oats, Uniola paniculata dominate the coasts of the Southeastern United States. They have the unique ability to thrive in harsh frontal dune environments. Shifting sand stimulates growth and hash salt spray rids the dunes of competitors. However they cannot overcome the human presence, dune systems are disappearing with the invasion of development. The stand pictured however remains intact and quite dense in the pristine Hammocks Beach State Park found outside Swansboro North Carolina.

 

Submission #9
Title: Pollinators or Robbers?
Author: Roxi Steele
Institution: University of Texas Austin
Department: Section of Integrative Biology
Topic/Discipline: Systematics and Pollination Ecology
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Taxon: Psiguria ternata
Common Name: "Pepino de las montañas" or "Mountain cucumber"
Season/time of year: 18/11/2007
Area: near Puente Taruma over Río Piray
State/Province: Santa Cruz de la Sierra    Country: Bolivia
Longitude: 18 degrees 6 55" south
Latitude: 63 degrees 27 01" west

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Caption: Visitors to a Psiguria ternata flower near Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Scientific Description/Explanation: Psiguria is a genus of vines in the Cucurbitaceae (cucumber family) native to the New World tropics of Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. The plants are monoecious (have separate male and female flowers on the same plant). Both male and female flowers are tubular, with five partially-fused petals – similarities that, along with the similar shapes of the male (stamen) and female (pistil) reproductive structures, aid in "training" the pollinating butterflies to visit both sexes. The butterfly and bee shown in this image are not the typical pollinators of Psiguria flowers, so they may not actually be transferring pollen to the female flowers but rather "robbing" the plant of its pollen and nectar. No worries though. The plants produce a lot more pollen than they actually need to survive; an adaptation that evolved to protect the species from extinction despite the occasional pollen thief.

 

Submission #10
Title: Stellaria media (Common chickweed) showing striking stigmatic surface coloration
Author: James Sowerwine
Institution: University of Alaska Anchorage
Department: Biological Sciences
Topic/Discipline: Ecology
Family: Caryophyllaceae
Taxon: Stellaria media
Common Name: Common chickweed
Season/time of year: January, 2008
Area: Seattle
State/Province: Washington    Country: USA
Longitude: 47*37'37
Latitude: 122*19'22

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Caption: Stellaria media (common chickweed) photographed in a street gutter near to Volunteer Park, Seattle, WA.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Stellaria media is a member of the Caryophyllaceae family, a highly plastic dicot (with both annual and perennial forms) that has achieved a near cosmetic global distribution. With a diminutive form, the plant 'hides' from general view, appearing at fist glance as an unremarkable ground cover. Yet this plant displays a remarkable morphology in its star like flowers when viewed closely; the purple stigmatic surfaces are particularly attractive. Stellaria media is considered a weed by several authors, thus causing the idle hour thought experiment: Is this species less highly valued than a similar conspecific species because it lacks showy floral displays?

 

Submission #11
Title: Butterfly Flower
Author: Nadia Paola Flores Saldaa
Institution: University of Puerto Rico-Ro Piedras Campus
Department: Department of Biology
Family: Zingiberaceae
Taxon: Hedychium coronarium
Season/time of year: January 2008, Summer
Area: Bolivian Tropical Forest
State/Province: a Paz, Los Yungas    Country: Bolivia

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Caption:
Scientific Description/Explanation:Hedychium coronarium J. Kenig (Zingiberaceae). This specie its native from Asia and cultivated and naturalized in South Africa, Australia, Central America, South America, Azores, Mascarenes, Micronesia and Hawaii. It's the national flower of Cuba and its common name its "Butterfly". The picture was taken in Los Yungas, a Bolivian tropical forest in January 2008.

 

Submission #12
Title: Sobralia bouchei
Author: Kurt M Neubig
Institution: University of Florida
Department: Department of Botany
Topic/Discipline: Systematics
Family: Orchidaceae
Taxon: Sobralia bouchei Ames & C. Schweinf.
Season/time of year: Spring 2007
Country: Colombia

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Caption: Flower of the orchid species Sobralia bouchei.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Flowers of many species of Sobralia last for but a fraction of a day and the plants represent some of the tallest orchids known to exist (more than 10m). Sobralia bouchei ranges from northern South America to Costa Rica. Although many species of Sobralia are deceitful (producing no reward for pollinators), S. bouchei produces nectar from a starch-filled callus at the base of the lip.

 

Submission #13
Title: Stigmatic surface blocked in Chamaecrista chamaecristoides
Author: Gerardo Arceo Gomez
Institution: Instituto de Ecologia, A.C.
Department: Ecologia Funcional
Topic/Discipline: Pollination biology
Family: Leguminosae
Taxon: Chamaecrista chamaecristoides
Season/time of year: January 2008 Winter
Area: La Mancha Coastal Research Center
State/Province: Veracruz    Country: Mexico
Longitude: 19° 35' 12''
Latitude: 96° 22' 18''
Additional Credits: Tiburcio Laez

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Caption: SEM picture of Chamaecrista chamaecristoides style
Scientific Description/Explanation: At the tip of the incurved style of Chamaecrista chamaecristoides has an orifice leading to a stigmatic cavity which is blocked by short hairs (trichomes). When the pollinator vibrates the flower (buzz pollination) it opens the hairs and let the pollen into a stigmatic surface, ready to germinate. The picture was taken with a JEOL Scanning Electronic Microscope JSM-5600LV

 

Submission #14
Title: Looking for some pollen?
Author: Gerardo Arceo Gomez
Institution: Instituto de Ecologia, A.C.
Department: Ecologia Funcional
Topic/Discipline: Pollination biology
Family: Leguminosae
Taxon: Chamaecrista chamaecristoides
Season/time of year: August 2007 Summer
Area: La Mancha Coastal Research Center
State/Province: Veracruz    Country: Mexico
Longitude: 19° 35' 12''
Latitude: 96° 22' 18''

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Caption: Chamaecrista chamaecristoides an endemic plant of the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico
Scientific Description/Explanation: Chamaecrista chamaecristoides is an enantiostylous (right and left-styled flowers) and an endemic plant of the sand dunes in the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico. Is exclusively pollinated by pollen collecting bees. The large yellow flowers provide no nectar reward and pollen is released trough terminal pores in the anthers following vibration by bees (buzz pollination). The picture was taken with a Sony Cyber-shot DSC-S40 (4.1 Mega pixels) and has not been edited with Photoshop or any other software.

 

Submission #15
Title: Linanthus parryae (sand blossoms) in bloom
Author: Naomi Fraga
Institution: Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden
Department: Research
Topic/Discipline: Floristics
Family: Polemoniaceae
Taxon: Linanthus parryae
Common Name: sand blossoms, desert snow
Season/time of year: March 26, 2005 (Spring)
Area: Short Canyon, Kern County
State/Province: California    Country: USA
Longitude: 35.7110N
Additional Information: This photo was taken while I was conducting a floristic study of the Owens Peak Eastern Watershed.

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Caption: A sea of sand blossoms (Linanthus parryae) in the California Mojave Desert
Scientific Description/Explanation: Linanthus parryae, commonly known as sand blossoms or desert snow, is a diminutive annual in the Polemoniaceae (phlox family) native to the Mojave Desert of California. This plant species is conspicuous in the landscape in years of ample rain, and has two color morphs, white and blue, with the white form being most common throughout the range of the species (hence the common name desert snow). However, in Short Canyon, (Kern County, California) the blue color morph predominates, as shown in this photo. Here L. parryae is photographed from an ant’s point of view with other desert annuals including Camissonia campestris (Mojave suncup), Lasthenia californica (gold fields), and Linanthus dichotomous (evening snow) and a few individuals of the white color morph of L. parryae.

 

Submission #16
Title: Erica shannonea stoma and guard cells
Author: Tanja M. Schuster
Institution: Wake Forest University
Department: Biology
Topic/Discipline: Ecophysiology
Family: Ericaceae
Taxon: Erica shannonea Andrews
Season/time of year: September 2004 - spring
Area: Akkedisberg, Cape Province
State/Province: Caledon District    Country: South Africa
Additional Information: This picture was taken on an Amray 1810 SEM at Wake Forest University. Wake Forest University Research Funds, the National Science Foundation (DEB-9407350 and Deb-0234043), and the National Science Foundation International Programs Supplement are thanked for support.

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Caption: Water use efficiency of 'ericoid' leaves of Erica shannonea from South Africa's Cape.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Erica shannonea Andrews is a rare species of heather in the Ericaceae. The center of diversity for Erica lies in the Cape region of South Africa, where more than 860 species occur. Ericae have a distinctive, 'ericoid' leaf morphology. Their microphylls (tiny leaves) are so tightly rolled together that they have the appearance of a conifer needle. Only a narrow slit remains open along the mid axis of the in-rolled leaf to enable gas exchange for photosynthesis. This 'ericoid' leaf morphology, with specialized photosynthetic tissues (palisade cells in the mesophyll and dome-shaped epidermal cells on the epidermis) and various types of hairs, has an adaptive advantage in the South African Mediterranean climate. Water use efficiency, which is influenced by ambient temperature and relative humidity, is maximized by reducing water loss from evaporation. Evaporation occurs via the stomatal pores (pictured here), which open for gas exchange and carbon gain for photosynthesis. Water loss in this high sunlight and stress environment is reduced by minimizing the amount of leaf surface exposed to the drying surroundings. In addition, the 'ericoid' leaf shape, which is approximately cylindrical and has a more or less uniform internal anatomy, facilitates efficient radial diffusion of CO2 much like a conifer needle. In Erica, stomata are located on the leaf surface facing away from the sun, which has become the "inner chamber" of the in-rolled leaf, and are not found on the adaxial side (leaf surface facing the stem axis).

 

Submission #17
Title: Queen-of-the-Night
Author: Tanja M. Schuster
Institution: Wake Forest University
Department: Biology
Topic/Discipline: Tropical botany
Family: Cactaceae
Taxon: Selenicereus grandiflorus (L.) Britton & Rose
Common Name: Queen-of-the-Night
Season/time of year: July 2007 - summer
Area: The Kampong, Coconut Grove, Miami
State/Province: Dade County, Florida    Country: USA
Longitude:
Additional Information: This picture was taken while attending Dr. Walter Judd's UFL Tropical Botany class during a month long stay at the Kampong in Miami, which is part of the National Tropical Botanical Garden scheme. The four ha garden is noted for its collections of tropical plants of edible or other ethnobotanic value. The Wake Forest University Vecellio Award is thanked for support.

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Caption: Selenicereus grandiflorus (L.) Britton & Rose (Cactaceae): A night-blooming, epiphytic cactus.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Selenicereus grandiflorus (L.) Britton & Rose (Cactaceae) is a climbing cactus, which can grow as an epiphyte on trees by attaching adventitious roots to its support. Cactaceae are supported as monophyletic by morphological and molecular characters, though relationships within the family are difficult to resolve. Members of Selenicereus are native to tropical America. Selene (a lunar deity in Greek mythology) as part of the generic name conveys the ethereal white quality of the enormous flowers (grandiflorus), which are more than 20 cm long. The common name 'Queen-of-the-Night' also refers to this, since dozens of flowers radiate like tiaras in the moon light when the flowers open for one night. The reddish coloration of the bracts stems from betalains, which are nitrogenous pigments also found in beets and Swiss chard. Betalains are taxonomically significant, since they only occur in Caryophyllales (most but not all families) and to the exclusion of anthocyanins, which also confer red, purple or blue coloration. Curiously, several hundreds of tiny beetles frequented the flowers pictured here, though their hefty size and fragrance hint at nocturnal bats or moths as Selenicereus' pollinators.

 

Submission #18
Title: Rose in a Mediterranean Garden
Author: Pu Huang
Institution: Washington University in St Louis
Department: Biology Department, EEPB program
Topic/Discipline: petaliform stamen
Family: Rosaceae
Taxon: Rosa
Common Name: Rose
Season/time of year: 2/4/2008, Winter - Early Spring
Area: Temperature House of Missouri Botanical Garden
State/Province: Missouri    Country: USA

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Caption: Rosa sp. (Rosaceae), a large white flower of this thorny shrub blooming quitely in a classical Mediterranean garden
Scientific Description/Explanation: Having been cultivated world-wide by human for hundreds of years, many species in genus Rosa have developed multiple rounds of various colored perianthes, despite their ancestor has only one round of 5 petals. Look carefully into this big white flower - you will find out those inside petals are, actually, petaliform stamens.

 

Submission #19

Title: Messenger of the Gods
Author: Pu Huang
Institution: Washington University in St Louis
Department: Biology Department, EEPB program
Topic/Discipline: Pollenation Adaptation
Family: Iridaceae
Taxon:
Common Name: Iris
Season/time of year: 3/22/2008, Early Spring
Area: Temperature House of Missouri Botanical Garden
State/Province: Missouri    Country: USA
Additional Information: Genus Iris takes its name from greek world "Iris", which means "rainbow", refering to their highly variable flower colors. In greek mythology, Iris is the messenger of the gods, she links the the gods and humanity. Rainbow is her bridge, leading people to heaven.
Additional Credits: Dr Peter Stevens, who let me know about the plant.

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Caption: Iris japonica, blooming in its bright color in the Temporate House of Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, MO
Scientific Description/Explanation: Species in genus Iris are famous for their amazing adaptation to insect pollination. The style of an iris flower divides towards the apex into three petaloid branches, sometimes with fibrous ends, such as Iris japonica in this picture. Each branches arranges opposite to its correspond outer perianth, together they form an excellent platform for a flying insect. The stigmatic outer perianth showed in the picture is a sign, guiding insects to land on this platform to get their food. While the insect is landing, it will firstly make contact with the pollen-receiving stigma surface, where it will deposit the pollens it bears. Because the inner perianthes has blocked those sideways, only after passing the stigma, the insect can get into the deep space of the flower, where the nectar lies. When it comes out, the anther hidden underneath the style is waiting for it. The insect will bear the pollens of this flower. The lower surface of the stigma is non-receptive, which means the flower will not get self-pollinated. In conclusion, this special form of Iris flowers maximizes the benefits of one single interview of an insect that is able provide - It makes itself pollinated, distributes its own pollen, and avoids self-pollination.

 

Submission #20
Title: Double Helix
Author: Melanie Schori
Institution: Ohio University
Department: Environmental & Plant Biology
Topic/Discipline: Systematics
Family: Orchidaceae
Taxon: Dendrochilum sp. nov.
Common Name: Rice Orchid
Season/time of year: April 18, 2007 (summer in the Philippines)
Area: Mt. Hamiguitan
State/Province: Davao Oriental Province, Mindanao    Country: Philippines

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Caption: The long inflorescences of this spectacular undescribed Dendrochilum tend to twist into a helix.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Occasionally, a botanist is fortunate enough to visit a truly bizarre landscape with incredible diversity and endemism, including many undescribed species. Mt. Hamiguitan in the Philippines is one such place. The upper slopes of the mountain are formed of ultramafic rock, which has a high content of heavy metals and is toxic to most plants. The mountain is also buffeted by high winds coming directly off the Pacific Ocean. The factors have combined to produce a stunted heath-like forest on the mountain's tableland. Most of the plants are scarcely knee-high, except in sheltered stream valleys. One exception is this new species of Dendrochilum, whose waist-high inflorescences arch over the heath canopy. Dendrochilum has its center of diversity in the Philippines, with at least 96 species, 94% of which are endemic. This may be the largest and showiest species in the genus. Most species are considered epiphytes (growing on trees) or lithophytes (growing on rocks). Terrestrial species have not been recorded before, yet this species occurs only as a terrestrial. The ultramafic soil may be the cause, as I have observed two other species of Dendrochilum growing as terrestrials on the same soil type. This species awaits description because no one has a permit yet to collect a type specimen. Fortunately, Mt. Hamiguitan is a protected area, so visitors should be able to enjoy the floral display of this "rice orchid" for many years to come.

 

Submission #21
Title: Blue Jade
Author: Melanie Schori
Institution: Ohio University
Department: Environmental & Plant Biology
Topic/Discipline: Systematics
Family: Fabaceae
Taxon: Strongylodon cf pulcher
Season/time of year: February 25, 2008 (late spring in Philippines)
Area: Guirang, Basey
State/Province: Western Samar Province    Country: Philippines

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Caption: The elegant white, blue, and violet flowers of Strongylodon cf pulcher await pollination.
Scientific Description/Explanation: The genus Strongylodon (Fabaceae) has its center of diversity in the mountains of Luzon in the Philippines. The most famous and widely cultivated member is S. macrobotrys, whose luminous jade green flowers make it highly coveted by collectors. However, S. macrobotrys is by no means the only beautiful member of the genus. This species is probably S. pulcher, whose specific epithet, appropriately, means "beautiful." Despite its beauty, this species is not in cultivation, nor does it appear to have been photographed before. Flowering plants are difficult to photograph because flowering usually occurs high in the tree canopy, and the only evidence of the event is fallen flowers on the ground. Perhaps for this same reason, the Philippine species have been poorly documented in herbarium collections. Shing Fan revised Strongylodon in 1991 but had almost no recent collections or fresh material to work with, so photographs, descriptions of living plants, and accurate distribution maps are still lacking for most species. Strongylodon macrobotrys is not considered to be threatened by habitat destruction because it is widely cultivated, but the other species should be regarded as threatened or vulnerable, especially as seed set may be very low. Although the flowers are carefully tended by ants, they are pollinated by sunbirds or flowerpeckers, which are becoming increasingly rare as more forest is destroyed.

 

Submission #22
Title: Fading Giant
Author: Melanie Schori
Institution: Ohio University
Department: Environmental & Plant Biology
Topic/Discipline: Systematics
Family: Rafflesiaceae
Taxon: Rafflesia schadenbergiana
Season/time of year: April 22, 2007 (summer in the Philippines)
Area: Mt. Kitanglad
State/Province: Bukidnon Province    Country: Philippines

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Caption: A senescent female flower of Rafflesia schadenbergiana
Scientific Description/Explanation: Rafflesia schadenbergiana was described from the island of Mindanao in the Philippines by Goeppert in 1885. The flower, reportedly the third-largest in the world, was discovered on Mt. Apo in 1882. For more than 100 years, this species was presumed to be extinct, though occasionally rumors of giant buds seen on the mountains of Mindanao would circulate. In 1994, a Belgian biologist found buds, but he did not publish his findings until December 2006 and was not able to collect material or photograph an open flower to verify his identification. A few species of Rafflesia have been described from buds, but it is difficult to compare and identify species unless they are in full flower. Rafflesia is parasitic and relies on its host (vines of Tetrastigma, Vitaceae) for all its nutritional needs, and it is not possible to locate populations unless buds or flowers are present. This photograph is the first of Rafflesia schadenbergiana. The flower was probably close to a week old and had almost completely darkened from its original red and white coloration. The GPS unit, shown for scale, measures 6.9 cm wide by 15.7 cm long. Although some species of Rafflesia can produce flowers on aerial portions of Tetrastigma vines, R. schadenbergiana most likely only bears flowers from subterranean portions. A team of researchers from the Philippine National Museum visited this population a month later, took photographs of freshly opened flowers, and collected a specimen which may become the neotype of the species. Rafflesia in the Philippines has recently received a lot of attention. In addition to the rediscovery of R. schadenberigana, five new species have been described in the past few years, and at least two more are awaiting publication. After more than 100 years, a Rafflesia has been seen in Samar, at the type locality of R. manillana. Why are so many species being found? One possibility is that widespread forest destruction has actually improved habitat for Tetrastigma, which prefers somewhat open areas. However, habitat degradation has also led to populations of Rafflesia becoming critically imperiled. The Rafflesia schadenbergiana population in the photograph will most likely be extinct within a few years, as it was located only meters from a newly created corn field. In the year since the photo was taken, the area has been converted to a tourist resort.

 

Submission #23
Title: Just stand there! A posture of Pleomele Halapepe.
Author: Pei-Luen Lu
Institution: University of Hawaii at Manoa
Department: Department of Botany
Topic/Discipline: Botany
Family: Ruscaceae
Taxon: Pleomele halapepe St. John
Common Name: Hala pepe or Le'ie
Season/time of year: February 17, 2008
Area: About 1500 feet, Manoa Cliff Trail, Oahu.
State/Province: Hawaii    Country: USA
Longitude: +21° 19' 33.90"    Latitude: -157° 48' 47.00"
Additional Credits: Clifford W. Morden, Mashuri Waite, Huang-Chi Kuo

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Caption: Pleomele halapepe St. John, a shrub-type endemic species restricted to Oahu, Hawaii.
Scientific Description/Explanation: The Hawaiian Archipelago includes various endemic species that are the result of speciation subsequent to isolation from source populations. There are six Pleomele species native to Hawaii Islands. Pleomele halapepe St. John are located in Oahu. Habitats can be from plains to cliffs, and from sunny exposed areas to shadow locations. The Hawaiian used those Pleomele species in Hawaii for one of five standard Hula altars to honor Laka, the deity of hula. In Hawaiian herbal medicine, hala pepe was used to cure fever by making into freshly liquid. Notably, hala pepe is also famous for its particular appearance and green throughout the year.

 

Submission #24
Title: Fruits of lacepod (Thysanocarpus curvipes)
Author: Patrick Alexander
Institution: New Mexico State University
Department: Biology
Topic/Discipline: Systematics
Family: Brassicaceae
Taxon: Thysanocarpus curvipes
Common Name: lacepod
Season/time of year: Spring, 10 Mar 2008
Area: Table Top Wilderness, Sonoran Desert National Monument, on the southwest side of Table Top Mountain.
State/Province: Arizona    Country: USA
Longitude: 112 8' 38.2"   Latitude: 32 44' 4.9"

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Caption: One-seeded fringed fruits of lacepod (Thysanocarpus curvipes), a winter annual of the semiarid western United States.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Lacepod, Thysanocarpus curvipes, is a member of the mustard family (Brassicaceae) found in semiarid, rocky habitats from extreme southeastern British Columbia south to Baja California and western New Mexico. T. curvipes is an annual that flowers and sets seed quickly to exploit short periods of moisture in the winter. The genus Thysanocarpus is unusual among the mustards in having one-seeded, fringed fruits that remain closed at maturity. Thysanocarpus curvipes has a great deal of geographic variation in its fruits, particularly in the size and ornamentation of the fringe. This has been a major character used in taxonomy of T. curvipes and other Thysanocarpus. For instance, plants of T. curvipes with particularly large fringes have been recognized as variety elegans, or even as a separate species. Analyses based on DNA sequence data, however, suggest that there is little or no genetic distinction associated with variation in the fringe of fruits in T. curvipes. Unlike Thysanocarpus, most other mustards have unfringed fruits with many seeds in two chambers. Most mustard fruits open--sometimes explosively--at maturity. However, although the fruits of Thysanocarpus are unusual among members of the mustard family, similar fruits have evolved independently several times, for example in the genera Athysanus and Clypeola in addition to Thysanocarpus.

 

Submission #25
Title: Polystichum speciosissimum
Author: Emily Y. Butler
Institution: University of Wisconsin-Madison
Department: Botany
Topic/Discipline: Pteridology
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Taxon: Polystichum speciosissimum
Season/time of year: January 17, 2008, dry season
Area: Cerro de la Muerte, Villa Mills
State/Province: San Jose    Country: Costa Rica
Longitude: 83° 45' 26" W   Latitude: 9° 33' 98" N

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Caption: A pinna of Polystichum speciosissimum.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Polystichum is a genus of ferns found worldwide, though most of its species are in the Neotropics. The specific epithet of this species, P. speciosissimum, literally means "the most beautiful," making this fern "the most beautiful Polystichum." Like all members of this genus it usually grows at higher elevations, and this individual was found in the paramo atop Cerro de la Muerte in Villa Mills, San Jose, Costa Rica. This photograph is of the abaxial, or lower, surface of a pinna (leaf division), which is bright green on top and covered with sori (spore-bearing structures) and golden hairs and scales below.

 

Submission #26
Title: Campyloneurum sori
Author: Emily Y. Butler
Institution: University of Wisconsin-Madison
Department: Botany
Topic/Discipline: Pteridology
Family: Polypodiaceae
Taxon: Campyloneurum sp.
Season/time of year: January 17, 2008, dry season
Area: Cerro de la Muerte, Villa Mills
State/Province: San Jose    Country: Costa Rica
Longitude: 83° 45' 26" W   Latitude: 9° 33' 98" N

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Caption: Sporangia in the sori of Campyloneurum, a fern.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Ferns are spore-bearing vascular plants. The structures which bear their spores are called sporangia, and they are often found on the undersides of fern fronds. Sporangia are usually found clustered together in large groups called sori (singular: a sorus), which, in some species, resemble the rounded tops of Sno-Kones. This photograph shows several sori on the underside of a frond of Campyloneurum, a Neotropical genus of ferns. Within the large rounded clumps, the small spherical orange structures are the sporangia, which each contain dozens of spores. Wrapping around each sporangium is a thick red line of cells, called the annulus. When the spores have matured and are ready to be dispersed, the cells of the annulus dry up and shrink like a spring being compressed, slowly pulling the sporangium open. Eventually the cells of the annulus reach a tipping point in the drying process, and the spring releases. As the annulus snaps forward, the spores are shot up and out of the sporangium, and dispersal has begun.

 

Submission #27
Title: Individuals of Espeletia cleefii Cuatrec. well adapted to the high elevation stressful conditions
Author: Mauricio Diazgranados
Institution: Saint Louis University
Department: Department of Biology
Topic/Discipline: Taxonomy, Ecology, Systematics
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Espeletia cleefii Cuatrec.
Common Name: Frailejón
Season/time of year: January 10, 2008 / Dry season
Area: Sierra Nevada del Cocuy National Park
State/Province: Arauca    Country: Colombia
Longitude: -72.297861   Latitude: 6.348472
Additional Information: Technical details: Camera Canon EOS Digital Rebel XT, lens 18.0 - 50.0 mm, focal length 18.0 mm.

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Caption: A population of Espeletia cleefii defying the harsh conditions of the superpáramos of the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Espeletia cleefii is endemic to the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. These plants grow in humid meadows in proper páramos, but sometimes, as in this case, can grow on sandy and rocky dry spots in superpáramos. This species is threatened by climate change. Geographic coordinates: N 06°20'54.5" W 72°17'52.3", elevation: 4,297 m (14,098 ft).

 

Submission #28
Title: Singular plants of the top of the neotropical Andes
Author: Mauricio Diazgranados
Institution: Saint Louis University
Department: Department of Biology
Topic/Discipline: Taxonomy, Ecology, Systematics
Family: Fabaceae
Taxon: Lupinus alopecuroides Desr.
Common Name: lupino real, chocho, frijolillo
Season/time of year: January 6, 2008 / Dry season
Area: Sierra Nevada del Cocuy National Park
State/Province: Arauca    Country: Colombia
Longitude: -72.289639   Latitude: 6.510611
Additional Information: Technical details: Camera Canon EOS Digital Rebel XT, lens 18.0 - 50.0 mm, focal length 18.0 mm.

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Caption: Lupinus alopecuroides Desr. (palmate leaves, slate blue flowers) growing with Senecio niveoaureus Cuatrec. (white leaves, golden flowers).
Scientific Description/Explanation: L. alopecuroides, commonly known as "lupino real", "chocho" or "frijolillo", can be found in the superpáramos of Colombia and Ecuador, frequently above 4,300 m of elevation. It is believed that this species is "facultatively semelparous", producing side rosettes if conditions are not favorable for reproduction. This species, as other superpáramo species, is highly threatened by climate change. Geographic coordinates: N 06° 30'38.2" W 72° 17'22.7", elevation: 4,638 m (15,216 ft).

 

Submission #29
Title: Unique páramo cushion mire
Author: Mauricio Diazgranados
Institution: Saint Louis University
Department: Department of Biology
Topic/Discipline: Taxonomy, Ecology, Systematics
Family: Juncaceae
Taxon: Distichia muscoides Nees & Meyen
Common Name: Cojín de páramo
Season/time of year: January 7, 2008 / Dry season
Area: Sierra Nevada del Cocuy National Park
State/Province: Arauca    Country: Colombia
Longitude: -72.278194   Latitude: 6.4815
Additional Information: Technical details: Camera Canon EOS Digital Rebel XT, lens 18.0 - 50.0 mm, focal length 18.0 mm.

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Caption: Cushion bogs of Distichia muscoides covering a valley in the eastern Colombian cordillera (northern Andes).
Scientific Description/Explanation: This picture was taken in the "Valle de los cojines" or cushion valley, which is the largest continuous cushion mire known in the Neotropical Andes (it is 4 km long and 0.5 km wide). The plant community is dominated by Distichia muscoides with Cortaderia sericantha and Campylopus cf. fulvus. The cushions -made by the dense accumulation of leaves along time- are hard enough to support several people stepped on them. It is believed that it takes several hundred years to form a solid cushion of more than one meter of diameter. Unfortunately, since the easiest way to cross this valley is jumping from one cushion to another, and there are no well-defined trials, hikers are impacting negatively this nonrenewable natural treasure. In addition, these plants depend on water coming from the glacial, and thus are highly endangered by climate change. Geographic coordinates: N 06°28'53.4" W 72°16'41.5", elevation: 4,215 m (13,829 ft).

 

Submission #30
Title: Vigilant frailejones (Espeletia lopezii Cuatrec.) in the valleys of the neotropical páramos
Author: Mauricio Diazgranados
Institution: Saint Louis University
Department: Department of Biology
Topic/Discipline: Taxonomy, Ecology, Systematics
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Espeletia lopezii Cuatrec.
Common Name: Frailejón
Season/time of year: January 8, 2008 / Dry season
Area: Sierra Nevada del Cocuy National Park
State/Province: Arauca    Country: Colombia
Longitude: -72.279694   Latitude: 6.480361
Additional Information: Technical details: Camera Canon EOS Digital Rebel XT, lens 18.0 - 50.0 mm, focal length 18.0 mm.

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Caption: Frailejones (Espeletia lopezii Cuatrec.) in the top of a cliff, watching over the valley of the Ratoncito River, in the eastern drainage of the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Espeletia lopezii is restricted to the complex of páramos "Cocuy-Tota", along the eastern Colombian cordillera. It normally grows in swampy, very wet meadows or wet spots, being dominant in the western drainage of the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. These very well developed individuals, however, were found in the eastern drainage, growing conspecifically with E. cleefii. Geographic coordinates: N 06°28'49.3" W 72°16'46.9", elevation: 4,219 m (13,842 ft).

 

Submission #31
Title: Specklinia pisinna
Author: Philip A. Gonsiska
Institution: University of Wisconsin-Madison
Department: Department of Botany
Topic/Discipline: Ecology
Family: Orchidaceae
Taxon: Specklinia pisinna
Season/time of year: August 2007 (summer)
Area: Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve
State/Province: Veracruz    Country: Mexico

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Caption: A tiny epiphytic orchid (Specklinia pisinna) in Mexico
Scientific Description/Explanation: Vascular epiphytes-plants that spend their entire life cycle perched atop the branches of other plants-constitute up to 40% of the plant diversity in some tropical forests. However, because of the effort and danger involved in reaching them, compared to terrestrial plants, relatively few epiphytic species have received much ecological study. Epiphytes are not parasites and do not obtain any nutrients directly from the vascular system of their host tree. Instead, they absorb whatever resources possible from falling debris, water flowing over the host tree's branches, and atmospheric deposition. In some cases, epiphytes obtain nutrients as a result of mutualistic associations with ants. Others congregate into "epiphyte gardens," which are communities of plants that grow in mats of moss and other organic matter that accumulate on tree branches. This plant, Specklinia pisinna, is an epiphytic orchid found in the Neotropics. This picture was taken seventy feet above ground level in a Ceiba tree at the Estación de Biología Tropical Los Tuxtlas in Veracruz, Mexico. Canopy access was obtained using single-rope climbing techniques.

 

Submission #32
Title: Abaxial anthocyanin in Begonia
Author: Nicole Hughes
Institution: Wake Forest University
Department: Biology
Topic/Discipline: Ecophysiology
Family: Begoniaceae
Taxon: Begonia maculata
Area: Palm Hammock Orchid Estate
State/Province: Miami, Florida    Country: USA

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Caption: Anthocyanin pigments are responsible for red coloration in abaxial surfaces of many tropical understory species, including Begonias.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Abaxial pigments, such as vacuolar anthocyanins, were long thought to be adaptive in understory species for back-scattering red light, thereby maximizing light capture in environments where light is otherwise limiting. However, we have recently demonstrated that these pigments instead act as an internal buffer of light, absorbing blue-green wavelengths to reduce internal scatter when leaves are struck with potentially damaging high-intensity sun-flecks or sun-patches in the understory.

 

Submission #33
Title: Reflective pubescence: Sedum spp.
Author: Nicole Hughes
Institution: Wake Forest University
Department: Biology
Topic/Discipline: Ecophysiology
Family: Crassulaceae
Taxon: Sedum
Common Name: Stone crop
Season/time of year:
Area: Kew Botanical Garden
State/Province: London    Country: UK

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Caption: Reflective pubescence: Sedum spp.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Reflective leaf hairs (pubescence) are commonly observed in many species of plants growing in dry, high-light environments, where leaves are vulnerable to dessication, over-heating, and/or photo-oxidative damage. By increasing leaf reflectance, pubescence helps leaves maintain leaf temperatures within a critical range, thereby reducing water loss, and curtailing biochemical damage at the cellular level that also results from high leaf temperatures. This Sedum spp. exhibits high reflectance due to fine, air-filled leaf hairs, which cause leaves to appear almost white. In many plant species, these hollow hairs may become filled with water during the rainy season, causing them to become translucent, allowing leaves to maximize light capture and carbon gain when environmental conditions are favorable.

 

Submission #34
Title: A flower with pistil and stamen
Author: Gulshan Chaudhary
Institution: Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra
Department: Botany
Topic/Discipline: Rakta punarnava
Family: Nyctagenaceae
Taxon: Boerhaavia diffusa
Common Name: punnarnava
Season/time of year: 2 August 2007
Area: Botanical Garden, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra
State/Province: Uttar Pradesh    Country: India
Additional Information: It is an overexploide medicinal plant belongs to Nyctagenaceae family. Stamens having two anther lobes that dehised one by one at an intervel of 10-15 minutes. It's anther wall is too thick thatyou can see the pollengrains arrangements.

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Caption: Botanical garden Of Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra
Scientific Description/Explanation: Boerhaavia diffusa, belongs to Nyctagenaceae family. In ayurveda known as punnarnava, it's an important medicinal herb. Stamens and pistil of flower having deposition/presence of anthocyanine in large amount.

 

Submission #35
Title: Inflorescence of Douglas' Mesamint
Author: Mike Silveira
Institution: San Diego State University
Department: Biology
Topic/Discipline:
Family: Lamiaceae
Taxon: Pogogyne douglasii
Common Name: Douglas' Mesamint
Area: Vandenberg Air Force Base
State/Province: California    Country: USA

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Caption: The little vernal pool plant that could
Scientific Description/Explanation: Pogogyne douglasii is typically a vernal pool plant that has a wide distribution throughout much of California. This species has a variable inflorescence and this image illustrates the symmetry found in some individuals of the genus Pogogyne. The specimen photographed is of interest because it was found on a steep grassy slope above a drainage, far from any pooling waters of vernal pools.

 

Submission #36
Title: Gnetum gnemon L. (Gnetaceae): Whorls of ovules and mature seeds on the strobilus of a non-flowering seed plant.
Author: Tanja M. Schuster
Institution: Wake Forest University
Department: Biology
Topic/Discipline: Tropical botany
Family: Gnetaceae
Taxon: Gnetum gnemon L.
Common Name: two leaf, paddy oats
Season/time of year: July 2007 - summer
Area: The Kampong, Coconut Grove, Miami
State/Province: Dade County, Florida    Country: USA
Additional Information: This picture was taken at the Kampong Gardens in Miami during Dr. Walter Judd’s UFL Topical Botany class.

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Caption: Gnetum gnemon L. seed strobili
Scientific Description/Explanation: Pictured here are seed strobili of Gnetum gnemon L. with mature seeds covered by reddish bracts. This is an interesting taxon in terms of evolutionary relationships of seed producing plants (vs. taxa reproducing via one kind of spore such as ferns). Seed plants contain five major lineages: Ginkgo, cycads, conifers, flowering plants (angiosperms), and Gnetales (Gnetum, Ephedra and Welwitschia). The relationships among these five groups are still not fully understood. Several contradicting hypothesis exist concerning which groups are more closely related. The once favored “anthophyte” hypothesis, which is based on a few morphological similarities between flowering plants and Gnetales, as well as some form of double fertilization occurring in both groups, has been contradicted. Despite looking very much like an angiosperm with its broad, opposite leaves, Gnetum does not develop flowers. Cladistic analyses including molecular evidence suggest that Gnetales are likely more closely related to conifers and may even be placed within this group. These data suggest that there is a split between Pinaceae (examples are fir, pine and spruce) and the rest of conifers and that Gnetum may be closely related to Pinaceae. Similarities in Gnetales and flowering plants are therefore more likely parallel evolutionary developments.

 

Submission #37
Title: Flower on "Leaf"
Author: Pu Huang
Institution: Washington University in St Louis
Department: Biology Department, EEPB program
Topic/Discipline: Anatomy & Development
Family: Ruscaceae
Taxon: Ruscus aculeatus
Common Name:
Season/time of year: 3/1/2008, Early Spring
Area: Temperature House of Missouri Botanical Garden
State/Province: Missouri    Country: USA
Additional Information: In Chinese, this group of plants is named as "fake leaf trees", which directly points out this distictive feature of the plants.

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Caption: Ruscus aculeatus: Have you ever seen a flower blooming on the surface of a leaf?
Scientific Description/Explanation: Ruscus aculeatus is plant native to the Mediterranean area and Africa. True leaves of this species, as well as many species in the genus, is highly reduced to a tiny scale-like structure. It can still be seen at the base of "leaf" (where it attatches the stem) in the picture. The flat green leaf-like structure, on the other hand, is actually flattened stem, namely "cladodes". Flowers always come out from stems, accordingly once there is a flower on "leaf", it simply means the structure you are looking at is not, a real leaf.

 

Submission #38
Title: Insect prison
Author: Pu Huang
Institution: Washington University in St Louis
Department: Biology Department, EEPB program
Topic/Discipline: Pollenation Adaptation
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Taxon: Aristolochia californica
Common Name: California Pipevine
Season/time of year: 3/1/2008, Early Spring
Area: Temperature House of Missouri Botanical Garden
State/Province: Missouri    Country: USA

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Caption: Aristolochia californica: Blooming befor leaves come out, in early spring. Temperate House, Missouri Botanical Garden, St Louis, MO
Scientific Description/Explanation: Although seemly not as beautiful as many other plants, this flower of this California pipevine has its own mechanism to let insects serve its pollination. Instead of bees or butterflies, this plant attracts small carrion-feeding insects by its unpleasant smell. The special "S-pipe shaped" flower has some epidermal hair at its entrance, which allow those insects to get in, but block their way out. The mature time of stigma is prior; after stigma loses its ability to receive pollens, anthers are mature. Accordingly, the "prisoner" insects, by crawling around the "chamber", first deposit pollens they carry to the stigma, and then reload pollens from this flower. After that, the epidermal hair goes dry, and the "prisoners" are released to pollinate other flowers.

 

Submission #39
Title: Ophrys tenthredinifera
Author: Kaan Hurkan
Institution: Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences
Department: Biology
Topic/Discipline: Botany
Family: Orchidaceae
Taxon: Ophrys tenthredinifera
Common Name: Sawfly Orchid
Season/time of year: 28 March 2008
Area: Gelibolu Peninsula
State/Province:     Country: Turkey

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Caption: Ophrys tenthredinifera
Scientific Description/Explanation: Plant root edible when cooked. It is a source of 'salep', a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a powder. Salep is said to be very nutritious and is made into a drink or added to other cereals and used in bread etc. The salep can also be made into a drink. Salep is very nutritive and demulcent. It has been used as a diet of special value for children and convalescents, being boiled with water, flavoured and prepared in the same way as arrowroot. Rich in mucilage, it forms a soothing and demulcent jelly that is used in the treatment of irritations of the gastro-intestinal canal. One part of salep to fifty parts of water is sufficient to make a jelly. The tuber, from which salep is prepared, should be harvested as the plant dies down after flowering and setting seed.

 

Submission #40
Title: Ophrys vernixia ssp. vernixia
Author: Kaan Hurkan
Institution: Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences
Department: Biology
Topic/Discipline: Botany
Family: Orchidaceae
Taxon: Ophrys vernixia ssp. vernixia
Common Name: The Mirrored Ophrys, Mirror orchid

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Caption: Ophrys vernixia ssp. vernixia
Scientific Description/Explanation: Plant grows up to 30 cm and blooms in the summer. Plant has 2 to 15 flowers which are 3.2cm wide per an inflorescence. Ophrys speculum is found in partial sunny and cool areas. Basal leaves oblong, subobtuse, the stem leaves lanceolate, acute. Outer perianth-segments 6-8mm, oblong-ovate, green or yellowish, often brown-striate, hairless, the lateral spreading, the median erect, hooded; inner 1/4-1/3 as long as the outer, ovate to lanceolate, dark purple, rarely greenish, densely hairy. Root edible when cooked. It is a source of 'salep', a fine white to yellowish-white powder that is obtained by drying the tuber and grinding it into a powder. Salep is said to be very nutritious and is made into a drink or added to other cereals and used in bread etc. The salep can also be made into a drink. Salep is very nutritive and demulcent. It has been used as a diet of special value for children and convalescents, being boiled with water, flavoured and prepared in the same way as arrow root. Rich in mucilage, it forms a soothing and demulcent jelly that is used in the treatment of irritations of the gastro-intestinal canal. One part of salep to fifty parts of water is sufficient to make a jelly. The tuber, from which salep is prepared, should be harvested as the plant dies down after flowering and setting seed.

 

Submission #41
Title: Silybum marianum
Kaan Hurkan
Institution: Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences
Department: Biology
Topic/Discipline: Economical Botany
Family: Asteraceae
Taxon: Silybum marianum
Common Name: Mary's thistle

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Caption: On Air
Scientific Description/Explanation: It is hardy to zone 7 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower from July to September, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. Recent research has confirmed that it has a remarkable ability to protect the liver from damage resulting from alcoholic and other types of poisoning. The whole plant is astringent, bitter, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, emmenagogue, hepatic, stimulant, stomachic and tonic. It is used internally in the treatment of liver and gall bladder diseases, jaundice, cirrhosis, hepatitis and poisoning. The plant is harvested when in flower and dried for later use. It also dramatically improves liver regeneration in hepatitis, cirrhosis, mushroom poisoning and other diseases of the liver. German research suggests that silybin (a flavonoid component of the seed) is clinically useful in the treatment of severe poisoning by Amanita mushrooms. It is used in the treatment of liver and abdominal disorders.

 

Submission #42
Title: Clerodendrum inflorescence
Author: Nathan Jud
Institution: Ohio University
Department: Environmental and Plant Biology
Topic/Discipline:
Family: Verbenaceae
Taxon: Clerodendrum splendens
Common Name: Flaming Glorybower
Season/time of year: February 7, 2007
Area: Ohio University Greenhouse
State/Province: Ohio    Country: USA

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Caption: Flaming Glorybower
Scientific Description/Explanation: Native to tropical west Africa, Clerodendrum splendens is a woody vine cultivated as an ornamental throughout the tropics.

 

Submission #43
Title: Bajan Caesalpina raceme
Author: Nathan Jud
Institution: Ohio University
Department: Environmental and Plant Biology
Topic/Discipline:
Family: Fabaceae, Caesalpinioidea
Taxon: Caesalpina raceme
Common Name: Bird of Paradise
Season/time of year: October 2007
Area: Flower Forest
State/Province: St. Joseph    Country: Barbados
Longitude: 59 33' 58" W    Latitude: 13 11' 41"N
Additional Credits: Sarah DeWitt provided the camera

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Caption: Developing inflorescence of Caesalpina sp. overlooking the coast of Barbados
Scientific Description/Explanation:

 

Submission #44
Title: Coast redwood at 110m
Author: Alana Oldham
Institution: Humboldt State University
Department: Biological Sciences
Topic/Discipline: developmental and structural botany
Family: Cupressaceae
Taxon: Sequoia sempervirens
Common Name: coast redwood
Season/time of year:
Area: Humbold Redwoods State Park, Humboldt County
State/Province: California    Country: USA

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Caption: Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) transverse section from a shoot collected at 110m from Pipe Dream, one of the tallest living trees.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) transverse section from a shoot collected at 110m high in the crown of Pipe Dream, one of the tallest living trees. This image reveals that the stem is covered in a sheath of leaf bases. This is a because at the top of a tall redwood, water is so scare due to the impacts of gravity that leaves are unable to fully expand and so take on a rounder shape and remain close to the stem as is seen here. This limits the ability of the leaves to photosythesize and is a contributing factor to the slowed growth of redwoods as they reach their maximum height.

 

Submission #45
Title: Death on the Sandbog Deathcamas
Author: Jay F. Bolin
Institution: Old Dominion University
Department: Department of Biological Sciences
Topic/Discipline: Ecology
Family: Melanthiaceae
Taxon: Zigadenus glaberrimus
Common Name: sandbog deathcamas
Season/time of year: July 22, 2004
Area: Blackwater Ecological Preserve
State/Province: Virginia    Country: USA

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Caption: Death on the Sandbog Deathcamas
Scientific Description/Explanation: The large paired nectaries on each petal and sepal of Zigadenus glaberrimus were attractive to a metallic green sweat bee (Halictidae). This bee was caught by a crab spider (Thomisidae), an ambush predator of floral visitors. Zigadenus glaberrimus a plant of bogs, pine savannahs, and pocosins reaches the northern extent of its distribution in Virginia where this image was captured. Rare in Virginia, this population located at the Blackwater Ecological Preserve has responded favorably to the reintroduction of prescribed fire after more than 50 years of fire suppression.

 

Submission #46
Title: Another Fantastic Planet
Author: Thomas Klepach
Institution: University of Notre Dame
Department: Chemistry and Biochemistry
Topic/Discipline: Horticulture
Family: Agavaceae
Taxon: Agave americana
Common Name: The Century Plant or Maguey
Season/time of year: Late March, 2006
Area: South Bend Botanical Conservatory Desert Dome
State/Province: Indiana    Country: USA
Longitude: 41° 39 '51" N   Latitude: 86° 13' 15" W

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Caption: The visual beauty of a blooming Agave americana mixes with the aural beauty of flute music in South Bend Botanical Conservatory's desert dome.
Scientific Description/Explanation: During the winter of 2006, myself and a group of other musicians that called ourselves "The Sad Cactus Factory" began to regularly play music in the desert dome of the charming South Bend Botanical Conservatory and Greenhouses. The acoustics and peaceful ambiance in the dome afforded a unique atmosphere for the melodious mixing of the folk harp, cello, flute and classical guitar. During the spring of that year, the "grandfather of the dome", a giant century plant (Agave americana) came to bloom amid these harmonies by sending up a 10 inch diameter spike with a broad cyme of yellow and red flowers which ran into the top of the 25 foot tall dome. I can be seen playing my flute to the benefit of the 35 year old giant. The image is a "quilted" composite, hand retouched to evoke the "other worldliness" of the dome. This is the same desert dome that is currently being heated by the excess thermal energy from a grid-heating framework of high-performance computers in collaboration with the University of Notre Dame's Center for Research Computing (abstract for talk submitted to Economic Botany Section).

 

Submission #47
Title: Blood Lily
Author: Rachel Prunier
Institution: University of Connecticut
Department: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Topic/Discipline: Ecology
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Taxon: Haemanthus sanguineus
Common Name: Ecology
Season/time of year: February 15, 2008, summer
Area: De Toits Kloof
State/Province: Western Cape    Country: South Africa

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Caption: The blood lily, Haemanthus sanguineus, a summer-blooming geophyte native to the Western Cape, South Africa.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Haemanthus sanguineus (Amaryllis family) grows on sandy dunes and rocky outcroppings in south-western South Africa, where it experiences cool moist winters and a strong summer drought. To survive the drought H. sanguineus takes advantage of two strategies. It produces thirsty above-ground leaves only in the winter when there is abundant water, and it has specialized leaves that form an underground bulb. Having a bulb lets the plant store water and sugars to use in the hot, dry summer, when it produces the dramatic flowers that give it its common name, the blood lily. Botanists term this plant a hysteranthous geophyte, describing both the pattern of having leaves at a separate time than flowers (hyster=after, anthous=flower) and its dependence on an underground bulb (geo=earth, phyte=plant).

 

Submission #48
Title: After a Fire
Author: Rachel Prunier
Institution: University of Connecticut
Department: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Topic/Discipline: Ecology
Family: Proteaceae
Taxon: Protea scabra
Common Name: Sandpaper-leafed Sugarbush
Season/time of year: March 23, 2006: Late summer
Area: Fairy Glen Reserve
State/Province: Western Cape    Country: South Africa

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Caption: Burned seedhead and resprouting growth of Protea scabra, one week post-fire, Fairy Glen Reserve, South Africa.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Plants that live in fire-adapted ecosystems have evolved two mechanisms to recover after a fire, reseeding and resprouting. Reseeders are completely killed by fires and regenerate only from seeds that are protected from the heat of the fire. Protea scabra, a native of the fire-dependent fynbos biome of South Africa, is a prime example of the alternate strategy, resprouting. It has adapted to fires by evolving underground stems (rhizomes) that are protected from fires by the soil. After surviving a fire, it produces new leaves (pink and green, at right) immediately, to take advantage of the suddenly open and nutrient rich environment. While most of P. scabra’s post-fire regeneration is due to its ability to resprout, it also protects its seeds in seed heads (burned at left) from which they are released once a fire has past.

 

Submission #49
Title: Cabomba pollen tubes
Author: Mackenzie Taylor
Institution: University of Tennessee
Department: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Topic/Discipline: Reproductive Biology
Family: Cabombaceae (Nymphaeales)
Taxon: Cabomba caroliniana
Common Name: Carolina fanwort
Season/time of year: Specimen collected July 2006; Imaged October 2006
Area: Specimen collected in Raccoon Creek (near Stevenson, AL)
State/Province: Alabama    Country: USA
Additional Information: This carpel was collected 1 hour after pollination and fixed in 3:1 (95% ethanol: glacial acetic acid). It was stained overnight in aniline blue and imaged under UV light.

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Caption: Light micrograph showing pollen tubes growing through a carpel of the water lily, Cabomba caroliniana.
Scientific Description/Explanation: In order for fertilization to occur in flowering plants, the male gamete, which is carried by the pollen grain, must reach the female gamete, which is found in the ovule located deep within the carpel. After pollen grains (seen here as ovoid structures at the tip of the style) are deposited on the stigma by a pollinator, grains germinate and pollen tubes emerge. Pollen tubes grow through the carpel tissue until one tube enters the ovule, delivering a sperm nuclei to the egg nucleus and achieving fertilization. Pollen tubes contain abundant callose, which when stained in aniline blue, fluoresces brightly under UV light. These pollen tubes are growing through the carpel of the common aquarium plant, Cabomba caroliniana. The tissue of the carpel itself does not fluoresce as brightly and, as a result, is only slightly visible behind the pollen tubes.

 

Submission #50
Title: Brasenia young leaf with trichomes
Author: Mackenzie Taylor
Institution: University of Tennessee
Department: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Topic/Discipline: Plant Anatomy
Family: Cabombaceae (Nymphaeales)
Taxon: Brasenia schreberi
Common Name: Water shield, purple bonnet
Season/time of year: Summer 2005
Area: Specimen collected near Atlanta, MO
State/Province: Missouri    Country: USA
Additional Information: This image is captured with a stereo microscope with a magnification of 20x

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Caption: Cross-section of a developing leaf in the water lily, Brasenia schreberi showing with numerous secretory trichomes
Scientific Description/Explanation: In the water lily Brasenia schreberi, the floating leaves develop under the surface of the water and the margins of these developing leaves curl toward the middle of the leaf. The abaxial surface, or underside of the leaf, is covered with numerous, unicellular trichomes that secrete a thick layer of mucilage that protects the young leaf and covers all of the underwater organs, including the underside of leaves, petioles, stems, and developing floral buds. This mucilage has also been found to have anti-algal and anti-bacterial properties and may function in alleopathic weed control.

 

Submission #51
Title: View of the redwood canopy of Bull Creek Flats from 105m
Author: Alana Oldham
Institution: Humboldt State University
Department: Biological Sciences
Topic/Discipline: developmental and structural botany
Family: Cupressaceae
Taxon: Sequoia sempervirens
Common Name: coast redwood
Season/time of year: Late September, 2007
Area: Bull Creek, Humboldt Redwoods State Park
State/Province: California    Country: USA
Additional Information: This is the tallest canopy remaining on Earth!

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Caption: This view of the pure redwood canopy of Bull Creek Flats was taken from 102m, near the top of Gil-galad, a 108m tall Sequoia sempervirens tree.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Every tree in this photograph is a coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens)tree, the tallest species on Earth. In the foreground you can see the highly reduced leaves that are typical of growth at the tops of the tallest trees. In the backgroud fog can be seen coming in, redwoods can uptake fog directly through their needles, an adaptation which helps them grow tall in spite of California's hot, rainless summers.

 

Submission #52
Title: Fameflower (Phemeranthus mengesii) in full bloom
Author: Taina Matheson Price
Institution: Washington University in Saint Louis
Department: Department of Biology
Topic/Discipline: Plant Systematics
Family: Portulacaceae
Taxon: Phemeranthus mengesii
Common Name: Menges' Fameflower
Season/time of year: July 8, 2006, 4:02 pm, summer late afternoon
Area: Flat Rock, Jackson County
State/Province: Alabama    Country: USA
Longitude: W 085.7055 degrees   Latitude: N 34.7705 degrees
Additional Information: Located on a small sandstone outcropping above Flat Rock Creek at Alabama Highway 117 and ca. 350 meters northwest of Alabama Highway 71, near the small town of Flat Rock.

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Caption: Menges' fameflower (Phemeranthus mengesii) in full bloom on a creekside granite outcrop in Piedmont region of Alabama
Scientific Description/Explanation: In North Temperate arid zones, such as the Mojave, Chihuahuan, and Sonoran deserts of western North America, numerous plant species have evolved striking adaptations to high temperature and drought. However, xeric (extremely dry) habitats in North America are not restricted to the Southwest. In the Ozark region and in the southeastern United States, rock outcroppings often create local patches of desert-like conditions within a matrix of mesic (well-watered) forest. These glade and flat-rock ecosystems host many species related to those found in the Southwest. One such group of species is Phemeranthus, commonly known as rockpinks or fameflowers. While most Phemeranthus species grow in the Southwest and northern Mexico, eight species are found further east. In glade and flat-rock communities, fameflowers stand out for their extreme xerophytic adaptation. Although they are rooted in extremely shallow soil, these succulent plants actively grow and produce numerous flowers and seeds during the hottest, driest part of the summer. This large individual of Menges' fameflower (native to Alabama, Tennessee, and Georgia) was photographed on a sunny late afternoon in July. Each flower lasts for just one day, opening in mid- to late afternoon and closing by nightfall. This may be the source of the plants' scientific name: "Phemer-", short for "ephemeral", plus "anthos", meaning "flower". It is also suggested by the common name "fameflower", since fame too is fleeting! Phemeranthus deserve more than fifteen minutes of attention, however, for they are easy to grow from seed and make a nice addition to a dry rock garden.

 

Submission #53
Title: Los Pantalones
Author: Matthew J. Valente
Institution: University of Tennessee
Department: Department of Geography
Topic/Discipline: pollination
Family: Fumariaceae
Taxon: Dicentra cucullaria
Common Name: Dutchman's breeches
Season/time of year: April 10, 2006
Area: Great Smoky Mountains National Park
State/Province: Tennessee    Country: USA
Longitude:83.4951° W   Latitude: 35.6424° N
Additional Information: Many individuals of this species flower on the Buckeye Trail (and many other trails) in Great Smoky Mountain National Park Photo taken with a Pentax *ist D-SLR with a Sigma 28-80 macro lens and circular polarizing filter. f/9.5, 1/90s, ISO 200 without a tripod.

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Caption: Flowers of the spring ephemeral Dutchman's Breeches (Dicentra cucullaria)
Scientific Description/Explanation: In the Spring, the forest floor of deciduous forests in North America come alive with the foliage and flowers of dozens of species of spring ephemeral wildflowers. That is the case for Dicentra cucullaria, or Dutchman's breeches, so named because the outer petals resemble upside-down white pants. But, upon closer inspection we find that the flower is exquisitely adapted to attract its single most effective pollinator, queen bumblebees of the genus Bombus. Bumblebees land on the small flowers, not seeking to pollinate the flowers, but rather to feast upon the sweet nectar produced by nectaries in the "pant legs" of the flowers. In the process, the bees inadvertently brush their antennae against the anthers stored in the cup-like extensions of the outer petals, near the "waist-line" of the upside-down pants. Then, as the bumblebee finishes her meal on the nectaries of the other outer petal, she leaves in search of other flowers to dine upon. If she chooses a flower of another individual, she will find more nectar as her reward, but in return, the Dutchman's breeches has covertly commandeered the unsuspecting bumble bee to deliver pollen to the pendent stigma of another plant; a chance for pollination, fertilization, and a new generation of Dicentra cucullaria.

 

Submission #54
Title: Aiding a foreign invader
Author: Nicholas Tippery
Institution: University of Connecticut
Department: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Topic/Discipline: Invasive species biology
Family: Menyanthaceae
Taxon: Nymphoides peltata
Common Name: Yellow floating-heart
Season/time of year: 17 August 2006 (Summer)
Area: Hudson River
State/Province: New York    Country: USA
Longitude: -73.8363   Latitude: 42.2353
Additional Information: Plants were growing in about 40 cm of light-brown water, in sandy substrate with few local competitors. Although the population was located at the upstream end of a large river island, a ring of Nuphar and other species effectively buffered it from the river current and wakes from passing vessels. In addition to the hymenopteran pictured, other insects visiting the flowers included syrphid flies and weevils.

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Caption: Flowers of the non-native aquatic plant Nymphoides peltata are visited by a potential pollinator
Scientific Description/Explanation: The floating-leaved aquatic plant Nymphoides peltata occurs in many naturalized populations outside of its native Eurasian range, primarily due to escapes from ornamental water gardens. Like many other aquatic plants, N. peltata is capable of vegetative reproduction, which it accomplishes when leaves detach from the parent rhizome (underground stem) and bring with them a bundle of adventitious roots that then establish another plant. The species also produces abundant seed capsules, some of which are visible just under the water in the lower left of the photo. Flowers of N. peltata attract pollinators with their bright, yellow color and with a nectar reward that is provided at the base of the pistil. Here, a hymenopteran (bee) pollinator embraces the pistil to pursue nectar, thus positioning its hairy thorax squarely upon the pollen-receiving stigma.

 

Submission #55
Title: Where the Wild Things Grow
Author: Ryan Rapp
Institution: Iowa State University
Department: Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology
Topic/Discipline: Morphology
Family: Malvaceae
Taxon: Gossypium arboreum x G. raimondii
Common Name: Cotton
Additional Credits: Bessey Microscopy Facility

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Caption: Leaf epidermal trichomes of Gossypium spp.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Gossypium, or cotton, is known for the trichomes (hairs) on its seed. It's often unappreciated that the leaf surface of cotton sports and impressive array of trichome types; from small round ones (glandular trichomes) to large, multicelled beasts (stellate trichomes)!

 

Submission #56
Title: Joshua Tree Sundown
Author: Ryan Rapp
Institution: Iowa State University
Department: Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology
Topic/Discipline: Botany
Family: Agavaceae
Taxon: Yucca brevifolia
Common Name: Joshua Tree
Season/time of year: January 2007
Area: Joshua Tree National Park
State/Province: California    Country: USA

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Caption: Joshua tree at sundown in Joshua Tree National Park, CA.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia) are not only surprising in their rugged beauty, but also in the fact that they are monocots (rice, bamboo, pineapples) and aren't often thought of as trees. In fact, they are closely related to a group of plants common in your garden- onions, agave, lillies and irises! While not often thought of as trees, these spectacular plants drive home the message that plants have conquered the extreme environments of the Earth many different times!

 

Submission #57
Title: Adiantum macrophyllum Sw.
Author: Alejandra Vasco
Institution: New York Botanical Garden
Department: CUNY Garduate Center
Topic/Discipline: Ferns, physiology
Family: Adiantaceae
Taxon: Adiantum macrophyllum
Season/time of year: January 2008
Area: Central America
State/Province: Las Cruces Biological Station    Country: Costa Rica
Longitude: 8.7831° N   Latitude: 82.96013°W

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Caption: Red young leaves of Adiantum macrophyllum
Scientific Description/Explanation: Some plant species delay the greening of their leaves until full expansion. A substantial proportion of this species that delay leaf greening also have a considerable quantity of anthocyanin pigment in their new leaves, giving them a reddish coloration. Several reasons have been advanced to explain the presence of these anthocyanins in young leaves: they might act as fungicidals, photoproctect the leaves against UV light that can cause photoinhibition or they can make the leaves criptic to insects preventing hervivory. In ferns red young leaves occur in several genera such as Adiantum, Blechnum and Dryopteris.

 

Submission #58
Title: Nectar presentation
Author: Natalia Ivalu Cacho
Institution: University of Wisconsin-Madison
Department: Botany
Topic/Discipline: Biogeography
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Taxon: Euphorbia tithymaloides ssp. padifolia
Common Name: slipper spurge
Season/time of year: February 10, 2008; winter
Area: Lesser Antilles (Caribbean)
State/Province: Saint Eustatius   Country: Saint Eustatius
Longitude: 17º31'02.1"N   Latitude: 62º59'30.2"W

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Caption: Euphorbia tithymaloides ssp. padifolia from St. Eustatius in the Lesser Antilles presenting nectar to attract pollinators, presumably hummingbirds.
Scientific Description/Explanation: The plants in this group of Euphorbia are some of the most striking examples of pseudoanthia– inflorescences that resemble and function as a single flower. This is one of the seven subspecies in the Euphorbia tithymaloides species complex.

 

Submission #59
Title: Seed surface patterns of Mentzelia laciniata
Author: John J. Schenk
Institution: Washington State University
Department: School of Biological Sciences
Topic/Discipline: Systematics
Family: Loasaceae
Taxon: Mentzelia laciniata
Common Name: cut-leaf blazingstar
Season/time of year:
Area: Rio Arriba County
State/Province: New Mexico    Country: USA
Longitude: 106° 27.290 W   Latitude: 36° 18.459 N

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Caption: Seed surface patterns of Mentzelia laciniata
Scientific Description/Explanation: This scanning electron microscope image shows the details of the seed surface of Mentzelia laciniata (cut-leaf blazingstar) magnified 700 times. Mentzelia laciniata is distributed in arid environments of southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. The patterns formed by cell walls located on the surface of seeds are remarkably variable among the approximately one-hundred species of Mentzelia. While species identification is often problematic in Mentzelia, the variation of seed surfaces has been useful as traits for species identification. For example, the deep sinuses and many spherical bumps (called papillae) along the top portion of the cells can be used to identify M. laciniata. These cell features are also useful for inferring species relationships, as in this case where the deep sinuses suggest close a relationship with the Mentzelia multiflora group of Mentzelia section Bartonia.

 

Submission #60
Title: Fossil Equisetum Shoot
Author: Nicholas Stanich
Institution: Ohio University
Department: Environmental and Plant Biology
Topic/Discipline: Paleobotany
Family: Equisetaceae
Taxon: Equisetum sp.
Common Name: Scouring Rush
Season/time of year: March 3, 2008
Area: Apple Bay, Vancouver Island
State/Province: British Columbia    Country: Canada
Longitude: 50.6   Latitude: -127.6
Additional Information: The fossil is embedded in a carbonate nodule found on the beach of Apple Bay, Vancouver Island, Canada. The nodules found about the area contain a diverse array of permineralized Early Cretaceous flora such as conifer leaves and cones, fern fronds and rhizomes, and fungi. Information about the fossil flora and fauna of Vancouver Island can be found on the Vancouver Island Paleontological Society website: http://www.vips-fossils.com.
Additional Credits: Gar W. Rothwell, Ohio University, Environmental and Plant Biology, Athens, Ohio, USA Ruth A. Stockey, University of Alberta, Biological Sciences, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

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Caption: Cross section of an aerial Equisetum shoot from the Early Cretaceous of British Columbia, Canada
Scientific Description/Explanation: Equisetum is the sole living genus of a once diverse class of pteridophytes (plants that reproduce via spores) known as the Sphenopsida. Fossilized anatomical evidence for the evolutionary radiation of modern Equisetum is extremely rare. This picture is a cross section of a 136 million year old fossil Equisetum shoot from the Early Cretaceous of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Identification of the fossil is based on a combination of morphological and anatomical characters that are diagnostic for living Equisetum species. Important characters are jointed stems with a hollow pith and nodal diaphragm, fluted stem margin, fused leaf sheath, carnial and vallecular canals, location of cortical sclerenchyma bundles, and small stem diameter (1.5 mm). The fossils are not assignable to any of the living species. Rather, they reveal that modern Equisetum radiated during the Mesozoic, and that at least two essentially modern species had evolved by the Early Cretaceous.

 

Submission #61
Title: The image shows the progressive inflorescence from immature stage to fruits and dry inflorescences.
Author: Christian W. Torres-Santana
Institution: University of Hawaii at Manoa
Department: Botany
Topic/Discipline: Plant Conservation
Family: Arecaceae
Taxon: Calyptrogyne rivalis [Calyptronoma rivalis]
Common Name: 'Palma Manaca', Puerto Rican Manac
Season/time of year: June 2006
Area: Río Guajataca
State/Province: Puerto Rico    Country: Puerto Rico
Additional Information: "Palma manaca" is listed as threatened of extinction in Puerto Rico by the USFWS and the PR Department of Natural Resources and Environmental. It is endemic to the Caribbean Islands, and occurs in Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic. In Puerto Rico, it usually grows along stream banks in the subtropical semi-evergreen moist forests.
Additional Credits: I would like to thanks to Dr. David Webb for helping with image editing.

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Caption: The image shows the progressive inflorescence from immature stage to fruits and dry inflorescences.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Calyptrogyne rivalis has pedunculars bracts of 66-67 cm long and 8.5 cm abroad petals completely connate. Plants are dioecious and often visited by bees and wasp. Trunk can grow up to 15 m tall and 18-25 cm diameter and usually occurring at stream banks on the karts zone of Puerto Rico. The species was listed as threatened with the name of Calyptronoma rivalis by USFWS. The genus Calyptronoma was recently recognized to be paraphyletic from Calyptrogyne, therefore the species epithet is now recognized as Calyptrogyne rivalis.

 

Submission #62
Title: Maxillaria tenuifolia, the coconut pie orchid.
Author: Amanda Treher
Institution: Delaware State University, Claude E. Phillips Herbarium
Department: Deptartment of Agriculture
Topic/Discipline: Systematics
Family: Orchidaceae
Taxon: Maxillaria tenuifolia
Common Name: Coconut Pie Orchid
Season/time of year: March 2008
Area: Toledo District
Country: Belize

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Caption: Maxillaria tenuifolia, an epiphytic orchid, growing on a tree in Belize.
Scientific Description/Explanation: The epiphytic orchid, Maxillaria tenuifolia, was found growing amongst bromeliads and other epiphytic plants that blanketed the branches of a tree. This tree was part of a unique pond habitat surrounded by rain forest in Southern Belize. The flowers of this colorful orchid smell like coconut, hence the common name. Like most orchids, this species is an important ecological indicator that is sensitive to changes in its environment.

 

Submission #63
Title: Edge of the last strand
Author: Juan Leandro García Massini
Institution: Southern Methodist University
Department: Earth Sciences
Topic/Discipline: Conservation
Family: Cupressaceae
Taxon: Taxodium ascendens
Common Name: Pond Cypress
Season/time of year: Summer, 2007
Area: Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary
State/Province: Florida    Country: USA

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Caption: This picture shows several grayish trunks of pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens) standing in a swamp forest in Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, southern Florida. Epiphytic ferns, bromeliads and orchids grow on the trunks.
Scientific Description/Explanation: With the encroachment of civilization on all sides, Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary represents a tiny fraction of the ancient bald cypress forest that once occurred throughout swampy areas of the southeastern United States. Following the deeper waters, they form a "strand," or ribbon, of forest bordered by smaller pond cypresses on one side and marsh on the other. While the sanctuary encompasses only a small part of the original Corkscrew Strand, it nevertheless contains the largest original population of bald cypresses in the world.

 

Submission #64
Title: Huperzia squarrosa, a member of the Lycophytes.
Author: Jake Corman
Institution: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Topic/Discipline: Lycophyta
Family: Huperziaceae
Taxon: Huperzia squarrosa
Season/time of year: March 5, 2008/winter
Area: University of Colorado at Boulder
State/Province: Colorado    Country: USA
Longitude: x    Latitude: Y
Additional Information: H. squarrosa has a very distinct and interesting look. It is interesting to see the sporangia distally dehisced, a trait not found in plants outside of the Lycophyta.
Additional Credits: Ned Friedman Mary Kay Stephanie Mayer

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Caption: Huperzia squarrosa, a member of the Lycophytes. It demonstrates classic, radially arrayed microphylls and laterally borne reniform sporangia. Pictured here is a fertile section, complete with distally dehisced sporangia-bearing sporophylls.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Members of the Lycophytes demonstrate an incredibly diverse branch of plant evolution. Lycophytes evolved around 400 million years ago, making them the oldest tracheophytes, plants with vascular tissue, living today. The evolution of vascular tissue, a type of tissue that is specialized to transport nutrients and water, allowed plants to grow to incredible heights. Another unique characteristic of the Lycophytes is the evolution of microphylls. Microphylls resemble primitive "leaves". These are buds from the stem that have developed a single leaf trace, a single vein running from the stem to the tip of the microphyll. The genera Huperzia demonstrate the typical "creeping" growth, displayed by many of the Lycophytes. Some of the species of Huperzia are epiphytic, they grow on other plants. Lycophytes are also known for their unique sporangia, capsules that contain a plants reproductive spores. Lycophyte sporangia are reniform, or kidney shaped. They also display distal dehiscence, or throwing their spores from the side away from the shoot. Huperzia squarrosa displays an alternation of fertile and non-fertile sections of the plant. As the plant grows, some microphylls will develop sporangia associated with them. These are called sporophylls. Huperzia plays many important, though slightly obscure, roles today. Huperzia, and many Lycophytes, comprise the majority of the organic matter that humans use today in the form of petroleum products. Lycophytes enjoyed their heyday in the Carboniferous era, their decayed forms are what run our cars and turn on our lights! Huperzia squarrosa is also important to botany because it gives us a glimpse into the past. Huperzia squarrosa has evolved very little since it first evolved. Every time someone looks at H. squarrosa, it is akin to taking a trip through time. They are given an opportunity to see what life was like millions of years ago. These plants help to fill in pieces of the picture that is life on Earth.

 

Submission #65
Title: Breaking Through
Author: Shannon Straub
Institution: Cornell University
Department: Plant Biology
Topic/Discipline: Systematics
Family: Orobanchaceae
Taxon: Orobanche chilensis Beck
Common Name: Broomrape
Season/time of year: 6 January 2004 - Summer
Area: Patagonia
State/Province: Chubut    Country: Argentina

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Caption: Orobanche chilensis Beck, a parasitic plant, emerges in Patagonia
Scientific Description/Explanation: A ghostly Orobanche chilensis inflorescence emerges from the soil in Patagonia powered by nutrients stolen from nearby plants. This plant is a holoparasite, which derives all of its nutrition and water by tapping into the root system of a host plant using a highly modified root called a haustorium. Due to their parasitic lifestyle, these plants have no need for photosynthesis, so their leaves have become highly reduced and they do not appear green due to a lack of chlorophyll. Other species in this genus, such as O. crenata and O. ramosa, are major agricultural pests and will parasitize a variety of crop plants, including bean, tomato, and sunflower, causing major losses or even total crop failures.

 

Submission #66
Title: Peony Anthers
Author: Susannah B. J. Fulton
Institution: Miami University
Department: Botany Department
Family: Paeoniaceae
Taxon: Paeonia lactifolia
Common Name: Chinese Peony
Season/time of year: Late spring 2007
Area: Residential area in the town of Oxford
State/Province: Ohio    Country: USA

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Caption: Close-up of the anthers of Paeonia lactifolia
Scientific Description/Explanation: Paeonia lactifolia is a herbaceous perennial species that is native to central and eastern Asia. The genus Paeonia comprises around 30 species and is the only genus in the family, Paeoniaceae. This species, which has over a hundred cultivars, is commonly cultivated as an ornamental throughout regions with cold climates. The species must go through a dormant cold period in order to flower each year.

 

Submission #67
Title: Amoreuxia Stamen Shadows
Author: Susannah B. J. Fulton
Institution: Miami University
Department: Botany Department
Topic/Discipline:
Family: Cochlospermaceae
Taxon: Amoreuxia wrightii
Season/time of year: July 2006
Area: Just off highway 40 near the Durango/Coahuila border
State/Province: Durango    Country: Mexico

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Caption: Amoreuxia wrightii in Durango, Mexico
Scientific Description/Explanation: Amoreuxia wrightii is an uncommon herbaceous perennial with beautiful bright yellow flowers that really stand out from a distance in the field. The flowers are slightly zygomorphic with stamens that are separated into two sets. The upper set of stamens have yellow anthers and the lower set of stamens have red anthers. The yellow petals are marked in an interesting fashion. The upper two have two red marks each, the two side petals have one red mark each, and the lower petal has no marks. A. wrightii is mostly found in northeastern Mexico and southern Texas but has interesting disjunct distributions in Yucatan, Peru, and Curação, a Caribbean island off the coast of Venezuela.

 

Submission #68
Title: Rainforest Silhouettes
Author: Susannah B. J. Fulton
Institution: Miami University
Department: Botany Department
Topic/Discipline:
Family: Cecropiaceae
Taxon: Cecropia sp.
Season/time of year: Spring 2006
Area: Puruvian Amazone
Country: Peru

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Caption: Looking up at a Cercropia tree from the floor of the Peruvian Rainforest. Though this looks like a black and white photo, it is actually a color photo. The combination of the bright sunny sky and the dark forest floor really brought out the amazing contrasts in this photo.
Scientific Description/Explanation: Cecropia is a tropical tree species that is a very common part of rainforests of central and South America. Cecropia has very large palmately compound leaves which are usually situated around the tree in an umbrella fashion. Many Cecropia species have a special relationship with ants. The ants protect the tree and then in return the tree supplies the ants with a place to live and food to eat (in the form of nectar). In the rainforest, Cecropia leaves are known to be a favorite food of sloths.

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